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Showing most informative content since 01/17/2018 in all areas

  1. 19 likes
    Not all rocks that look like poop have a fecal origin. Here are a few things to consider when trying to determine whether or not you have a coprolite: 1. Location, Location, Location – If you haven’t guessed, the first and most important thing to consider is the location your rock was found. Don’t expect to find a coprolite unless you find it in geologic area/layer where other fossils are found. If you find things like bones, teeth and fish scales, or prehistoric tracks, you may just be in in luck. 2. Shape – While fecal matter can be rather free-form when exposed to the elements or when digestion issues arise, most coprolites are shaped like poo. As with modern extrusions, fossilized feces can be shaped like pellets, spirals, scrolls, logs, piles, etc. Their shape is dependent on shape of their producers intestinal and anal structure. Look for things like compaction folds and pinch marks. 3. Texture - Most coprolites are fine grained. If your specimen appears granular under magnification, it is most likely not a coprolite. There are some exceptions, such as marine creatures that feed on bottom sediments or coral. That is why knowing the location and geology of the area where it was discovered is so important. 4. Inclusions – Many times, coprolites will have visible inclusions. Things like fish scales, bone fragments, and teeth may not get fully digested, and can be visible on the surface. Some animals ingest stones for ballast or digestive purposes. These are known as gastroliths, and if present, are generally smooth. 5. Composition – Because herbivore scat tends to break a part and decompose rapidly, it rarely survives the fossilization process. So most fossil poo that is found is from carnivores. The reason for this is that their poo is usually high in calcium phosphate, the same mineral found in bone. This mineral can appear in many forms. It can be hard and dense or soft and porous. If the potential coprolite appears soft and porous, there is a quick test that is often used in the field. If you touch to stone to the tip of your tongue and it sticks, chances are, it is high in calcium phosphate and could be a coprolite. If you are not that brave, you can also touch it with wet fingers to see if it feels sticky, but this is not nearly as fun. If the calcium phosphate takes a harder, more dense form, the “lick test” won’t work. In some instances, chemical analysis is required to definitively identify the mineral composition.
  2. 15 likes
    The past few weeks at the Tucson Fossil I ran across a few fake Spinosaur claws but also was surprised how many good ones there were on the market. I also understand the issues with online claws so decided to put this topic out to help collectors gain a better understanding of them since they are very expensive. These are my opinions and welcome others since no one person as all the answers. There is no bullet proof approach you can take to insure you have a claw that is not totally fake or composited. There are some things you need to consider. - First try dealing with what I call preferred Moroccan merchants, those are typically found at big shows and a few have online or FB sites, ones that specialize in Moroccan material are the best. They typically know what to look for and can point out issues with claws. Makes life a bit harder to get one but you want a good claw don't you. This does not take you off the hook its still YOUR responsibility to know what you are buying. - Unless you are an expert never buy one from Auction site. If you see one that interest you see seek assistant from an expert, not a collector friend, or post it here on the forum we have lots of opinions here. - 2D photos are not always the best to see what is going on with a claw, I prefer handling one. Composited claws can be good and photos don't show you all the issues. - Good preservation and quality are key for making life easy in deciding if its a good claw or not. There is where it pays to focus on the better claws. Claws that are deformed, partial, compressed, beat up or have matrix on them are very difficult to insure you have a good one and especially hard for experts to positively say its good. It always best to save and wait to buy a higher end one. - As a general rule try avoid claws that have matrix glued on them or have seams with matrix. The matrix is there for only one reason to hid trouble. Matrix is a red flag, just tread carefully when looking at one of these. Ask yourself why risk it and buy a potentially problem claw, there are plenty out there that are clean. PRICE = Preservation (Quality) + Size - Repairs - Real claws are expensive, simple as that. Nice ones in the 6+ inch range can easily fetch over 1K depending on quality, 7+ inches can go over 10K . So if you see big claws under 1K there must be a reason unless its the deal of a century and they exist. Most of the claws I show are in the 1-2K range for 4-6 inches. Here are a few from the Tucson show to give you an understanding what real ones look like. Focus on shape, the articulation end, blood grooves and preservation. These two are clean no matrix, no compression may have been broken and reattached, reasonable preservation. Nice claws for any collection Higher Grade - Fatter, nice surface finish, good preservation, few if any repairs. Couple of more examples. Honest merchant shows, some repair and resto. Excellent high end claw around 7 inches very very expensive Fake Claws These two were laying in the box and the merchant said he just had them fabricated. They look pretty good to a novice both reasonable size and configuration. Probably copied from a good one. Red Flags : Check out the graining its does not follow the curve of the claw but is straight. Uniform Color and looks too clean. Finish is flat with no hit of sheen seen on bone. Super long ones are the most suspect, here are two in a box. Unusually long and thin, usually the dorsal curvature is not smooth to the tip has kinks, the preservation is odd, hard to see bone, lots of surface repairs. These may be composited, faked or combo? Who knows to risky to find out. Off an auction site - terrible fake easier to spot- 6.9 inch claw One of the hardest items to replicate is the blood groove that is on either side of the claw. The groove is the widest at the articulation end and slowly tapers to a point to form a channel at the tip that extends outward beyond the dorsal surface. Here is an example of a perfectly preserved one. Here is the tip of the claw from above and you can see the blood groove is just a channel in the claw. Another Characteristic on these claws is that when looked at from the top or bottom they are shaped like an isosceles triangle. Much bigger at the articulation end than the tip. Preservation may affect this but most should be tapered. Like most theropods, hand claws vary depending on digit so there will be variations depending on that and the number of different Spinosaurids that exist in Kem Kem. This is a big unknown and we believe these type of claws all belong to the Spinosaurid family. But here are a couple more you can check out the blood grooves, articulation and shape
  3. 13 likes
    The internet is full of improperly identified dinosaur material, not only on auction sites but from very trusted dealers. Remind everyone that the best way to avoid being disappointed is do not assume what is written is accurate, educate yourself in what your interest are or post items here on the forum for feedback. Most of the discrepancies I see are not intentional just lack of knowledge on the part of the seller/dealer or believing what the digger told him. Lets start with the Hell Creek Formation- again Dromaeosaurus is not a species you find in this or the Lance formation, they are all over the web. Dromaeosaurus come from an older deposits, Campanian. Most all the teeth I see sold appear to be Nanotyrannus. The only two Dromaeosaurid teeth in this age are Acheroraptor and Dakotaraptor. A tiny example of what I currently see sold, these look like Nano teeth This individual is selling a Troodon claw. Troodon or now properly called Stenonychosaurus look nothing like this claw and I've provided images of what they should like. This is a reptile claw. The real deal foot claws These vertebra are described from Dinosaur raptors. They are from Crocks or other reptiles, definitely not dinosaur Kem Kem material - I could fill up this site with all the improperly identified material. Please post your interests here before you buy. Reminder we do not know what Rugops or Deltadromeus teeth look like and Rugops is not a species that is described from the Kem Kem deposits its known from Niger. The same is true for Dromaeosaurus that species does not exist in the fauna. Most believe a Dromaeosaurid like dinosaur exist but identifying its teeth is still uncertain. Most of the teeth sold that look like this with the distal edge perpendicular to the base are Abelsaurid indet. not Dromaeosaurid or Rugops etc I saw this tooth being sold, its a huge Carcharodontosaurus tooth 16cm. Please use caution, the seller just talks about slight glue and dirt in some areas but to me there appears to be lots of work done on that crown. Hard to tell whats going on but its more than slight glue and dirt. Just be cautious there is more there than meets the eye and it can get very expensive.
  4. 12 likes
    I'm not an expert on this. But there are a few reasons why there are more teeth for sale on the market. Reptiles do not grow teeth the same way we mammals do. We get our milk teeth and those are later replaced by our adult teeth. But we never grow any new ones after that. Reptiles replace their teeth their whole lives. A little bit similar to sharks in a way, though not as ridiculous in terms of number of teeth. A shark can produce around 3000 teeth in a life. I've heard somewhere that a typical reptile can produce some 1000 teeth in a lifetime. I'm not sure if that's completely accurate, but the point stands that one animal can produce an abundance of teeth while they only have a single piece or set of a bone. So naturally bones are more rare. Then there's simply what sells. Teeth from ancient monster predators are scary and cool. So more people probably collect carnivore teeth than bones. So there might also be a collecting bias in favour of teeth. You see this in pricing as well. Dinosaur teeth often have very high prices. But bones can sometimes still be bought for much lower prices. And teeth are the hardest part in the body of an animal. During the fossilisation process many things can degrade or get destroyed or lost completely. But teeth generally survive the longest.
  5. 11 likes
    A few items I recently picked up at the Tucson show. Others will follow Nice size Pterosaur upper beak. Big Dorsal from a Sauropod - needs to be prepped to remove matrix glued on the bone. Will tackle after the show. Very Arthritic bone.. believe its Phalanx 2 but fits well with the above carpal. A Theropod indet but similar to a Spino on the most recent paper. Who really knows at this point with how little we have to go with and just sketches
  6. 11 likes
    A few Kem Kem items that I picked up for my collection A Spinosaurid and Sauropod tooth with interesting pathology An unknown Theropod possible hand claw A very large partial upper beak from a pterosaur possibly Alanqa Possible wing bone from Pterosaur Big carpal from a Spinosaurid Toe bone from a indeterminate theropod Partially rooted tooth theropod.
  7. 10 likes
    I saw this on a number of different posts by the Tyrrell and thought it would interest our members. Clips and photos courtesy of RTMP. The Royal Tyrrell Museum collection includes one of the best-preserved Daspletosaurus theropod skulls. The skull is unique in that it is a disarticulated skull, where all the bones were found separately and were not crushed flat during fossilization. Daspletosaurus was a large tyrannosaur that lived 77.3 – 75 million years ago in Alberta and is closely related to Tyrannosaurus rex. The left maxilla (upper jaw). Note the teeth at various stages of growth. Dinosaurs continually replaced their teeth throughout their lives why the different sizes in the jaw The skull bones of the Daspletosaurus torosus were first discovered in 2000 near the Milk River in southern Alberta, and it took until 2011 for all the pieces to be collected. Since the individual pieces of the skull were separated, it was not obvious where each bone was located in the quarry. Researchers waited until further pieces of the skull eroded out of the ground, rather than searching for them. The left pre-maxilla (front of the upper jaw) in the field. Left pre-maxilla (front of the upper jaw) prepared. As fossil bones are extremely fragile and often heavy, they can be difficult to manipulate and handle. That makes it difficult for researchers to study certain specimens, or for them to be displayed. Although they have the majority of the skull of Daspletosaurus torosus in our collection, it is too fragile to piece back together. As a solution, they decided to create a cast and display it as an exploded skull. Exploded skulls are a common tool used to teach anatomy, allowing for examination of the individual pieces of a skull. This will allow researchers to examine all the bones that make up a theropod skull from multiple angles. Since certain pieces of this skull of Daspletosaurus torosus are too delicate to be cast using traditional methods, they created a digital model of the skull using photogrammetry. By taking multiple photos of each piece, their technicians were able to create digital models of the skull that were then 3D printed. This project is the first time the Museum has 3D printed a cast of a specimen and it was very successful. To show all 41 bones of the skull of Daspletosaurus torosus, they mounted the cast as an exploding skull. They suspended the specimen in the air to determine the position of the pieces. Once the positions were finalized, a mount was constructed to hold the specimen A mount is then created. Daspletosaurus torosus is now on display! This display was one of their most difficult and technical projects yet, using new technologies and artistic techniques to create the cast and mount. As far as they know, it is the only exploded dinosaur skull in the world Photo of player Found that the player moves quite fast. Move the forward > with your finger for better results DWLAqm2XcAEohbq.mp4
  8. 10 likes
    I was splitting up some Conasauga Formation shale from the Chatsworth area exposure @Nimravis and @MeargleSchmearglhave been posting about recently. This was material I brought back 2 or 3 years ago and have had sitting around. I found numerous specimens of the usual Aphelaspis the site is noted for. Then I split a small piece and here's what popped out: Four complete Agnostus inexpectans agnostid trilobites!! Talk about "inexpected", it's hard to find one of these complete much less four on the same piece of shale. Some other views: Don
  9. 10 likes
    Hi all, I just wanted to let everyone interested in eastern North American dinosaurs know that my paper reviewing and analyzing Appalachian dinosaur faunas was published as Brownstein (2018). The full citation and doi are below. Brownstein, CD. 2018. The biogeography and ecology of the Cretaceous non-avian dinosaurs of Appalachia. Palaeontologia Electronica 21.1.5A: 1-56. All the best, Chase
  10. 10 likes
    Gone are the days when high quality dino eggs were freely sold at public auctions. I recently borrowed some catelogues from Bonhams, IM Chait and Heritage Auction that were 10-20 years old and was amazed by what was once available for sale! Here are a few eggsamples of pictures I took from the catelogues. Therizinosar Eggs with embryo exposed. Two examples of oviraptor nests with the remains of their mother guarding her young from whatever disaster took all of their lives. A spectacular nest labeled Troodon formosus. A saltasaurus egg, one of the most prized dino eggs to collectors. Large section of an oviraptor nest. A nice example of a hadrosaur nest.
  11. 9 likes
    Detail of the show logistics can be found in the following topic Dealers are slowly getting into town and its a madhouse looking at the dealers setting up. The show officially starts Thursday but some are already open in the Ramada and Tucson Hotel that I visited today. Here are some pictures. Tucson Hotel City Center -
  12. 9 likes
    Thank you all for the kind comments. I'll be posting more photos of different fossils soon. @TqB @minnbuckeye @Kane @Heteromorph - here's a quick guide to how I did it. I'll go into some detail, so much of this you'll already know, but I thought perhaps it could be useful to others in future if I went fairly in-depth, so please don't feel patronised. I feel a bit like I'm revealing some tricks of the trade, but sod it, I learned many of my skills from others! This photo gives a basic overview of the makeshift 'studio', but it's so cramped it's hard to make out what's what. Note that I use a few pieces of expensive equipment, but none of it is absolutely necessary to do most of these types of photos, so I'll cover that as I go through. The camera is a Nikon D800, but any digital SLR would do the job. I've got that on a bog standard tripod. Lighting wise, I have a Godox AD360 on the left, which is firing into a circular reflector, to provide a more diffuse light. If you've not seen an AD360 before, it's basically like a standard flash, only bigger, much more powerful and with a huge battery pack which allows you to cycle thousands of times without recharging, and with a very quick recharge time. It's popular with wedding photographers. But a smaller flash would also work; I'd just have to leave longer recharge times between each shot, and have piles of rechargeable batteries on hand! The flash on the right is a super-cheapo Neewer TT520. These can be picked up for about £30/$42. They have built in optical slave mode (so they can automatically fire when the other flash goes off), and you can use a £10 cable to connect them to a Godox AD360 battery (although you must have rechargeable batteries in it at the time). I've used a £15 fabric 'snoot' with the flash, which directs the light into a focused beam. I can then use as a back-light, or as a backup to the Godox. For some shots, I use a third flash. The individual gastropod was photographed with a flash behind it on the table, to the left. Both main flashes are mounted onto normal lighting stands with an adapter. I'd probably mount them onto tripods instead, for increased flexibility, if I had the space. For general close-up work, I use an good quality prime lens mounted onto extension tubes. The tubes give you a much closer focusing distance, enabling you to get really good close-up images without additional equipment, but at the expense of infinity focus (which isn't required for this kind of work). You can mix and match them to get different minimum focus distances. I only have two working ones, but I can't afford to get any more at present. For closer work, I use a cheap 80-300mm zoom lens. I mount a 5x or 10x infinite microscope objective onto this, using a mount I made myself by removing the glass from a filter that fitted onto the lens, and using epoxy clay to secure a suitable adaptor inside it. If I was into doing things elegantly, I'd just have obtained adapters with the correct filter size and screwed them together, but sometimes it's all just too much fuss and expense, and this is totally secure and it works. I also added black card to the reverse of it to stop internal reflections as much as possible. This was set-up to shoot the crinoids yesterday. The key to this kind of close-up work is focus stacking. If you take a single shot, the depth of field is tiny - in other words, most of the image will be out of focus. That's just down to physics, and whilst you can mitigate it by stopping the lens down (except when using a microscope objective, when you can't), image quality quickly begins to deteriorate, and it will never have much of an effect at high magnification. So to get around the laws of physics, you have to take a number of photos, with fixed focus, at different distances from the object. The higher the level of magnification, the more images are required. With the images of the teeth above, I used three images. The crinoids (5x magnification) used 54 images. At 10x, I will often take 250 images. You can then join the images in software. I use Zerene stacker. The end result is an 'impossible' image which has much wider depth of field than you could ever achieve in a single shot. I use a specialised piece of hardware to move the camera back and forth, called a Cognysis Stack Shot (https://www.cognisys-inc.com). This moves the camera in absolutely tiny increments (as little as 0.01mm) automatically, taking a picture each time and with piles of options. However, it is very expensive (I got it years ago, when I actually had disposable income). You can do this work with very cheap alternatives, like this macro rail: A system like this works great with the extension tubes, but becomes a lot more difficult when you're using the microscope objectives - it's very hard to be sufficiently precise, although a skilled person could probably gear the system down more. I took this image using the macro rail above, I think at 5x. However, the Stack Shot makes things much easier. In the photos I posted originally, I made a black background by folding pieces of matte black card. Having another piece of card slightly overhanging the fossils, with a deep empty space behind the fossils, meant that the background came out jet black. So that's it, basically. Image stacking, bounced light and light modifiers. It often takes a bit of experimentation to get it right, but if you have a camera, a tripod, a macro rail, a couple of flashes and some black card, you're pretty much away. Sorry if the above is unreadable waffle, but let me know if there are any questions.
  13. 9 likes
    So I was browsing our favourite auction site, and I came across these interesting specimens. The seller claims these all belong to the same individual, while at the same time, strangely, they are selling each bone separately. And while these bones are definitely real Kem Kem bones, I'm posting it in this forum because there is reason to believe the information that these belong to the same animal is suspect. All of these are sold as being from one individual Spinosaurus. This first one is definitely a Spinosaurid cervical vertebra. a fairly nice one. But the rugose triangular area on underside shows that this is in fact from a Sigilmassasaurus, one of the Spinosaurids from Morocco. From the length of the vertebra this can be placed somewhere in the back of the neck of the animal. Next specimen is also a Spinosaurid cervical vertebra. Though due to damage this one is harder to identify as Sigilmassasaurus. Again due to the shortness this seems to be a cervical vertebra from somewhere back in the neck. The dorsal spine though worn, seems to be not that big. So this might point towards it being Sigilmassasaurus as well. So seems fairly plausible if the seller says these belong to the same individual right? Now here comes the problem. This third specimen is listed as belonging to the same individual. But this is clearly a cervical vertebra from a type of crocodile. Since it's nice and complete we can see which way is the front and which is back. The front of the centrum looks to be concave, while the back of the centrum here is convex. This is typical of some crocodiles. But on Spinosaurids it's the other way around, with the front of the centrum being convex and the back is concave. So with that this specimen casts doubt on the whole claim that some of these specimens belong to the same animal. Which is too bad 'cause the fossils seem pretty nice. There were some other specimens as well. But these three were clearly identifiable.
  14. 9 likes
  15. 9 likes
    At the Ramada being sold by In Stone Fossils from Wyoming is this spectacular huge crocodile from the Green River Formation. If you are attending the show its a must stop but be careful it bites Beautifully preserved.
  16. 8 likes
    I helped one of my friends make a hanger for his huge Ohio hash plate. I guestimate it weights 15 pounds. I learned this technique from Harry Pristis, and only slightly modified it from what he posted. I used two steel rods from Lowes, and two turnbuckles from Home Depot. The materials cost was about $10. I used a wire bending jig to create two W-shaped "hangers" as shown. This jig was one like this; costs about $5. I bent the end of the hangers over to hook onto the plate. I used two turnbuckles to attach the rods together- and screwed them tight. I probably could have used wire, but wanted to be sure it would never fall.
  17. 8 likes
    Welcome to the Forum. Definitely a Pecopteris sp. from the Rhode Island formation, Narragansett Basin. There is a plant site in Rhode Island, about 1/2 hour south of Somerset, in Portsmouth. The preservation is better in your specimen, though. Not as distorted. Also, there are some quarries about 45 minutes to the north west, in Plainville, Mass., that have produced plant fossils. I wouldn't be surprised if there were outcrops throughout that range, that may have been disturbed or uncovered by construction and farming in the area. (New England is famous for growing rocks in farmer's fields. ) Great example! Thanks for posting it. Regards,
  18. 8 likes
    There is quite of bit Kem Kem dinosaur material coming on the market and some of it quite good. Will try address the identification issue on some items so at least you will know what your bidding on. This appears to match quite well with a Spinosaurid ilium, seller calls it a pelvic bone. Looks quite nice, complete with a concern are the areas circled in white. Not sure it's bone or matrix. Seller does comment on filled fractures and some are visible but that should not detract from the piece. What the seller is offering here is a Spinosaurus phalanx and claw toe bones. What I believe you have here is a Spinosaurid foot claw and a carpal (hand bone). So think about this listing as two separate bones not associated in any way. This is a listing of a Spinosaurus complete finger with claw. What I believe you have are 3 carpals from a Spinosaurid that are completely unassociated and are not a good match as a composite. Hard to say much about the claw other that it appears to be a foot claw of what cannot determine with photos provided. Again like the one above if you're interested in this bid it as 4 separate items. Seller has this as a Spinosaurus phalanx toe bone. I find it difficult to call this one since its a partial but looks more like a carpal. I dont think you can ID this to any specific critter, not much diagnostic and we know so little. Seller is offering these as 4 Spinosaurus phalanx toe bones. The two on the left look like carpals, probably from a Spinosaurid. The one on the far right is a phalanx but it's hard to determine from what dinosaur. The second from the right to fragmented to say. Seller here has 4 Spinosaurus phalanx toe bone for sale. They are toe bones and may be from Spinosaurid but who knows there are lots of other theropods in this region and identifying isolated bones is very difficult. If interested they should be identified as theropod indeterminate. Being offered as a Spinosaurus phalanx toe bone. It might be from a Spinosaurid but have same comments as above
  19. 8 likes
    I don't remember if you posted a photo of this, but it is on my Christmas wish list (only $90K). I made a special trip over to the Fossil Co-op to see this after @Carl spotted it. The top of this petrified wood table is riddles with insect galleries, many of which are filled with termite COPROLITES!
  20. 8 likes
    A real small Ichthyosaur guess one meter
  21. 8 likes
    @Aurelius He didn't say what he was an expert at! I'm an expert forklift operator and I say it's an egg!
  22. 8 likes
    There are many incredible fossils here at the show. One of the top An Ichthyosaur from the 180-million-year-old Jurassic Posidonia Shale of Holzmaden in southern Germany. If you look closely you will notice four babies, if that's their mother or lunch
  23. 8 likes
    Had difficulty uploading these but finally success. Images quite small hard to read labels. British dealer at Tucson hotel
  24. 8 likes
  25. 8 likes
    Troodon basically has the show covered but I thought I'd add my two cents.
  26. 8 likes
    Here you go: Everybody has access to the Atlas (BIODIVERSITY HERITAGE LIB.), but the Text is nowhere to be found Simply based on morphology, you'd have to say fig. 1 seems a dead ringer
  27. 8 likes
    Back to the Ramada ET was here Texas Aguja Formation Hadrosaur Jaw Huge Croc Tooth Meet Dimetrodon from the Permian of Texas, yes its very real Getting Assembled
  28. 8 likes
    Altiocculus harrisi has 32 segments. Instead, this specimen with 24 segments matches better with Bolaspidella reesae. Robison, R.A., & Babcock, L.E. (2011) Systematics, paleobiology, and taphonomy of some exceptionally preserved trilobites from Cambrian Lagerstätten of Utah. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, 5:1-47 PDF LINK
  29. 8 likes
    Well a big part of Morocco economy is focused on the fossil industry. So lots of people/towns are focused just in collecting and processing them which results in a enormous amount of very diverse fossils to be distributed to every part of the world. The fossils are typically beautiful, fit a diverse collector base, and sold at every price point that collectors/dealers are looking for. It's an industry, a fossil machine unlike any other one found in the world.
  30. 8 likes
    The three venues that I visited today, Tucson Hotel, Ramada and 22nd Street were a flurry of activity getting ready for the grand opening on thursday. Visited a number of German and British Dealers today.
  31. 8 likes
  32. 8 likes
    Here is what Haravex is talking about. The skull is no longer a nice skull but it is riddled with tool marks. It is ruined. I have circled nice bone texture in green and trashed bone textured in blue. Who know how much more than the surface has been removed? And in the second photo I have circled in yellow where I see tool marks going right through the bones. This needs professional prep. Have I said that before?
  33. 7 likes
    Isolated theropod Teeth from the Kem Kem Basin continue to be a mystery. Plan on documenting all the different morphologies I have in my collection. Can provide discussion and aid in identification at some point. Just a note, different morphologies do not necessarily mean different species. There is lots of tooth variations in the dentition of a theropod, why its so difficult to nail down an ID even in the best of circumstances. Morph Type 1 Anterior Tooth Distal margin is almost straight Mesial margin strongly recurved Mesial carina extends 3/4 crown height Denticles are oriented towards the tip Serration Density: Distal - 2/mm (More dense toward the base) Mesial - 1.7/mm (More dense toward the base) Morph Type 2 (possible Carcharodontosaurid) Anterior Tooth Distal margin is slightly concave Mesial margin strongly recurved Mesial Carina extends to the cervex Denticles are oriented toward the tip Interdental sulci present Serration Density: Distal: 2/mm (More dense toward the base) Mesial: 1.9/mm (More dense toward the base) Morph Type 3 Maxillary? Mesial carina extends 3/4 crown height Denticles parallel to the base and rounded at tip Serration Density: Distal: 2.2/mm (More dense toward the base) Mesial: 2.4/mm (More dense toward the base) Additional Example Morph Type 4 (Possible Dromaeosaurid like) Lateral Tooth Tooth is recurved Mesial Carina extends to 3/4 crown height with a lingual twist Denticles parallel to the base Serration Density: Distal: 3.6/mm Mesial: 4.6/mm Additional Example Serration Density: Distal 3/mm, Mesial 5/mm Morph Type 4A (Dromaeosaurid like) Tooth is slightly recurved Mesial Carina extends to base with a lingual twist Denticles parallel to the base Serration Density: Distal: 3.6/mm Mesial: No Serrations Additonal Example Serration Density: Distal 3.3/mm, Mesial: No Serrations
  34. 7 likes
    I've been doing some reading up on Spinosaurus teeth. So, in Results of Prof. E. Stromer's Research Expedition in the Deserts of Egypt there is quite an extensive description of the teeth of the Spinosaurus aegyptiacus holotype. Stromer describes the teeth as being "scarcely to very slightly recurved". But here's where it gets interesting. The enamel is described as such "Their enamel is in general smooth, only at the base is it sometimes finely vertically streaked and so finely wrinkled that one sees it only with the magnifying glass." I'm not sure if it's an artifact of translation from German, but Stromer sometimes uses phrases that seem a little strange, so I'm not quite sure of by "vertically streaked" he means that the enamel is faceted or fluted. the lack of standardised terms can sometimes be really annoying. No vertical streaks appear on Stromer's drawings of the teeth of the holotype. But it is very clear in that most of the enamel is smooth. And the holotype included teeth from both the lower and the upper jaw. Near the end of the paper he also notes that the teeth of Spinosaurus completely lack serration on the keels/carinae. There's also a paper from 2002 that talks about a Spinosaurus specimen from Tunisia and it's implications. A new specimen of Spinosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Tunisia, with remarks on the evolutionary history of the Spinosauridae Here Buffetaut and Ouaja identify a dentary fragment on the jaw and teeth morphology as Spinosaurus cf. aegyptiacus. They also note that the teeth are quite different from those of Baryonyx, which has clear facets on the enamel as well as serrations on the carinae. In A new specimen of the theropod dinosaur Baryonyx from the early Cretaceous of Portugal and taxonomic validity of Suchosaurus you can also see some great pictures of Baryonyx walkeri teeth with facets, serrations and enamel wrinkling. To recap: Spinosaurus aegyptiacus teeth - generally smooth enamel with some wrinkling - if facets are present at all, not as strong as Baryonyx - no serrations on carinae Baryonyx walkeri teeth - faceted crowns with some wrinkling - serrations present on carinae Clearly we need more and better specimens of Spinosaurids from the Kem Kem beds. But, it seems that some teeth could tentatively placed in Baryonychinae or Spinosaurinae, as it might be more likely to be Sigilmassasaurus if serrations are present or Spinosaurus if serrations are absent. Edit: Though I still need to read the whole thing. In the description of Irritator (which is generally considered to be closely related to Spinosaurus and less to Baryonyx) has strong fluting on the tooth crowns like Baryonyx does. It also mentions wrinkles on the enamel of some teeth.
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    Again this is all the real deal, not composites or fakery Not Polished Spines
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    According to this geologic map of Wisconsin: Door County looks to have Silurian aged bedrock. Matches with the age of Stokesoceras. Too old for Scaphopods, I think. Sounds like @Peat Burns is on point! Image from HERE.
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    Hello all! Recently I have been obsessed with cephalopods and realized there is a real lack of reconstructions of the color patterns on extinct nautiloids and ammonites! This led me to compile a list of known fossil color patterns on cephalopods. After a year of on and off research, I found about 90 species of cephalopods retaining official or undescribed, original patterning on their shells. These are the first 15 species on my list. The color markings are based both on descriptions and photographs of the fossil material. The shades of the markings are based on the fossils, but also inferred. I Hope you will appreciate my work!
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    This is a Moroccan village of tents where you can find anything but where FAKES are common. The dealers here are very nice and will start high and negotiate. Here are flats of Dinosaur, Croc and Turtle material where treasures can be found you just need to be knowledgeable. However, its always very difficult to do since most items are Frankenstein and covered with matrix or glue. Great prices
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    Tucson Hotel This is very cool Ammonites from Canada with Mosasaur globidens predation tooth in marks on them on both sides ironosaurus Only Pine cones at I have seen from Germany @Nimravis Snake Eggs @HamptonsDoc Jasper
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    Never be embarrassed... We all have differing areas and levels of fossil knowledge, and chances are if you are uncertain about something, someone else is as well! Some ammonites, particularly from Madagascar with thick ribbing, are colloquially called "tractor ammonites" because that ribbing resembles the tread on tractor tires.
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    The ammonium chloride coating is temporary, it rinses off under running water. It is also the gold standard for fossil photography for publication, due to the significant improvement in visibility of detail. Don
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    My treasures for the day amounted to three teeth from the Aguja Formation of Texas. Two were Tyrannosaurid and a Nodosaurid. The largest at 2 inches. All in all a good day and I had the good opportunity to meet BadlandTraveller a newbie at the show. A great experience for Brett and hopefully not his last visit. We always like Canadians to spend their money in AZ
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    Mostly Dinosaur T Rex Digit 1 Foot Claw Triceratops humerus A Few Triceratops horns Nasal Horn A Pachycephalosaurus Spike its gorgeous. A Carch Tooth Hell Creek Bones Some White River Skulls A Moroccan Mosasaur Skull
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    Interesting day today with the 22nd Street Show opening and having access to the dealers at this venue. Not a lot of good feedback by other attendees and turning into mostly a trinket show with a few key fossil dealers still at this venue. BUT it is still must see for the few good fossil dealers that are there. Tent got even bigger, lots of walking, parking is no longer free $3.00 each visit The Show Tons of Teeth - need Moroccan Shark Teeth this is the place Repaired Otodus Teeth Fake Mosasaur Jaws The Good Stuff Thescelosaurus from Hell Creek A few White River Formation dealers
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    For Dino lovers Toe bones A large dino bone in need of some surgery Ornithomimid Caudal Vertebra, Hell Creek Sorry my bad pic but a pair of Ornithomimid Feet, Hell Creek Anzu Foot Digit, Hell Creek Anzu hand Digit, Hell Creek Theropod Humeri from Hell Creek and Horseshoe Canyon Fm, AB Two Medicine Fm Montana Tyrannosaurid Teeth Thescelosaurus Foot, Hell Creek, Some reconstruction Ceratopsian horn, Hell Creek sitting outside waiting its turn to the room Huge Mammoth Tusk from Alaska -
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    Healthy jaw bone has a higher average density than other types of dense bone. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0088481 This is because it needs to keep all your teeth in place and has to be strong due to talking, biting and chewing. https://www.livestrong.com/article/333829-how-to-increase-jawbone-density-and-strength/ Shark jaws are also one of the densest parts of a shark's cartilage : http://www.fossilguy.com/gallery/vert/fish-shark/remnant.htm More compact, dense bones that have to survive extra stress are more likely to be fossilized (and are harder to eat), so jawbones, tibias, femurs etc. are more likely to be preserved.
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    To add to LT's excellent response. What we also see in the Kem Kem that is different than other faunas is that its Theropod biased with a few sauropods in that mix. Theropods/Sauropods have very thin skull elements making fossilization much more difficult. Couple this with a very high energy environment during fossilization skulls with teeth do not do well. Since teeth are more durable like LT indicated that's what typically remains. Let me also add than other than Tyrannosaurs, theropod skull material with teeth is very rare and not much exist in the Hell Creek/Lance Formation while we have an abundance of theropod teeth.
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    BMoore beat me to it. Most of my stuff is too big (or fragile) for Rikers but not too big for shallow drawers and I could use every unit I can get. The white boxes are not hard to come by and you can buy at a fabric store soft cloth to use under the fossils.
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    I'm thinking it might be a Prodactylioceras. Early Pliensbachian. Davoei zone.
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    When you see these in the literature, they are usually described as boxfish dermal plates.
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