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  • Equus sp.




    Horse (Equus)

    Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
    Class: Mammalia
    Order: Perissodactyla
    Family: Equidae
    Genus: Equus
    Species: E. sp.

    Geological Time Scale

    Era: Cenozoic
    Period: Quaternary
    Epoch: Pleistocene
    International Age: Sangamon interglacial


    Trinity River T2 deposits
    Pleistocene sediments


    Collector: Joe Gallo
    Acquired by: Field Collection


    Trinity River T-2 Terrace
    United States


    Horse Teeth


    'Modern' horse teeth are very hypsodont (high-crowned) to deal with wear caused by eating gritty and/or fibrous foods like grasses.


    A mature horse may have as many as 44 teeth, which include:

    12 incisors (6 upper and 6 lower)

    Canine teeth are usually absent in female horses but may be present in males.

    Cheek teeth (4 premolars and 3 molars per side) have very complex enamel patterns.

    The first premolars (upper and lower) in horses (sometimes called the 'wolf teeth') are vestigial and often absent.

    Upper cheek teeth (premolars and molars) can be recognized by the relatively square shape (except for the second premolar and third molar) when viewing the occlusal (chewing) surface.  

    Lower cheek teeth (premolars and molars) can be recognized by the relatively rectangular shape when viewing the occlusal (chewing) surface (except for the second premolar and third molar).


    Horse 'foot' bones


    'Modern' horses are monodactyl (one-toed).  The metapodials (hand and foot bones) are reduced to a single unit on each leg.  There are three 'toe bones' - phalanges (singular is phalanx) on each foot...phalanx I, phalanx II and phalanx III.  The third phalanx is the 'hoof core'  Unfortunately, I have never collected an intact phalanx III so I have not pictured one here.


    The astragalus (ankle bone) is only present on the hind legs.

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