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  1. Dinosaur skin are a highly sought-after fossil. The ones usually available to collectors are Edmontosaurus skin impressions from Lance, or Hell Creek Formation, and they aren't as rare or expensive as you might expect, fetching up to 100-200 USD per inch depending on quality. However, it is easy to mistake a bumpy piece of rock, mud sediment, septarian nodule, concretions, or a coral fossil as dino skin. Right now there are at least several of such on our favorite auction site. Here are examples of fossils/pseudofossils mistaken as dinosaur skin: And here are real Edmontosaurus skin impressions: Positives: Negatives: So how do we tell real skin impressions from misidentified ones? Honestly, it isn't always easy, but here are four basic guidelines. 1) Skin impressions come as negatives or positives. If it comes with both, even better! 2) Skin impressions are rarely ever a complete piece by themselves(not the way a tooth or an ammonite is). Instead, skin impressions are often fragments, or look like they are broken off from larger chunks 3) There should be a uniform shape to each individual scale/osteoderm. Refer to the negative pictures above 4) Most skin impressions come from South Dakota. If you get another locality, be on extra alert - it's either another species(and thus very expensive), or misidentified If in doubt, ask the forum before purchasing. There are plenty of experts here glad to help. Have fun shopping!
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  2. Hey all, I just finished writing my annual review of the year's publications in marine mammal paleontology - nearly 60 papers this year. http://coastalpaleo.blogspot.com/2017/01/2016-in-review-advances-in-marine.html Cheers, Bobby
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  3. Today in online shops and auction sites, we see listings that are outright fake or with wrong IDs. Often, the first thing that comes is anger. "Why would he sell theropod indet. as raptor?" "That Keichosaurus is obviously fake!" "That's horn coral, not a T-Rex tooth..." etc. And in our anger, or need to prevent others from falling into the trap, we might post on the forum or spread it all over FB to warn others of this seller. Yet have we given the seller the benefit of the doubt? What if he/she made a genuine mistake? Recently I posted a thread filled with sarcasm and rage-humor on how a coral was marketed as an expensive sea bird fossil. It was too easy to ID the seller from my title and pictures. The mods thankfully closed the thread. Fossildude19 then contacted the seller, and reported the listing on the auction site. In 2 hours time, the listing was taken down, and the seller apologized for his mistake. The problem was solved quick and clean. I do not deny there are plenty of sellers out to scam. I do not advocate mercy for them, but I wish to tell you guys(and to remind myself) that some sellers are guilty of ignorance, not malice, and we should give them(and the auction site) a chance to remove their listing first. I know some of you are thinking - dealers have an even bigger responsibility to do their due research, and their laziness or mistakes causing buyers to lose $$$ isn't to be taken lightly. I agree. But we don't need to start witch hunts for them. All in all, I used to think reporting listings on eBay didn't work, but Fossildude19 proved it does. So give it a try guys; you can refer to this thread on how to do it >
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  4. Super easy - this is a walrus (Odobenus) humerus. Angel, where was this dredged from? It could potentially be a pretty important specimen. The deltoid insertion laying off to the side of the deltopectoral crest is the slam-dunk feature.
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  5. Harry Pristis

    peace river florida find

    This appears to be a preserved shrimp burrow. Ophiomorpha, traditionally one of the most revered environmental indicators among trace fossils, is by no means an unambiguous entity in facies analysis and palaeoecology. Callianassa major, the best known modern analog for the Ophiomorpha-organism, is itself variable ethologically and ecologically, and it is only one of several species of thalassinidean shrimp that routinely construct knobby walled burrows. Other analogs presently known include not only additional species of Callianassa but also certain species of Upogebia and possibly Axius. Each species has its own peculiar range of habits and habitats. The collective result, in both recent and ancient settings, is a broad spectrum of burrow morphologies and environmental distributions. Each occurrence therefore must be evaluated independently, in terms of the specific evidence at hand. Only in this light is Ophiomorpha a valuable aid in environmental interpretation. The gross morphology of Ophiomorpha overlaps with that of such ichnogenera as Ardelia, Gyrolithes, Teichichnus, and Thalassinoides, yet these burrow forms should be retained as separate taxa. Reconized species of Ophiomorpha, also somewhat intergradational, include O. borneensis Keij, O. irregulaire n. sp., and O. nodosa Lundgren. Taxonomic criteria are based upon modes of wall construction rather than upon burrow configuration. Contribution No. 330, University of Georgia Marine Institute, Sapelo Island, Ga., U.S.A.
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  6. JohnJ

    Doctor?

    It's a fragment of an Upper Cretaceous rudist known as Durania.
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  7. Welsh Wizard

    Forbes Top Ten Fossil Finds of 2016

    Wow what an early Christmas present. I've just found out that me and my brother have made it onto a Forbes list; The Top Ten Fossil Finds of 2016. Here's the link: http://www.forbes.com/sites/shaenamontanari/2016/12/22/the-top-10-fantastic-fossil-finds-of-2016/#6ab517d32d87 Dracoraptor hanigani. Happy Christmas everyone. Enjoy the holidays. Nick
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  8. Harry Pristis

    Ice Age Tooth

    Canid upper carnassial (P4) . . . appears to be coyote or small wolf size.
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  9. 2012 Gathering 2013 Gathering 2014 Gathering 2015 Gathering Hi all, Singapore Fossil Collectors just had our 2016 year end gathering! This round, we changed the venue to another member's(Han.T) lovely house, and boy what a trip it was! The first thing that greeted us was Han.T's shiny new cabinet with premium specimens filling every corner
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  10. Going back several decades I have attempted to have an annual extended field trip; call it a fossil collecting vacation. Some years this happens, some it doesn't but this past November I had the opportunity to spend several days in the field visiting some of the classic Cretaceous and Paleogene river sites which abound in Alabama. Since I haven't had the opportunity to post much in my blog, I decided to post pictures from that trip here as I have time. First up are pictures from the lowermost Maastrichtian (~70 mya) Upper Cretaceous Bluffport Marl Member of the Demopolis Formation. The Demopolis Formation for the most part is a Campanian aged chalk however the Bluffport Marl Member which defines the upper portion of the Demopolis is a molluscan rich sandy lime lying within the Exogyra cancellata zone. Aragonitic shells have not been preserved however calcitic oysters are abundant including Exogyra cancellata, Pyncodonte convexa, and Paranomia scabra. Rarer elements include Exogyra costata and iron/hematite(?) pseudomorphs of Trigonia sp. Temperatures were near perfect in the lower 60s and when not collecting it was a joy to watch the ever present barges on their way to Mobile.
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  11. It is a fish rostrum, probably one of the billfish or closely related. The two flat areas with the dimples are alveoli that held tiny teeth, similar to what modern swordfish and marlin have except modern ones aren't in the two rows like on this fossil. I have looked around on the internet and this looks very similar to Aglyptorhynchus. There is a paper that lists three species of Aglyptorhynchus from the Oligocene of South Carolina but I can't access the paper. Nice find by the way. I would be very happy finding this.
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  12. Al Dente

    Megalodon or Chubutensis

    The simple answer is to follow Cappetta. He has chubutensis occurring in the Early Miocene (Aquitanian and Burdigalian) so if your tooth is from the Burdigalian, you can call it a chubutensis. I think the reality is much more difficult. Some will say that Miocene megalodon teeth had cusps on the juvenile teeth and lost them as they become adults. In North Carolina we (amateur collectors) tend to call the cusped teeth that come from the Middle Miocene Pungo River Formation C. chubutensis. I think a lot of Maryland collectors call Middle Miocene teeth C. megalodon whether they have cusps or not. What adds to the confusion is lower teeth of chubutensis and angustidens frequently lack the side cusps so they look like C. megalodon.
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  13. The youngest Cretaceous deposit in Alabama is the 67 million year old Prairie Bluff Formation. We visited a famous site that exposes the Alabama KPg from which several papers have been published claiming the large blocks between the Prairie Bluff and the Lower Paleocene (Danian) Clayton Formation were formed by a Tsunami from the Chicxulub Meteor impact. This claim is discounted by many professionals as foraminfera dates each formation here as mid-Maastrichtian and mid-Danian and while the blocks do show that something powerful tore up the ocean floor at that time, the mixture of Cretaceous and Paleocene fossils discount Chicxulub. Unlike the Demopolis Formation which is sparsely fossiliferous, the Prairie Bluff Formation contains a rich and diverse fauna. Although fossils can be found throughout, a one foot lag layer contains the highest distribution. Prairie Bluff mollusks are preserved as internal casts and include gastropods such as Gyrodes and Anchura; the cephalopod Eutrephoceras dekayi, ammonites Discoscaphites conradi, Trachyscaphites alabamensis, and Baculites; echinoids and others. The Clayton here contains small oysters and the Lower Paleocene cephalopod Hercoglossa ulrichi. Unlike the previous site containing friable marl forming nice beaches, the resistant chalk of the Prairie Bluff produces high banks making the waves from the barges more hazardous to collecting.
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  14. I was happily snoozing away when my cellphone received a text message saying Josh was on his way to come pick me up. My truck is in the shop, so we would not be taking the 16' canoe for this trip. We were taking the kayaks strapped to the top of his car. I had about 15 minutes to get ready and the thermometer said a chilly 56F. I put on some an extra layer of clothes under my usual cargo shorts and t-shirt and waited for him to arrive. We were heading back to our favorite honey holes at Secret Location X - a secluded spot along the Peace that is flanked by large stretches of private property that we have permission to use. There are no public ramps or access points for miles in either direction, so we rarely see anyone else while we are out there. No highway noise, no houses along the bank, no barking dogs, nothing - just the way I like it. By the time we arrived, the temp had risen a few degrees and was about 60F. The last remnants of the morning fog were lifting and the air was filled with the sounds of nature - birds and wind in the trees. We loaded up the kayaks and launched downstream to head to our usual spot which has produced mammoth teeth, numerous megalodon teeth, and a wide assortment of mammal bones and teeth. On our way downriver, we spotted a group of 3 or 4 hawks overhead who screeched in protest of our presence. I had never seen hawks in a group like that and I am not sure what type they were. We also saw numerous turkey vultures and the usual herons and cranes. A lone Robin looking for a meal on the bank looked a little out of place. Gator activity appeared to be minimal and we only spotted two small juveniles who stayed on the bank and ignored us as we passed. There is a side creek that we always pass and say to ourselves - "We need to check that out one day.". The last time we came here, we stopped to check it out. As soon as Josh put the nose of his kayak into the creek mouth, a group of baby alligators appeared from the brush and they ran up inside a hollow under a tree rootball. Knowing that Mama was nearby, we decided to abandon the side creek and move on. Now, a few weeks later, we decided to try the creek again. Josh let me do the honors of going in first this time. With a wary eye for the nest, I headed into the creek mouth. No gators were evident, so we got out and started walking up the creek. The water was only inches deep, but the silty bottom was very loose and you could easily sink in to your knees in spots, so we walked along the bank. The creek snaked around and doubled-back on itself a few times. Trees and roots made constrictions in the flow which resulted in tiny waterfalls which made that pleasant "babbling brook" sound. I wished I had brought my camera, which was still in my backpack in the kayak. As it turned out, there wasn't much in that creek worth taking photos of. The banks were shallow and there was almost no gravel or spots that looked promising for fossils. After following it about 100 yards inland, hacking our way through the underbrush, leaping across to opposite banks, we decided to cut our losses and get back to the kayaks. We didn't find a single fossil in that creek. We headed back downstream to our usual spot and started searching. Josh was crawling along the bottom with his snorkel and mask. I was walking in a "Sanibel Stoop" that I use during shelling at the beach, stopping to reach into holes and turn over rocks. I had the sifter trailing behind me and I would throw handfuls of gravel into it. I found a few of the usual common things like small shark teeth, antler pieces, dugong rib pieces, and turtle shell. I never like to go home empty handed, so I always keep the first few dozen pieces I find, no matter how common or incomplete they might be, so those pieces went into my bag. Josh found a couple of tiny megs and some fragolodons, but the spot was otherwise unproductive - I think we have tapped it out on previous trips. So we decided to head further south downstream to some newer areas we have only scouted briefly. The trip downstream was pretty long and we went around a lot of bends. There was lots of sandy bottom that didn't have any gravel or crunch to it. A couple of miles downstream and we arrived at a small island we had scouted previously. There is a fork in the river there with exposed limestone bed and some gravel. So we got out and started looking around. Right off the bat I found two big chunks of bone. One appeared to be some kind of odd vertebra or thick scute of some kind. I put it in the bag and kept looking. I found a small vert that is likely alligator and a few more of the usual common things - some of which I tossed back to lighten my load. Josh did a small bit of snorkeling but didn't find much. By this point we were pretty tired (I was feeling a bit under the weather from the start), so we decided to call it a day and head back. This is where the trip became a little more interesting for me. The current was deceptive on the way downstream, and now that we were going back against it upstream, it was more work than I had anticipated. Both of us were having to work pretty hard during stretches. There were also a lot of obstacle courses to run - fallen trees that made choke points in numerous spots where one had to "thread the needle" to get through, or get out and walk the kayaks through. I was beginning to regret going so far downstream at this point and just wanted to get back to familiar territory where we could stop and take a break. On the way back, we were nearing the spot with many fallen trees and shallow spots. One particular area, there was a narrow gap between the bank and a fallen tree, and the water in that gap was only about 10-12 inches deep. Right before and right after the gap was deeper water. On our way downstream through it, I got wedged and had to get out of the kayak, walk it through and then get back in. Now that we were heading back upstream, we were nearing that stretch, and I was very tired from paddling against the current. I was just about gassed and was looking for a spot to pull the kayak on up the bank and take a brief rest. I was approaching a bend and the narrow gap was on the other side of the bend. As I come around the bend, I see a big adult gator on the bank (10+ feet) and he slips into the water just as I approach. He/She is in the deeper water just before the gap and I cannot see it because the water is black as coffee and in the shade where the sun cannot illuminate that spot. I don't like it when gators do that. I prefer them to stay on the bank and give me the stink eye as I paddle by. So now I am tired, almost out of breath, and in a spot where I cannot stop because I want to put some distance between myself and that beast. I also know that there is a pretty good chance that I might not be able to get through that gap and might be stuck right next to the lurking unseen gator. So I summoned the last of my strength and starting paddling like a man possessed. I built up a head of steam and just blasted my way forward and threaded the needle, right through the gap. I still couldn't rest, because I wanted to put more distance between myself and it. So I kept paddling until I thought I was going to pass out. It wasn't fear so much as prudence. Chances are, the gator had already retreated into deeper water in the opposite direction because they are more scared of us than we are of them. But I wasn't taking any chances. Josh was a bend or two behind me, so he didn't even see the gator, or hear my warning shout. I was hoping he wouldn't have to get out and walk it through that gap and get death-rolled. We finally got back to our very first spot, where I decided to rest. I pulled the kayak out and plopped down onto the bank to catch my breath. After a few minutes, Josh came around the bend and I told him about the gator. We had a laugh about it and he did some more brief searching while I panted and heaved on the bank like a 90-year old man with asthma. After about 15 minutes, we paddled back to the car with our meager haul. After I got home and laid it all out, I saw that the weird vert-scute thing was actually more interesting than I had thought. It had a weird pattern on it and didn't resemble any piece I had found previously. So I snapped a couple of photos of it and asked a more experienced hunter to ID it for me. I was pleasantly surprised that it was a ground sloth vertebra. I am now quite pleased because I found something I have not previously found. I was due for something unusual and I got it. In hindsight, there was quite a bit of "chunkasaurus" in that same spot where I found the sloth vert, so that spot is worth revisiting in the future - just in case there is more of that sloth there. This photo is our first hunting spot (the honey hole) - in the distance, you can just make out Josh crawling along the riverbed looking for swag.
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  15. After reading through the proposed federal rules, I wrote this simple FAQ about the new proposal: Frequently Asked Questions regarding the new rules and regulations. 1) Under the new regulations, can I collect fossils or rocks on public lands managed by the BLM? The new regulations will allow families or individual parties to collect without a permit 25lbs, or 11.34 kg of rock containing fossils. The volume of rock would be limited to about 15 cm3 and can only be collected annually to a maximum of 100lbs. However, the rock cannot contain any fossil that might be considered “rare” by the government, and amounts of rock collected can be further restricted at the discretion of the government. It is best to apply for a permit if you plan to collect any rocks or fossils on BLM lands. 2) Alright can I get a permit to collect rocks and fossils on BLM land? You are required to have a Masters or PhD in Paleontology in order to get a permit to collect rocks and fossils on public lands managed by the BLM. You will also need to work with a federal repository, such as a state or federal museum to store all rocks and fossils that you will collect, and you are responsible for all fees charged by those institutions for the care of your collections. If you do not have a Masters degree or PhD in Paleontology, you will need to work with an individual who has the educational experience and see if you can be added to their permit. The permit requires an annual report to be submitted to the federal government detailing your activity on BLM lands, and every rock and fossil removed from federal lands. 3) What happens if I were to collect a rare fossil or more then 25lbs of fossilerious rock on BLM land? Criminal or civil penalty, including fines and prison sentences up to 2 years can be brought to individual who do not follow these rules. 4) I am a geologist or amateur scientist who works on BLM lands, but I don’t collect rocks or fossils, will I need to apply for a permit? If you plan to publish or disseminate information regarding information on paleontological resources that reveals the geological or geographical extent of those resources, you will need to seek written permission from the Department of Interior, especially if your intentions are for education and science. However, if your intentions are in the commercial extraction or exploration of fossil fuels you will not need permission to publish or disseminate geographic information about paleontological resources. 6) Aren’t these laws and rules set up to protect paleontological resources on federal lands? Yes, and no. The original law that was passed in 2009, prohibits the collection of fossil vertebrates without a permit to help prevent illegal trade in rare fossils like dinosaurs from public lands. The new rules however, greatly expand the definition of what can be collected on BLM lands to non-vertebrate fossils, without citing a need for this new government over reach. The new rules will actually bring harm to paleontological resources by preventing average citizens from engaging in the science of paleontology on public lands managed by the BLM, for exampling in publishing or disseminating information about their location. For example, it will prevent elementary school children lead by a high school teacher from collecting rocks and fossils on all federal public lands, restrict scientific investigations of past climate change, prevent student or restrict student research, and may prevent publication of geological research on federal lands. The greater danger to paleontological resources comes from the apathy and the fear of civil and criminal penalties that will result on the restriction of the study of geology and paleontology on federal lands. The new rules and regulations do much more harm because they significantly limit the number of people who can engage in the science of paleontology on public lands. A much better permitting process, in which average citizens can collect rocks and fossils on BLM lands, be able to apply to collecting permits on the day of collection at local BLM field offices, and be able to personally own rocks and invertebrate fossils and plant fossils for personal and scientific study would greatly benefit the science of paleontology. The new rules are so prohibitive that they will significantly end paleontological research by most geologists on federal owned lands managed by the BLM. 7) Is there anything I can do to prevent these new rules and regulations? Yes, write a letter to the following address: Regarding Regulation Identifier Number (RIN) 1093-AA16. Julia Brunner Geologic Resources Division National Park Service P. O. Box 25287 Denver, CO 80225-0287 Urge them to change the rules and regulations to make them more sensible to the scientific and educational community of paleontologists. Submit your letter by February 7th. 8) Where do I find these new rules and regulations? The proposed rules and regulations can be found on this website: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2016/12/07/2016-29244/paleontological-resources-preservation
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  16. Excellent find! You're one of a half dozen folks who have collected these and thought "is this a fossil?" Frank Perry of the Santa Cruz Museum puzzled over these things; between he and I, we've collected dozens of these. He heard different things from different folks; plant experts said they were a kind of nut, invertebrate paleontologists identified them as a crayfish gastrolith. However, crayfish gastroliths are calcium carbonate, plants are woody/carbonaceous, and these are all preserved black and shiny (like vertebrate bones/teeth) and the hole in the middle is a hollow cavity under an enameloid tipped cap/cusp. Paleoichthyologists Doug Long and/or Bruce Welton identified these as dermal bucklers from some kind of skate - Raja clavata has similar bucklers (giant denticles) but they have big hooks on them. There'd be a few pairs of these, and a bunch down the midline. If you want to read more about them, here's the paper I wrote on the Purisima vertebrate assemblage from Halfmoon Bay: http://www.palarch.nl/wp-content/Boessenecker_RW_2011_A_New_Marine_Vertebrate_Assemblage_from_the_Late_Neogene_Purisima_Formation_in_Central_California_PJVP_8_4.pdf
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  17. this is probably a phosphatized rip up clast that has been bored by lithophagous mollusks such as Pholids. These are found in lag deposits along with other resistant clasts such as sharks teeth. Basically these are created when the sealevel rises and existing sediments are leached and eroded leaving only concentrations of resistant things like pebble, shark teeth etc. A rip up clast is a piece of a lower sediment that has been ripped up by the action of the transgressing sea and becomes indurated (or was possibly already indurated (made hard like stone)) and phosphatized along with many of the other lag constituents. Another possibility which requires the same sequence of events is that this is a manatee rib that has been badly worn in a pebble lag to the point of being unrecognizable. It would still be subject to boring by lithophagous mollusks. If you google "pholid clam burrows in rock" you'll get a lot more information. Your shark tooth was part of a lag deposit and found its way into the pholid burrow when they were both being moved around in the modern sea or in the original lag. The sorted pebbles and shark teeth you see in the modern beach environment are lag concentrations also. They are sorted by weight, size and shape. Sorry for the ramble. This is an elaboration of what Abyssunder said.
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  18. Ludwigia

    What ammonite?

    I think I might have found something. Check out Ochetoceras, particularly O.zio. I believe they ranged up into the Tithonian.
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  19. MarcoSr

    December finds

    Some of the teeth that you show are Miocene for sure and not Eocene. Some are too worn to tell. However the Eocene theory is possible for a small number of teeth but not really plausible for all of the large number of reworked teeth from this particular site, Brownies Beach. A better proven theory is that they are from a thin Miocene lag layer between the formation zones. I help Dr. Weems, a USGS emeritus, with his vertebrate formation studies of the different Miocene formations/zones in MD and VA. He has seen evidence in the geology of the formations/zones that transgression/regression cycles were taking place about every 400 thousand years in the Miocene in the MD/VA area. Basically water levels rise in the transgression and move inland and then lower and retreat in the regression. During the early transgression phase and the late regression phase the previous formation/zone is being reworked. The reworking can be very minor with little evidence left or major creating thin to thicker lag layers of reworked teeth. Also depending on the water conditions at the time which caused the reworking, these lag layers can be very localized or extend for many miles. Your teeth are much more likely from an early transgression Miocene lag layer. Marco Sr.
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  20. fiddlehead

    Indiana Nodule

    Actually, though poorly preserved it does still shows pollen (the golden material) in shortened rows radiating from a central point. It appears to be a pollen organ of a medullosalean pteridosperm (seed fern) called Dolerotheca. Do to poor preservation of the fossils they have not yet been broken into species. They have only been broken into three different forms based on pollen structure. It is thought without direct evidence, they are the pollen organ for some type(s) of alethopterid. Hope that helps, Jack
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  21. Here is owner Han.T next to Kemi, who gifted him an amazing ammonite drawing for his birthday Here is Han.T's Canis lupus familiaris next to my girlfriend and I My haul of the day - a lovely Tyrannosaurid tooth from the Judith River Formation! And here is the whole family All in all, we had a wonderful time this year. There were several new faces, there were trades, there was pizza, laughter, and good ol' dino talk. Most of all, we have to thank Han.T for being such a gracious host! If any of you pass by Singapore, don't hesitate to ring us up! See you next year!
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  22. The new law covering public federal lands does not "block all fossil collecting on federal land". In fact it establishes in law that people have a right to collect invertebrates and plants. Previously local BLM managers (and Forest Service managers) could block collecting on a whim, now they can't do that. Certainly, some limits are imposed, you can't open up a large quarry. Also vertebrate fossils have been off limits without a permit for a long time, this law does nothing new in that regard. Anyone who has been collecting vertebrate fossils without a permit from federal land has been breaking the law for many years. Regarding the new National Monuments, would you say those areas have nothing worth protecting? Existing grazing and even oil/gas permits will be grandfathered in, so no rancher who depends on that land will be put out of business. Existing use of the land for gathering herbs and for religious ceremonies by Native American tribes will also continue. It has been reported that there are significant archeological sites that have been illegally looted for years, so maybe some additional resources will be available for the proper study and conservation of those sites. On the other hand you won't be able to open a giant open-pit mine or build a subdivision in those areas, that is true. Don
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  23. Hi all, A paper on a new genus and species from the Eocene Castle Hayne Fm. in North Carolina has been published. The holotype and paratypes were found by the Fossil Forum member Plax, who donated them to the Raleigh Museum. Plax is also coauthor of the article. http://www.ojs-igl.unam.mx/index.php/Paleontologia/index
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  24. Al Dente

    What is this ?

    It is the crown of a shark tooth. It looks very much like Heterodontus but I'm not very familiar with Jurassic sharks.
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  25. Here is an unprepped Green River crocodile Found June 11, 2016 Green River Formation Kemmerer WY Measures 8 foot 1 inch. (2.46 meters) along the spine from nose to tail tip. Size of matrix 6 foot by 4 foot (1.83 x 1.22 meters) Still in process of being prepped. This picture was taken the night it was found.
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  26. JohnJ

    Texas Tooth

    From the Eagle Ford, I think you should check Pliosaur.
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  27. Canadawest

    Micro ammonite from Asia

    It is a foram.
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  28. How about my little baby snapper form the Green River Formation. One of my favorites.
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  29. caterpillar

    Best photo

    One of my favorite
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  30. Boesse

    Dugong rib predation marks?

    Hey all - I've attached some figures of various types of bite marks. They can be quite common, though the only unequivocal way to demonstrate that they are bite marks - which is admittedly easier for amateurs than prof paleontologists - is to see the trace emerge on the bone surface as you remove the matrix yourself, and photograph it. If you see specimens with possible tooth scrapes in a museum drawer, you have no idea if they are dental pick scrapes. Sometimes the bite marks can be very fine and short - in Boessenecker and Fordyce below, we reported bite marks that criss-crossed bone eating worm "pockmarks" where the roots of the worm were concealed by a thin veneer of bone, and a small shark, skate, or bony fish came and bit into the rotten bone to consume the worms. The Collareta et al. figure (published this week!) shows that serrations can have some sort of expression as well. And the Boessenecker et al. image shows various sorts of bone modification, including a little tiny fur seal femur fragment with evidence of bite marks AND partial acid digestion.
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  31. piranha

    Fossil from SE Utah

    The one with the radiating spicules is a Cambrian protomonaxonid sponge: Choia sp. Attached for comparison: Choia carteri from the Middle Cambrian Wheeler Formation.
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  32. One has to keep in mind that members are not the only ones which will read this topic. Thousands of people visit this site weekly. Any productive road cuts could soon be rendered unproductive, destroyed, or off limits once they are published. Members have many examples of this happening before...and it should be considered before telling the 'world'. Keeping a record of these for the areas you travel might be better shared privately unless they are very well known road cut sites.
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  33. The partial fossil on the left is most likely the rudist, Sauvagesia texana. I think the other item is a geologic formation.
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  34. Its not possible to identify an isolated Tyrannosaur tooth from the Judith River deposits. The best you can do is know the specific location. GPS coordinates, etc and the specific strata it was found in. The location where a specimen is found never changes. Calling it Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, gorgosaurus, etc. is meaningless. 'Judith River' is vague. The pre Maastrichtian Montana tyrannosaur theropods are not all that defined. In general identifications are based on more extensive articulated skeletons found across the border in Alberta. One needs actual skulls and then tooth positions for comparison. Tyrannosaur material from non Hell Creek Formation is disarticulated and doesnt offer any clues. and...even if there was some means to identify the genus, how would the seller do this? The top theropod researchers at The Tyrell Museum would even shy away from indentifying an isolated tooth. It 'could be' this or it 'could be' that.
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  35. abyssunder

    What is it?

    The middle one looks to be a radiolitid rudist lower valve, the other two could be requieniid rudists, like Toucasia , all present in the Cretaceous of Istria,Croatia. Jean-Pierre MASSE et al. 2004. Lower Aptian Rudist Faunas (Bivalvia, Hippuritoidea) from Croatia. Geologia Croatica 57/2, p.117–137.
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  36. UtahFossilHunter

    Best photo

    Although this piece isn't very photogenic or rare or exceptional in any way, it does hold a special place in my heart. While digging for trilobites in western Utah with Ynot in August, my father came across a very sad and weathered trilobite who had gone through several freeze-thaw cycles. He called me over to look at it and he popped the upper layer off the little guy exposing all of his cracks. Even though many people would chalk this one up as a loss and would go on digging for better, I decided I wanted to try my hand at putting the pieces back together and reassemble the 500 million year old organism. Carefully, we placed all 20 or so pieces into a plastic sack and went on with the day. Later, I would find bigger and better looking ones. As soon as I arrived home, I unloaded all the best ones into the house and left the plastic sack and its contents in the garage. I had nearly forgotten about him until I stumbled across the crumpled sack of disarticulated pieces on the work bench later the next week. Earlier that day I had been very anxious with the coming school year. I had a couple spare hours to burn and it definitely wasn't going to be very productive if I spent it worrying about school. I picked up the sack and poured out the contents and set to work. This was my first time glueing a trilobite back together this extensively. But piece by piece I soldiered on. Four hours later, I emerged from the garage with the specimen pictured. My mood had changed significantly and my outlook on the next several months changed to much more positive. Working on this little guy reminded me why I was going to school and what one of my biggest goals is and that is to study fossils the rest of my life. So no matter how many pieces I was broken into, I could find a way to put it all back together piece by piece.
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  37. That's a Gennaeocrinus mourantae. I'm curious to know if you collected the specimen in the gorge or the exposure adjacent to the gorge at the river? I'll copy and paste my post from "The Fossils of Arkona, Ontario" Facebook Group below... "The Camerate crinoid Gennaeocrinus mourantae from the Arkona Fm.. Some might find the first photo of interest. I'm unable to determine with certainty which ray this is but note how the inner arm has been broken; two arms have regenerated in its place. I believe this might be an instance of augmentative regeneration. All photos are of the same specimen. On an historical note, for those interested, the Gennaeocrinus mourantae was described in 1934 by Dr. Winifred Goldring on a specimen collected by Ann Mourant. Ann was the wife of prominent amatuer collector Charles Southworth." Best regards, Darrell
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  38. fossisle

    Micro ammonite from Asia

    It could be a large Foram
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  39. I don't think so. Stylemys limbs and heads ARE retractable, and they are sometimes found in place when a tortoise is prepared. Minnesota Nice has not told us whether traces of skulls and limb bones were present in the cluster of 'exploded' fossils -- examples of primary deposition. Moreover, the cluster could be a deltaic deposit from an intermittent stream (there's a prominent example in Toadstool Park, Nebraska). The individual tortoises could have burrowed into the damp streambed and died there from dessication. The remains could be later excavated by seasonal floods to be deposited, disarticulated, in a cluster downstream -- examples of secondary deposition.
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  40. Shellseeker

    Mako Shark Tooth?

    Not Mako. I think Snaggletooth lower.
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  41. Ilymatogyra arietina oysters. They are very common in the Main Street, Grayson and Del Rio formations.
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  42. DevonianDigger

    Now on staff at Penn Dixie!

    I'm excited to share that I have officially joined the staff at the renowned Penn Dixie site. I've managed to turn my hobby, which has been greatly furthered by knowledge gained from the supportive and generous members of TFF, into a job! I am now an educator at the site and will be travelling to regional schools, museums and events to share the wonders of the site with the general public in addition to working at the site during the spring, summer, and fall! So a giant "thank you!" to all the TFF members who have helped me along in my journey thus far! I look forward to seeing many of you this year at the site and chatting with you all online! -Jay
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  43. LordTrilobite

    Mosasaur Tooth in composite matrix?

    Definitely real. Nice decently sized tooth. Fairly good size though not huge. Good quality too. Teeth are pretty common so it's generally not worth it to fake. And I think you're right spot on with it being stained a little. I've only seen a tooth stained once before. I saw it on a badly damaged tooth where much of the enamel was gone. The staining hid the damage a little. It wasn't done very good. Your tooth only has some little damage to enamel to the front of the tooth which is really common. I counted it once and if I remember correctly around 60% of my mosasaur teeth had that same type of damage on the front of the tooth. I don't know the cause but it's possible that this damage has to do with feeding. It's possible that it hasn't been stained and that the brown colouration on the enamel damage is natural. But it looks a little too perfect in colour to be natural. So I agree that it's been stained. I suppose it kinda makes the tooth prettier but it also kinda distracts from the enamel damage which might have happened during the life of the animal. So you could try to carefully remove the staining or leave it as is. Also very much looks like a Prognathodon sp. tooth. I can also spot a fish vert in the matrix on the side.
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  44. Besides football, Alabama is famous for the number of classic Paleogene localities exposed upon its coastal plain. These unconsolidated siliciclastic sites can easily be collected yielding mollusks as old as 70 million years old which appear as if they were picked up from a beach. The oldest of these sites that we visited was the type locality of the Bells Landing Member of the Tuscahoma Formation. This Upper Paleocene deposit is equivalent to the Aquia Formation in Virginia containing many of the same species but more diverse due to its southern latitude. Collecting consisted of digging into a 2-foot molluscan rich layer composed among other species Turritella postmortoni, Calyptraphorus trinodiferus, and Ostrea sinuosa. Below is an example of some of the shells that I have found on previous trips and a sunbathing local encountered on this trip.
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  45. TqB

    What is this?

    The coral is Siphonophyllia, probably S. cylindrica, from the Lower Carboniferous. It's a distinctive large species from the fairly early Carboniferous, Chadian Stage. That's roughly 345-350 million years. Lovely find, I'd have taken that home!
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  46. It's 25 pounds per day, 100 pounds total per year. Not 25 pounds a year. I don't know what kind of collecting you do, maybe that is a big limitation for you. However it doesn't make for a strong argument when you don't have the facts straight. This is the open comment period, you do have an opportunity to register objections to the proposed rules (for what that's worth), but complaining about rules that don't exist won't get much traction. The link you provided has an excellent section on how to comment on the proposed rules, I'd suggest everyone read it. Realistically, limitations like 100 pounds/year are almost impossible to enforce. How would any BLM official be able to determine that you removed 110 pounds, or even 200 pounds over the course of a year and issue you a ticket? Especially after the specimens have been prepped and excess matrix discarded? Now if someone was caught with 500 pounds of rock in the bed of their truck they might have some explaining to do. Along the same lines, determining what is common and what is rare in a field collection is likely beyond the capabilities of most collectors and (I surmise) most BLM officers. I could legally pick up 20 pounds of brachiopods, for example, and that sample would contain a couple of hundred specimens and dozens of species. It's possible that one or two specimens would be "rare" but to actually know that I would have to clean and ID every specimen in the field. It would be impossible to prove in court that someone had knowingly collected a rare specimen. The proposed rules do impose significant limits, and they do (at least in theory) create the potential for problems if you "casually" collect a specimen and only later realize it is scientifically significant and try to donate it to a museum. They also create some irrational complications if you want to take a class or a scout troop (for two examples amongst many possible) on a collecting trip. One would hope that the comment period would be an opportunity to get those issues straightened out. Congress passed the "Paleontological Resources Protection Act" in 2009, and so the BLM is required to develop rules for how the law is to be implemented. Simply ignoring the law is not an option. The law uses terms like "reasonable amount" and "negligible disturbance", but it requires the BLM/NFS/NPS etc to define them through the rule-making process. Perhaps unfortunately "reasonable amount" will never be defined as "as much as you can fit in a dump truck", and "negligible disturbance" will never be defined as "a hole big enough to hide a battleship". At this point comments based on real world experience of how the proposed rules are unworkable or create undesirable side effects (such as punishing collectors who decide to donate specimens to research) might get some attention and that's about the best we can do. Don
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  47. abyssunder

    Placenticeras ?

    I have a Douvilleiceras from Madagascar, and I think mine is D. mamillatum, but is not polished like yours, also looks a bit different. Maybe yours is not D. mamillatum, looks like it could be D. inaequinodum maybe. Here is an excerpt from Maurice COLLIGNON. 1963. ATLAS DES FOSSILES CARACTERISTIQUES DE MADAGASCAR (Ammonites ). Fascicule X ( A L B I E N ), which might help. pdf BTW, the Italian "cavita" in Romanian should be "cavitate", in English "cavity" , in French "cavité", in Spanish "cavidad", in Portuguese "cavidade", all from the Latin "cavitas", if I'm not wrong.
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  48. Some great news regarding the McKay Group and its fossils I've been informed that a new publication is forthcoming some time this month to be published in Palaeontographica Canadiana. Also of note is a recently published paper describing some exceptionally preserved fossils (an algaspid and ctenophore plus gut preservation in Orygmaspis) found in the McKay Group. That paper may be found here: New Paper
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  49. Fossildude19

    Micro ammonite from Asia

    I agree - check out the picture on THIS WEBSITE. Fairly similar, I think.
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  50. PFOOLEY

    What is this

    Good call...I agree.
    5 likes