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Found 24 results

  1. Equus caballus (Linaeus 1758)

    From the album Vertebrates (other than fish)

    7.5cm. long tooth. Obtained on a trade with Strepsodus. Pleistocene North Sea
  2. Horse Metacarpal Bone?

    I found this in Dallas County, Texas. I am not sure if it is part of a bison or horse or donkey, etc (equus)..... Any help is appreciated. Thank you!
  3. Closer look at Horse teeth

    I have been working with Shellseeker in PM's on identifying several horse teeth found in the Peace River this spring. His input has been extremely helpful and we have narrowed down almost all. The two shown here raised the question as to whether they are Equus or Nannippus based on size (length/crown). I am posting them here hoping for additional input on classification. They are numbered 3 & 4 as they are part of a series we were evaluating. Any input would be greatly appreciated. The red/pink ruler is inches. The blue is metric and provided to give a close up of the crown of each.
  4. Possible Pleistocene Equus tooth?

    Hello again forum! I found this tooth eroded out of a cliff on the coast in Santa Barbara county, California. I'm fairly certain it is an upper m3 molar of an Equus but have been unable to determine the species or age of it. There is some matrix cemented onto the tooth face that I tried picking off but it is quite hard and wasn't being cooperative so I stopped to not damage it. Anyone have any leads that could point to it being either a Pleistocene or just older modern tooth? Or tips on how to remove the tooth face matrix without giving it a root canal? Thanks very much!
  5. Saturday at Peace

    Saturday is the day I am least likely to go fossil hunting but yesterday was the exception. Another gorgeous day, sun shining, birds chirping.. I also had some interesting finds ... Some equus teeth and mammoth chunks upper left, bones upper right and a few dolphin bullas under the bones. Nothing special like tusks or large Megs. The tiny tooth lower center is a Mako: One of the mammal bones is a 1.5 inch cubonavicular, a little larger than deer (I think) may be Bos because it is not river worn.. Then a 1.25 inch small canine, I love finding canines... Found a bunch of gator teeth, including these... odd longitudinal lines, Finally this 1/2 long inch molar. There is lots of diversity and variations on the Peace. It has been collecting for millions of years. Every day is an adventure. I am so lucky to have this hobby, and this location.
  6. Incisor

    Hello, I found this tooth today in a creek here in Austin, TX. Thanks in advance
  7. Horse Tooth Growth

    I have been OUT this week... twice to the Peace River. It is hard to communicate how happy that makes me. Neither adventure found a large volume, but there were a couple of high quality fossils, even 2 very similar. 1st on Monday. Horse teeth form below the gum line, 1st the enamel "cap", then from looking at this one the dentine, and finally the roots. I have an enamel cap, no dentine, without the roots. This horse dies at a very young age while the tooth was forming. I'm thinking this may be mighty small for Equus, but that may be because I am fixated on pre_Equus small horses. Interesting, but then maybe the fossil gods are sending me a message. On Wednesday, I went back out to a different location and found ANOTHER very similar tooth... Once again, Enamel cap & dentine, but no roots... In this case, the tooth is used !! chewed on.. How does that happen?? I am missing something here. This is a bigger tooth, Equus but the width is still very small at 8mm. I might have to send an email to Richard Hulbert, but I am hoping that someone else has traveled this path of understanding horse teeth growth. I am going to submit and add the occlusal and root view as a reply... Jack
  8. Horse teeth

    I have a few horse teeth I’ve found beachcombing, mostly after big storms. I have two that are really wide, I was thinking maybe it could be a camel tooth or something or maybe the other ones aren’t whole? I’ll put a few more pics below because I can only upload 4mb at a time
  9. Archaeohippus mannulus, sp. nov. Monroecreekian/Harrisonian terrestrial claystone Arikareean, late Oligocene/early Miocene Pinellas County, Florida On permanent display at the Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Fl. I discovered this particular specimen back in 95 while collecting fossils in a shallow creek. Initially thought to be a new species of Miohippus, it was sent to the Museum Of Natural History in Gainesville Fl. for further studies. In 2003 it was determined to be a new species of Archaeohippus rather than Miohippus.
  10. Hunting between thunderstorms and deeper water. During the rest of the season, I note those places where I am finding fossils but have low water conditions...because of lower back issues, I generally refuse to hunt where I must bend over the screen. However, I do remember where such spots exist for days like today. An excellent day, some unusual, finds, a couple of megs, and then these: A odd bone, I have not previously found, but believe to be an Equus Splint bone: Another interesting fossil which I think most likely a large Sloth dermal scute. Finally, my best find of the day, a piece of jaw with a Hemiauchenia m3 molar in nice cream - brown colors.. These are really nice finds... but I was cherishing the end days of the 2017-2018 season with a friend on a day with sunshine in the morning and rain clouds later in the day. Does not get better than this... Jack
  11. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 26, 2018. Order Perissodactyla Family Equidae - The Horses Eocene Equidae Badiola, A., et al. (2002). First record of the genus Leptolophus Remy, 1965 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) in the late Eocene (Priabonian) of Europe. Geodiversitas, 24(4). D'Ambrosia, A.R., et al. (2014). Stable isotope patterns found in early Eocene equid tooth rows of North America: Implications for reproductive behavior and paleoclimate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 414. Danilo, L., et al. (2013). A New Eocene Locality in Southern France Sheds Light on the Basal Radiation of Palaeotheriidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equoidea). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(1). Franzen, J.L., C. Aurich and J. Habersetzer (2015). Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis. PLoS ONE, 10(10). Froehlich, D.J. (2002). Quo vadis eohippus? The systematics and taxonomy of the early Eocene equids (Perissodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 134. Granger, W. (1908). A Revision of the American Eocene Horses. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XXIV, Article XV. Kitts, D.B. (1957). A Revision of the Genus Orohippus (Perissodactyla, Equidae). American Museum Novitates, Number 1864. Masciale, D.M. (2010). An Analysis of Anchitherine Equids Across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in the White River Group of the Western Great Plains. Masters Thesis - University of Nebraska. Rej, J.E. and S.G. Lucas (2016). Morphological Comparison of Two Early Eocene Horse Taxa: Minippus of New Mexico and Sifrhippus from Wyoming. In: Fossil Record 5. Sullivan, R.M. and S.G. Lucas (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 74. Remy, J.A., G. Krasovec and B. Marandat (2016). A new species of Propalaeotherium (Palaeotheriidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Middle Eocene locality of Aumelas (Herault, France). Palaeovertebrata, Vol.40(2). Rose, K.D., L.T. Holbrook and W.P. Luckett (2017). Deciduous premolars of Eocene Equidae and their phylogenetic significance. Historical Biology, 2017. Scott, W.B. (1891). On the Osteology of Mesohippus and Leptomeryx With Observations on the Modes and Factors of Evolution in the Mammalia. Journal of Morphology, Vol.5, Number 3. Secord, R., et al. (2012). Evolution of the Earliest Horses Driven by Climate Change in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science, Vol.335, Number 6071. Oligocene Equidae Farr, M.S. (1896). Notes on the Osteology of the White River Horses. The American Philosophical Society. Lambe, L.M. (1905). On The Tooth-Structure of Mesohippus westoni (Cope). The American Geologist, Vol.XXXV. McGrew, P.O. (1953). A New and Primitive Early Oligocene Horse from Trans-Pecos, Texas. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.10, Number 15. Osborn, H.F. (1904).New Oligocene Horses. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Volume XX, Article XIII. Prothero, D.R. and N. Shubin (1989). 10. The Evolution of Oligocene Horses. In: The Evolution of Perissodactyls. D.R. Prothero and R.M. Schoch (eds.), Oxford University Press. Scott, W.B. (1891). On the Osteology of Mesohippus and Leptomeryx With Observations on the Modes and Factors of Evolution in the Mammalia. Journal of Morphology, Vol.5, Number 3. Miocene Equidae Miocene Equidae - Africa/Middle East Bernor, R.L. (2007). The Latest Miocene Hipparionine (Equidae) from Lemudong'o, Kenya. Kirtlandia, Number 56. Bernor, R.L. (1985). Systematic and Evolutionary Relationships of the Hipparionine Horses from Maragheh, Iran (Late Miocene, Turolian Age). Palaeovertebrata, 15(4). Bernor, R.L. and R.S. Scott (2003). New interpretations of the systematics, biogeography and paleoecology of the Sahabi hipparions (latest Miocene)(Libya). Geodiversitas, 25(2). Bernor, R.L., N.T. Boaz and L. Rook (2012). Eurygnathohippus feibeli (Perissodactyla: Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of As Sahabi (Libya) and its Evolutionary and Biogeographic Significance. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 51(1). Bernor, R.L., R.S. Scott and Y. Haile-Selassie (2005). A contribution to the evolutionary history of Ethiopian hipparionine horses (Mammalia, Equidae): morphometric evidence from the postcranial skeleton. Geodiversitas, 27(1). Bernor, R.L., T.M. Kaiser and S.V. Nelson (2004). The Oldest Ethiopian Hipparion (Equinae, Perissodactyla) from Chorora: Systematics, Paleodiet and Paleoclimate. Cour.Foursch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 246. Forsten, A. (1978). Hipparion and possible Iberian-North African Neogene connections. Ann.Zool. Fennici, 15. Franz-Odendaal, T.A., T.M. Kaiser and R.L. Bernor (2003). Systematics and dietary evaluation of a fossil equid from South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 99. Koufos, G.D. and T.D. Vlachou (2005). Equidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the late Miocene of Akkasdagi, Turkey. In: Geology, mammals and environments at Akkasdagi, late Miocene of Central Anatolia. Sen, S. (ed.), Geodiversitas, 27(4). Koufos, G.D. and D.S. Kostopoulos (1994). The late Miocene mammal localities of Kemiklitepe, Turkey: 3. Equidae. Bull.Mus.natl.Hist.nat., Paris, 4e ser.,16. Pickford, M. (2001). Equidae in the Ngorora Formation, Kenya, and the First Appearance of the Family in East Africa. Revista Española de Paleontología, 16(2). Scott, R.S. and M. Maga (2005). Paleoecology of the Akkaşdaği hipparions (Mammalia, Equidae), late Miocene of Turkey. Geodiversitas, 27(4). Scott, R.S., et al. (2003). 16. The Abundance of "Hipparion". In: The Geology and Paleontology of the Miocene Sinap Formation, Turkey. Fortelius, M., et al. (eds.), Columbia University Press. Watabe, M. and H. Nakaya (1991). Cranial Skeletons of Hipparion (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from Maragheh (Turolian, Late Miocene), Northwest Iran. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Series of Geol. & Mineral., Vol.LVI, Nunbers 1&2. Miocene Equidae - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Akhtar, M., et al. (2009). Hipparion from the Dhok Pathan Formation of the Middle Siwaliks, Pakistan. Punjab Univ.J.Zool., Vol.24(1-2). Babar, M.A., et al. (2016). Sivalhippus nagriensis (Equidae, Mammalia) from Dhok Pathan Formation of Siwaliks, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 26(4). Colbert, E.H. (1939). A New Anchitheriine Horse from the Tung Gur Formation of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 1019. Deng, T. (2006). Paleoecological comparison between late Miocene localities of China and Greece based on Hipparion faunas. Geodiversitas, 28(3). Deng, T. and X.-M. Wang (2004). Late Miocene Hipparion (Equidae, Mammalia) of Eastern Qaidam Basin in Qinghai, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 42(4). Deng, T., et al. (2016). The Late Miocene Hipparion (Equidae, Perissodactyla) fossils from the Baogeda Ula, Inner Mongolia, China. Historical Biology, 28(1-2). Eronen, J.T., et al. (2014). Here be Dragons: Mesowear and tooth enamel isotopes of the classic Chinese "Hipparion" faunas from Baode, Shanxi Province, China. Ann.Zool. Fennici, 51. Forsten, A. (1982). The Taxonomic Status of the Miocene Horse Genus Sinohippus. Palaeontology, Vol. 25, Part 3. Hanif, M., et al. (2017). New Hipparionine (Perissodactyla) Fossils from Potwar Plateau of Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., Vol.49(5). Hou, S.-K., et al. (2007). New Materials of Sinohippus from Gansu and Nei Mongol, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 45(3). Ikram, T., et al. (2016). Additional Fossils of Sivilhippus theobaldi (Mammalia, Equidae) from the Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan. Sci.Int.(Lahore), 28(3). Iqbal, M., et al (2009). Some New Remains of Hipparion from the Dhok Pathan Type Locality, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 19(3). Khan, M.A., et al. (2014). Some New Remains of Hipparionine (Equidae: Mammalia) from Dhok Pathan Upper Miocene, Northern Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., 46(2). Khan, M.A., et al. (2011). A New Collection of Hipparionine from the Type Locality of the Dhok Pathan Formation of the Middle Siwaliks. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 21(1). Li, Y., et al. (2017). Assessment of dental ontogeny in late Miocene hipparionines from the Lamagou fauna of Fugu, Shaanxi Province, China. PLoS ONE, 12(4). Miyata, K. and Y. Tomida (2010). Anchitherium (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equidae) from the Early Miocene Hiramaki Formation, Gifu Prefecture, Japan, And its Implication for the Early Diversification of Asian Anchitherium. J.Paleont., 84(4). Qiu, Z.-X. and J. Xie (1998). Notes on Parelasmotherium and Hipparion Fossils from Wangji, Dongxiang, Gansu. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 36(1). Sun, B.-Y. (2013). The Miocene Hipparion (Equidae, Perissodactyla) from Shihuiba Locality, Lufeng, Yunnan. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 51(2). Sun, B.-Y., et al. (2018). Sivalhippus ptychodus and Sivalhippus platyodus (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of China. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.124(1). Tariq, M. and N. Jahan (2012). Paleoecology of Hipparion sp. (Equidae-Hipparionini) from latest Miocene of Padhri, northern Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 58 (1&2). Watabe, M. (2011). Morphologic Comparison of Cranial and Postcranial Material of Chinese and Other Holarctic Hipparionine Horses. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 49(3). Ye, J., W.Y. Wu and J. Meng (2005). Anchitherium from the Middle Miocene Halamagai Formation of Northern Junggar Basin, Xinjiang. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43(2). Miocene Equidae - Europe (including Siberia and Greenland) Bernor, R.L., H.-W. Mittmann and F. Rogl (1993). Systematics and Chronology of the Gotzendorf "Hipparion" (Late Miocene, Pannonian F, Vienna Basin). Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, 95A. Bernor, R.L., et al. (2017). The Pannonian C hipparions from the Vienna Basin. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 476. Bernor, R.L., et al. (2011). Systematics and Paleobiology of Hippotherium malpassii n.sp. (Equidae, Mammalia) from the latest Miocene of Baccinello V3 (Tuscany, Italy). Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 50(3). Bernor, R.L., et al. (2003). An Evaluation of the Late MN9 (Late Miocene, Vallesian Age), Hipparion Assemblage from Rudabanya (Hungary): Systematic Background, Functional Anatomy and Paleoecology. Coloquios de Paleontologia, Vol. Ext.1. Bernor, R.L., et al. (1999). Stratigraphic Context, Systematic Position and Paleoecology of Hippotherium sumegense Kretzoi, 1984 from MN 10 (Late Vallesian of the Pannonian Basin). Mitt.Bayer.Staatslg.Palaont.hist.Geol., 39. Bernor, R.L., et al. (1993). Systematics and Chronology of the Gotzendorf "Hipparion" (Late Miocene, Pannonian F, Vienna Basin.Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 95. Bernor, R.L., et al. (1988). Systematic, Stratigraphic and Paleoenvironmental Contexts of First-Appearing Hipparion in the Vienna Basin, Austria. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 8(4). Delinschi, A. (2009). Contribution to the Study of Maeotian Hipparion Faunas from the Republic of Moldova. Muzeul Olteniei Craiova, Vol.XXV. Deng, T. (2006). Paleoecological comparison between late Miocene localities of China and Greece based on Hipparion faunas. Geodiversitas, 28(3). Domingo, L., et al. (2009). 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(1913). Notes on Equus capensis Broom. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XXXII, Article XXV. Churcher, C.S. (1970). The Fossil Equidae from the Krugersdorp Caves. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.26, Part 6. Franz-Odendall, T.A., T.M. Kaiser, and R.L. Bernor (2003). Systematics and dietary evaluation of a fossil equid from South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 99. General Equidae - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Bernor, R.L., Z. Qiu and L-A.C. Hayek (1990). Systematic Revision of Chinese Hipparion Species. American Museum Novitates, Number 2984. Colbert, E.H. (1935). Distributional and Phylogenetic Studies on Indian Fossil Mammals II. The Correlation of the Siwaliks of India as Inferred by the Migration of Hipparion and Equus. American Museum Novitates, Number 797. Deng, T. and X. Xue (1999). Phylogenetic relationships of the Chinese fossil species of the genus Equus (Perissodactyla, Equidae). Science in China (Series D), Vol.42, Number 5. Forsten, A. and S. Sharapov (2000). Fossil equids (Mammalia, Equidae) from the Neogene and Pleistocene of Tadzhikistan. Geodiversitas, 22(2). Iqbal, M., et al. (2013). Morphological Study of Upper Dentition of Tertiary Hipparion. Sci.Int., 25(2). Jokela, T., et al. (2005). Translation of Otto Zdansky's "The Localities of the Hipparion Fauna of Baode County in Northwest Shanxi" (1923). Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 1. MacFadden, B.J. and A. Bakr (1979). The Horse Cormohipparion theobaldi from the Neogene of Pakistan, With Comments on Siwalik Hipparions. Palaeontology, Vol.22, Part 2. General Equidae - Europe (including Siberia and Greenland) Kaushik, N. (2009). A Quantitative analysis of European Horses from Pleistocene to Holocene. Ph.D. Dissertation - Instituto Politecnico de Tomar - Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro. General Equidae - North America Downs, T. and G.J. Miller (1994). Late Cenozoic Equids from the Anza-Borrego Desert of California. Contributions to Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 440. Famoso, N.A. and E.B. Davis (2014). Occlusal Enamel Complexity in Middle Miocene to Holocene Equids (Equidae: Perissodactyla) of North America. PLoS ONE, 9(2). Gidley, J.W. (1906). A New Genus of Horse from the Mascall Beds, with Notes on a Small Collection of Equine Teeth in the University of California.Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XXII, Article XXII. Gidley, J.W. (1901). Tooth Characters and Revision of the North American Species of the Genus Equus. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XIV, Article IX. MacFadden, B.J. 13. Terrestrial Mammalian Herbivore Response to Declining Levels of Atmospheric CO2 During the Cenozoic: Evidence from North American Fossil Horses (Family Equidae). Maguire, K.C. (2008). Paleobiogeography of Miocene to Pliocene Equinae of North America: A Phylogenetic Biogeographic and Niche Modeling Approach. Masters Thesis - Ohio University. (195 pages) Mihlbachler, M.C., et al. (2011). Dietary Change and Evolution of Horses in North America. Science, Vol.331. Osborn, H.F. (1918). Equidae of the Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene of North America, Iconographic Type Revision. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History; new ser., Vol.2, Part 1. (168 MB) Semprebon, G.M., et al. (2016). Paleodietary reconstruction of fossil horses from the Eocene through Pleistocene of North America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 442. Waldrop, J. (1969). Fossil Horses of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 9. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing this one out!) Wang, Y., T.E. Cerling and B.J. MacFadden (1994). Fossil horses and carbon isotopes: new evidence for Cenozoic dietary, habitat and ecosystem changes in North America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 107. General Equidae - South America/Central America/Caribbean Carranza-Castaneda, O. and L. Espinoza-Arrubarrena (1994). Late Tertiary Equids from the State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.11, Number 2. Orlando, L., et al. (2003). Morphological Covergence in Hippidion and Equus (Amerhippus). South American Equids Elucidated by Ancient DNA Analysis. J. Mol. Evol., 57. Prado, J.L. and M.T. Alberdi (1994). A Quantitative Review of the Horse Equus from South America. Paleontology, Vol. 37, Part 2. General Equidae Azzaroli, A. (1992). Ascent and decline of mondactyl equids: a case for prehistoric overkill. Ann.Zool.Fennici, 28. Bassiakos, Y., et al. (1992). Variation of U-Microdistribution in Fossil Hipparion Teeth as a Complicating Factor in Dating Studies. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry,Articles, Vol.158, Number 2. Bennett, D. (2008). The Evolution of the Horse: History and Techniques of Study. Bennett, D. (2008). Introduction to Horse Evolution: Anatomical Characteristics, Classification, and the Stratigraphic Record. Brophy, G.P. and T.M. Hatch (1962). Recrystallization of Fossil Horse Teeth. The American Mineralogist, Vol.47. Chubb, S.H. (1912). Notes on the Trapezium in the Equidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XXXI, Article XII. Cucchi, T., et al. (2017). Detecting taxonomic and phylogenetic signals in equid cheek teeth: towards new palaeontological and archaeological proxies. R.Soc. open sci., 4: 160997. Dickerson, M.C. (ed.)(1913). Evolution of the Horse. American Museum of Natural History, Guide Leaflet Series, Number 36. Contains: Matthew, W.D. Evolution of the Horse in Nature. Chubb, S.H. The Horse Under Domestication: Its Origin and the Structure and Growth of the Teeth. Eisenmann, V. (2004). Equus: an evolution without lineages? 18th International Senckenberg Conference 2004 in Weimar. Eisenmann, V. and M. Baylac (2000). Extant and fossil Equus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) skulls: a morphometric definition of the subgenus Equus. Zoologica Scripta, 29. Eisenmann, V., J. Howe and M. Pichardo (2008). Old World Hemiones and New World Slender Species (Mammalia, Equidae). Palaeovertebrata, 36. Eisenmann, V., et al. (1987). Is Horse Phylogeny Becoming a Playfield in the Game of Theoretical Evolution? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 7(2). Eronen, J.T., et al. (2009). The Impact of Regional Climate Change on the Evolution of Mammals: A Case Study Using Fossil Horses. Evolution, 64-2. Evander, R.L. (2008). Craniometry of the Equidae Part I: Two-Dimensional Shape Analysis. Paludicola, 7(1). Evander, R.L. (2004). A Revised Dental Nomenclature for Fossil Horses. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Number 285. Evans, A.R. and C.M. Janis (2014). The evolution of high dental complexity in the horse lineage. Ann.Zool. Fennici, 51:1. Ewart, J.C. The Development of the Skeleton of the Limbs of the Horse, With Observations on Polydactyly. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. Forsten, A. (1992). Mitochondrial-DNA time-table and the evolution of Equus: comparison of molecular and paleontological evidence.Ann.Zool.Fennici, 28. Forsten, A. (1982). Indices in equid systematics and phylogeny. Ann. Zool. Fennici, 19. Forsten, A. and V. Eisenmann (1995). Equus (Plesippus) simplicidens not Dolichohippus. Mammalia, Vol.59, Number 1. Gregory, W.K. (1920). Studies in Comparative Myology and Osteology, No. V - On the Anatomy of the Preorbital Fossae of Equids and Other Ungulates. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XLII, Article III. Hayek, L.C., et al. (1992). Preliminary studies of hipparionine horse diet as measured by tooth microwear. Ann.Zool.Fennici, 28. Kafena, E., et al. (2012). Discordances between morphological systematics and molecular taxonomy in the stem line of equids: a review of the case of taxonomy of the genus Equus. Livestock Science, 143. Kaiser, T.M. and N. Solounias (2003). Extending the tooth mesowear method to extinct and extant equids. Geodiversitas, 25(2). Kaiser, T.M. and Fortelius, M. (2003). Differentiated Mesowear in Occluding Upper and Lower Molars: Opening Mesowear Analysis for Lower Molars and Premolars in Hypsodont Horses. Journal of Morphology, 258. Kitts, D.B. (1957). A Revision of the Genus Orohippus (Perissodactyla:Equidae).American Museum Novitates, Number 1864. Liu, H.-K. (1961). Length and Breadth Relationship in the Cheek Teeth of Equus. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 1961(1). MacFadden, B.J. (1988). Fossil horses from "Eohippus" (Hyracotherium) to Equus, 2: rates of dental evolution revisited. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 35. MacFadden, B.J. and M.F. Skinner (1979). Diversification and Biogeography of the One-Toed Horses Onohippidium and Hippidion. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 175. MacFadden, B.J., et al. (2012). Fossil Horses, Orthogenesis, and Communicating Evolution in Museums. Evo.Edu. Outreach. Orlando, L., et al. (2013). Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse. Nature, Vol.499. Orlando, L., et al. (2009). Revisiting the recent evolutionary history of equids using ancient DNA. PNAS, Vol.106, Number 51. Osborn, H.F. (1912).Craniometry of the Equidae. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History; new ser., Vol.1, Part 3. O'Sullivan, J.A. (2008). 8. Evolution of the Proximal Third Phalanx in Oligocene-Miocene Equids, and the Utility of Phalangeal Indices in Phylogeny Reconstruction. In: Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology - A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay. Sargis, E.J. and M. Dagosto (eds.), Springer. Prado, J.L. and M.T. Alberdi (1996). A Cladistic Analysis of the Horses of the Tribe Equini.Paleontology, Vol. 39, Part 3. Purzyc, H. (2009). Sexual Dimorphism in Hucul Horse Based on Selected Morphometric Traits. Acta Sci.Pol., Medicina Veterinaria, 8(2). Rensberger, J.M., A. Forsten and M. Fortelius (1984). Functional evolution of the cheek tooth pattern and chewing direction in Tertiary horses. Paleobiology, 10(4). Riggs, E.S. (1932). The Geological History and Evolution of the Horse. Field Museum of Natural History, Geology Leaflet 13. Scott, E. and J.R. Rooney (2001). Non-articular periostosis of a proximal phalanx of Equus conversidens. PaleoBios, 21(2). Secord, R., et al. (2012). Evolution of the Earliest Horses Driven by Climate Change in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Paper 310. Solounias, N. and G. Semprebon (2002). Advances in the Reconstruction of Ungulate Ecomorphology with Application to Early Fossil Equids. American Museum Novitates, Number 3366. Solounias, N., et al. (2018). The evolution and anatomy of the horse manus with an emphasis on digit reduction. R.Soc. open sci., 5: 171782. Sondaar, P.Y. (1968). The Osteology of the Manus of Fossil and Recent Equidae. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, First Series, Part XXV, Number 1. (Thanks to doushantuo for locating this one!) Spasskaya, N.N. (2014). Inherited dental anomalies in the horse (Equidae, Equus caballus). Russian J.Theriol., 13(1). Stirton, R.A. (1947). Observations on Evolutionary Rates in Hypsodonty. Evolution, 1. Stromberg, C.A.E. (2006). Evolution of hypsodonty in equids: testing a hypothesis of adaptation. Paleobiology, 32(2). Tobien, H. (1992). On the fossae nudatae in the basipodia of Equus and of some fossil tridactyl horses (Equidae:Mammalia). Ann.Zool.Fennici, 28. Tutken, T., et al. (2013). Opportunistic Feeding Strategy for the Earliest Old World Hypsodont Equids: Evidence from Stable Isotope and Dental Wear Proxies. PLoS ONE, 8(9).
  12. I've been wanting to get back to the Peace River since I first ventured out this fossil hunting season back in early February. Back then the water was over a foot higher and much colder--the air temps were in the mid-60s and the water was a chilly 62F. I decided this was a good day to test my new chest-high waders. I ventured into a spot I like to visit when I'm on this section of the Peace as it has some pretty coarse gravel. While it doesn't produce a lot of finds they tend to me more interesting. I waded out to the small patch of gravel at the leading edge of a sandbar but before I could reach the spot I found myself on tippy-toes trying to find a shallow path while the water rose to within an inch or so of the top of my waders. Somehow gathering more than my usual amount of common sense I decided to turn around rather than risk scuttling my new waders with a catastrophic flood. While searching around for another path to this gravel exposure I tried various approached though none were successful in attaining the desired location in the river that was tantalizingly close. While I walk the river I usually have my fiberglass probe (The Probulator 3000TM) in one hand pushing the tip into the sand with each step to test for any gravel crunch. Much to my surprise I was detecting a decent layer of gravel well downstream from the tiny outcrop on the leading upstream edge of the sandbar where I usually hunt. I have probed around this area before and only detected sand save for this one tiny area. Though I had found gravel in water that was a bit shallower I couldn't stay long as I had to be real careful to not bend over much while digging for gravel as it would have meant cold water down the waders. I couldn't lift as much with my legs and my lower back was soon very vocal in its complaint of the shifted workload. My upper body was also getting quite chilled as my long-sleeved shirt (good for solar protection) was getting soaked as usual but the brisk breeze was doing an efficient job at evaporative cooling quickly dropping my core body temp. I could only work for about 15-20 minute blocks before having to sit in the canoe and try to warm up my gradually numbing fingers. Instead, I conceded and made a mental not to return to investigate this increased exposure of gravel next time. I had hoped to get out last weekend but there was a bit of a cold front moving through Florida and the chance for rain shifted from late Saturday and on into Sunday to instead start mid-morning. I've been on the Peace when passing showers have opened up and spilled some precipitation down from above--not so bad on a warm day but not optimal for preserving core body temperature on a cooler day. Saint Patrick's Day weekend looked to have weather much more conducive to standing around half submerged in a river. The water temperature had risen to a relatively balmy 70F and the air temp was forecast to be an unseasonably warm 85F--unexpected as this was still technically winter with the Spring Equinox still two days hence. I had guests visiting and staying over on Friday night so it was not possible to get to the river on Saturday as I usually do but Sunday was clear. The morning started off a bit cool. I was up at 3:30am and out the door by 4:00am. The trip cross-state over the top of Lake Okeechobee and on into Arcadia was quiet (as it usually is that time of morning). I usually monitor the outside air temp on the car thermometer and watch it dip as I leave coastal Florida and cross over through its less populated center. I usually expect the temps to dip several degrees but this time I went from 67F as I left my neighborhood to the usual dip to near 60F. This time it continued even more and bottomed out at the nadir of 49F for a brief moment before rebounding into the 60s as we approached Arcadia. Most of the trip on two lane highway 70 was made more interesting by a thick coat of fog that approached white-out conditions a few times. It can be rather difficult to locate the road when the oncoming headlights of an approaching vehicle light swirling fog in an effect worthy of a Pink Floyd concert from the 1970's. We arrived without issue and went through the normal procedure of checking in at Canoe Outpost and riding the old blue school bus with canoe-laden trailer in tow to Brownville Park where we departed from the boat ramp into a white ethereal mist. For some reason the Earl Scruggs song "Foggy Mountain Breakdown" came to mind. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQIJuu3N5EY Since we decided not to spend time at our normal spots further upstream, we soon left the rest of the canoes in our group as we headed off downstream into the dreamlike fog. The heavy mist also muffled sounds a bit so it was peacefully quiet and most befitting of its name. For some time we heard nothing more than the sounds of our paddles and a few species of birds calling. It was well worth the effort of the early departure just to experience this quiet time on the river. We saw some ducks who took to flight at our approach and enjoyed seeing some Great Blue Herons, Great Egrets, and Little Blue Herons hunting for a fishy breakfast along the banks of the river. There were lots of Cardinals, Gray Catbirds, and Belted Kingfishers in the trees that we would frequently spot flitting about or calling out to each other. Tammy mentioned that in all of the trips down the Peace that we had never seen an owl and she wished that for once she could see one here. Apparently, the officials at the Wish Granting Department had a light schedule this morning as, within 5 minutes of uttering this desire, she looked up into a tree at the edge of the river to spot a Barred Owl watching from its perch as we floated by. I pulled out the camera and we circled back for the photo. As we were leaving we saw the bird take flight. It is amazing how a bird this size can move on such stealthy wings as to be so utterly silent in flight. Our morning was made and I hadn't even broken out the shovel & sifting screen nor dipped foot into the water yet. I figured if this was a day for wishing that I'd put in my order for a reasonably complete mastodon tooth. These teeth are seemingly as fragile as mammoth teeth and mostly I've only found small but very distinctive (because of their thick pearlescent enamel in cross-section) chunks. I was fortunate enough to find a complete Colombian Mammoth tooth a few years back with John @Sacha but mastodon in anything but tiny fragments has so far eluded me. I made my wish and we continued to our destination. In time we made it down to my favorite sandbar and spent this entire trip focusing on seeing what this gravel had to offer. I couldn't determine if this was a new extended layer of fresh gravel that Hurricane Irma had chosen to spread out more evenly across the top of this sandbar or if the storm (and ensuing raging torrent) had stripped off a thick cap of sand uncovering an older previously-inaccessible gravel layer underneath. The water was lower that last time (and quite a bit warmer). No waders this time and after a few minutes for by legs to acclimate (read this as "becoming numb") I slowly worked my way into deeper water probing around with the Probulator and mapping out the extend of this newly expanded gravel. Tammy (being the wiser of the two) decided the morning was still too chilly for direct skin contact chose to sit in the canoe at the side of the river and drink from her thermos of hot tea. The river flow at this point in the river was nearly imperceptible (my tethered sifting screen occasionally floating slowly upstream rather than downstream). Being creative, Tammy decided that she could paddle out and position the canoe nearby and see what I was doing without the discomfort of standing in a river on a chilly morning before the sun was able to warm things up sufficiently. The sun finally burned off the morning fog and before long the sun's rays were counteracting the chilly water making the environmental conditions near optimal for standing around in a river. I got to work scouting out the extents of the gravel and picking some novel spots that I'd not dug before to see if I could detect some virgin gravel with worthy finds (nothing is worse than digging in spoil pile gravel with all of the work and none of the payoff). Before long some nice finds started appearing in the sifting screen. Because of the chunkiness of the gravel at this spot I choose to use my sifting screen with the 1/2" mesh rather than the finer 1/4" mesh screen. As a result, I found almost no smaller shark teeth (just a few larger ones that were not small enough to slip between the mesh back into the Peace). The gravel in this extended area was just as chunky as the former minor occurrence at the leading edge of the sandbar. It can bit a bit difficult to get a shovel into and a lot of wiggling around of the handle is necessary to slowly work the tip of the spade down between the stony chunks. Every now and then a shovel size chunk of matrix comes up on the shovel and threatens to sink the sifting screen with its bulk. I've learned to toss these behind me with reasonable care so as not to spray myself with the resultant depth-charge splash of chucking these bowling ball size chunks with too much vigor. There are some days on the Peace when even somewhat common items like horse teeth can be elusive. Today was not one of those days. The first horse tooth was a nice specimen of an upper Equus molar. It was soon followed by a nice lower Equus (the lowers are more thin and elongate to fit into the more narrow mandible). You can see the comparison of the two below.
  13. Hi! I found a skull online, and think it looks great. But I'm not sure if it is a skull from a modern horse, or if it is a fossil skull. Can you see if it looks modern or very old? Cause I can't decide of my own if it is a "to good to be truth" skull.
  14. Equus Metatarsal?

    I believe this to be a horse metatarsal, most likely Equus. But am wondering since it was found in mixed Pleistocene / Pliocene sediments if it could be a Pliocene species. That is saying it is horse of course, you know Mr. Edd. It was found in a quarry in eastern NC that contains Pliocene Yorktown formation and a Pleistocene pebble lag. It was protruding from a sloped area that extended down into a shallow pit. The sediments pushed down were mixed Yorktown and the pebble lag. Mammal fossils are uncommon in North Carolina and they are usually teeth. Bones, especially complete are almost unheard of.
  15. Jaw section in question

    Good evening, I've found this section a year ago and since then kept it in our garden. I took a second look at it tonight and thought it might be my first camel jaw piece. I found this along a creek in Travis county, thanks
  16. Horse Tooth Size

    So I found a relatively small horse tooth. It is not hard to do. There are lots of Horse teeth in the Peace River, most of which are large but there are lots of small ones. A reason that this gets interesting is that Equus .sp is the most common horse species in the Peace River and goes back maybe 1.5 million years (there is some debate on the exact boundary line for the Pleistocene). Before Equus there were a great diversity of horse species, all smaller animals with smaller teeth. So whenever I find a small horse tooth: Is it Equus or is it an older smaller horse with smaller teeth? Here is a tooth from this week: So 26.5x11 Here are a couple of those smaller teeth from smaller horses: Here is a small Horse tooth found on the same day with Nannippus peninsulatus (above) that we agreed was still large enough to be Equus .sp All of the above teeth are lower jaw teeth (either m3 or p2 which look exactly the same) . So the question I have is: Is there a consensus on the minimal occlusal size (length and width) of Equus .sp lower jaw teeth? I have known examples of Equus (32x15) and Nannippus (19x9). Is a 26.5x11 tooth in the range of equus or not? All opinions and facts appreciated.
  17. Horse fossil ID

    Hey all, Any reason to believe that this horse leg might belong to anything besides Equus? It's from Ice Age Florida.
  18. Equus sp. "cannon bone"

    This complete metacarpal, a.k.a. cannon bone is an extremely rare find for North Carolina. Pleistocene mammals are uncommon and are mostly teeth. Being complete and undamaged it will be taking a prominent spot in my collection. The bone was found in a quarry containing mixed sediments of Pliocene Yorktown Formation, which is marine and a Pleistocene pebble lag. The odds are very very small that this would be from the Pliocene, so I am going on my gut feeling that this is from the Pleistocene. I also would like to send thanks to forum member @Fruitbat and @Harry Pristis for giving me a positive I.D. on this.
  19. Middle phalanx fossil ID

    Hi, I recently found this bone on the shore of the Thames & wondered if anyone could help identifying it please. The bone is very dense & has a great colour & patination. From what I can gather it is a middle phalanx from a horse type creature?? What I'm trying to work out is possibly how old it could be & what type of horse it may have come from. Thanks here is the other side next to other objects I found
  20. Equus tooth??

    I found this tooth on the banks of the river Vilaine in Brittany in France. I believe it is from a horse. Can anyone identify it for me or let me know a possible age. Thanks, Jo
  21. Unerupted Equus Teeth

    As some of you know , I volunteered to analyze a box of horse teeth for a fossil friend. Still working on it, but came up with a question for the Horse whisperers: Horses have a set of adult teeth that start around 4-5 inches and are worn down over years. New teeth are erupted at a maximum size. When the teeth wear out , the animal dies of starvation. I seem to have found a bunch of teeth that refute that understanding. I have 20-30 such non erupted teeth and many measure around 1.5 inches long and a few of them have roots. What am I missing .. How can the majority of unerupted teeth I have be so short? What am I missing ?
  22. Equus sp.

    Horse Teeth 'Modern' horse teeth are very hypsodont (high-crowned) to deal with wear caused by eating gritty and/or fibrous foods like grasses. A mature horse may have as many as 44 teeth, which include: 12 incisors (6 upper and 6 lower) Canine teeth are usually absent in female horses but may be present in males. Cheek teeth (4 premolars and 3 molars per side) have very complex enamel patterns. The first premolars (upper and lower) in horses (sometimes called the 'wolf teeth') are vestigial and often absent. Upper cheek teeth (premolars and molars) can be recognized by the relatively square shape (except for the second premolar and third molar) when viewing the occlusal (chewing) surface. Lower cheek teeth (premolars and molars) can be recognized by the relatively rectangular shape when viewing the occlusal (chewing) surface (except for the second premolar and third molar). Horse 'foot' bones 'Modern' horses are monodactyl (one-toed). The metapodials (hand and foot bones) are reduced to a single unit on each leg. There are three 'toe bones' - phalanges (singular is phalanx) on each foot...phalanx I, phalanx II and phalanx III. The third phalanx is the 'hoof core' Unfortunately, I have never collected an intact phalanx III so I have not pictured one here. The astragalus (ankle bone) is only present on the hind legs.
  23. horse teeth measurement upper

    From the album LINE-DRAWINGS & ARTIFACTS

    Adapted from STUDYING FOSSIL HORSES, VOL. I: METHODOLOGY; V. Eisenmann, et. al.; 1981
  24. I was poking around in a Texas site looking for my very own Mastadon Molar, with which CreekCrawler has so recently shamed us all. I did not find any elephant parts, but I did find a pretty cool Pliestocene Equus tooth - cheek tooth I think. Does anyone have a link to a good Pleistocene/Oligocene/Miocene Mammal tooth website or a good reference book? In Situ Reverse side Top pattern Huge Squali This is the most complete Globidens tooth I have found - about 75% there. Most of the back is missing unfortunately. One Crab that may have a pincher intact. I will explore the matrix later. Happy fossiling! Jon