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  1. Female, head disarticulated and displaced. The fish is embedded in a mass of filamentous algae. Alternative combination: Physonemus falcatus. "The genus Physonemus was originally erected for P. arcuatus by McCoy (1848) to receive elegant forwardly-curved, well omamented Paleozoic fin spines of unknown affìnities ... The Paleozoic fin spine Physonemus falcatus St. John and Worthen 1883, from the Valmeyeran St. Louis Limestone of St. Louis, Missouri, has been found on sexually mature males of a small, highly sexually dimorphic chondrichthyan from the Chesterian Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana"
  2. oilshale

    Brachiopod from Bear Gulch - ID?

    Does anyone have any idea what kind of brachiopod this could be? I'm sure we can't identify the species, but maybe the family or even the genus? Carboniferous Serpukhovian Bear Gulch Montana
  3. Taxonomy according to Mapes et al., 2010. Identified by R. Mapes, Department of Geological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, U.S.A. References: Mapes, R. H., Weller, E. A. & Doguzhaeva, L. A. (2010) in Cephalopods—Present and Past (eds Tanabe, K., Shigeta, Y., Sasaki, T. & Hirano, H.) 155‒170 (Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, 2010) Klug, C., Landman, N.H., Fuchs, D. et al. (2019) Anatomy and evolution of the first Coleoidea in the Carboniferous. Commun Biol 2, 280. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0523-2 Whalen, C.D., Landman, N.H. (2022) Fossil co
  4. From the album: Vertebrates

    Wendyichthys lautreci Lund & Poplin 1997 Lower Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath Shale Formation Bear Gulch Montana USA
  5. oilshale

    Discoserra pectinodon LUND, 2000

    Taxonomy from Lund 2000. Diagnosis for the genus Discoserra from Lund 2000, p. 180: "Teeth of the premaxilla, maxilla and dentary long, thin, and styliform. Posterior end of maxilla does not extend back to level of anterior margin of orbit. Parietals excluded from contact in dorsal midline by postrostral 2, which contacts supraoccipital. No transverse supratemporal commissure in supraoccipital. Two rows of paired bones over orbit. One to three interopercular bones; two to three small postspiraculars and a presupracleithrum. Branchiostegals very variable in size, number and shape. Dorsal r
  6. Taxonomy from fossilworks.org. Synonyms: Lingula mytiloides Meek and Worthen 1873 and Lingula umbonata White 1884. From Lutz-Garihan 1979, p. 458: "Shell small, ovate, very light colored, preserved mostly as external or internal molds of undetermined valves. Posterior margins smoothly rounding into lateral margins; greatest width at mid-length or slightly toward anterior. Convexity of valve greatest along antero-posterior line at mid-width, and at apex, convexity then decreases laterally so that cross-section is almost an upside-down V. Surface marked by closely spaced growth lines.
  7. Together with Bryozoa and other Brachiopods. Taxonomy from Fossilworks.org, From Lutz-Garihan 1979, p. 463: “ Shell small; pedicle valve with moderately well-developed ears, convexity unknown because of deformation of shells, but umbo extends somewhat beyond hinge; greatest width at mid-length of valve; ornamentation of pedicle valve consists of rugae and growth lines, some rugae enlarged as nodes occasionally, and in some specimens, some costae develop at about half the distance from posterior but are somewhat irregular; relatively thick spines along hinge and irregularly across val
  8. Taxonomy according to Mickle et al., 2009. The University of Montana, UM Paleontology Center website (Browse Collections - College of Humanities and Sciences / UM Paleontology Center - University Of Montana (umt.edu)) lists "Yogoniscus gulo" as an old taxon on some specimens (but not on all specimens) of Beagiascus pulcherrimus. Obviously, confusion has occurred. Diagnosis from Mickle et al., p. 639: “A lower actinopterygian fish defined by the following combination of characters: elongate fusiform body, narrow in cross section; premaxillae narrowly sutured in midline; nasal notched
  9. Taxonomy according to Schram and Horner, 1978, p. 394. Diagnosis (Schram and Horner, 1978, p. 394): "Rhinocarid of large size; carapace covered with hairlike ornament; furcae about 1 ½ times as long as the telson." Dithyrocaris rolfei, reconstruction from Schram and Horner, 1978, p. 395. Identified by oilshale using Schram and Horner, 1978. References: Schram, F. R. and Horner J. (1978): Crustacea of the Mississippian Bear Gulch Limestone of Central Montana. Journal of Paleontology 52(2):394-406. Factor D. F. and Feldmann R. M. (1985): Systematics
  10. Echinochimaera snyderi belongs to the peculiar looking chimaeras (also called sea cats, ratfish or ghost sharks). Chimaeras possess two dorsal fins; the first dorsal fin is supported by a movable spine associated with a venom gland. Recent sea cats live in all oceans of the world, preferably at depths between 200 and 2000m. This juvenile specimen of Echinochimaera snyderi is most likely a female; adult males are slightly smaller and have a more curved dorsal spine. References: R. Lund. 1988. New Mississippian Holocephali (Chondrichthyes) and the evolution of the Holoceeph
  11. oilshale

    Echinochimaera snyderi Lund, 1988

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Echinochimaera snyderi Lund, 1988 Lower Carboniferous Serpukhovian Bear Gulch Montana USA Lit.: Lund, R. 1988 - New Mississippian Holocephali (Chondrichthyes) and the evolution of the Holocephali. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie C Sciences de la Terre, 53: 195-205. Lund, R. 1977 - Echinochimaera meltoni new genus and species (Chimaeriformes), from the Mississippian of Montana. Annals of Carnegie Museum, 46 (13): 195-221
  12. oilshale

    Fish non det.

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Fish non det. Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Bear Gulch Montana USA
  13. oilshale

    Discoserra pectinodon Lund, 2000

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Discoserra pectinodon Lund, 2000 Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath shale Bear Gulch Montana USA
  14. oilshale

    Fish non det.

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Fish non det. Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath shale Bear Gulch Montana
  15. doushantuo

    squid pro, quondam

    Anatomy and evolution of the first Coleoidea in the Carboniferous. Klug C, Landman NH, Fuchs D, Mapes RH, Pohle A, Guériau P, Reguer S, Hoffmann R Communications Biology,2019 Nature,31 july,2019 edit:about 9 MB I should be shot for that title here @Heteromorph @BobWill
  16. oilshale

    Arborispongia delicatula Rigby 1985

    Lit.: Rigby, J. K. : The sponge fauna from the Mississipian Heath Formation of Central Montana. Congres International de Stratigraphie et de Geologie du Carbonifere Compte Rendu, 9(5) 1985: 443-456. [Zoological Record Volume 122]
  17. Three (partially incomplete) specimens of Tyrannophontes acanthocercus on one plate. The largest specimen is 5cm stretched out. Lit.: R. A. Jenner, C. H. J. Hof, and F. R. Schram. 1998. Palaeo- and archaeostomatopods (Hoplocarida, Crustacea) from the Bear Gulch Limestone, Mississippian (Namurian), of Central Montana. Contributions to Zoology 67(3):155-185
  18. oilshale

    Discoserra pectinodon LUND, 2000

    Taxonomy from Lund 2000. Diagnosis for the genus Discoserra from Lund 2000, p. 180: "Teeth of the premaxilla, maxilla and dentary long, thin, and styliform. Posterior end of maxilla does not extend back to level of anterior margin of orbit. Parietals excluded from contact in dorsal midline by postrostral 2, which contacts supraoccipital. No transverse supratemporal commissure in supraoccipital. Two rows of paired bones over orbit. One to three interopercular bones; two to three small postspiraculars and a presupracleithrum. Branchiostegals very variable in size, number and shape. Dorsal r
  19. oilshale

    ? Productus moorefieldanus Girty

    From the album: Invertebrates

    ? Productus moorefieldanus Girty Early Carboniferous Heath Shale Formation Bear Gulch Fergus County Montana USA
  20. From the album: Vertebrates

    Caridosuctor populosum Lund & Lund, 1984 Heath Shale Formation Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Bear Gulch Montana USA
  21. oilshale

    Reticycloceras sp.

    With soft part preservation. Lit.: Landman, N. H., and R. A. Davis, 1988. "Jaw and crop preserved in an orthoconic nautiloid cephalopod from the Bear Gulch Limestone (Mississippian, Montana)." Mapes, R. S. 1987. "Upper Paleozoic cephalopod mandibles: frequency of occurrence, modes of preservation, and paleoecological implications". Journal of Paleontology 61: 521-538.
  22. Taxonomy from Fossilworks.org.Can also be found in Mazon Creek. References: F. R. Schram (1979): Worms of the Mississippian Bear Gulch Limestone of central Montana, USA. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History. Volume 19, No 9, pp 107-120
  23. doushantuo

    Carboniferous fish of the USA

    LUND The new Actinopterygian order Guildayichthyiformes from the Lower Carboniferous of Montana (USA) Richard LUND GEODIVERSITAS • 2000 • 22 (2)
  24. oilshale

    Reticycloceras sp.

    From the album: Invertebrates

    Reticycloceras sp. Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath Shale Formation Bear Gulch Montana USA
  25. Janvier, P. & Lund, R. 1983 – Hardistiella montaniensis from the Lower Carboniferous of Montana with remarks on the affinity of the lampreys. J. Vert. Paleont. 2, 407-413. Janvier, P. & Lund, R. 1986 – A second lamprey from the Lower Carboniferous of Bear Gulch Montana. Geobios 19, 647-652. Robert S. Sansom, Sarah E. Gabbott, and Mark A. Purnell Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record Proc. R. Soc. B. 2011 278 1709 1150-1157
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