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  • Primicaris larvaformis Zhang et al., 2003




    Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Arthropoda Latreille 1829
    Class: Incertae sedis
    Order: Incertae sedis
    Family: Parvancorinidae Glaessner 1979
    Genus: Primicaris
    Species: Primicaris larvaformis
    Author Citation Zhang et al. 2003

    Geological Time Scale

    Eon: Phanerozoic
    Era: Paleozoic
    Period: Cambrian
    Sub Period: None
    Epoch: Series 2 Epoch
    International Age: Stage 3 Age


    Qiongzhusi Formation


    Eoredlichia Zone


    Acquired by: Purchase/Trade


    Length: 5 mm


    Chengjiang (County)
    Yunnan (Province)


    Taxonomy according to Fossilworks.org.

    Quote from Zhang et al. 2003, p. 447:” The Chengjiang Lagerstätte yields several well-preserved Early Cambrian fossil assemblages (Zhang et al. 2001) from the Yu’anshan Member of the Qiongzhusi Formation in Yunnan Province, South China, consisting of a diverse suite of arthropods (Shu et al. 1995, 1999a; Hou and Bergström 1997; Zhang 1999; Zhang et al. 2000). One of them, small and relatively rare, was only briefly described based on a few specimens (Hou et al. 1991), and repeatedly considered to be a giant protaspis of a naraoiid by many authors (Fortey and Theron 1994; Chen et al. 1996; Hou and Bergström 1997; Hou et al. 1999; Luo et al.1999). Recently this animal was also recovered from the Middle Cambrian Kaili fauna of Guizhou Province, South China (Zhao et al. 1999).

    Diagnosis for Primicaris larvaformis according to Zhang et al. 2003, p. 450: “Small, protaspis-like arthropod; undivided dorsal shield with a pair of posterior spines and ten pairs of lateral marginal spines; on the ventral side, one pair of uniramous antennae followed by ten pairs of biramous limbs.”

    Camera lucida drawing of holotype (ELI12001012), from Zhang et al. 2003:


    Identified by oilshale using Zhang et al. 2003.


    Zhang, Xing-Liang; Han, Jian; Zhang, Zhi-Fei; Liu, Hu-Qin; Shu, De-Gan (2003): Reconsideration of the supposed naraoiid larva from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstatte, South China. Palaeontology. 46 (3): 447–465. doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00307 

    Shu, De-Gan; Zhang, Xing-Liang and Geyer, G. (1995): Anatomy and systematic affinities of the Lower Cambrian bivalved arthropod Isoxys auritus. Alcheringa, 19, 333-342.

    Zhang, Xing-Liang; Shu, Degan; Li, Yong and Han, Jian (2001): New sites of Chengjiang fossils: crucial windows on the Cambrian explosion. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 158, 211-218.

    Shu, De-Gan; Vannier, J.; Luo, Hui-Lin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Xing-Liang and Hu, Shi-Xue (1999a): Anatomy and life style of Kunmingella (Arthropoda, Bradoriida) from the Chengjiang fossil Lagerstätte (Lower Cambrian; southwest China). Lethaia, 32, 279-298.

    Hou, Xian-Guang and Bergström, J. (1997): Arthropods of the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, southwest China. Fossils and Strata, 45, 1-115.

    Zhang, Xing-Liang (1999): Cambrian explosion and some arthropods from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte. Unpublished PhD thesis, Northwest University at Xian, China, 118 pp. [In Chinese, English summary].

    Zhang, Xing-Liang; Han, Jian and Shu, Degan (2000): A new arthropod Pygmaclypeatus daziensis from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, South China. Journal of Paleontology, 74, 979-982.

    Hou, Xian-Guang; Ramsköld, L. and Bergström, J. (1991): Composition and preservation of the Chengjiang fauna - a Lower Cambrian soft-bodied biota. Zoologica Scripta, 20, 395-411.

    Fortey, R. A. and Theron, J. N. (1994): A new Ordovician arthropod, Soomaspis, and the agnostid problem. Palaeontology, 37, 841-861.

    Chen, Jun-Yuan; Edgecombe, G. G.; Zhu, Mao-Yan and Yeh Kui-Yu (1996): The Chengjiang biota - a unique window of the Cambrian explosion. The National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan, 222 pp. [In Chinese].

    Hou, Xian-Guang; Bergström, J.; Wang, Hai-Feng, Feng, Xiang-Hong and Chen, Ai-Lin (1999): The Chengjiang fauna. Exceptionally well-preserved animals from 530 million years ago. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, 170 pp. [In Chinese, English summary].


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