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Showing most informative content since 07/16/2018 in all areas

  1. 23 likes
    Rather than writing information about coprolite identification on multiple threads, I thought I would post information about coprolite identification here so it can be referenced in ID threads (I'm getting lazy, I know). I was also thinking it might be fun for others to post coprolites in their own collections so others can use them for comparison. So here we go: IDENTIFYING COPROLITES: Not all rocks that look like poop have a fecal origin. Here are a few things to consider when trying to make this determination: 1. Location, Location, Location – If you haven’t guessed, the first and most important thing to consider is the location your rock was found. Don’t expect to find a coprolite unless you find it in geologic area/layer where other fossils are found. If you find things like bones, teeth and fish scales, or prehistoric tracks, you may just be in in luck. 2. Shape – While fecal matter can be rather freeform when exposed to the elements or when digestion issues arise, most coprolites are shaped like poo. As with modern extrusions, fossilized feces can be shaped like pellets, spirals, scrolls, logs, piles, etc. Their shape is dependent on shape of their producers intestinal and anal structure. Look for things like compaction folds and pinch marks. 3. Texture - Most coprolites are fine grained. If your specimen appears granular under magnification, it is most likely not a coprolite. There are some exceptions, such as marine creatures that feed on bottom sediments or coral. That is why knowing the location and geology of the area where it was discovered is so important. 4. Inclusions – Many times, coprolites will have visible inclusions. Things like fish scales, bone fragments, and teeth may not get fully digested, and can be visible on the surface. Some animals ingest stones for ballast or digestive purposes. These are known as gastroliths, and if present, are generally smooth. 5. Composition – Because herbivore scat tends to break a part and decompose rapidly, it rarely survives the fossilization process. So most fossil poo that is found is from carnivores. The reason for this is that their poo is usually high in calcium phosphate, the same mineral found in our bones. This mineral can appear in many forms. It can be hard and dense or soft and porous. If the potential coprolite appears soft and porous, there is a quick test that is often used in the field. If you touch to stone to the tip of your tongue and it sticks, chances are, it is high in calcium phosphate and could be a coprolite. If you are not that brave, you can also touch it with wet fingers to see if it feels sticky, but this is not nearly as fun. If the calcium phosphate takes a harder, denser form the “lick test” won’t work. In some instances, chemical analysis is required to definitively identify the mineral composition. @Carl do you have anything you want to add?
  2. 20 likes
    Consolidated all my informational Topics to make it easier to reference. Will keep updating since some of the reference material is outdated. Have to thank @PFOOLEY for suggesting this consolidation and it makes it a lot easier for me to access these topics as well as our members to know what's out there. General Tips in Buying Theropod Teeth Dinosaur Anatomy 101 Stratigraphy of the Late Cretaceous in North America Triassic Identification of Dinosaur Teeth from the Triassic of New Mexico Jurassic: Morisson Formation Identifying Ceratosaurus Teeth Identification of Marshosaurus Teeth Tips in Buying a Sauropod Foot Claw Jurassic: Europe Dinosaurs of Costal Portugal Jurassic Theropods of Germany Cretaceous: North America Identification of Theropod Teeth in the Hell Creek and Lance Formations Identification of Troodontid Teeth Identification of Tyrannosaurid Teeth From North America Identification of Ankylosaurid Teeth Identification of Acheroraptor Teeth North American Tyrannosaurids what is Described Identification of Claws and Ungals from the Hell Creek and Lance Formations Identification of Pachycephalosaurid and Thescelosaurus Teeth Tooth Features in Tyrannosaurids Dakotaraptor Teeth and Claws Hell Creek Fm Identification of Bones /Claws from Alvarezsaurids from North America Hell Creek Faunal Representation Identification of Theropod Teeth from Judith River and Two Medicine Formations Cretaceous: Kem Kem of Morocco Kem Kem Theropod Teeth Kem Kem Theropod Tooth Morphology Identification of Sauropod Teeth from the Kem Kem Tips in Purchasing a Spinosaurid Hand Claw Identification of Claws from the Kem Kem Identification of Spinosaurid Jaws from the Kem Kem Cretaceous: South America Patagonia's Theropod Teeth Cretaceous: Uzbekistan: Identification of Theropod Teeth: Uzbekistan Sauropod Teeth: Uzbekistan Cretaceous: Europe Identifying Baryonyx Teeth
  3. 17 likes
    Hello all, My good friend Jeffrey P and I were finally able to coordinate a day out hunting together in our favorite Devonian spot upstate, as well as one I hadn't visited yet. ( The Briggs Road site!) Both are Moscow Formation, Hamilton group Middle Devonian sites. I haven't been out much this year, and so I decided to take a floating holiday to make it happen. We had missed the opportunity of collecting together when we were both in Western NY during the 4th of July week. This is usually a really fun get together, and while I did OK at our usual haunt, I did miss my frequent collecting partner's company. Anyway, as stated, ... I took a Monday off of work to make the trip to see Jeff last Monday, ... July 16th. Jeff generously offered to drive to the sites. Deep Springs Road is about a 4.5 hour trip for me to make from my home. But with Jeff driving, I only had to drive an hour to meet him at a commuter lot off of I-84 in New York. We met up at 6:00 AM, moved my gear to his car, and off we went. The 3.5 hour drive to the site was full of good conversation and tales of his adventures, and our hopeful find list for this trip. Jeff had brought his I-pad with him, so that I could peruse photos of his recent fossil finds and vacation adventures, (here, and abroad.) during the trip. The weather forecast was calling for a partly cloudy day, with a high of 89. The slight chance of rain that was forecast never materialized. We arrived at the first site between 9:30 and 10:00 AM. Briggs road is a small roadside quarry. Lots of broken rock was around - evidence of other area hunters. We spent about 40 minutes here, Jeff working some slabs, while I did my wander and split thing. I was unlucky enough to flip over a rock and find a yellow-jacket nest. Luckily, I got away without being stung. It definitely agitated the yellow-jackets, though. I picked up a few things, here and there. Mostly 3/4partial Eldredgeops rana, missing the cephalons. Nothing worth photographing. With the Yellow-Jackets guarding the productive layer, we headed over to Deep Springs Road. *************************************************************************************** By this time, the sun was getting higher in the sky, and it was starting to get hot. Deep Springs Road Quarry is like a parking lot. The gray matrix gets hot to the touch, and there is little shade. After about an hour of poking around, and 2 20 OZ bottles of water later, I decided to try to find some shade. I was finding some cool things here and there. I took shelter under a thorn bush that provided a bit of respite from the heat. I pulled rocks over and split them as I sat on a kneeling pad and rested my elbow on my bandana, drinking water now and again. Hydration is important. Jeff was a trooper, and spent most of his time in the full sun, lifting out blocks and splitting them down. Moving about the quarry from spot to spot. He said that he was in "training" for his trip out to Texas later this summer. I broke for lunch, and a cold seltzer refreshed me, and gave me a second wind. I made a number of good finds, and was happy, as this was only my 3rd time out collecting this year. Life has been busy, so it was nice to make up for lost time. Jeff did not do as well, although he found some interesting pieces things. My luck was with me, and a number of my finds were found just by looking at the ground. I'm not a real motivated digger when I don't have to be, and am content finding what others have missed. I like to split things down until there is no chance that a fossil is hiding. Anyway, these techniques worked in my favor this time. The day went on, and shade started to appear. Jeff took a break, and recharged himself with some time in the shade. By nearly 5:00 PM we decided we were done. We packed up our gear and finds, and headed out on the road. I enjoyed the conversation with Jeff, and his eclectic taste in music. Always relaxing and interesting music of all varieties coming from his car stereo/ipod hook-up. Actually made some notes on bands to check out when I had the chance. We arrived at the commuter lot at around 9:25 PM, said our goodbyes, and I headed for home. With traffic and all, I reached home at about 10:40 PM. Thanks @Jeffrey P, for a great day out hunting. ****************************************************************************************** I ended up having quite the day with phyllocarids. I ended up with 10 partialphyllocarids - 2 Echinocaris punctata, and 8 partial Rhinocaris columbina . Only a few trilobites - 1 enrolled Eldredgeops rana, one enrolled Greenops sp., one prone partial Greenops sp., and 3 Dipleura dekayi pygidiums. A host of gastropods, bivalves, and brachiopods found their way home with me as well. First - a grouping of my finds. and some close ups ... Trilobites: Dipleura dekayi pygidiums Eldredgeops rana Greenops sp. Greenops sp. Phyllocarids: Rhinocaris columbina Rhinocaris columbina Echinocaris punctata Gastropods: Paleozygopleura hamiltonae covered with bryozoan. Paleozygopleura hamiltonae "squish-out" with a Glyptotomaria capillaria and another Paleozygopleura hamiltonae. Retispira leda Glyptotomaria capillaria Brachiopods: Rhipidomella penelope Athyris spiriferoides Lingula spatulata Pelecypods: Grammysioidea alveata Cypricardella bellistriata Paleoneilo emarginata & Paleoneilo filosa Pholladella radiata Modiomorpha concentrica, Cypricardella bellistrata, Nuculoidea corbuliformis, +2 unknown Unknown Pteriomorpha bivalve: Leiopteria conradi?? Pseudoaviculapecten sp. a Assorted other finds: First item is unknown,.. possibly a hyolith. Plant fragment, orthocone cephalopod, possibly Spyroceras sp.. Tornoceras uniangulare unknown Thanks for reading.
  4. 14 likes
    I have not gotten out much locally this summer due to a few issues. Forced myself to step away from my current stresses and hunt some fossils along the Minnesota Iowa border. Found some nice brachs, cephalopods, rugosa coral, gastropods, and fisherites. Nothing special, but it was nice being out again. When I returned home, I was going to hammer a little matrix away from a few of my collections. A large slab had a worn cephalopod in it and I was going to break it out and put it in with the fossils I take to the children's sand pit at a local park. With one swing of the hammer, I decided this one was NOT going to the park! It is amazing how often this happens to me. I wonder how many nice fossils have been left behind only because I quit breaking the rock. Two beautiful Maclurites and a Hormatoma laid hidden underneath the matrix surrounding the cephalopod.
  5. 14 likes
    Well I also thought that and then I ran into Sue at the BHI and was in for a surprise. The recently added replica skull gave me an opportunity to have a close-up look at her teeth. Actually stuck my head into her mourh and lived and noticed that the dentary tooth position #1 looked exactly like a Premaxillary tooth. Pete Larsen was there so I asked him how do you differentiate between the two since they looked the same. He said it was easy the dentary tooth has a much longer root than the pre-max tooth. My follow-up Q was well most of us normal folks do not have teeth with roots then how can you identify a crown between the two. The surprise answer was you cannot. He then proceeded to tell me a story of when they were prepping the Skull of Stan. They finished the prep and wound up with two additional Premaxillary teeth and set them aside. It was not until they prepped Sue a few years later that they realized that those two teeth were dentary. Pete then took me over to see the real skull of Stan which is displayed in their museum and pointed to the empty sockets in position 1 on the dentary, the teeth had never been added. However, since that point the hundreds of replica Stan skull they sold have had those teeth included in them. Always something to be learned and nothing should come as a surprise. Sue dentary Sue Premax @-Andy- @jpc @Dracorex_hogwartsia
  6. 13 likes
    We (@addicted2fossils and myself) decided to go check out some dirt roads after some very heavy rain messed up our river sites. It turned out to be a pretty good call! We found a bunch of megs, a killer great white that we spotted at the exact same time and had to do a coin toss for, some great inverts and my favorite find of the day, a huge Parotodus benedeni from Florida! Check it out: Disclaimer: we get kinda weird in this vid. If you don't want to watch the video, here's some (but not all) of the day's finds:
  7. 11 likes
    Here is my first try for FOTM: found on the Isle of wight on 08/08/2018 the tooth of an Ornithocheirid pterosaur. ( like caulkicephalus or Coloborhynchus ) early Cretaceous Atherfield ( IOW )
  8. 11 likes
    The Florissant Fossil Quarry in Florissant, Colorado, has been on my list of places to visit. It is just outside the Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument west of Colorado Springs. As much as I would have liked to go dig at the quarry, I knew that wouldn’t happen this year. So I decided to order some shale from the quarry and have it shipped to me. Even at $7.50 per pound plus shipping it was less expensive to buy the shale than to spend a week on the road getting there and back from California. After emailing Nancy Anderson at the quarry to work out the details, I mailed off my check for 20 pounds of shale and received two boxes by priority mail about a week later. I have only just started going through it but I thought I would give you this early update. The quarry is known for its plant and insect fossils, with an occasional fish or bird. These fossils come from the Eocene epoch, about 34 million years ago. The quarry’s website doesn’t go into stratigraphy but according to the National Monument website the fossils in the quarry come from the Lower Shale Unit of the Florissant Formation, which does not appear in the park itself. First thing I did was weigh the boxes and as expected, I got what I ordered plus maybe a little bit more. Here is what one of the boxes looks like when opened. Only a small portion of the shale is spread out on the blue tarp, there is much more still in the bag. Here’s the instruction sheet that came in the box. They recommend preserving it with a mix of 1 part Elmer’s glue to 2 parts water, then coating with clear Krylon. The shale is easily fractured so I definitely want to protect it, but if anyone has better recommendations, let me know. Here’s a typical piece. The thin bands of shale are separated by an occasional layer of what one reference calls tufaceous siltstone. There are no identifiable fossils in the siltstone, they are all in the thin layers of shale. I decided to throw together a fixture to help hold the shale while I was splitting it. I just took a few boards I had laying around and using clamps and screws, created a corner against which I could set the rock in place. I have a thin spring steel chisel I originally bought to split Green River fish that works pretty well for the first round of splits. Close-up of fixture. I soon realized I need to use a microscope and needle probes to really find things and clean them up. Here is my microscope setup. A lot of the shale has unidentifiable bits and pieces of organic material, but I’ve already started discovering a few interesting things. Here are a couple of partial leaf fossils. Here is another well-defined leaf that looks something like a willow. Here’s the most interesting thing I’ve found so far. It looks like some sort of winged insect. It is pretty small and I would have never discovered it without the microscope and needle probes. Close-up of head. Note the two compound eyes. I’ve only been through a couple of pounds of rock, still plenty more to go. I will keep you posted if I find anything interesting.
  9. 10 likes
    Identification of isolated ziphodont theropod teeth is very difficult since they are very similar and there is lots of variation in the jaw. Sorry but you cannot just look at pictures and identify an uncommon theropod tooth. You cannot also base it on what has been described in that fauna since what other theropods exist that have not been found or described, the fossil record is far from complete in any fauna. Morphometric measurements of this tooth are needed and then those need to be compared against Neovenator. I have neither bits of info to be able to give you an answer. I would ask the seller how he determined that this is Neovenator and see what type of response he gives you. That will determine if he's shooting from the hip or its based on a firm scientific analysis. I would not make the assumption its properly identified based on what he sells.
  10. 10 likes
    Most of us here know how to use a hammer. Although it seems pretty basic, I thought I'd put together a short primer for those who are not as comfortable with, or are new to, hammering in the field. If you have any other tips to add, let me know and I can add them in here and give proper attribution for the sage advice. Hammering Techniques For those of us who break and split rock, hammers are by far among the most essential tools in the collecting kit. However, there are a number of best practices we can observe for hammer-use that can increase our power, precision, and reduce the chances of injury. This small primer is designed for those who may not be as comfortable with using a hammer in the field, and those who want to increase their existing skill. The hammer is the extension of your hand, which is an extension of all the muscles that lead up to it. Part 1: The Hammer Itself Just like any class of tool, using the right tool for the job is important. Just as one would not use a sledgehammer to drive a nail into a wall to hang a picture (unless they were a maniac like me), there are certain types of hammers that will not be ideal for the job - and in some cases, may cause injury. Having a range of hammers at your disposal is recommended. Having a good arsenal keeps you ready for whatever may come. Using the right kind of hammer requires an understanding of the material that will be subject to numerous blows. When dealing with hard, blocky matrix, a heavier hammer head with a sufficient shaft is required. When splitting fissile shale, mason or brick hammers with a chisel-sided end is more appropriate. Geologic hammers with a pick end are the gold standard as they can also be used to pry. Big, dense blocks need sturdy sledge hammers, while cracking nodules or small chunks can be done using a crack hammer. Unless there is no other option, hammers used for woodworking are not recommended. A nail claw hammer, for example, is simply not made for busting rock. So unless you are oddly trying to drive nails into rocks, leave the claw hammer for work around the house. For serious rock-busting, the shaft of the hammer should be either a solid steel-forged piece, or fibreglass joined securely to its head. Metal head + wood shaft hammers are not recommended for serious hammering as the head may fly off the shaft and cause injury. Fossil collectors of yesteryear did not have access to drop-forged hammers, but had they the choice they might have opted for not using a wood shaft. To supplement the hammer and its brute force, a range of chisels with different ends is effective in better channeling and distributing force, as are pry bars. These are extensions of the hammer blow that channel its force where you want it to go. In terms of your hammer, determine the following: What kind of hammer is required for the rock and/or task at hand? Is the hammer of a comfortable weight to be wielded for an extended period of time? Remember that the hammer has to be right-sized for you. Some may be comfortable with a 10, 5 lb or 3 lb sledge. If the hammer is too heavy or too light for your needs, your results in the field may suffer.
  11. 10 likes
    I could be wrong since I'm not an expert, but from the experience I do have, I would confidently say it's some sort of otter, needs someone more experienced to be identified any further, welcome to TFF!
  12. 10 likes
    I could go also with dissipative patterns resembling Westerstetten structures. It looks chert, to me.
  13. 10 likes
    Part 3: Guarding Against Injuries There are many typical injuries associated with prolonged hammer use, as well as inappropriate uses of the hammer. Perhaps first and foremost is to wear suitable eye protection! Rock chips fly and seem to have an uncanny attraction for human eyeballs. Eye protection may also guard against any unforeseen hammer head slivering, or mitigate the damage from a flying hammer head (did you bring the claw hammer to the site?). Take frequent rest breaks. If your arm begins to feel tingly and fatigued, or you cannot maintain a suitable grip, hammering through the pain will likely result in avoidable injury to your tendons and joints. And, when the grip is weakened by fatigue, the chances increase that you will miss your target and bash your hand instead of the rock — ouch! Get in the habit of warming up and cooling down. As hammering can be an intensive activity, what is good practice in physical exercise is appropriate here as well in reducing the probability of injury. Rather than start off with some “hulk smash!” hammering, begin by applying lighter hammer blows. In the field, warm up the hammering arm by tapping/breaking smaller pieces of talus. Consider support gear to minimize joint and tendon strain such as wrist and elbow guards. For long periods of hammering, consider investing in a padded glove to reduce vibration which can otherwise cause repetitive strain injuries and nerve damage (such as “white finger” and carpal tunnel syndrome).
  14. 10 likes
    These are all real. See:
  15. 10 likes
    Consolidation of My Jurassic Park Collection that has been posted. Can also provide a good reference source Jurassic: Allosaurus Morrison Formation: Sauropods Morrison Formation Cretaceous: Cloverly Formation & Deinonychus Two Medicine Formation Judith River Formation Hell Creek/Lance Tyrannosaurs Hell Creek/Lance: Edmontosaurus Hell Creek: Pachycephalosaurid Domes Hell Creek/Lance: Ankylosaurid Hell Creek/Lance: Ornithomimids Hell Creek/Lance: Large Bodied Ceratopsian Hell Creek: Leptoceratops Hell Creek/Lance: Birds, Pterosaur & Unknown Hell Creek: Injured or Diseased Bones United States - Texas/ Other States Hell Creek: Turtle Skulls & more MicroTeeth - Texas Bones - Kem Kem & Canada Europe Morocco - Kem Kem Beds Morocco - Kem Kem Claws Uzbekistan Thailand
  16. 10 likes
    Part 6, finished Here is the finished fossil. Future efforts will include designing an appropriate stand and exploration and ID of some of the small fossils uncovered in the matrix. I hope this exercise in some small way will encourage others to undertake rewarding preparation work. The granular, sandy matrix of these Moroccan pieces is friable, easily worked. It is my believe that they make ideal projects for the novice prepper. Left mandible, lingual aspect Prognathodon sp Maastrichtian 3rd phosphate layer Oued Zen, Morocco Her name is, Lillian.
  17. 10 likes
    Below is a GSA poster presentation of Eocene marine coprolites which I donated to the NMMNH&S from a Virginia site that I collected years ago, . To date I've donated over 20,000 coprolites from this site and others. I have similar marine coprolites from the Eocene of Belgium and Morocco and from a number of Cretaceous sites in the United States. For comparison below are Oligocene terrestrial coprolites from my sons' ranch in Nebraska that I also donated to the NMMNH&S. Note the large specimens on the top and bottom middle plates turned out to be geologic and not coprolites. Some individual Oligocene terrestrial coprolites (28 mm to 50 mm long): Marco Sr.
  18. 9 likes
    And here’s how it ended, 9 months later... It takes me a while to get around to prepping my own stuff!
  19. 9 likes
    So, since I live in Munich I thought it would be a nice idea to show you our little, but great museum here in Munich I think this Museum is mostly known for the Holotyp of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus that got destroyed in WW II. This is the Museum today: Back then the Museum was at a different location in Munich. Here you see a picture of that building back then after the bombing in 1944. As you can see, the building itself didn't collapse, but basically everything inside. They even show the famous Holotyp of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus. I had the pleasure to speak today with one of the staff members about this. After the war members of the museum tried to dig up anything they could find, but unfortunately no part of the Holotyp of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus could be recovered. At lest they tried to find it, but it's lost forever. Would the Holotyp survived the war, I think this would be the highlight of the museum. But still, there are some fine pieces in the museum Bradysaurus seeleyi Plateosaurus engelhardti Prestosuchus chiniquensis Monoclonius nasicornus Triceratops indet. (they name it just Triceratops, no species) Placodus gigas Allosaurus fragilis Megaloceros giganteus Ursus spelaeus Dinomis ingens Smilodon californicus Trichechus manatus Gomphotherium angustidens Thats for the specis I got the names. And now the rest: Enjoy (some names you can find in the pictures)
  20. 9 likes
    Lastly, the paint. I tried as best i could given my colorblindness. Looks ok in my eyes. Lol I finished it off with a gloss acrylic clear coat you can purchase at any craft store. Hopefully you guys got some good hints and inspiration to try this yourself. Thanks for looking.
  21. 9 likes
    A very large Moroccan centrum is being offered for sale. Seller identifies it as a Carcharodontosaurus. In my opinion this looks more like a Sauropod with that very large pleurocoel in the lateral view. Not sure what is going on with that purplish looking material if its been added. Spinosaurus tail, caudal vertebra being offered for sale no mention of any repairs. The centrum does look like its from a Spinosaurid but the processes look composited. You can see the typical Moroccan matrix mix between those processss and centrum. Seller is advertising this as a Carcharodontosaurus toe bone. Identifying isolated toe bones to a species in the Kem Kem is very difficult not much is published that describes them. Its a nice bone buy it as an indeterminate Theropod. Lots of eggs are showing up for sale. Most are fake....this is just a reminder of that, please post interests here before you buy. I still see some dealers offering Rugops teeth for sale from the Kem Kem. Just a reminder that this species is only described from the Echkar Fm of Niger. Most of the teeth offered are Abelisaurid but are indeterminate from the Kem Kem until something is published. For fun saw this 4 figure listing, seller describes it as a petrified baby dinosaur skull with teeth, skin and brain matter coming out of the side of its mouth looks like an alien head to me.
  22. 9 likes
    Part 4: Hammer Training Exercises There are a number of exercises one can do to improve strength and range of motion. It is important to have an understanding of which muscle groups are being activated for hammering, and to tailor exercises accordingly. The following muscles are employed in hammering: shoulder, triceps, bicep, forearm, back. Shoulders: The function of the shoulder in hammering is to stabilize the arm for any more than just wrist-based hammering. Improper use of the shoulder, such as in over-reliance on the shoulder to compensate for other muscles, can result in rotator cuff and other shoulder-related injuries. Shoulder joint pain is more common as we get older. Overhead shoulder presses, and lateral shoulder raises will target the medial deltoid (the middle and largest portion of the shoulder muscle). Bench press or pushups will target the anterior deltoid, while rows or bent-over lifts will target the anterior deltoid. Triceps: These are largely “driving” muscles used to apply downward force, and when coupled with gravity can very much help crack through stubborn rock. The triceps are composed of three “heads” that form a horseshoe shape behind the biceps. Effective exercises to activate each of the heads include skullcrushers, weighted or unweighted parallel bar dips, and push-down cable extenders (keeping the elbows tight against the body, not flaring, to isolate the muscle). Biceps: the use of the “guns” is primarily to lift the hammer up. The biceps and triceps in concert help stabilize the arm to prevent it from being overextended, and thus maintaining control of the hammer. Exercises include bicep curls, rows, chin-ups. The benefit of the last two would be in enlisting the rear deltoid and upper back muscles, respectively, making these good compound movements. Forearm: As maintaining grip is important, the muscles required to do so are located largely in the forearms in terms of extensors and flexors. These help stabilize the hand and wrist, and contribute to both the strength and endurance of our grip. Grip exercises can include wrist curls and squeezing a tennis ball. Hammering should not be relying too much on your back muscles, but these are important to stabilize all the other muscle groups enlisted to to the task. Upper back muscles are even more important if using overhead two-handed sledgehammer blows. Upper back exercises can include rows and chin-ups.
  23. 9 likes
    Part 2: Holding the Hammer There are three main “stations” along the body for effective hammering, pending the kind of hammering you intend to do: from the wrist, elbow, or shoulder. Hammering from the wrist provides the most control, but the least power. In this case, the hammer may be held higher up on the shaft towards the head. Quick, controlled taps against the rock are used when the occasion does not require serious bashing. Holding higher on the shaft and delivering heavier blows is ineffective and can cause wrist and hand injuries as the kinetic force is not properly distributed. If the task demands lighter taps, use a lighter hammer so as not to have to rely on holding it higher on the shaft closest to the head. Wrist-based hammering is also effective for an angled approach in trying to extract a piece or specimen from a larger slab. Hammering from the elbow provides less control, but more power. The procedure is to lift the hammer up so that the arm is positioned at about a 45+ degree angle in relation to your body. Applying force, bring the hammer down on the object, but allow gravity to do some of the work. Hammering from the shoulder involves maximum power with a minimum of control. This is generally used for two-handed sledgehammers in busting large blocks. While the sledgehammer is in its fully recoiled position for an overhead blow, the shoulder and triceps lift the hammer to its apex, and gravity takes over in delivering the blow as the hammer is lowered. How one grips the hammer is also very important. If the grip is too loose, the hammer will fly out of one’s hands; if it is too tight (“white-knuckling”), this increases the possibility of injury due to transfer of kinetic force into the delicate bones of the hand and wrist. A good grip to maintain is a happy medium between the two. A good comparison might be the grip you use for a firm (but not crushing!) handshake. Posture is also important. Much of your power derives from the hips, and in being mostly erect in posture. As a test, compare throwing a punch while sitting down compared to standing up! If you are slumped over too long while hammering, this puts unnecessary strain on the back while reducing the power of your blows. Position. Where you are situated in relation to the rock being hammered is also important. If you are standing or seated at an oblique angle to the rock, not only will you sacrifice power and control, but also risk strain to the body that is all twisted. Of course, sometimes we don’t have much choice when what we are trying to extract is at an awkward angle. Ideally, you should be directly in front of the rock being hammered.
  24. 9 likes
    I'll put my money on half a peach pit.
  25. 9 likes
    I would glue the sections together with the thinnest cyanoacrylate you can find. Put a thin layer on both joining sides of the crack, let it soak in for a second then put the pieces together and clamp them (without damaging the face of the other crack) if possible. If you can't clamp, I have used cloth ratchet straps to hold pieces together in a pinch. Let this sit for at least a day, then repeat for the other break. Be sure you don't let glue run across the side with the specimen exposed. After this is all set up, you can reinforce the back of the slab with Apoxie Sculpt if you feel the breaks need more support.
  26. 9 likes
    I'm not an expert on sphenacodontid synapsids but my guess is that what is being sold is not as advertised. Lots of small critters running around at the time. Even the smallest species would have teeth and claws larger than those sold and you cannot assume that everything being sold is from babies, just not logical. Have you tried asking one of these sellers how they came up with the ID . Not much is published to diagnose these small teeth so their answer would be interesting Looks a lot like what you see sold in the triassic everything is labeled Coelophysis and again most are just tiny teeth not dinosaurian My suggestion if you want to purchase one is that you find a typical large one, D grandis to be sure its the real deal and not something else. Here is a publication on the bigger teeth. The scale on this chart is 10 cm https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms4269
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    This round object is from a crayfish. They have two round calcium carbonate objects in their heads. I've attached an image from the internet showing these structures in the crayfish.
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    Its Toothy Tuesday Time Tooth of the pliosaurid Liopleurodon from the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Oxford Clay of the Peterborough area in England, courtesy of Sven Sachs WOW now thats big Skull of the giant ichthyosaur Temnodontosaurus. Lower Jurassic of Bielefeld. Collection of the Natural History Museum Bielefeld, Germany. Also by S. Sachs More from Sven ..Skull of the amiid fish Calamopleurus from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. On display at the Geomatikum, University of Hamburg (Germany) Give it a few seconds for 3D image to activate From the Witmer Lab the a 3D image of the Dentary of the Nanotyrannus "Jane" https://t.co/uuM7tmCRHZ Also from the Witmer Lab dentary of Majungasaurus from Madagascar https://t.co/ElIGOIGUdI Tyrannosaur tooth climbing out of its root bound tomb, courtesy of Eric Lund Tyrannosaurus premaxillary (above) and dentary (below) tooth from the same individual. Courtesy of David Honex Walruses once lived along the coast of New Jersey! Here is the palate (roof of the mouth) of a large walrus, Odobenus rosmarus, that was dredged up off of Long Branch, NJ. You can see the sockets where the tusks once were and 3 small teeth on each side. Courtesy of NJ State Museum Tooth of a large (~4 m) dromaeosaurid from North Carolina, courtesy of Chase Brownstein. Setting up one of Hesperornis dentaries for molding. Courtesy of Carrie Herbel Also from Carrie, a skull of the Cretaceous toothed bird Hesperornis. In the lab scanning a tyrannosaurid maxilla from the Texas Mem Museum Juvenile T rex teeth from Baby Bob, hmmm definitely not Nanotyrannus Fossils are great, but it’s kind of a bummer there aren’t walking whales like Pakicetus, courtesy of Brian Switek Daspletosaurus dentary in the collections NHM London from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, collected by WE Cutler, courtesy of NHMdinoLab Also from the dinolab the Middle Jurassic theropod Duriavenator One more For all you T. rex groupies out there here’s some of the dentary teeth from the first skeleton of this species ever found now at NHM London , collected by Barnum Brown in 1900, from Wyoming, USA A Daspletosaurus from tge Two Medicine Fm of Montana, courtesy of Jack Horner
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    I found this on a guided walk through Dinosaur Provincial Park in Alberta, Canada. 22/7/18. The guide said it was one of the best that she has seen. The tip is incredible. I spotted it totally loose on the surface as i was walking along! As this is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, i handed it over to the park and it will be displayed by them either at the visitor centre or as part of the tours that they take people on. I left my details as well so that i'll still receive credit as the finder in their catalogue! Found on 7/22/2018 Tyrannosaur tooth. Gorgosaurus or Daspletosaurus. Campanian (about 75 Ma). Dinosaur Park Formation, Alberta.
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    I believe you are correct, Dale. Tadpole "nests". See this article.
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    This species of Isotelus is yet to be formally described. It has been given the provisional species name (suspended under quotation marks) as "mafritzae." There are two known types (A and B ) of I. "mafritzae" that occur exclusively in the Lindsay Formation: Type A have long, slender genal spines, while Type B have none. See: Rudkin, D.M. & Tripp, R.P. 1987 A reassessment of the Ordovician trilobite Isotelus, part II: Ontario species. Canadian Paleontology and Biostratigraphy Seminar, London, Ontario, Sept. 1987.
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    I will go for something different and choose this Eusauropoda indet sauropod tooth from Madagascar (Bothriospondylus madagascariensis) out of my collection. I don't see any of my teeth as "the best" as they are all equally as nice as each other! The reflection of the trees off the tooth is cool (second pic).
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    There are 3 recognisable types of squid hooks in this Ichthyosaurs stomach contents.... I have seen fish scales too.....
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    This weeks round of red flags Recent listings offers a number of very long Spinosaur teeth at very low prices. Most of these have fake roots and more. Avoid and post here before you buy. A member just got taken last week so please be careful. Large rooted teeth are expensive. A finger bone is offered described from a Spinosaurus. I think its a carpal but we have no scientific evidence that this morphology is from a Spinosaur. Its a very nice indeterminate Theropod carpal. This bone is listed coming from a Carcharodontosaurus. We have no idea who is the owner of this bone, no associated foot material has been published for any large Kem Kem Theropod. Best identified as indeterminate Theropod. Lots of fake Dinosaur eggs continue to be listed. Please post interest before you buy. A pair of Aublysodon Premaxillary teeth offered for sale. Reminder this is no longer considered a valid species, they are best identified as Tyrannosaurid indet. Most likely Nanotyrannus.
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    Pretty Cool Described in this paper is a new iguanodontian ornithopod, Choyrodon barsboldi from the Albian-aged Khuren Dukh Formation of Mongolia based on several partial skeletons interpreted to represent a subadult growth stage based on osteohistological features. https://peerj.com/articles/5300/ A new iguanodontian (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia Terry A. Gates, Khishigjav Tsogtbaatar, Lindsay E. Zanno, Tsogtbaatar Chinzorig, Mahito Watabe
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    This is pretty cool. There is a complete crab inside. I've collected a dozen of these nodules during a project with another museum. The prep can be difficult but the specimens are spectacular. You should be able to tell which way he is facing, and coat the bottom half of the nodule so it doensnt fall apart while prepping away the top half.
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    It has been about 20 years since I last drew anything. Back in my teens, I had designs on being a professional illustrator and even had some modest commission work. But then I left it all aside to pursue academia and writing. Today I decided to see if I still remembered how to draw, and decided on testing that out with a quick 15 minute sketch using a 9B pencil. So it's a bit rough and sloppy... It's like having to relearn how to cursive write after decades of typing. Pencil strokes are not as controlled or elegant as they once were, but at least I seemed to have got it approximately correct, including the foreshortening of the right eye.
  38. 8 likes
    I just have to brag about @Ptychodus04 a bit more. This man is a master at preparing fossil fish. Someday I hope to be a fraction as good as he is. Here's what he ended up with on the Priscacara I sent him. This was not an easy prep. The right side was completely covered with matrix and the left side exposed. He glued the pieces back together and started prepping on the right side top down. Excellent job Kris. Here's what he sent me.
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    David Evans and crew from the ROM have been collecting in the Hell Creek of Montana instead of their usual Judith River localities. They have not reported finding much but today's Twitter feed David posted these pictures and commented "We found dinosaur eggshell today! It’s a rarity for the Hell Creek Formation. Thanks to Wendy Sloboda for her expert help finding it.". Have never been lucky enough to find any and like David indicated they are pretty rare in the HC. @-Andy- @HamptonsDoc @CBchiefski hazard a guess what type they are?
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    That is definitely an insect!!!
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    Staff versions : 1. Please provide clearer pictures, location information, and something to indicate scale 2. We do not provide appraisals of fossils 3. 3.95 mb limit per post 4. Suggestively shaped rock
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    Although far from toothy saw this from the Tyrrell and it was cool which trumps toothy "This block of sandstone contains a mass-death assemblage of 25 fossil gars. This group is unusual because each individual is preserved fully articulated in a three-dimensional belly-up death pose, indicating rapid burial after death." From Florida Museum, Smilodon (saber-tooth cat) fossils are found all around the Americas, and Smilodon fatalis is just one of the species found in Florida. This specimen was collected not far from here in the Ichetucknee River in 1957 The impressive Lower Cretaceous ceratosaur Genyodectes, one of the first large theropods discovered in Gondwana museodelaplata and first described by AS Woodward of NHM London in 1901, courtesy of the NHMdinolab The tooth-whorl of Helicoprion from Scott Persons I'll conclude these posts with this iconic photo from the AMNH, Carcharodon megalodon and an amazing 1909 image of an early reconstruction of its jaw
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    I know you did not really mean your comment this way, but no-one should go looking for fossils with the intent of winning FOTM. Everyone who enters is a winner, as they have found a fossil they think is special, and they will get to keep that fossil forever. The FOTM contest is a fun way of showing off your best finds, and everybody gets to enjoy a museum cabinet full of great finds every month. Don
  44. 8 likes
    Some awesome stuff this month! Here's my entry: Collected on the 17th of July 2018 Cowralepis mclachlani (a phyllolepid placoderm) Middle Devonian Merriganowry Shale Member West of Cowra, NSW Australia
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    Actually, it looks more like Taenidium serpentinum, rather than Nereites imbricata. Compare:
  46. 8 likes
    I've been doing a lot of contract prep work for a particular collector for quite a while. He recently picked up some raw material bargains from an old collection and brought some of them by last week for me to clean up for him. When he came to pick them up today, he decided to gift me one of them, which just made my day, since it's an excellent specimen of a species which is hard to find these days in this size and condition. It's a Procerites hodsoni with a diameter of 34cm. which was found in the Bathonian layers at a construction site in Blumberg a few decades ago.
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    Crossopholis magnicaudatus figures from: Grande, L. 2013 The lost world of Fossil Lake: Snapshots from deep time. University of Chicago Press, 425 pp.
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    Baryonyx crown tooth. Found in Wealden Bone Bed. Undulations are clearly visible in pics. The specimen is broad, yet slender (laterally compressed), it also exhibits vertical ridges. These are all characteristics of Baryonychid (spinosaurid) dinosaurs.
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    I also found this one: Would be rather big but the stone was so hard that it was very difficult to dig it out. A friendly collector helped out but nevertheless I have a puzzle now Another common find are ammonites. Here is a 6 cm long specimen: All in all I have to say that I except a worse result but I think it wasnt too bad at all although I didnt found a huge fish or a nice crab. I learned many new things and I had much fun , which is probably more important when you visit a location for the first time ! Hope you enjoy reading this little report
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