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Showing most informative content since 05/20/2018 in all areas

  1. 16 likes
    It pains me to see a resurgence of Chinese scammers on Facebook, WeChat and Instagram, as business must be good. I've been scammed by them, and so have several people I know. The fossils they advertise are incredible to the point where many of us are tempted. Here, take a look at pics taken from the walls of several confirmed-scammers. Looks amazing, doesn't it? Their price are pretty awesome too, so off you go, transferring $1000 USD to their Western Union, and.... nothing. Your money is gone forever. Here are some warning signs of the Chinese scammers. I will say it again: If these Chinese sellers refuse to use Paypal, be on guard. It doesn't matter how many likes and mutual friends they share with you, scammers can make attractive accounts and add a thousand friends just to look trustworthy. Right now, there's a scammer Facebook account that shares over 100 mutual friends with me. Someone posted on his wall complaining of a scam, and the seller removed it within a day. Check the seller's track records. Ask friends and trusted collectors if any of them have ever made successful dealings with the seller. Keichousaurus does not count! I know a case where a friend bought a single cheap Keich from someone on Instagram, and the same seller then went out to scam others with far more expensive fossils after getting the seal of approval from the first guy. Also, take note not all of them admit to being from China. I know a scammer who claims to be from USA. His fossil pictures are similar to other Chinese scammers. When my friend pretended to make a purchase, this seller gave a Chinese address for Western Union, and an Alipay account pointing to a Chinese name too. For more info, please refer to this previous thread > Remember, if it's too good to be true, it probably isn't. If you have any doubts or questions, please feel free to ask others on TFF. There are many experts here who can offer you advise. If you require more info on these scammers, feel free to PM me.
  2. 15 likes
    Anytime you can go collecting fossils its a good time and I would like to share my spring trip to South Dakota and Montana. My South Dakota site is in the upper Hell Creek Formation and full of the hadrosaur Edmontosaurus annectens. I've been collecting this site for over 20 years and its still delivering. We are on the edge of a bluff and the fossil layer can be between 2 to 4 feet. Lots of good bones are to be found but we also have lots of punky or junk bones and about 70 % is collectible. The site is quite large and like I said last year we have no idea of its size but it contains scores of hadrosaurs, all disarticulated. No skulls are found but all the elements that make up a skull can be found. I like collecting in the section where smaller bones, unguals-toe-carpal-verts, are more typical while others like to go after larger limb bones. My trip to these areas takes me through the Chile Capital of the World, Hatch, New Mexico. Greeting me is Mr Rex a good start to my trip. I hear he is harmless... all show no action Some pictures of the South Dakota site The collecting zone is between the white lines a layer of 2 to 4 feet. The layer is shown below. The top is very crumbly and full of concretions. My Collecting gear consists of a tool box with everything I need to collect My glue field consolidant, orange bottle, without strength but is easy to prep and my structural glue, red. Activator to accelerate curing which rarely used. Tips for the glue Basic Tools I like to use No its not a beach day but temperatures approaching 90 degrees (32C) can get pretty hot so some protection is needed
  3. 15 likes
    First off- here is my bucket of finds for the day: As I was making my way around the back side of the fill, a woman approached me from the sidewalk and asked if I was fossil hunting. I told her I was, and she proceeded to tell me how she and her husband used to collect Mazon Creek fossils themselves in the 1970s and 1980s. She wished me luck, and I continued searching. A little while later she stopped by again and said "My huband still has some buckets of unopened nodules that have been sitting in the garage for years. Would you be interested in them?" I said yes, of course, if he really wanted to get rid of them. She said he would be happy to, and he would be home from work in a little bit, so to just stop by on my way out of the subdivision. I thanked her and told her it would be my pleasure, then continued collecting for a little while more. Once I had made my way completely around the site, I loaded my car and drove over to their house. There I met the husband, who pointed out the buckets of nodules he was giving to me- one nearly full bucket of nodules from Chowder Flats: And a smaller container full of nodules collected from the banks of Mazon Creek itself: But there was more- He said "The rocks are great, but I have something else I think you will really appreciate," and led me into his garage. There, he had a pile of fossil guidebooks and scientific literature, and he told me about the significance of the works before offering them to me as well! I could not believe his generosity and told him much I appreciated it. That he was willing to share his collection with a younger hobbyist was truly heart warming, and made me happy that I have returned to fossil collecting after taking many years off. But to make the day truly, truly special, he then regaled me with tales of his best finds, including a nearly complete whip scorpion and a gigantic Tully Monster. He also told me how he met Francis Tully collecting in the field! He asked me about my best finds as well, and we talked about the dwindling number of collecting sites in the area. Finally, I thanked him and his wife again and got ready to leave. What an amazing day- I drove up not knowing whether I would find anything at all, and I finished with an experience beyond my wildest dreams.
  4. 13 likes
    Just a heads up to anyone hunting the Potomac (especially) or Calvert cliffs. Stay away!!!! Do not even think about coming for at least a week and better off at 2 weeks or so if you value your life at all. Folks that know me know the area where I usually hunt and in the last 3 days here we've had 16+ inches of rain. It's been biblical. Out of curiosity (and after promising my wife I wouldn't go hunting) I peaked at the cliffs this am between storms and they are torn up as bad as I've ever seen. Hundreds of trees down with 1000+ ton land slides all over. In the 15 minutes I was there watching from a safe location I saw one giant slide and heard another. It is terrible and won't be stable enough to be safe to hunt for some time to come. Beyond that the mud will take a while to wash out. Seriously.... If you value your life stay away and don't be tempted. At my most obsessed I wouldn't have even tried it and that says a lot. Literally anyone that tried to go out today probably would have had a better than average chance of dying and a tooth isn't worth your life. I can't stress enough how bad it looks and it will take a few weeks of dry weather and some good wind to know down the loose stuff and for things to sort out anyways. Just my 2 cents but I've been doing this a while and know with so much material is down it will take months to sort out so a great summer is ahead. Don't rush it and you'll be around to enjoy it. Literally a year or two worth of erosion in 3 days. After thought.... I did hunt the small beach in front of our house some this am while playing with the kids. It almost never produces anything nice (99% small tigers, hemis, bulls, etc) as we are down stream from the formations but this am was different with the river pumping. 3 cows, 3 good makos (biggest almost 2 inches), and 3 nice hemis (biggest two right at 1.5 inches). Not a bad am for a beach where I might find 2 cows on all summer. Good luck to all. It's going to be a great summer if you stay patient and hunt safe/smart.
  5. 13 likes
    Well, following up on my theropod ID topic... Really shocked...in under 8 hours, Tyrannosaurus rex expert Pete Larson gets back to me with this response regarding my fossil being T.rex or not...I guess after 20 buying mistakes, eventually good things do happen ...feels surreal... here’s his response to me: (last picture) Now officially one of my most prized possessions, and maybe the most for that matter..
  6. 12 likes
    I noticed a Dakotaraptor tooth for sale and caution anyone interested in it to do a bit more homework before you buy. Dakotaraptor teeth are difficult to diagnose and can easily be confused with Nanotyrannus teeth. These teeth have been very difficult to find and are prized but be patient and be sure its the real deal. If interested my suggestion is to obtain more information on the tooth: A photo of the mesial carina. On the holotype the mesial carina typically ends 1/3 from the base A closeup pictures of the mesial and distal denticles, see below on what they should look like. Not box shape like Nano. From the photos provided it might look right but need that closeup A serration count midline of both edges 5mm wide. Being a Dromaeosaurid the serrations are larger on the distal carina than mesial one. . Denticle shape from DePalma paper included in my topic shown below
  7. 11 likes
    Looks like an imprint/stain of a regular echinoid to me.
  8. 11 likes
    This is how the jaw lookes like after the autopsy. I removed all sand from the bone.
  9. 11 likes
    My buddy Al Lang has been busy digging up some real beauties this year already!!! Thought you all would like to see these. Some really nice big specimens here too!!! RB
  10. 10 likes
    My father was an artist who did quite a bit of sculpture in wood and stone. Unfortunately I did not inherit his ability to draw and sculpt. He always said that he basically knew what was hiding in the piece of wood or soapstone from the time he saw it. He said the animal or abstract work was always in there it was just waiting for him to take the crud off what was obstructing the view. Well prepping trilobites is very much like that . You need to figure out the best way to present the bug realy before you start the prep. You need to visualize the end product. Here is a Platteville isotelus that I received from a client in a 2 to 3 pound hunk of matrix. Not a lot to see at first but definately a bug that is just screaming "Let me out of here"..... Also a bug that is desperately in need of a prep. I started by trimming the matrix down to a size and shape that would be condusive to prepping and wound have a nice asthetic shape when complete. I wanted the bug to be 3D when complete so I use a dremel to make a grid pattern around the fossil. These pedestal islands then just pop off with my ARO scribe leaving a matrix that is not just square edges. Square edges look horrible on a complete fossil, just not natural looking. This takes all of 5 minutes as opposed to perhaps a good hour if I had used just a scribe. I also minimize the potential for the matrix to fracture through the fossil by doing it this way. Just be careful not to cut too deep As per usual this was prepped under a scope using a comco MB1000 unit and a variety of scribes (Aro, Seally, 9361 and a Pferd) The abrasion material was previously used 40 micron dolomite with mostly a . 030 and . 018 nozzle tip. This is about 45 minutes into the prep The extra pygidium on the bug was removed and will be added back beside the bug at the end of the prep. Progress is being made about an hour into prep About 15 minutes later it is starting to get 3D Almost done at this point Pretty much finished except for adding that extra pygidium back beside the bug then final cleanup to remove any tool marks and packing up to ship There is zero restoration or gluing on this trilobite, although the right eye is dis-articulated it is 100% complete. Total time invested ... about 2 hours ...............cost to client $45 US plus shipping. Original estimate was $50 so pretty close. The finished bug is 35 mm long from nose to end of pygidium. The matrix now weighs about 1 1/2 pounds which is always important to watch out for. Anything over about 4 pounds is stupid expensive to ship from Canada. The suture on the right side of the eye has dis-articulated a bit from the bug but it is all there and shows how clean the sutures can come apart. If you have a bug that is desperately screaming "Let me out of here" Send me a PM and perhaps we can let it see the light of day...
  11. 10 likes
    Overview of the teaching fossil gardens to "train" the eyes of my guests to really see fossils. The strom garden is by the fossil barn. Then we stroll over to the cephs. These are all "junk" fossils as I picked them up. Pretty cool though and I encourage people to handle them to get a feel for the field. I have a sandbox for the kids of St. Peter Formation sand and filled with junk Ordo fossils and sharks teeth, etc. from Morocco donated by a TFF friend, and a few minerals. The kids absolutely love it! We find mostly horn corals here. The bryozoans, or moss animals, are very common. As are death plates, hash plates, of brachs. Very few good crinoid specimens here. Oolite, dendrites and other geologics go here. Trace fossils. Fisherites are a common find with their waffle pattern and cross section ladders. About 40% are fluorescent. TFF member Papa Dave taught me to circle the trilo molts. And of course the snail trail - I love my snails! The members of TFF have shared so much of their knowledge and enthusiasm for fossils with me that I thought some might like to see the fruits of their many labors with trying to help me understand what I am finding here in southeast Minnesota. To all of my Fossil Friends, THANK YOU SO MUCH for your Knowledge, Patience, and Kindness! :-) I hope you have enjoyed this little trip around my fossil barn and yard and that perhaps it inspires you in some small way to reach out and share the joys of fossil hunting with others.
  12. 10 likes
    Spent a few days in Montana at a Channel Deposit. Mostly found Teeth and a Thescelosaurus vertebra You can tell you are in Montana Sites are pretty remote Backhoe helps with overburden removal Black line overburden - 5 to 10 feet. Red lines the Hell Creek Layer 3 feet \\\ Typical Theropod tooth discovery A number of items went to a prep person in SD that I could not manage. Will Post those when I get them back. Edmontosaurs Carpals Crocodile Material Hadrosaur Teeth Theropod Teeth - all need to be prepped and will post at a later date including a couple of small rex teeth not in the photo Did find these to tiny teeth that I was able to clean up. Acheroraptor Richardoestesia sp.
  13. 10 likes
    It's a fish. The long rectangular scales put me in mind of Vinctifer comptoni, from Brazil, ... but this is very different preservation than you usually see on these.
  14. 10 likes
    Add injury to disease or genetics. Below is a modern great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) lower jaw with pathological teeth caused by a sting ray barb injury to the jaw. The below picture shows a ray barb embedded in this jaw: The lower jaw teeth files just above the ray barb are crossed probably as a result of the jaw damage caused by the barb. The lower jaw also has an obvious pathology in the symphyseal teeth as a result of the sting ray barb. It looks like two rows of pathological alternate teeth (blue) with a single row of symphyseal teeth (red). Usually Sphyrna mokarran have only a medial tooth in the lower symphysis or sometimes two teeth. Three teeth like those shown below are really unusual. : Some modern pathological teeth including bull and hammerhead. I agree with what others have already said in this post that you need to know the age of the formation that this tooth is from for an accurate id. Marco Sr.
  15. 9 likes
    On Thursday, I had the pleasure of watching a segment of Minnesota Bound TV series be filmed. They focus on outdoor activities available in the great state of Minnesota and decided to create a segment involving fossil hunting in SE Minnesota. With that said, there was no better place to start filming than at @Bev,s fossil farm. From there, we visited a site about 8 miles away to expose the film crew to fossil hunting. I do think the crew enjoyed @GeschWhatand her coprolite talk immensely. It was a successful adventure and now we will be inundated with fossil hunters when the segment airs!!!! Kidding aside, I hope and pray this segment will be watched by our youth and get a portion of them to lay down the video games and get out into nature. Enjoy the pictures of the film stars!!! Here is GeschWhat dazzling the world with her knowledge. I am not sure Bev's dog will make it into the film, but maybe our next "Lassie"???
  16. 9 likes
    I just uploaded the first of many fossil hunting vids to my YouTube channel. I should be able to share a lot more of my fossil hunts this way from now on. We (@addicted2fossils and myself) were walking dirt roads in FL that have shell material dumped on them, with teeth mixed in. We also found tons of invertebrates (gastropods, bivalves, coral), calcite crystals, whale bone, a nice great white shark tooth, a nice meg, lots of partials, etc. For those of you who do not want to watch a video, here's some pics from the hunt:
  17. 9 likes
    An very rare Ornithomimus foot claw and digit is being offered for sale from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana. It's a beautiful claw unfortunately it belongs to a Thescelosaurus. The digit probably also belongs to a Thescelosaurus but it's a from a phalanx position 1 and therefore not next to the claw like shown in the photo. What you are spending your money here is for the claw not the digit. It's not very rare claw but nicely preserved and a great addition to any collection.
  18. 9 likes
    The preservation is excellent, it looks just like one I could have smashed into my wall on a hot summer night. I think it's part and counterpart of one individual instead of two different mosquitoes.
  19. 9 likes
    In May, I took a trip to China to attend my brother's wedding. Of course, I couldn't miss the world famous Zigong Dinosaur Museum. This museum was built in 1987, and is the first museum based entirely on Asian dinosaurs. Allow me to share my journey with you. Entrance to the museum: Within the grand hall: My mom standing next to the Mamenchisaurus and Datousaurus for scale:
  20. 9 likes
    Apalone Heteroglypta was described by Edward Cope in 1873 but was originally called Trionyx Heteroglypta. It was later renamed when a more complete skeleton was discovered. It is very distinguishable from all other soft-shelled turtles from Fossil Lake because of its rounded shell, and the near full loss of the eighth costal bones. It is a very rare find and is one of the most beautiful turtles from the Fossil Butte Member of the Green River Formation.
  21. 9 likes
    This would be the cranidium of Triarthrus sp. This is Ordovician in age, and fairly common as moults. Image from, Ludvigsen, R. (1979) Fossils of Ontario: The Trilobites
  22. 9 likes
    Just to head this one off before we get there-- If anybody has input to question number 1 above, please consider this. If you've had (what you believe to be) a great experience (and transaction) directly with dealers in Morocco or middlemen dealers (including our favorite auction site) feel free to give them props here if they've gone out of their way to be helpful. If you've had a less than satisfactory transaction (which can happen with Kem Kem material) let's try to inform the original poster with a PM to keep that information private. Though it may seem like a "public service" to "out" dealers who offer sham fossils or wildly mislabeled items, shaming them on this public forum can open TFF open to liability issues (even if the criticism is well deserved). TFF has enough funds to pay for hosting (thanks to generous forum-benefitting auctions) but not to defend itself from a defamation lawsuit (even if frivolous). As for question 2 above, this would be a great place to help others if you know of references to good literature (if any) on the fauna of Kem Kem. Feel free to post the names of publications you've found or links to useful websites you've encountered. Cheers. -Ken
  23. 9 likes
    Hipockets is right, it is a chamber from Aturia, a nautiloid. This is a very nice example.
  24. 8 likes
    Note: I'm not one that spends time cleaning bones in the field that will be done later... Toe Bones are prized and one pops up top left within minutes of my dig. Takes about 30 minutes to work this bone out. Bones like to stick to the matrix so I like to use my knife to pry it up o Aluminum foil is all that is necessary to transport it home I typically do not collect tendons but this was a nice big one A Lots of caudal vertebrae found on this trip. Here is one missing the small processes Interesting pathology, it has a groove in it and does not appear to be a bit mark. Again foil is all that is needed.
  25. 8 likes
    There are no Carboniferous rocks, marine or terrestrial, in southern Ontario or anywhere to the north along the path glaciers would have been able to transport material. This excludes Calamites as a possible ID. The lithology and fossils suggests these came from the Upper Ordovician Whitby Formation, as Georgie87 stated. The "Calamites" is likely a fragment of the exterior of an orthoconic nautiloid. The other specimen is of course an internal mold of an orthoconic nautiloid. Historically they have been called Geisonoceras, but there is little morphological data to support that assignment. Bob Frey reassigned these fossils years ago; I'll have to check (later) but I think it was in one of the USGS volumes on Cincinnatian fossils. Don
  26. 8 likes
    Using @GeschWhat's markings, here's my mile-long list of the possible IDs. Please note that some IDs, especially the smaller teeth, may be wrong. This took me over an hour to do. Note: Carcharocles and Cosmopolitodus are disputed genera, with other genus names being argued for being Otodus and Carcharodon respectively. 1. Carcharocles megalodon 2. Carcharocles megalodon 3. Carcharocles angustidens 4. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 5. Hemiprisits serra? 6. Hemipristis serra 7. Carcharocles megalodon 8. Physogaleus contortus (posterior) 9. Carcharodon carcharias 10. Carcharocles megalodon 11. ? 12. Carcharodon carcharias 13. Carcharocles megalodon 14. Fraglodon indetus 15. Alopias sp. 16. Sphyrna? 17. Fraglodon indetus 18. Physogaleus contortus 19. Carcharocles angustidens 20. Fraglodon indetus 21. Hemipristis serra 22. Carcharhinus sp. 23. Physogaleus contortus 24. ? 25. Carcharocles angustidens 26. Isurus oxyrinchus 27. Carcharocles angustidens 28. Hemipristis serra 29. ? 30. Cetorhinus maximus? 31. Carcharocles megalodon 32. Hemipristis serra 33. Isurus oxyrinchus 34. Carcharias? 35. Isurus desori? 36. Carcharocles megalodon 37. Alopias sp. 38. Carcharocles angustidens 39. Carcharocles megalodon 40. ? 41. Galeocerdo curvier 42. Hemipristis serra 43. Hemipristis serra 44. Carcharocles megalodon 45. Galeocerdo? 46. Carcharocles angustidens 47. Carcharocles megalodon 48. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 49. Carcharocles angustidens? 50. Carcharodon carcharias 51. Negaprion? 52. Carcharocles megalodon 53. Carcharhinus? 54. Carcharocles megalodon 55. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 56. Carcharias sp. 57. Fraglodon indetus 58. Carcharias sp. 59. ? 60. Negaprion? 61. Physogaleus contortus 62. Fraglodon indetus 63. Negaprion? 64. Carcharhinus sp. 65. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 66. Carcharocles megalodon 67. Carcharocles angustidens 68. Carcharhinus? 69. Carcharocles megalodon 70. Carcharocles megalodon 71. Hemipristis serra? 72. Fraglodon indetus 73. Hemipristis serra 74. Alopias sp. 75. Carcharocles megalodon 76. Hemipristis serra 77. Hemipristis serra 78. Carcarhinus leucas 79. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 80. Hemipristis serra 81. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 82. Carcharocles megalodon 83. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 84. Alopias? 85. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 86. Physogaleus contortus 87. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 88. Fraglodon indetus 89. Rhizoprionodon? 90. Fraglodon indetus 91. Hemipristis serra 92. Carcharocles megalodon 93. Carcharocles megalodon 94. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 95. Negaprion? 96. Alopias? 97. Isurus desori 98. Carcharhinus sp. 99. Physogaleus contortus 100. Hemipristis serra 101. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 102. Fraglodon indetus 103. Physogaleus contortus 104. Fraglodon indetus 105. Fraglodon indetus 106. Hemipristis serra 107. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 108. Cosmopolitodus hastalis 109. Alopias? 110. ? 111. Carcharodon carcharias 112. Carcharias? 113. Carcharocles megalodon 114. Carcharias? 115. Isurus oxyrinchus 116. Galeocerdo sp. 117. Hemipristis serra 118. Carcharias sp. 119. ? 120. Galeorhinus? 121. ? 122. Rhincodon typus? 123. Negaprion? 124. Fraglodon indetus 125. Sphyrna? 126. Rhincodon typus? 127. Hemipristis serra 128. Sphyrna? 129. Sphyrna sp. 130. Cosmopolitodus hastalis? (posterior) 131. Cetorhinus maximus 132. Galeocerdo sp. /end list
  27. 8 likes
    Bev showing off her Fossil Sand Pit Bev is standing along side her Fossil Walkway. She has many stops in her rock garden featuring a particular type of fossil from corals to trilobites and everything in between.. I think they are at her crinoid display???
  28. 8 likes
    choose files... Click to choose files trex.newpsd
  29. 8 likes
    No sign of egg shell texture and the conchoidal fracture make me think concretions. Perfectly round, white concretions are not unusual and can get pretty large. This one is Palaeocene from the Moeraki Formation in New Zealand and may have taken as long as 4 million years to form! Image copyright Dr. Seabourne Rust.
  30. 8 likes
    It looks similar to Cimomia marylandensis (=Hercoglossa tuomeyi) Very nice!
  31. 8 likes
    Godfrey, S.J., Weems, R.E., & Palmer, B. 2018 Turtle Shell Impression in a Coprolite from South Carolina, USA. Ichnos, (ahead-of-print publication) 8 pp. ABSTRACT Coprolites (fossilized feces) can preserve a wide range of biogenic components. A mold of a hatchling turtle partial shell (carapace) referable to Taphrosphys sulcatus is here identified within a coprolite from Clapp Creek in Kingstree, Williamsburg County, South Carolina, USA. The specimen is the first-known coprolite to preserve a vertebrate body impression. The small size of the turtle shell coupled with the fact that it shows signs of breakage indicates that the turtle was ingested and that the impression was made while the feces were still within the body of the predator. The detailed impression could only have survived the act of defecation if the section of bony carapace was voided concurrently and remained bonded with the feces until the latter lithified. Exceptionally, the surface texture of the scutes is preserved, including its finely pitted embryonic texture and a narrow perimeter of hatchling scute texture. The very small size of the shell represented by the impression makes it a suitable size for swallowing by any one of several large predators known from this locality. The coprolite was collected from a lag deposit containing a temporally mixed vertebrate assemblage (Cretaceous, Paleocene and Plio-Pleistocene). The genus Taphrosphys is known from both sides of the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary so, based on the size of the coprolite and the locally-known predators, the juvenile turtle could have been ingested by a mosasaur, a crocodylian, or a theropod dinosaur. Unlike mosasaurs and theropod dinosaurs, crocodylian stomachs have extremely high acid content that almost always dissolves bone. Therefore, the likely predator of this turtle was a mosasaur or a (non-avian or avian) theropod dinosaur. selected quotes: Until now, no coprolite was known to preserve a vertebrate body impression. Here a single coprolite (Calvert Marine Museum Vertebrate collection, CMM-V-4524, Fig. 1) from Clapp Creek in Kingstree, Williamsburg County, South Carolina, USA is documented to preserve a natural mold of a partial turtle shell (carapace and scutes) referable to Taphrosphys sulcatus (Bothremydidae, Testudines). This occurrence provides another example of how coprolites can preserve evidence of trophic interactions that cannot be known solely from the study of body fossils. Among the twelve turtle taxa known from the Paleocene in South Carolina (Hutchison and Weems, 1998), and the nine or ten taxa known from the Late Cretaceous (Weems, 2015), only Taphrosphys has all of these characteristics (Fig. 5). While Adocus is similar in that it also has an elongate first neural and first costals, it differs in that it had a square-shaped second neural (Meylan and Gaffney, 1989) quite unlike the hexagonal second neural seen in the CMM-V-4524 carapace impression. Based on this identification, the stratigraphic origin of this specimen can be restricted either to the Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene (Danian), because Taphrosphys has never been reported from the Williamsburg Formation (Thanetian, upper Paleocene). It is notable that “Taphrosphys leslianus,” now considered a junior synonym of T. sulcatus, has relatively wider vertebral scutes than are found in adult specimens. This suggests that, as T. sulcatus grew, its vertebral scutes became relatively narrower and its pleural scutes relatively wider. Carrying this trend back to hatchling size implies that hatchlings of T. sulcatus probably had very wide vertebral scutes as seen in CMM-V-4524 (Fig. 5). Identification of this specimen as T. sulcatus greatly expands our knowledge of the growth and developmental stages of this turtle from hatching to maturity. Based on the paleoenvironments in which specimens of T. sulcatus are found, this turtle probably was an inhabitant of both estuaries and shallow marine environments. Based on the hatchling or near-hatchling size of the specimen described here, it was probably living in an estuarine environment at the time it was eaten. In addition to a mosasaur, the predator may have been a theropod dinosaur (including avian theropods). The tyrannosauroids Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis (Carr, Williamson and Schwimmer, 2005) and Dryptosaurus aquilunguis (Carpenter et al., 1997) are among the known Late Cretaceous theropod dinosaurs from eastern North America that would have been large enough to produce coprolites of this size (Weishampel, 1990), so one of these animals could have been the predator if the coprolite is of Late Cretaceous age. If the coprolite is of Paleocene age, however, then it most likely was produced by a large bird. Although poorly known, there were a number of species of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene birds large enough to produce coprolites of this size, including a Paleocene pelagornithid (relevant literature summarized in Mayr, 2007). Bird predation is a major factor limiting turtle hatchling survival today (e.g., Janzen, Tucker and Paukstis, 2000), so it is likely that a similar pattern existed in the Late Cretaceous and early Paleocene. The small (i.e., young post-hatchling) size of the turtle shell and the fact that the shell shows signs of breakage both indicate that the turtle was ingested and that the shell impression was made while the feces were still within the body of the predator. The way in which the feces tapers immediately beyond the turtle shell impression (Fig. 1B) suggests that as the shell was voided, the cloacal aperture was stretched more than it might ordinarily have been. CMM-V-4524 is the first-known coprolite to preserve a largely complete body impression; though turtle vertebrae have been reported from Late Cretaceous shark coprolites (Anagnostakis, 2013, fig. 9J; Schwimmer, Weems and Sanders, 2015). This specimen also represents the first-known record of embryonic and early post-hatchling turtle scute texture preserved in the fossil record.
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    CALVERT MARINE MUSEUM DESIGNATED AS MARYLAND STATE PALEONTOLOGY CENTER http://www.calvertmarinemuseum.com/CivicAlerts.aspx?AID=278&ARC=418
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    Welcome to the Forum. I thought I'd point out the other fossils on your piece. They are almost as cool as the Triarthrus cephalon.
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    Good luck! They are not easy to find complete. They moulted quite a bit, and complete ones would tend to disarticulate easily. This trilobite, and Pseudogygites latimarginatus occurred in deeper seas with less oxygen. Triarthrus had developed some unique adaptations suited to their environment. If you were ever curious about what they would have looked like with their appendages, I highly recommend looking up Beecher's Trilobite Bed. Here is one of several images that show the preservation:
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    Amazing finds! With much humility, I am entering the largest regular shark tooth I have ever found. First photo is before. Others are prep and final conditions. This tooth is a 47mm diagonal by 42mm root width in nearly flawless condition on the backside. But, the front side has begun to weather out on the root. I may try to prep the front more, but I don't want it to come off of the rock matrix. The tooth has curvature into the hole in the rock. From my experiences, they usually aren't this wide and massive. Date of Discovery: May 19, 2018 Scientific Name: Cretodus crassidins Geologic Age & Formation: Cretaceous, Turonian, Eagle Ford Formation, Bouldin Flags Member State or Location of Find: Travis County, Austin, Texas USA
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    Agree with the warnings to stay away from beaches with cliffs that just received over a week of heavy rain. I have been extremely lucky and haven't had a close call with a cliff slide in 44+ years of beach collecting although I have been hit with small pebbles, a box turtle and once almost by a falling dog (amazingly the bull terrier survived at least a hundred foot fall unhurt) and have seen and heard slides at a distance. However my elder son. Marco Jr., was almost killed by a hundred foot at least cliff slide at Chesapeake Beach years back when he was collecting by himself. Based on what he told me, he had almost zero warning and started running away from where he heard a cracking sound above him in the cliffs. Within a couple of seconds he was being moved out into the water by a massive slide. What saved his life was the fact that a chunk of clay the size of a car actually flipped him up on top of it and he rode on top of it into the water. His back pack and one deck shoe got ripped off of him (luckily his back pack didn't cause him to get pulled under the debris). He wound up at least 50 feet into the water. He was so shaken that he could barely walk or talk for many minutes afterword. My younger son (Mel) and I went back to Chesapeake Beach the next day to see if we could find his back pack. We couldn't believe the size of the slide and were amazed that Marco Jr. survived. If he had been buried by the slide even heavy construction equipment wouldn't have been able to find his body for days. Marco Jr. continued to fossil hunt but stayed away from Chesapeake Beach for years. When we (Marco Jr., Mel and I) would take our boat to collect the cliffs along the Chesapeake Bay he would stay in the boat and take the boat a good distance away from the cliffs and wait to pick us up when we were in the Chesapeake Beach area. Marco Sr.
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    Got these in the mail today... a lepidodendron and a sigillaria from the Silesian coal beds in Poland. The detail on the lepidodendron is pretty amazing, and the sigillaria... well, I’m a sucker for combined shipping
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    I had some time to kill again yesterday in the middle of my split shift, so I headed off as usual to the upper Danube valley. Problem was, as I was already halfway there, I noticed that I'd forgotten to throw my tools into the car. What a bummer! Oh well, I thought, might as well just check out the ditches in the area on the chance that something might have fallen down. I can always bang rocks together if need be, and at least I can enjoy the good weather for a couple of hours. As luck would have it, there actually was a small rock fall in one of the ditches, so I managed to retrieve a couple of things. One was an Orthoceras proincondita ammonite and the other a nice multiblock with a couple of ammonites plus a colony of Liostrea roemeri oysters with 7 complete valves and lots of bits and pieces.
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    Local Flowers Long Bone not identified yet. Initial discovery Plaster wrap does the trick on this small bone When flipped Large Centrum, Initial discovery Nanotyrannus Tooth - found when extracting the centrum
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    Bones are typically found in pockets so you may did for a while and find nothing and then a Toe Bone, Foot Ungual and Tooth. A very good day Toe Bone on top and on its side below a foot ungual. Nice big toe bone Ungual Medium size Ungual While clearing the matrix from the ungual a surprise an Acheroraptor tooth. Nice Trio A small Caudal Centrum from a Juvie.
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    From Index Fossils of North America - Shimer & Shrock 1944:
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    This is a great fossil forum. A wealth of information. Lots to educate the passionate collector. I want to share a few more of my latest finds with members of this fossil forum. I hope you all enjoy the pics. These are some of my best discoveries made in my Hastings Wealden bonebed collection this past week. First off is this lovely Dromaeosaurid tooth. It took me a few hours, but I managed to prep out both sides. My best find in a while.
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    This definitely looks like the partial crown of a Paleozoic shark tooth to me rather than a Ptychodus sp., from the ridges I'd say perhaps a Campodus or possibly Orodus. This crown is composed of tubular orthodentine and the pores are known as dentine tubules. Its thought these cavities helped the tooth withstand compression force without shattering. Some Mesozoic teeth such as Asteracanthus also have this feature. Nice find btw! Regards, Sam
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    Their souvenir shop. Those are actual fossils: This enormous leg is a cast:
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    My latest find, a beautiful calico colored C. hastalis from "the hills on the other side". To my surprise, I didn't even see it pop out and only discovered it as I was sweeping loose matrix aside. Wahoo! A nice 2 5/16" whopper. This made my day. The lingual side almost looks like an impressionist painting.
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    Just to add to Ken's message, when in doubt - no matter how small - feel free to post images in our "Is it real?" subforum for our experts to weigh in. This makes it more about the individual items themselves, and less about the individual sellers. Keep in mind that not all resellers have the benefit of expertise to determine what is real, fake, composited, or restoration %. They may sell authentic items, but may also inadvertently sell inauthentic items, and so saying "reseller x always sells authentic items and is thus trustworthy" may not be true in all cases.
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    Hi Adam, I believe it's the alga Mastopora fava (so @doushantuo got it with the first reference). Here's mine from the Lower Llandovery of S. Wales.
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    Offered Pterosaur claw We had lots of discussion here on the forum on these type of claws before. The consensus was that these do not belong to pterosaurs but possibly theropod Another Pterosaur claw offered. Dont believe its one too wide. Possibly a partial theropod Offered is an unidentified toe finger with claw. Not sure that claw is dinosaurian, hard to say one way or another but very skeptical. But what is very cool about this listing is the phalanx. It looks very similar to a Dromaeosaurid Digit IV probably phalanx 4. More proof that Dromaeosaurids exist in the KemKem? That is if we needed more proof with all the teeth that are out there.
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