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Showing most informative content since 03/25/2018 in all areas

  1. 24 likes
    Looks like we have a number of new members who are interested in Dinosaur teeth so I thought this topic might be good for them and serves as a reminder for more experienced collectors. Let me start off the discussion by saying that identifying isolated dinosaur teeth is a challenge even for more experience collectors, so its not a trivial task. There is no one cookbook that has all the answers, just a number of technical papers and articles that provide some information on different localities or species. Many of teeth that are sold online carry identifications that dealers have historically ascribed to them but in too many cases these names are not accurate or are out of date. This is very common not only from Morocco but also North America, Europe and Asia. New discoveries can change the playing field very quickly and sellers may not be not quick to keep abreast of these changes. So let me recommend the following 1) Purchase/Trade for quality teeth, the better the preservation the higher chance you have in getting an accurate ID. Teeth missing a significant portion of serrations on one or both edges, or very worn herbivore teeth can be very difficult to properly diagnose. Avoid buying: worn, cheap or incomplete teeth, save your money on better Q ones, exception being extremely rare teeth. 2) Do not trust any identification you see on a tooth. I don't care if its from a trusted dealer, a dealer you've done business with before, a friend, a member of this forum or any auction site. You need to be the expert. 3) Educated yourself as much as possible, read papers, books or informational topics on this forum. Ask questions and post your interest here on the forum B4 you buy or trade. 4) Photos: Other than the obvious ID's you cannot look at the front and back of a theropod tooth to determine what it is, especially Triassic and Jurassic material. At a minimum photos needed are from both sides, base and closeup of the serrations. If a someone is not interested in providing you these photos, move on and purchase/trade from someone else. 5) Additional characteristics may be required and that will be dependent on what you are buying. These include serration density at the midline of both carinae, width and length of the base and how far the mesial carina extends to the base. Again if someone is not willing to provide you this information just move on. 6) Provenance is very important in trying to get an accurate ID. Teeth from North American require the following information at a minimum: Geologic Formation, State/Province, and in the US needs to include County. The county provides you a check and balance to verify that the formation provided is good. Locality information that only includes a state or province like Alberta or Montana is not adequate to identify teeth. Getting complete information from other Geographic locations can be problematic so try to obtain as much as possible. 7) Avoid restored teeth unless it minimal or done on super rare teeth. Repairs are acceptable that includes crack fill or reattachment of broken teeth.. 8) More often that not you will not be able to identify down to a species name so its acceptable to have your tooth identified to a genus or family name. examples include: Tyrannosaurid indeterminate or Daspletosaurus sp. . Be patient someday your tooth may be fully described. Here are a couple of illustrations to help understand tooth terminology if asked to provide information. From " A proposed terminology of theropod teeth (Dinosauria, Saurischia) by Hendrickx, Mateus et al (2015) "
  2. 17 likes
    Hi all, there are many dinosaur eggs being sold online now, especially on our favorite auction site. One of the most prominent egg dealers there is known for selling composite or fake eggs, mixed in with real eggs. We have TFF members who've fallen victim to him already. This hadrosaur egg here is a composite of real eggshells stuck onto what seems like mud/matrix, then molded into the shape of a real egg. This is what a true hadrosaur egg looks like: As you can see, there's no matrix between the eggshells. You can see lines running throughout the egg, and most importantly, the eggshells look as though they can be pried out. Dino eggs are one of the most desirable fossil in the market, but also among the most commonly faked one. Take your time, and do proper research. If unsure, post here in TFF, and we will do our best to help you identify it. Good luck. @HamptonsDoc
  3. 13 likes
    Let's talk a little about Brazil For some years now I would like to talk a little about Brazil here at TFF, and I think the best opportunity has finally come! In fact, Brazil has not only banned exports, but also banned the commercialization of fossils even within the country, and Brazilians can not collect fossils from their own country, as they can take many years in prison! And with so much banning, even world-renowned Paleontologists (I'm a big fan of this great scientist) pterosaurs experts wrongfully get arrested by mistake: http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/ciencia/2013/12/1389270-paleontologo-brasileiro-que-foi-preso-processa-governo-em-r-1-milhao.shtml And currently a new law is being created in Brazil to make it even more criminal (with more years in prison), to have Brazilian fossils in a collection, to sell or to buy! Meanwhile, trillions of tons per year of Mesosaurus tenuidens fossils are being crushed and turned into dust by Petrobrás, in Irati, Paraná, Brazil, for the exploration of oil, gas and sulfur. The Brazilian government knows that in this process trillions of tons per year of Mesosaurus tenuidens fossils are being destroyed, but even so it grants authorization! The Santana Formation is located in the state of Ceará, Brazil. It is extremely rich in pterosaurs, dinosaurs, crocodiles, fish, insects and other fossils, mainly due to the clear condition of excellent conservation. An amazing beauty! But the State of Ceará is also the poorest in the whole of Brazil, even in many regions there is not even water to drink, many months without rain and also there is nothing to eat, being a population that in these regions lives in the most complete misery; On one side, a miserable population, without food and without water, literally living on an incalculable fortune of dinosaurs, pterosaurs, fish and many other fossils that are common in that region, that is, they do not represent any novelty for science, and often to have something to eat, some even challenge hard laws to sell a small fish fossilized at US $00,25! And meanwhile, on the other side of the rope, the Federal Police of Brazil seize fossils, and arrest people on charges of: Crime of usurpation of Union good and crime of qualified reception! And meanwhile, tons of fossils that are not unpublished, but rather common and old acquaintances of science are accumulating in the holds of the Brazilian Federal Police... And meanwhile, in Brazil, sensationalist newspaper articles publish the following: "Fossils of great scientific value seized in operation of the Federal Police..."! But as incredible as it may seem, the Brazilian government authorizes the commercial exploitation of rocks from the Santana Formation to make slabs of pavements and wall coverings, where the fossils will simply spray and disappear with the passage of time between rains and sun strong; And if you are a Brazilian, you can have your fish fossilized or any other beautiful fossil spoiling with the action of the time on the floor of your house or lining the walls and walls, after all, you bought the lage, paid for it and have invoice , but if you decide to cut the rock and fondly keep this fossil inside your house to protect it, you'll be arrest in the act! In this process, mountains of fossils are destroyed... In the cities of Assistência, Ipeúna and Piracicaba, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, the fossil of the aquatic reptile Stereosternum Tumidum Cope is very abundant: But in these quarries, billions of tons of Stereosternum Tumidum Cope fossils are exploded and milled a year to be transformed into lime, used in agriculture and cement for civil construction. And all this with authorization from the Brazilian government! And if you visit one of these quarries and try to save from destruction one of these Stereosternum Tumidum Cope skeletons, you'll be arrest by the federal police in the act! I'm forgetting something to close this post with the golden key? Oh yeah! One of the most beautiful dinosaur footprint in the world is in the city of Araraquara, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil! But the footprints are dynamited and explored to make lages for the pavement of the City and that region! And now where are these footprints that have been saved from the dynamite? On the sidewalks of the whole city and the whole region, where people step on and the action of hot sun and rain, and the very friction of people trampling over, gradually destroys what time has taken millions of years to conserve! And before I forget, the "Museum in the open" was created, the only museum in the world that you can see the footprints and jump out and trampling on them the way you want! But if you want to get one of these footprints in the quarry and take it home and keep it with affection, you go to jail in flagrante by the Federal Police of Brazil! You are only allowed to put on the sidewalk of your house and destroy the footprints trampling over them with your own feet or with the tires of your car! Unfortunately unlike many first world countries, in Brazil the people are prevented from working honestly of what the earth gives! And if you want to work you can be arrested by the police. These harsh laws about the "fossiliferous heritage" do not favor the people, who, even in a miserable state, tread and live on top of the riches they can not reach... The sale of common fossils, already known by science, could bring billions of dollars a year to the Brazilian people. Paleontologists could be hired to inspect what could leave Brazil and unpublished materials that should remain... And the current harsh laws are also not at all favorable to Brazilian Paleontology, since the Brazilian Federal Police does not have the resources to watch over the Santana Formation, which is so huge that it borders on three Brazilian states: Ceará, Piauí and Pernambuco . And with the harsh current laws, only the stone flake remain for Brazilian paleontologists, while the complete fossils of scientific interest go to private collections around the world. Like this rare skull of Pterosaur Ludodactylus sibbicki that was auctioned in Paris: I could give hundreds more examples, but I will limit myself to just giving this example of the rarest pterosaur Anhanguera santanae that was sold on our favorite auction site for 200 Thousand Dollars! And in the midst of this crossfire, as I mentioned earlier, even internationally renowned paleontologists are arrested by mistake... People can not buy, people can not sell, otherwise they can be arrested for several years by the Federal Police. Paleontologists do not have the money to carry out scientific expeditions within their own country ... The harsh laws are not protecting the fossils, they are not protecting their people and they are not protecting the Brazilian Paleontology either. I wonder who this is benefiting... If you did not know the reality of the Brazilian Warrior People and their spectacular fossils, I hope this post was informative!
  4. 13 likes
    Of course, the number of regularly active members is considerably lower (340 Users were Online in the Last 24 Hours), but the trend is growth at all levels of activity. The bigger our archive of information, the more people find us by key word. Once they experience our little island of passionate civility, some stay on after their original quest is met, and many become friends. This is the House that Members Built.
  5. 12 likes
    I'm have to agree with ynot and Yvie. Personally, I'm getting tired of hearing about 'preserving the fossils for posterity and scientific study'. Museums and universities do NOT have the staffs or the funds to explore every fossil exposure, so there are untold numbers of scientifically significant (and scientifically insignificant) fossils that are reduced to powder by the elements every day. What is more useful...a fossil in a private collection or one that will never be seen nor studied because of the whims of nature? Heck...back in the days of the infamous Cope/Marsh bone wars, 'professional' paleontologists actually destroyed dinosaur bones so that their competitors wouldn't be able to excavate them...and I can't even begin to count all of the 'exploded' turtles and mammal remains I encountered back in the days when I wandered the White River badlands. Those fossils never made it to a museum or university either...and, to be honest, I can't recall a time when I ran into a 'professional' paleontologist out in the field. -Joe
  6. 12 likes
    The preservation is consistent with other Silurian algae, something similar to Buthotrephis or Inocaulis. Here is an excellent paper: LoDuca, S.T., Bykova, N., Wu, M., Xiao, S., & Zhao, Y. (2017) Seaweed morphology and ecology during the great animal diversification events of the early Paleozoic: A tale of two floras. Geobiology, 15:588-616 PDF LINK
  7. 12 likes
    from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Trilobita Part O 1959: MACULAE Maculae are absent in the hypostomata of many trilobites, whereas in others they consist of a pair of smooth rounded or elongate protuberances visible on the lateral or posterolateral areas of the median body (Fig. 68 ). In a few species the outer surface of the maculae is reticulate or bears closely set, regularly arranged tubercles resembling the lenses of the dorsal eyes. Usually only a small portion of the macular surface is reticulate or faceted, the remainder being smooth. Usually only a small portion of the macular surface is reticulate or faceted, the remainder being smooth. The significance of the maculae and of their reticulate or faceted surface, is still a matter of subjective interpretation. LINDSTRÖM (1901), HANSTRØM (1926), and HUPÉ (1953) regard the maculae as true ventral eyes, whereas other paleontologists such as RAYMOND (1920), STØRMER (1949), and WHITTINGTON & EVITT (1953) prefer to regard them as places of muscle attachment. The probability that the maculae represent places of muscle attachment seems rather small. This is indicated by several features: (1) the mineralized integument of the maculae is much thinner than that of the remainder of the hypostoma, as pointed out by LINDSTRÖM and amply verified by WHITTINGTON & EVITT (1953) on silicified material: (2) the places of muscle attachment in the cephala of trilobites lacking apodemes invariably have a smooth surface, differing markedly in this respect from maculae with a reticulate or faceted surface; and (3) in some species of trilobites having the hypostoma firmly welded to the rostral plate (as Holmia kjerulfi, Redlichia noetlingi, Paradoxides davidis, Fieldaspis furcata) smooth maculae are well developed. In the last-named trilobites it is evident that, if the maculae represent places of muscle attachment, the muscles would function as for movements of the hypostoma alone. They may have been expansor muscles of the stomach, attached to the ventral wall of the subglabellar proventriculum, but it seems strange that such powerful muscles (judging by the size of the maculae) should have been needed to produce slight expansion of the soft-tissued stomach. The available evidence seems to favor the view that the maculae had a visual function. This is especially true for the reticulate and faceted maculae present in such genera as Scutellum, Lichas, and Illaenus. The smooth maculae seem best regarded as "degenerate" ventral eyes that have lost their lenses. Sections normal to the surface of the maculae show that in those of "reticulate" type the macula consists of numerous prismatic bodies very similar to the prismatic lenses of the dorsal holochroal eyes. According to LINDSTRÖM this is true of the maculae observed in several asaphids and in some species of Illaenus. The "faceted" maculae show an aggregate of "globular" lenses resembling biconvex lenses of the dorsal eyes. These are especially well developed in some species of Scutellum and Lichas (Fig. 68B-F). The presence of ventral eyes in some trilobites would certainly not constitute a unique feature among the Arthropoda, as similar organs are known among the Chelicerata and Myriapoda (HANSTRØM, 1926).
  8. 12 likes
    I haven't been on the forum much over the last several years but I thought I'd share an article about a specimen I discovered in Montana in 2016; our KU Juvenile Tyrannosaurid. I was also hired as an assistant preparator at the KU Natural History Museum and I have been working on the specimen for several months. There is more material to the specimen than is shown in the video but we hope to share more as we move forward on our publication. https://www.history.com/news/tyrannosaurs-rex-montana-paleontology-discovery We are very proud of our KU fossil and it will hopefully answer several of the questions surrounding the Nannotyrannus debate -Kris Super
  9. 12 likes
    Not Cruziana. I would say it is more like Taenidium serpentinum, or something similar.
  10. 11 likes
    They failed to mention that most of the new discoveries would not have happened if the private quarries were not digging them up. Or the millions of fish that are found and sold to finance the whole industry, and what this does to further paleontology.
  11. 11 likes
  12. 11 likes
    Seilacher had an interesting alternative suggestion: Seilacher, A., & Gishlick, A.D. (2015) Morphodynamics. CRC Press, 514 pp. HEARING? Maculae are hill-like elevations that resemble the eye hills by having a gentle slope on the rear side and a steep face in front. Seen from below, the two maculae look like the streamlined headlights of a sports car. As these structures caused extra costs in molting, they must have had an important function. A clue is the front of a macula. In contrast to a visual surface, it is slightly concave, like a satellite TV antenna, and is perforated by many pores, through which some kind of sensory cells reached the surface of the exoskeleton. Being fixed at a given distance (at least during molting stage), these organs allowed the trilobite to locate the source of signals within the sediment, whether the smell of buried food or the vibrations caused by the burrowing activities of a neighbor. In any case, the maculae allowed the trilobite to stereoscopically “see” its environment within the sediment. It would be interesting to know what other infaunal creatures developed this sensory ability. Trilobites belonging to different clades had maculae. At the time when these creatures were thought to have swum belly-up (as the larvae of Triops and Limulus do), maculae were considered as a ventral visual organ (ocelli). An extensive study by Gustaf Lindström showed that the morphological details, however, did not fit this interpretation as maculae had no functional lenses. He therefore considered them as rudimentary organs that had a visual function earlier in ontogeny. Alternative functions should be considered, based on the assumption that most adult trilobites had a benthic lifestyle in which the hypostome faced or even touched the sediment. In general, maculae share the following features: 1. They are round in outline. 2. They are flat or slightly concave, rather than convex, even if placed on elevations. 3. They are smooth, with terrace lines contouring them like frames. 4. They correspond to depressions on the inside of the hypostome, making them considerably thinner than surrounding parts of the mineralized cuticle. These features are characteristic of drums that may have different functions in different animals. In the ears of vertebrates and insects, drums function as receptors for sounds that are taken up and analyzed inside by sensory cells. Elaborate transfer mechanisms enhance this process. Paired and widely distanced arrangement of the ears (with a stiff, but non-conducting connection of the receptors) enables stereoscopic hearing and thereby recognition of the direction from which the sound is coming. All these functions make use of the ability of a membrane to vibrate; but only the last model appears feasible for trilobite maculae. The ear hypothesis is supported by the behavior of the maculae when they become elevated above (or rather below) the surface of the hypostome. As in the eye hills on top of the cephalon, the receptor is tilted in the direction of the most relevant signals. In the maculae this is frontward rather than sideways. As a more important difference to the eyes, however, the sensory surface is not convex, but remains flat. A strong argument for a sensory function of the maculae is that they are tilted in a forward direction in many species (arrows). The same is true for drum structures on the dorsal side of the fixed cheeks (lunettes). They are placed between eyes and midline and tilted into a horizontal position. An important argument against the ear hypothesis is that in trilobites this drum was mineralized. As their whole carapace derives from a horny cuticle, why would it be made stiff at a place where protection was no issue? We have no answer to this and can only mention that the microstructure of the maculae differs from the surrounding carapace. This is expressed by the commonly whitish color and could mean that the ability to vibrate was increased by this structure. Because of their ability to vibrate, drums can produce sounds as well as receive them. But why should they be placed on the ventral side of the body? Here we must remember that sound may actually spread better and faster within the sediment, than in open water. On land, some snakes use this phenomenon by listening through the soil. Why shouldn’t trilobites have done the same for early warning, as well as for communication?
  13. 11 likes
    Well I was very happy that I was able to set it right. I know how I would have felt it that happened to me.
  14. 10 likes
    Location: Morocco Kem Kem Beds To often Crocodile jaws are composited with Spinosaurid teeth and sold as Spinosaurus jaws. So the purpose of this topic is to show the diagnostic features of Spinosaurid jaws First its extremely rare that any jaw from this region contains functional teeth. Germ/unerupted teeth are more common but those are typically well into the tooth cavity and not protuding above the jaw line. So its highly probable that those you see sold with teeth are composited. We currently do not know if there is a variation between the jaws of the different Spinosaurids described or yet to be discovered in this region so there could be some difference between them but the general characteristics should be similar. Here is a composite skull in private hands and paleontologist Cristophe Hendrickx drawing of that skull Dentary: This is Stromers original plate. 1) You can see the variation in the lateral (side) view of jaw. A very wide anterior end and more V shaped toward the hinge. So jaw sections that you see sold which are straight across are probably crocodile. 2) The teeth are also not positioned in a straight line, and not always next to one another. 3) The most telling feature is the lip on the labial side. It should be present across the entire length of the jaw 4) Broken dentary jaw sections being sold should wide not narrow like croc's Closeup of Lip Close up of germ/unerupted teeth Premaxillary/Maxillary Much more robust than dentary however the lip feature is still present but on the lingual side. Very wide in lateral view. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0144695 dal Sasso, C.; Maganuco, S.; Buffetaut, E.; Mendez, M.A. (2005). New information on the skull of the enigmatic theropod Spinosaurus with remarks on its sizes and affinities. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (4): 888–896. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0888:NIOTSO]2.0.CO;2 Maxilla for sale with composite teeth
  15. 10 likes
    After the MAPS fossil show a few weeks ago, I had an hour to play around in a little rock in the Coralville, Ia area before departing for home. A piece of what I think was a cephalopod caught my eye and I tossed it into my bucket as I continued to scrutinize the shelf of Devonian rock in front of me. A few very nice coral pieces were added to my bucket before hitting the road. I didn't pay too much attention to my finds until yesterday. But as I was getting to put the cephalopod piece into the "fossils for kids" pile, I noticed something on it's surface. Such beauty bestowed to a junk piece of cephalopod! One must take the time to look closely or he/she often misses the diamond in the rough. Enjoy this simple fossil grouping.
  16. 10 likes
    Welcome to the Forum, Charlotte. First, to your questions: 1. "How rare is it to find fossilized embryo?" - Extremely rare. The process of fossilization does not generally preserve soft tissue details except under very exceptional cases. 2. "And or how rare is it to find fossils fossilized in rock.With their tissue, like skin, bone , eyes? " - Also extremely rare, with the exception of bone (and some skin textures), which is fairly common to find as fossil remains of vertebrate animals. 3. "Please help me to know who to talk to. And or call." - A local museum that specializes in natural history is one venue, as would be a local paleontology department at a university. Keep in mind that these are busy people, and it can take some time for them to respond. You could also join a local rock and fossil club in your area. The unfortunate news is that what you have pictured here does not appear to be a fossil, so not an embryo, not a dinosaur with soft-tissue preservation, and not a sabre-tooth cat (and it should be noted that dinosaurs and big cats were not contemporaries). I think what you have here is geologic in origin, not biologic. There may be fossils in this rock, but we'd need better pictures, and it is unlikely they are dinosaur fossils. There are a number of members here from Texas who can provide you with more information about fossils and fossil-collecting sites in your area, and who may see this thread. You may wish to say more about where you are finding these items (perhaps at least down to the county level). Providing location information, and clear pictures in good lighting from a few angles, assists our experts here to identify what you have found.
  17. 10 likes
    This looks like calcite boxwork, where the softer minerals between criss-crossing calcite veins has eroded away
  18. 10 likes
    We also had a holiday on Sunday, so, things are a bit behind. " Good things come to those who wait. "
  19. 9 likes
    Welcome to the forum. First we need to know where its from, locality and formation. Looks like Lance Fm . If its the Hell Creek or Lance Formation then what I see is a Edmontosaurus tooth (maybe 2) and possibly tendon from one. The tooth looks Ceratopsian but there is no way to positively say its a Triceratops horridus. There are multiple Ceratopsian in these formations and the teeth all look the same. Hard to much else with the dim photos.
  20. 9 likes
    These are proximal phalanges, Jack. The off-set to accommodate the retractable claw is on the medial phalanx.
  21. 9 likes
    Fossil Anoxypristis mucrodens rostral tooth (22 mm) from the Eocene of Virginia for comparison to the extant Anoxypristis teeth Pictures of the skin Dorsal view: Ventral view: My first impressions of the patterns above were possibly placoid scales on the dorsal side and prismatic cartilage on the ventral side. However as shown in the above pictures the rostrum has a covering of skin and the cartilage is white so I don’t think the pattern on the ventral side is prismatic cartilage. Also the structures on the dorsal side don’t really match normal placoid scales. So I think the pattern may be in the dried skin itself. I’ve sent an e-mail to a researcher who I hope can explain the pattern and structures. Marco Sr.
  22. 9 likes
    I want to own it up front that this trip report is not one of my shining moments. In fact I’m a bit embarrassed to admit the situation that I got myself into on the trip back to my car. It was a first time experience for me. But it makes for a good story if nothing else. Spring is in full swing in Texas and Summer is quickly approaching. On my drive last Saturday I took some pictures of the scenery and flowers. One of the many green feilds seen this time of year, with an old barn near Wolfe City, Texas. I don’t think we have wolve in Texas, at least not these parts that I know of. So maybe the name came from someone with the name. The wisteria are in full bloom. Grape hyacinths along the roadside by a bridge where I was checking for creek access. A mixture of redbud trees with some other plant I don’t know. Saturday was a beautiful day for fossil hunting although a bit on the warm side, in the mid 80s. I headed out to the NSR, but chose to take a different route this time that took me through Wolfe City, Texas. It is a small rural town that probably had its hayday during the industrial revolution and World War II. Most of the downtown square area looks like 1920 to 1940s buildings. Many of the homes have a Victorian era look. Most of the downtown buildings are boarded up and no longer in use. The local factory is closed. Despite it being past it’s hayday the town and homes are pretty well maintained. I kind of have a thing for cool entry ways, doors and windows. I like architecture and especially that of older buildings. I made a pit stop at a gas station in Wolfe City. Next to the gas station was this old building. I like the shape, architecture and the style of door. I continued to the NSR. Normally I park my car near the bridge and enter the river near there, but this time I wanted to reach a different part of the river. I checked out the entrance from a creek on the east side of the river, but didn’t see anything I thought I could manage. I opted to drive down a narrow, little used dirt road that cuts through the Caddo National Grasslands. I drove in till it hit private property, parked my car, got my gear and started across the field. The first thing I noticed was a nasty invasive species of plant growing in the field. It looks harmless enough, but it can take over a whole habitat and strangle everything else out. I can’t remember the name of it at the moment. I headed across the field and noticed these little burrows all over the field. I’d seen them on lakes, beaches and river banks, but not so high above water. I was still about 1/4 of a mile away and 30 feet above the river. I never saw the inhabitants, but was sure it was a crustacean of some sort. Then I came across the remains of a crayfish looking critter. I think this may be a coon’s favorite dining “take out” spot. I crossed the field to the forest. Little yellow flowers of wild strawberry plants blanketed this section of the forest floor. There is one along the small log in the background of this pic of wild garlic that is common in the area. Wild garlic can be quite helpful in the woods. This part of the forest was very nice and open with small herbaceous plants covering much of the forest floor. Here is a little anemone flower. I also saw wild violets. Many of the trees have lichen growing on them. The yellow one is often called golden lichen. The pale green one is another lichen. Both are considered edible, but usually only in desperate situations. They’re not very palutable and must be boiled with several replacements of the water so as to not get a tummy ache. Baking soda or acid needs to be added to help make it edible and more digestible. I walked through taking note of landmark trees and land features so at to remember my way back to my car as I made my way to the river’s edge. At the river the underbrush thickened and there were more cedars growing. There was a vertical 30 foot drop to the riverbed as is the case along most of the river. I walked north along the river through the thick forest and underbrush looking for an entry point. I finally came to an area that had been cleared and leveled down a bit, but there was still about a 15 foot drop. Someone had tied a rope to a tree. I put a couple knots in the rope to hang on better and not slide or get rope burn. I knew when I went down that I wouldn’t be able to pull myself and my pack back up. My hunting of the NSR is pretty different from most others. My goal is usually to find invertebrates. Not very exciting I know. I am particularly interested in baculites and ammonites. Ammonites abound in Texas, but the NSR is the only area I know of in Texas with baculites. I’d really like to go hunting with someone who is good at finding vertebrate stuff at least once so I can see the place and stuff in the river through their eyes. I’m sure I pass up vertebrate stuff because I don’t know how to spot it. I find a lot of other invertebrate stuff like Inoceramus clams, Durania rudist fragments, gastropods, other pelecypods and petrified wood. Not the kind of stuff many go to the NSR for. After entering the river I walked around looking at the area before heading to the area of interest. I found what appeared to be a possible bone concretion embedded vertically in the river bed. I extracted about 8 inches. I didn’t really want to waste my time getting more when I wasn’t sure what it was and I knew better stuff lay ahead of me. I left my sledge hammer because it is pretty heavy to be packing around, but that would have made all the extractions much easier. I came to an area where a significant extraction had recently taken place in the river bank. There was a gaping hole in the bank about 5 feet long by 3 feet wide and about 2.5 feet deep. Whatever they found was pretty good size. I can’t imagine how they hauled it out. Ten to 15 feet away was another extraction site. This was only about 2.5 x 2 feet and maybe a foot deep. The imprint left looked a little like an ammonite, but not exactly. I scanned the bank for whatever scraps might be left. Nothing great, but a few half decent baculite fragments and a couple partial ammonites including 4 partial Glyptoxoceras heteromorph cephalopods. I found a tiny spiraled shell with beautiful detail. I sat on the bank to extract extract what I found. It was in the high 80s and pretty hot as the afternoon sun beat down upon me. I took off my rubber boots and worked barefoot to keep cool. My boots were too hot for comfort. I had put on sunscreen and was wearing a tank top, but I was still hot. After a few hours I was looking a bit pink. I wasn’t sure if it was the heat or the sun. I’m green eyed, blond and pretty fair. I’m a mixture of Viking (yes, I said Viking, genetically proven and genealogically confirmed), English and Native American. I’m not sure how I got to be blond with how my parents look though. My dad has/had dark brown hair and eyes with olive skin. My mother had dark brown hair, green eyes and looked Native American. My bothers were a mix of my parents dark features. My one brother looks Hispanic and the other Italian. I’m the white sheep of the family, but I digress. I rarely burn, but put on a long sleeve shirt I brought with me to protect my skin. I didn’t see or hear another soul in the river or otherwise the whole afternoon. I guess I was the only one crazy enough to be out that far on such a hot day. I scanned the riverbed nearby. A few feet away, under water was a red Pachydiscus paulsoni embedded in the shale of the riverbed. Walking back to get my tools I saw a baculite with about 8 inches exposed, under water. It was also embedded in the shale of the riverbed about 2.5 feet from the paulsoni. The water was slow moving here and the shale was coated with a layer of silt and algae. The paulsoni was almost completely exposed and was easily extracted in a couple minutes. Almost directly above where the baculite was the upper bank was seriously eroded with a big tree just hanging over the edge, perched for a sudden decent upon avalanche. It kind of made me a bit nervous. I began to chip away the shale around the baculite with my rock hammer and a chisel. It was slow going. The water wasn’t moving the debris I stirred up. I had to repeatedly wait for the water to clear before continuing. The shale was only breaking up in small pieces. I decided to try chipping further away from the baculite. This time the shale came up in a large chunk. When I pulled the chunk out I suddenly realized it wasn’t just shale, it was a fossil! I got so excited by what I saw that I let out a little squeal of excitement and delight. I completely forgot about the baculite for a few minutes. It was an ammonite fragment, but no ordinary ammonite fragment. In 30 years of hunting ammonites I had never seen one with such a surface texture and detail. It was totally new and uniques to me. I had never even seen anything like it in a book or museum. It had the form and common ribs of a Menabites, but the whole surface was covered with small dots or circles. It was a polka dotted ammonite! I went back to the water to find more pieces of it, but whatever else was there was shattered when I was attempting to extract the baculite. These are pics of the fragment I pulled out. This is the imprint in the river wher I pulled it up from. The side of the ammonite facing the surface appeared to have been exposed and eroded away in the river so that it appeared as riverbed shale. I had no idea it was there until I pryed it up. The imprint left in the riverbed was only about 40% of the whole and it was about 16 inches wide. So the whole could have easily been 18-20 inches or more. I can only imagine how stunningly beautiful the creature must have been when living. At this point it was about 6:00 PM and I was running out of drinking water. I decided I better make my way back to my car. It was maybe a 20-30 min walk along the river back to where I entered. It had only taken me about 20 minutes to walk from my car to the point I had entered the river. Sunset was about 8:00. So I had plenty of time, but it was still hot and I would run out of drinking water before I got back to my car. Note to self: “carry more fluid with you!” I made it half way back down the river and ran out of water. I sat down on a rock in the middle of the river to rest a bit. My pack was pretty heavy. The water was flowing fast here babbling over rocks and shale. The water was clear and cool. I took my boots off again and cooled my feet and hands one last time in the river. I splashed water over my neck, back and chest and then filled my bottle with river water. I thought I could use it to poor over myself to keep cool on the hike back. I made my way back down the river to a creek near where I had entered hoping to find a point where I could climb the bank out of the river. Throughout the day I had heard small pebbles and rocks clattering down from the vertical walls along the river, occasionally the sound echoed off the canyon like river walls. The sound seemed lonely and foreboding as if the banks were taunting me with threats of avalanches. I hadn’t seen or heard a full on avalanche that day. Although, there was evidence of numerous recently deposited piles of rock, dirt and even the occasional tree all along the banks. I had never been to this area of the river. I turned down the unfamiliar creek. The creek entrance was about 25 feet wide. The 30 foot banks towered over me as I entered the narrow passage. It felt a bit intimidating. I shook off the feeling and pushed further into the creek. Both banks looked avalanche prone. Loosely packed rock and dirt clung to the banks. If an avalanche occurred I could only run ahead or back to try to escape it. At least the river was wide enough to give the banks a wide berth. Ahead I saw the creek open up a bit with the banks receding and begin to slope back, no longer vertical on both sides. I had gone about 75-100 yards up the creek when I heard an avelanch begin about 20-25 feet behind me to my left. I did stop to look and see how big it was. I tried to run away from it up the creek, but the creekbed was covered in a mixture of silt, sand, mud and gravel that made it soft slippery and difficult to get traction on. I narrowly missed being covered or crushed by the avalanche, feeling only a few pebbles hit the back of my calves. I was suddenly engulfed in a cloud of dirt and dust. I coughed as I emerged from the dissipating cloud. I was a little spooked by the near miss. I tried to walk on quickly, but the soft creek bed made for slow going. Up ahead I saw the bank diminish in height to about 5 feet vertical and then the upper part sloped away from the creek rather than the vertical banks I’d just passed. Ahead of me 50 yards was the sight of another avalanche that was quite unique in its own right. Five small whole trees, with roots and soil in tact sat in the middle of the creek upright, almost as if it had grown there. I took off my pack and hoisted it on the South bank and then climbed up on the edge of the bank. It was with some difficulty that I managed to get my pack back on without losing my footing on the bank. It was still very steep, but it had a few small trees I grabbed onto to keep from slipping back down. I slowly climbed to the top. I was relieved to be able to get out of the river and attain the level surface on top. I had entered the river from the West. I exited the river from the North. Also,I believed I was now on the private property that had no trespassing signs. I wanted to respect the no trespassing signs. There was a small fishing or hunting camp set up on the edge of the bank maybe 150 yards to the East of where I had exited the creek. I don’t think anyone was there, but polite as I am I wanted to respect the “private property/no trespassing” signs and not cross through the camp. If I had done so it was only about 300 yards back to where I had entered the river. Getting back to my car would have been a breeze. I would have been to my car in 20 min or so. Hind sight is 20/20. If only I had just crossed through the camp back over to where I’d entered I would have saved myself a whole lot of trouble and anxiety that was about to come. Instead I attempted to skirt around the edge of the private property heading West about the distance it was to my car and then cut South to where my car was parked. I stopped a brief moment to rest and was quickly found by several mosquitos. The woods were riddled with wallows and small Spring time ponds that were stagnant breading grounds for the pests. The sun was getting lower in the sky and the air cooler which was perfect for mosquitos. I walked on another half hour then stopped to rest. At my next stop a dozen or more mosquitos buzzed me, biting me numerous times. I had come to realize it was going to be more of a challenge to get back to my car than I thought. The next time I stopped I sat down next to some wild garlic. I pulled up a tuft of it and began munching on it. Partly for the fluids and partly as a hope it would work as an insect repellent. Unfortunately the benefit of garlic by ingestion for insect repelant takes at least 8 hours I think. So I decided to macerate the ends of the tuft, wet with saliva and then rubbed the mix all over my exposed skin. There was no one around to risk offending with eau de Allium. I did this a few times until I felt I had covered my hands, arms, neck and chest. I put some on my shirt sleeves too. I grew up in an area where we had lots of chiggers (red bugs), ticks and seed ticks. The two easiest ways to avoid getting bit by ticks or catching chiggers were eating lots of garlic and onions and using lime powder on your boots and pant legs. So I thought the garlic might work well for mosquitos too. It worked great where I had applied the garlic juice, but not where I hadn’t. I missed one shoulder and didn’t think of putting it on my back because I was wearing my pack. What I didn’t realize or feel was that when I took my pack off they were biting my back through my shirt. Before the night was over I had 12 bites just on the one shoulder I evidently missed making application to. The rest of me, except for my back was nearly bite free except for the few I gotten before I found the garlic. The mosquitos bit through my clothing. Besides the mosquitos all went fine until I started to turn back South. I hit a wash about 8 feet deep with vertical banks. I couldn’t cross it so I attempted to skirt around it. I headed a bit further west. I encountered a dense thicket filled with greenbriars that I preferred to avoid. So I headed further west still. Numerous attempts to head back to my car were met with both of these obstacles multiple times. I still wasn’t too concerned, but I was a little concerned because I was feeling a bit dehydrated. I finally made the choice to drink the river water I had collected in my bottle. I still had plenty left. I came into a clearing and saw the land rising above me. It was then that I realized I’d gone way too far West. Until then I hadn’t realized how far I had gone. I’d been walking for almost 1.5 hours! I had a freak out moment. I realized there was no way I could get back to my car now before dark. If there were no obstacles sure, but I had to detour too many times, merely because of my wimpiness to not get super muddy sliding down the muddy wash and the clawing my way back up the other side or get all scratched up. Now I didn’t have time to backtrack before dark. My phone was dead. I was in the middle of the Caddo National Grasslands a couple miles from the nearest paved road with no known path to get to it the road or my car. I was in a pretty bad fix. I had heard more airplanes fly overhead that day than I had heard vehicles on distant roads. That’s how remote the place is. I hadn’t seen another human the whole time I was out there. There were thick forests all around the meadow/ field I was in with heavy underbrush in most areas. Packs of coyotes began howling in numerous directions. I had a moment of panic and began to cry. I saw a game trail opening at the edge of the woods in the direction of my car. I thought I’d make a last ditch attempt to make it though the dense woods to my car. I fought my way in about a hundred yards and stopped. I had no clue where the game trail came out or led to. It may not even continue in the direction of my car. The very last thing I wanted was to be in the dense woods come night fall and dark. I attempted to gather my witts about me. The light was starting to fade in the dense woods. I had been praying that God would guide me to a safe place, a road or house or something. I heard a voice in my head, as if it were my own thoughts, tell me to go back out of the thicket the way I came and then empty my pack in the field. My thoughts suddenly cleared and I calmed down. I had a calm resolve. This wasn’t any big deal, just a horrible inconvenience that I could deal with and make it through. I’m tough. I was raised in a place more rural than this with more dangerous predators. I could do this. I back tracked to the clearing. There was a cattle pin with 8 concrete troughs in it. I knelt down on the ground and emptied my pack except for a couple fossils I didn’t want to lose. I left most of my tools except my knife, a pick, gun, phone and water bottle. My pack had been quite heavy and had slowed me down and tired me out considerably. It felt much better mostly empty. I stood up and looked around. The sun was on the horizon very close to setting. That meant I had about 30 min of light left to find my way to a road. If I couldn’t find a road I had seen a deer blind I thought might work as a shelter for the night. Provided I could back track to it in the dark. If so then I could make my way to my car in the morning. I still knew the direction it was in. It is late and I have to work tomorrow. I’ll have to finish my story later. Hopefully tomorrow night. Sorry for being so long winded. To be continued. . .
  23. 9 likes
    Welcome to the forum 1 ) Is a Pectinodon bakkeri its an anterior dentary tooth (Hell Creek Fm) 2) looks like a Dromaeosaurid but you need to do a serration density check and see if the mesial and distal are different, need a closeup picture straight on shot 3) looks like a Richarardoestesia isosceles but really need a closeup picture straight on shot The others are tyrannosaurids but need closeup pictures of 4 and 5 Edit: Let me add that if the Denticles have the same density on both edges its probably an anterior Tyrannosaurid tooth. Why its important to verify.
  24. 9 likes
    They are ray teeth very common at Brownies Picture from elasmo site Myliobatis
  25. 9 likes
    The linked paper has pterygometopids reported from Quebec. I would label it: Pterygometopidae sp. indet.
  26. 9 likes
    I wanted to complete drawings of all the reported Silurian Trilobites from Caleb's Quarry in Middleport, NY. I started late in December and finish today April 5th. Drawing was enjoyable, but got to be work towards the end. Top left to right: Arctinurus boltoni, Bumastus ioxus, Dicalymene sp., Calymene niagarensis,Decoroproetus corycoeus. Bottom left to right: Dalmanites limulurus, Dicranopeltis nereus, Illaenus insignis, Radnoria bretti and Trimerus delphinocephalus.
  27. 9 likes
    I think this is a lizard caudal vertebra and the thick whitish area is where the tail would break to avoid a predator. Here's an illustration from "Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog".
  28. 9 likes
    Ugh, that quite honestly, looks awful. Yeah, as the others have said, there are some nice ones. But pretty much all of it is composite material. Ibrahim's neotype apparently had some skull material that included at least a quadrate. But I haven't seen any pictures of this original material. And the reconstruction based on this material also includes other material, making it a composite. The lower jaw is based on the Stromer's holotype and the snout was also an isolated piece. But Ibrahim's reconstruction is likely the best we have at the moment. Ibrahim's skull reconstruction has quite a strongly built snout. But other specimens have been found that have a more slender snout that resembles the one we see here. This same snout we can see here. It's quite a beautiful fossil. There are a few other composite skulls that have quite a lot of real bone material in them. Hamptonsdoc already posted one of them. Another one I've seen that seems fairly good is this one. I don't know many details but I once found this image that accompanied it, showing which bones are real and which is sculpted. Apparently this skull is a composite as well, but it seems quite a few bones are preserved. And comparing the drawing with the photos it seems to be accurate. Notice how this skull has a much more slender snout. I think the lower jaw has been reconstructed incorrectly though. The skull in HamptonsDoc original post, to me, looks like a bad copy of this skull here. It seems to have a similar slender snout and the same general proportions, including the lower jaw that's too long. But I think we could almost call the skull a fake because I see almost no original bone. I can see a few small areas around the left side of the upper and lower jaws that look like real bone. But those look like the typical isolated jaw pieces we see fairly regularly. Much of the lower jaw looks very incorrect and wonky. Much of the skull itself looks really blobby and fat. Though the teeth look very much real, they look wrong as well. They all seem roughly the same length, while they should vary way more depending on their position. So those teeth are likely composited in as well. My guess would be that this is more likely 70% sculpture instead of the other way around. It looks quite horrid. Stay away folks! On a semi-side note we have to remember that Spinosaurid skull parts from the Kem Kem beds can possibly also belong to Sigilmassasaurus. And we really don't know what it's skull looked like yet.
  29. 8 likes
    Last Sunday I visited a quarry near Zwingelhausen (Germany), where you can find Triassic fossils. It was my second visit there so I am very inexperienced in Triassic fossils. Nevertheless I found some nice fossils (in my eyes ) and I am very satisfied with my haul. I mainly hunted in the "Bonebed", where you can find many bones but they are often damaged or completely destroyed. You need some patience to find some good ones ! I am also a newbie in term of preparing my fossils. I got my first engraving pen (a HW-10) two weeks ago so please excuse my bad preparation results First a picture of the quarry: Then some teeth: Acrodus teeth are very common but sometimes they became big ! This is a 1 cm long one: An unidentified fish tooth (1 cm long): A damaged Nothosaurus tooth (0.5 cm long): And my favourite tooth find until now: This one is very big (2.5 cm long ) I am really in love with this one !
  30. 8 likes
    My wife has been asking me what I would like for my upcoming 51st Birthday. I told her today that I would like the book "Trilobites of New York". She actually got this book for me as a birthday gift years ago. Like an idiot I put it up for auction when I started my Sharktooth faze. I guess at the time I was so engrossed with finding sharkteeth that I felt that i didn't need this truly wonderful book anymore. What a nimrod I was! Anyways she said she would get the book. Shortly after we were in Home Depot because they are the only place I know that sells a few Estwing products. So I picked out a 4lb crackhammer and a brickhammer. She said she would get those for me as well. Score! My wife is the best!
  31. 8 likes
    Triarthrus eatoni beckii trilobite - partial. Thanks for the correction, Scott!
  32. 8 likes
    Reptaria is now interpreted as "colonial, phoronid-like invertebrates with retractable lophophores." Taylor, P.D., & Wilson, M.A. (2007) Morphology and affinities of hederelloid “bryozoans”. In: Bryozoan Studies: Proceedings of the 14th International Bryozoology Conference, 15:301-309 PDF LINK figure from: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (Part G) Bryozoa 1953
  33. 8 likes
    Are all of these from the Hell Creek Formation if so 1, 3, 4 Crock, Borealosuchus or Brachychampsa cannot distinguish anterior teeth 2 is Stenonychosaurus sp. Premaxillary 5 is a mammal incisor , believe its Didelphodon vorax?
  34. 8 likes
    Last month at my local Rock club meeting we had a guest speaker who specializes in amber. It is the only thing he collects. He claims to own 250, 000 pieces. Some of these worth thousands of dollars. He brought some in to show that contained spiders, scorpions termites, feathers, and assorted other goodies. It was one of the best presentations that I have heard in a very long time. He did talk about polishing it but I don't remember everything he said. But some of what Tony said I do remember being told to us. Hand polish ,don't not use any machine, especially with no experience with this material. And you want to make sure of the depth of this critter. We were told stories of overpolishing that ended with the result of destroying the subject matter!
  35. 8 likes
    Well said, Joe. The history of paleontology is entwined with the efforts of amateur collectors. As long as they are ethical and not mercenary, the relationship can be a productive one for all parties. Chronic underfunding is a serious issue for a lot of universities, and so having more "eyes and hands" in the field can be very helpful. I've been fortunate to know amateur collectors who make their living on collecting and preparing finds, while not being mercenaries who hoover up a site, or sabotage it for other collectors. The collectors I know who sell fossils are also in close contact with institutions and have always been diligent in handing over finds that may be a new species, operating as good partners to science.
  36. 8 likes
    UPDATE: This specimen has been identified by Steve LoDuca as Thalassocystis striata, a non-calcareous Silurian macroalga. Interestingly, the type specimen was found in the same general locality as my specimen. Thank you @piranha for the contact info! I'm very pleased to add this specimen and taxon to the collection!
  37. 8 likes
    It is pretty weathered, but perhaps this might be a bivalve steinkern along the lines of a "deer heart" clam.
  38. 8 likes
    I have a large collection of extant shark and ray jaws that I use to understand tooth features. However, a number of tooth features, especially tooth root features, are really hard to see in jaws. So I’ve started to purchase (40+ species to date) and photograph individual teeth of a number of extant shark species. I’ll try to post some of the pictures (labial and lingual views) as I take them. For this post I’ll post three extant species that most collectors don’t see. Glyphis gangeticus (Ganges Shark) Upper teeth (23 mm, 23 mm, & 21 mm): Lower teeth (22 mm & 21 mm): Somniosus microcephalus (Greenland Shark) Upper teeth (12 mm & 11mm): Lower teeth (14mm, 10 mm, & 12 mm): Dalatias licha (Kitefin Shark) Here is a cool lower symphyseal tooth (17 mm): Two other lower teeth (13 mm & 10 mm) Marco Sr.
  39. 8 likes
    AMNH is doing a great job. Please read more carefully:
  40. 8 likes
    I am doing the jury duty thing today so I have a lot of time on my hands to make a trip report post. This post isn’t rich in fossils despite visiting 3 different sites. It was something of a strike out for the day, with the exception of 2 pieces from the 3rd place we stopped at. One of the pieces was a true keeper for me though. I was on call for my work this past week, including the weekend, which means I have to stay close to home. I had a couple really long days without sleep. One 27 hour and the other 24 hours. It wipes me out. Thankfully I didn’t get called in Saturday night, because I had plans to go poking around a few spots with @Fruitbat aka Joe. He lives maybe 7 minutes away from where I do. The day was on the cool side, in the low 50s, overcast and breezy, but reasonably pleasant. The first place I wanted to check out was about 15 minute from my house. It was in the Austin Chalk, upper I think. I didn’t have high expectations of finding anything noteworthy, but I keep trying, because I’m surrounded by the upper Austin and upper Ozan, which have next to zilch from what I’ve on numerous attempts. The area we went to is a new development that recently broke ground in Garland on the southwest corner of Shiloh and Buckingham roads. It is mostly black clay like material, but a bit of white chalk and light gray shale are exposed and I think limestone or marl was exposed during trench digging. There is also the Duck Creek waterway on the east side of the development. We didn’t find much more than Inoceramus clam fragments in the development area. I did find an interesting looking clam about 1.5 inches wide imbedded in chalk. No clue what it is. Since we didn’t find anything there we headed to check out the large creek. It seems the city channeled the creek to bury water or sewer lines in it. So it was down to the bedrock with a concrete strip running down the center. The banks were about 10-15 feet high in most areas. The East bank being layers of chalk and marl like stuff. The west side dirt and clay. When I got into the creek I couldn’t find my phone. I assumed I’d left it in my car. Later I realized I’d put it in my coat pocket and had it the whole time. I didn’t get any pics. There was only one picture I wish I’d been able to take. In the creekbed we came across a circle that looked like a giant flat cinnamon roll about 2 feet wide. It didn’t look like any ammonite I’ve ever seen. Joe said it was an Inoceramus clam. I squatted down to have a closer look and sure enough the side was exposed revealing the tale tale pattern of Inoceramus shell edge. It isn’t the biggest clam I have found out hunting, but it was probably the most complete large one I’ve seen. I’m tempted to go back to take a pic since I drive by there most weekdays. There wasn’t much of interest otherwise. Since we didn’t find anything of interest we headed south to Dallas to our 2nd spot. I’d seen an exposure off of 30 I wanted to check out. It was part of the Eagle Ford formation. We arrived and parked our vehicles on the edge of a large field and made our way walking towards a hill in the distance with an exposure visible. There were huge piles of construction dirt and rock in the field. I have explored those before so I didn’t revisit them this time. Most notable were the very large septarian nodules with brown and while crystals. I’d been here before and collected a few pieces. We walked through high grass and underbrush then headed downhill only to encounter a wash or small creek we couldn’t cross. The creek doesn’t show up on any map. We worked our way along through considerable underbrush between knee and waist high along the creek. Joe took a little rest while I explored the area looking for a crossing. I found one a Joe soon followed. After crossing a couple of them I came to a dense hedge of Chinese privet. If you’ve never encountered it you’re blessed. If you’re considering it for landscaping think twice. While it is pretty it is a very aggressive shrub that grown incredibly dense making areas impassible. It will take over a whole field and thin forest if left unattended and nothing else can grow there. I didn’t notice it until I came to it and realized there was no getting through or around it. Here you can see a dense patch of it. It’s maybe 5-8 feet tall in most places. We realized there was no way to make it to the outcropping from where we were. We walked back to our cars after maybe 30 minutes of trying to get to the outcrop. We would have to come at it from a different direction. There were lots of spring flowers in bloom along the walk. I thought I’d share them with you. Per Joe this is a form of wild mustard. This is actually the bud of my favorite wildflowers. It is a milk thistle. I don’t like the prickly part, but I think they’re beautiful, but that isn’t why I like them. I like them because I am fascinated by them. I have picked them many times and arranged them in a vase beautifully. I leave for a few hours or overnight and they have completely rearranged themselves! Not just a little either. Individual stems will move by an inch or more at times. I think it is chemotaxis or something. It isn’t phototropism, because it happens at night and the direction they move is not uniform or unidirectional. Can’t wait for them to be in bloom. I don’t know what these are. I think these are 2 varieties of evening primrose. I think these are a form of verbena. We drove around the back side of a large warehouse and found a spot to park. We were able to access the exposure from there, but only because someone had bulldozed a path through the Chinese privet. Much of it was the Eagle Ford gray flacks shale. I found the top valve of an oyster or possibly clam (I still need to clean it up). I also found a very weathered fragment of a medium size ammonite that was only identifiable because of sutures. Other than that the only thing of interest was more septarian nodules. This is one of the smaller ones I saw. You can’t see the septarian qualities on the exterior, but it’s definitely a septarian. It was very heavy or I’d have taken it home to open up. If they have a split in it like this one they usually are filled with crystals. I also found quite a bit of small crystals laying around. Usually it’s calcite, but I’ve read the formation has abundant gypsum. Nothing of real interest there other than septarian nodules so we moved on to look for our third location. We drove west on I-30 and then south on loop 12. The first spot didn’t have anywhere to park nearby. So we drove across the freeway to look at an exposure off of a parking lot in a low area. I think this is likely to be the Kamp Ranch formation, a subunit that underlies the top layer of the Eagle Ford about 75 feet under it near Arcadia Park. This location was not very fossiliferous, but it did have yellow/orange thin plates largely consisting of conglomerates of shell fragments. It also had gray and black clay/shale with large septarian nodules. These are some of the fragments I picked up. This is one, which was buried that I tried to extract but I wasn’t successful. It was too big and I didn’t feel like putting in the effort needed to extract it or break it up. I walked around picking up plates looking for anything of interest. I came to a wash area and found this plate. This is the find of my day. It is covered with small ammonite impressions. It’s the only hint of ammonite that I found. There are a number of impressions that are partially covered up. I think with a little prep work it could be a real beauty. I’ll have to practice on the back side to make sure it doesn’t leave white marks. While I was off finding this Joe was off harassing this poor mama killdear bird nearby. He was trying to find out where the eggs were so we didn’t step on them. Turns out she was sitting on them. He said she was giving him the broken wing routine. She also spread her wings and tail trying to defend her eggs and nest. Her eggs are just behind her. Joe found this little plate and gave it to me. It’s got a little shark tooth on it on the top left. From there I had to leave to go home. It was a relaxing day, except for fighting through the little jungle like underbrush and vegetation trying to cross the wash/creek and having to retrace our path because of the Chinese privet. But it was a nice day overall. Oh, this is a closeup shot of part of the ammonite impression plate that I forgot to insert above.
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    I love Marrakech, though it gets a bit touristy sometimes. I don't know the names of shops anywhere, i just sort of bumble around from one to another and personally find that the little roadside stalls and the actual villages where the fossils are found near provide much cheaper specimens, though often not as well prepped. I rarely go to Casablanca, don't much care for it, the fossils there are usually massively overpriced and fakes abound, though most of the sellers genuinely have no idea. Marrakech is also generally expensive, though a bit cheaper, but it is absolutely the capital for fakes, composites and fraudsters. However, if you're prepared to really, really haggle, you can pick up some nicely prepped bargains. Essaouira is better, usually cheaper and fewer fakes, though they still are there in quantity. Haggling here can produce excellent results. Remember you will look like a tourist and if they figure you are from the States, the price will be higher than that offered to Europeans, though maybe less than they try on for the Japanese.Wear rubbish shoes when shopping. Do you know which area of the Atlas you will be visiting? There are three separate ranges, the Middle Atlas, on which I border, then much further south the High Atlas, and on the edge of the Sahara it's the Anti Atlas. From Essouira, you'll probably be heading to the Anti Atlas, from Marrakech that or more likely the High Atlas, in the mountains themselves, i find roadside stalls offer cheap local fossils and the people can sometimes point you in the direction of a fossil locality, search the rocks at the sides of the roads, you may get lucky. Almost everywhere will have some fakes or composites, be friendly though mildly outraged, be touchy feely, smile a lot, profess to being poor and haggle haggle haggle. Sometimes it pays to pretend to be a complete novice, other times claim to be an expert, don't be afraid to tell them the fossils are fakes, broken , bad quality (even if they're not, it's all part of the game) . Oh, and haggle.
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    Bring tons of water and stay out of the mud.
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    The root of this object appears to me to be too deep to be giant tortoise. My guess is that this is a bit of armor from a glyptothere (not necessarily from the tail).
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    If this is coming from Florida my first thought was a giant tortoise Osteoderm. Part of its bony armor. Cheers, Brett https://www.google.com/search?q=tortoise+spur+fossil&client=firefox-b-1&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmncWmqqvaAhXjRt8KHUlsBG0Q_AUICygC&biw=1247&bih=685#imgrc=_
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    Preparing the Lambeosaurus skeleton in the Museum’s laboratory prepared free from enclosing matrix shows the natural death pose of the animal. Collected in 1921, Late Cretaceous. Shown in Geology prep area, third floor with radiators, coffee pot and office supplies. Order: Ornithischia, Family: Hadrosauridae The Triassic crocodylomorph Saltoposuchus, housed in Stuttgart Info on label from Mexico These awesome arachnids date back about 24 million years and come from Germany. They are part of our Statz fossil insect collection, which was collected prior to WWII and survived the war. MOR 548 is the remains of several nestling Hypacrosaurus stebingeri! Collected from the Two Medicine Frm of MT On the Lighter Side Introducing Sadie to our members in Victoria BC a amazing driftwood Mammoth sculpture at Esquimalt lagoon Need an egg mold these teeth will be very hard to ID
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    The first few hours was mostly some light scribing, followed by slow and steady pin vise work. The matrix itself is quite thin, so I couldn't risk sending too much vibration through this. After most of the bulk matrix was removed, finer removal between the pleura and very sticky "schmutz" on both the cephalon and glabella took place. There were some minor mistakes on my part, but easily fixed. Some light blasting with the Paasche (after having to unclog the hose) was only slightly effective. Paasche AECR, dolomite powder 20-40 PSI. I may have to invest in a COMCO. Four hours in time-lapse: before and after compared side by side:
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    A number of collectors are very interested in Triassic Dinosaur tooth material, however, lots of misinformation exists, partially because little is known and dealers want to sell product. My knowledge is very limited so I tried to put together an assemblage of current information that has been published so that we can all become better versed on this topic. I'm not saying its complete but its the best I can do with my limited knowledge. Most technical papers on this subject are outdated, difficult to read for a novice and not complete enough. Fortunately a recent, legible paper was published in 2015 by Heckert & Lucas that has helped me. I've tried to extract the pertinent information, associated with teeth, since that what most collectors are interested in. First let me get on my sandbox and say that we should NOT assume that what is being sold is accurately described regardless who is selling it or how much you like a dealer. Very little is known and even less is described. If a seller insists what he has identified is accurate, have him show you the technical documents that supports his diagnosis. There are a number of theropods and archosaurs in these assemblages that have serrated teeth so identification is difficult. Triassic dealers similar to those in the Kem Kem which label everthing Spinosaurus like to label everything Coelophysis. Just be cautious..its your money. Almost all the teeth you see sold come from New Mexico so I will focus in that region. A Map of New Mexico with the Triassic outcrops shown below as well as the associated Counties. The numbers correlate to the stratigraphic formations shown below in Figure 4. Figure 4 The Zuni Mountains in West-Central NM are from the lower Chinle Group (Bluewater Creek Fm) and contain Tetrapod fossils amphibians and phytosaurs and aetosaurs. Dinosaurs are possible but nothing is diagnostic. Faunal List of the lower Chinle Group Zuni Mountains Northern/West Central New Mexico has yielded some of the most interesting Vertebrate Fossils most associated with Coelophysis at Ghost Ranch. Included in this group are the Petrified Forest and Rock Point Formation of the western counties. Chindesaurus bryansmalli, Tawa hallae and Daemonosaurus chauliodus are considered valid a dinosaurs in the Petrified Forest Fm. Coelophysis bauri is valid from the Rock Point Formation. Faunal List of the Petrified Forest and Rock Point Formation - Key on this list is Coelophysis bauri in the Rock Point Fm Northeasten New Mexico (Bull Canyon and Redonda Formations). Heckerts 2015 paper comments that dinosaur fossils remains are rare in the Bull Canyon Formation. The coelophysoid Gojirasaurus quayi has been described but its taxonomic placement is uncertain. Herrerasauridae tooth fragments have been found but nothing has been assigned to a taxon. Heckerts & Lucas 2015 Paper on Triassic Vertebrate Paleontology in New Mexico https://libres.uncg.edu/ir/asu/f/Heckert_Andrew_triassic.pdf Bull Canyon Formation 2001 Paper on Vertebrate Fauna https://nmgs.nmt.edu/publications/guidebooks/downloads/52/52_p0123_p0151.pdf Latest placement ( Hans-Dieter Sues et al 2011 ) Identifying Coelophysis bauri Teeth - There is lots of variation their teeth and I will show a few types. The Museum of Northern Arizona publication Coelophysis describes the teeth as follows: All the teeth are recurved Premaxillary teeth: rounded cross-section, smaller teeth are ribbed but smooth on larger ones. None show serrations. Maxillary Teeth: the first tooth is recurved with no serrations, second tooth has serrations only on the posterior carina. All the other maxillary teeth have serrations on both edges. Some of the teeth the serrations may be limited to the upper part of the anterior (mesial) edge. Dentary Teeth: the first seven teeth lack serrations, eight tooth serrations only on the posterior edge. Subsequent teeth have serrations on both edges. The first four teeth are elliptical (rounded) in cross-section being compressed after that. Anterior teeth may contain ridges. Serrations are very fine 8 to 9 per millimeter on the posterior (distal) edge. (other publications say 7/mm) Distal Carina Denticles Premaxillary, Maxillary and Dentary teeth shown - Dentary tooth Maxillary Tooth Anterior Denticles Posterior Maxillary Tooth Paper on Coelophsis Teeth by Currie and Buckley Coelophisis.pdf Additional images of the teeth with no supporting info Good overall paper on C. bauri but does nothing to increase our knowledge on how to describe its teeth https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292525024_The_paleobiology_of_Coelophysis_bauri_Cope_from_the_Upper_Triassic_Apachean_Whitaker_quarry_New_Mexico_with_detailed_analysis_of_a_single_quarry_block Other Theropods Gojirasaurus quayi : one tooth was described with the holotype however it was found isolated and cannot be positively assigned to this species. I cannot find an image of it. Chindesaurus bryansmalli : not aware of any skeletal material Daemonosaurus chauliodus The paper does not get into detail on the teeth. See below http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsb/278/1723/3459.full.pdf Tawa hallae : paper is paywalled 1 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/326/5959/1530
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    https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/dinosaur-museum-altmuehltal-exhibits-real-dracula-677624753.html https://www.thelocal.de/20180323/worlds-largest-pterodachtyl-dracula-museum-altmuehltal https://flowcenter1.flowworks.de/flowrooms/screeningroom/XrsPzXMAmoDioHBuhNZs_layoutneutral/284/ "The carpal bone alone was larger than that of a mammoth, and the neck was the width of a full-grown man," says paleontologist Mátyás Vremir, member of the Transylvanian Museum Society. I-a picat fața!!!
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    Invertebrate Acanthoceras amphibolum Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Paguate Sandstone Member Dakota Formation Sandoval County New Mexico, USA Discovered: March 23, 2018 Size: 16.5 cm
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    On the lighter side I always knew this was the case but confirmed by a Tweet by Horner: "130 cases of Rainier Beer to construct the 1986 Rainier couch, Landslide Butte Camp on the Milk River. Left to right on the couch, Jack Horner, Bob Makela, and Horners father John! Our motto, “It takes a lot of beer to dig up a dinosaur""