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Lophiodon M3

Harry Pristis

Lophiodon is a middle to large sized herbivore

that occurred in Europe during the middle

and upper Eocene. One of the latest species, the

Bartonian Lophiodon lautricense from Robiac

(Gard, France), reached the body size of a horse

or a small rhino.

Lophiodontidae are basal Perissodactyla,

and were regarded as closely related to Tapiroidea

within Ceratomorpha due to the similarities

in the lophodont dentition (Cuvier 1822,

Radinsky 1963, McKenna & Bell 1997).

hooker (1984, 2005) and hooker and Dashzeveg (2004)

discussed a closer relationship with chalicotheriids

within Ancylopoda. This relationship

was accepted by Froehlich (1999), Rose and

Archibald (2005), and Rose (2006).

Holbrook (2009) investigated cranial, postcranial,

and dental characters and concluded that

Lophiodontidae are best classified as a sister taxon

in Ceratomorpha (Tapiroidea plus Rhinocerotoidea),

and thus that Lophiodon is closer

to Tapiroidea than to Chalicotheriidae.

Several species were described for the genus Lophiodon

that differ mainly in size, but the variability

within the species is very great. The molarization of the

premolars is used for taxonomic purposes.

In the maxilla there are six postcanines (three

premolars and three molars) separated from

the anterior dentition by a short diastema.

 

Credit Wighart von Koenigswald •

Ann. ZOOL. Fennici Vol. 51,

for this description.

 

Order PERISSODACTYLA

Suborder CERATOMORPHA

Family LOPHIODONTIDAE

Lophiodon lautricense NOULET, 1892

Late Middle Eocene (Bartonian)

Robiac, Gard Dept., France

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© Harry Pristis 2014 (image)
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