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Found 28 results

  1. What were the largest animals to survive the KT extinction?
  2. It seems to me that our feral horses should be considered "Native Wildlife" like any other. Why did horses in North America go extinct?
  3. until
    NORTH COAST FOSSIL CLUB APRIL MEETING Our main speaker will be Nathan Smith who is a volunteer in the Vertebrate Paleontology Department at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. The title of his talk will be "The Mesozoic Extinction". For this month's Collector's Corner you are invited to bring in your Mesozoic/Cretaceous Fossils for showing others and sharing information. The Public is Welcome!!!
  4. Anyone seen the new paper on the possible causes of megalodon extinction? Haven't had a chance to read more than the abstract yet, but looks interesting: https://peerj.com/articles/6088/ @Gizmo
  5. KT boundary micro glass

    From the album Invertebrates and plants(& misc.)

    Debris, including micro glass "beads" from melted earth ejected into the air, from the KT boundary burn layer. Garfield county, Montana, Hell Creek formation. Late cretaceous (duh) *i added "misc." to this album because this didn't fit anywhere, and I thought it was really cool and should definitely be included somewhere. **There could even be vaporized dinosaur material as part of the glass and melted debris included. There definitely was plenty of it, but I guess realistically, unless it became evenly spread into the atmosphere and airborne debris, this is too small an amount of ejecta, and by percentage such a minuscule amount of vaporized dino, so sadly there probably isn't any.
  6. Here's Why Over 80% of All Life on Earth Was Wiped Out 250 Million Years Ago. A chain reaction of death. https://www.sciencealert.com/end-permian-triassic-extinction-event-volcano-eruption-lithospheric-halogens https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180827121348.htm https://phys.org/news/2018-08-geologists-uncover-clues-largest-mass.html https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-08/uota-gun082418.php the paper is: Michael W. Broadley, Peter H. Barry, Chris J. Ballentine, Lawrence A. Taylor and Ray Burgess, 2018, End-Permian extinction amplified by plume-induced release of recycled lithospheric volatiles. Nature Geoscience https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-018-0215-4 Yours, Paul H.
  7. Hello! I´m learning more about earlier mammoth species, and have some questionmarks when it comes to mammoth meridionalis. Most of the literature says that the specie lived between 2,5 - 1,5 million years ago. But I´ve been in contact with a seller, and this seller claims that there were meridionalis mammoths living in Hungary between 800.000 - 1.000.000 years ago. The seller also said that meridionalis fossils they´ve found/bought from north sea have sometimes been between 1.000.000 - 1.500.000 years old. The fact that the information is so different, have made me pretty confused. And I´m also questioning the fact that I haven´t found a more detailed story of the actual extinction of the specie? It´s a very trustful team of sellers I´m talking about, and I´ve been buying several fossils from them and haven´t been given any reason to not trust them so far. But since there is a gap of fivehundred thousand years, at least, I still want to reach out for the opinion of others. Because now I don´t really know what to think.. Ps. I´m thankful for any little details you can give me!
  8. About 3 years ago I was walking along the dunes by the river, across from Farewell Bend State park on the Idaho side. I noticed that there was what looked to be an abnormal amount of crystallized and glassy material, conglomerates, basalt and lots of sand. The sand can be explained by the presence of mud volcanos and hydrothermal vents that can be seen in satellite photos. My premature analysis and imagination were wild with fantasy. The samples I was collecting were like nothing I've ever seen. I knew something was up, but there were and are, still more questions to answer. Idaho Falls sits at ~4700ft above sea level. Farewell Bend is ~2300ft. Making the Treasure Valley of Idaho a 340mi basin that becomes a bottleneck at Farewell Bend, which would explain the accumulation and abnormal variety of material. I have always been good to pay attention to the composition of the soil and rock in my environment. Usually the material is pretty consistent, but I've seen nothing like the variety that is here. Traveling upriver deposits of glacial stone are evident in the bends of the river, indicating ice jams that built up on the tips of islands. The stones are always upriver of the islands. About 30mi to the Northwest is a very large cement plant run by the largest cement manufacturer in the nation, Ash Grove. I'm still working on understanding the erosion and possibility of run-off and river flows changing the route in which the Treasure Valley drains. The Idaho State Fossil is the Hagerman Horse, which is from an abnormal collection. "Ultimately five nearly complete skeletons, more than 100 skulls, and forty-eight lower jaws as well as numerous isolated bones were found." (wikipedia) There are a few theories as to how the bones made it there is such large numbers. One theory being that they were swept up in a flash flood, ~3.5mya. My own personal theory is if the horses could have been herded by the Native peoples and eaten. The more I look into it though, I see that it is more likely that this is not an isolated event. The deposits in the Hagerman beds may have been, but the odd numbers of bones vs. complete skeletons points at dismembered animals in my opinion. Just as this flash flood 3.5mya could have wiped out the Hagerman Horse, so too could have the human population that would have been very likely to have populated the Treasure Valley region in much larger numbers than we currently understand. Further passed Farewell Bend the Snake River winds into Hells Canyon. The Hells Canyon is the deepest gorge on the North American Continent. Which, to me, says a couple of things. #1 Must be the oldest, Orrrrr #2 Must have had the most aggressive run off which carved it deeper than the Grand Canyon. These are questions will be investigated further as my collection of maps and topographics grows. I am working on understanding what allowed the formation of valleys and plains through the Treasure/Magic Valley ranges, and the lower elevations from the Blue Mountains north to the Cascade range which also has the not so mountainous regions that, by the tectonics in the area, should not exist like they do. Ancient inland seas are what I am looking at currently. Satellite photographs seem to suggest there was a drainage that went to the south and I believe that there were more salts in the waters in these Idaho waters. Which looks to have drained towards Salt Lake. This easily could have been via aquifer, or by displacement from meteoric impact. There has been some problem with correlation because "~" timelines are a bit loose when it comes to lining up events. For instance, the flood that apparently killed the horses in the Hagerman beds was ~3.5mya. Geologists seem to like this ~3my marker for some reason. Same with this is the 12,000 - 15,000ya mentions, some reports mention that the abrupt end to the last Ice Age was ~12-15,000ya. Which, only really gives me direction to look into whether or not, and how the end of this ice age caused the flooding and debris to completely chew up the fossil record and make it incredible hard to identify locations and patterns in events. The "quaternary" deposits at Farewell Bend do and do not make sense. So, while the standard may be to look at a USGS map of deposits to determine what minerals and fossils might be where, it becomes a problem in Idaho because by the elevation drop and the likely age of the Snake River, literally every single time period "should" be represented in the deposits that have accumulated at Farewell Bend. Though, they might just fit somehow in the corresponding periods of deposits, but will need to be given a new description for how the periods are represented in these constantly modified deposits. Suevite chucks, Still working on getting the equipment to make slices. Recommendations I need to head back to the site to take photos of the large suevite boulders that are very clearly ejecta from an impact. Where the top of the boulder is exposed and shattered from weathering. The boulders have a mix of glass, crystal, concretions and stones showing shock induced spallation. The "eggs" previously hypothesized are likely to be shock induced spallation, still wondering how that may occur in an egg though. If an egg were to be fossilized prior to the shock, what would the effects be? Picture showing glass on concretion from suevite boulder. The glass inclusion shattered when chipping it free from the suevite. Part two of this post will be more photos that show the variety of samples collected. It is taking me quite a while to set all of this up. I plan for this to be a regularly updated post. Please, if anyone has any feedback or wisdom, please by all means, I'm here for correction in this critical analysis. One of my favorite things in learning is to be wrong, because that means my autistic thought process has investigated why it's not right, even if I don't know it yet. Suggestions, regarding missing considerations or needed analysis, please school me. I find it difficult to manage my tangents at times. Cited: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagerman_horse (web, 2018) https://www.britannica.com/place/Hagerman-Fossil-Beds-National-Monument (web, 2018)
  9. Poisonous Plants Killed Off Dinosaurs

    Poisonous angiosperms might has caused the dinosaur extinctions because they could not taste the poisons in the plants. Warning, do not suffer the same fate; do not eat large amounts of spinach. http://www.techtimes.com/articles/224517/20180405/turns-out-dinosaurs-were-killed-off-by-flowers-then-the-asteroid-put-the-nail-in-the-coffin.htm
  10. NICE!!http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2001663&type=printable 51 Mb,highly recommended, first description of a new species,Alcione. A cladistic analysis is included,BTW. Very ,very solid documentation of the material
  11. This ancient climate catastrophe is our best clue about Earth’s future Sarah Kaplan, the Washington Post, March 27, 2018 https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2018/03/27/this-ancient-climate-catastrophe-is-our-best-clue-about-earths-future/?utm_term=.9b31f277e13c https://www.sciencealert.com/this-ancient-climate-catastrophe-may-provide-clues-for-for-facing-ours Yours, Paul H.
  12. Below is an interesting paper about mass extinctions. Racki, G. 2012. The Alvarez impact theory of mass extinction; limits to its applicability and the "great expectations syndrome". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (4): 681-702. https://www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app57/app20110058.pdf https://www.app.pan.pl/article/item/app20110058.html https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239739714_The_Alvarez_impact_theory_of_mass_extinction_limits_to_its_applicability_and_the_great_expectations_syndrome https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Grzegorz_Racki http://agro.icm.edu.pl/agro/element/bwmeta1.element.agro-d1182c96-9ae1-48af-858c-a2f844a3d830/c/app20110058_681.pdf Other papers are: Racki, G., 2015. Catastrophism and neocatastrophism versus cosmic hazard: Ager versus Alvarez; Cuvier versus Laplace. Palaios, 30(6), pp. 432-434. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279238673_Catastrophism_and_neocatastrophism_versus_cosmic_hazard_Ager_versus_Alvarez_Cuvier_versus_Laplace Racki, G., 2014. Dmitri Sobolev and other forgotten forerunners of mass extinction science and volcanic catastrophism. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4), pp. 1006-1008. http://yadda.icm.edu.pl/yadda/element/bwmeta1.element.agro-c20648d9-6f1c-454b-b6ce-c2fd0eb7a061/c/app20141004_1006_1008.pdf https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.agro-c20648d9-6f1c-454b-b6ce-c2fd0eb7a061 Yours, Paul H.
  13. The Alien Observatory --"The Vast Majority of Fossils Discovered in the Universe Will Be Extinct Microbial Life, Not Dinosaurs or Humanoids" The Daily Galaxy January 14, 2018 http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2018/01/the-alien-observatory-the-vast-majority-of-fossils-discovered-in-the-universe-will-be-extinct-microb.html A paper is: Chopra, A. and Lineweaver, C.H., 2016. The case for a Gaian bottleneck: the biology of habitability. Astrobiology, 16(1), pp. 7-22. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/291334824_The_Case_for_a_Gaian_Bottleneck_The_Biology_of_Habitability? https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Charley_Lineweaver http://magonia.com/files/the-case-for-a-gaian-bottleneck.pdf http://www.nso.lt/science/content/bottleneck.pdf Another paper is: Lineweaver, C.H., 2009. Paleontological tests: human-like intelligence is not a convergent feature of evolution. In From fossils to astrobiology (pp. 353-368). Springer, Dordrecht. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241315068_Paleontological_Tests_HumanLike_Intelligence_Is_Not_a_Convergent_Feature_of_Evolution https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Charley_Lineweaver Yours, Paul H.

    A bit of an old one, but from a local perspective: https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2017/05/218258/last-african-dinosaur-discovered-in-morocco-oulad-abdoun-basin/
  15. Today I managed to explore and observe an exposure of the Queenston formation up close here in Hamilton, Ontario. I chose a site along the Red Hill Valley Expressway that was easy to access and get down to for a close look. The creek is right next to the highway. I have always passed by this exposure and anticipated the day I'll be able to observe it. The Queenston formation is the last Ordovician formation in south-western Ontario before the rocks hit the Silurian age. The Queenston is what overlains the Georgian Bay formation, the formation I use to hunt in frequently in Toronto, Ontario. This is Red Hill Creek as it passes by next to the Highway.
  16. Fossils reveal how bizarre mammal beat extinction Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, August 24, 2017 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170824182708.htm https://phys.org/news/2017-08-fossils-reveal-bizarre-mammal-extinction.html https://phys.org/news/2017-08-caribbean-mammal-extinctions-spurs-renewed.html Yours, Paul H.
  17. Extinction of Mainland and Island Mammoth Populations in Alaska 6,000 Years Ago, Royal Tyrrell Museum Speaker Series 2017 Dr. Duane Froese, University of Alberta, presents new research on the extinction of mammoths and other megafauna from Arctic North America and the causes of the final extinction of a population on St. Paul Island, Alaska, about 6000 years ago. Some of the papers referenced in the talk are: Graham, R.W., Belmecheri, S., Choy, K., Culleton, B.J., Davies, L.J., Froese, D., Heintzman, P.D., Hritz, C., Kapp, J.D., Newsom, L.A. and Rawcliffe, R., 2016. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, p. 9310–9314. Guthrie, R.D., 2006. New carbon dates link climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions. Nature, 441(7090), pp. 207-209. Palkopoulou, E., Dalén, L., Lister, A.M., Vartanyan, S., Sablin, M., Sher, A., Edmark, V.N., Brandström, M.D., Germonpré, M., Barnes, I. and Thomas, J.A., 2013, November. Holarctic genetic structure and range dynamics in the woolly mammoth. In Proc. R. Soc. B (Vol. 280, No. 1770, 9 pp.) The Royal Society. Yours, Paul H.
  18. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since March 30, 2017. General Dinosaurs Agnolin, F.L., et al. (2010). A reappraisal of the Cretaceous non-avian dinosaur faunas from Australia and New Zealand: evidence for their Gondwanan affinities. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.8, Issue 2. Antunes, M.T. and O. Mateus (2003). Dinosaurs of Portugal. C.R. Palevol,2. Averianov, A.O. and P.P. Skutschas (2009). Additions to the Early Cretaceous Dinosaur Fauna of Transbaikalia, Eastern Russia. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, Vol.313, Number 4. Barrett, P.M. and E.J. Rayfield (2006). Ecological and evolutionary implications of dinosaur feeding behaviour. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol.21, Number 4. Bates, K.T., et al. (2009). Estimating Mass Properties of Dinosaurs Using Laser Imaging and 3-D Computer Modelling. PLoS ONE, 4(2). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Benton, M.J. (2006). The Origin of the Dinosaurs. In: Actas de las III Jornadas sobre Dinosaurios y su Entorno. Colectivo Arqueologico-Paleontologico Salense (ed.), Salas de los Infantes, Burgos, Espana. Bonaparte, J.F. (1986). The Dinosaurs (Carnosaurs, Allosaurids, Sauropods, Cetiosaurids) of the Middle Jurassic of Cerro Condor (Chubut, Argentina). Annales de Paleotologie (Vert.-Invert.), Vol.72, Number 4. Botelho, J.F., et al. (2014). New Developmental Evidence Clarifies the Evolution of Wrist Bones in the Dinosaur-Bird Transition. PLoS ONE, 12(9). Brusatte, S.L., et al. (2008). Superiority, Competition and Opportunism in the Evolutionary Radiation of Dinosaurs. Science, Vol.321. Brusatte, S.L., et al. (2008). The first 50 Myr of dinosaur evolution: macroevolutionary pattern and morphological disparity. Biol.Lett., 4. Carpenter, K. (1982). Baby dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous Lance and hell Creek formations and a description of a new species of theropod. Contributions to Geology, University of Wyoming, Vol.20, Number 2. Claessens, L.P.A.M. (2004). Dinosaur Gastralia; Origin, Morphology, and Function. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(1). Chapman, R.E., et al. (1997). Sexual Dimorphism in Dinosaurs. Dinofest International Proceedings. Colbert, E.H. (1962). The Weights of Dinosaurs. American Museum Novitates, Number 2076. Dalla Vecchia, F.M. (2003). Observations on the Presence of Plant-Eating Dinosaurs in an Oceanic Carbonate Platform. Natura Nascosta, Number 27. Dalla Vecchia, F.M. (1995). Second Record of a Site with Dinosaur Skeletal Remains in Libya (Northern Africa). Natura Nascosta, Number 11. Davis, M. (2014). Census of dinosaur skin reveals lithology may not be the most important factor in increased preservation of hadrosaurid skin. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(3). ######, Z., S. Zhou and Y. Zhang (1983). Dinosaurs from the Jurassic of Sichuan. Palaeontologica Sinica, Whole Number 162, New Series C, Number 23. Dorr, J.A. (1985). Newfound Early Cretaceous Dinosaurs and Other Fossils in Southeastern Idaho and Westernmost Wyoming. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.27, Number 3. Feduccia, A. (2002). Birds are Dinosaurs: Simple Answer to a Complex Problem. The Auk, 119(4). Gauthier, J. and K. de Quiroz (2001). Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name "Aves". In: New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom. Gauthier, J. and L.F. Gall (eds.), Peabody Museum of Natural History. Gillooly, J.F., A.P. Allen and E.L. Charnov (2006). Dinosaur Fossils Predict Body Temperatures. PLoS Biology, 4(8). Gilmore, C.W. (1933). Two New Dinosaurian Reptiles from Mongolia with Notes on Some Fragmentary Specimens. American Museum Novitates, Number 679. Hocknull, S.A., et al. (2009). New Mid-Cretaceous (Latest Albian) Dinosaurs from Winton, Queensland, Australia. PLoS ONE, 4(7). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Holliday, C.M. and L.M. Witmer (2008). Cranial Kinesis in Dinosaurs: Intracranial Joints, Protractor Muscles, and Their Significance for Cranial Evolution and Function in Diapsids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(4). Holtz, T.R. and M.K. Brett-Surman (1997). The Osteology of the Dinosaurs. In: The Complete Dinosaur. Farlow, J.O. and M.K. Brett-Surman (eds.). Hone, D.W.E., D. Naish and I.C. Cuthill (2011). Does mutual sexual selection explain the evolution of head crests in pterosaurs and dinosaurs? Lethaia. Jennings, D.S. and S.T. Hasiotis (2006). Taphonomic analysis of a Dinosaur Feeding Site Using Geographic Information System (GIS), Morrison Formation, Southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA. Palaios, Vol.21. Langer, M.C. and M.J. Benton (2006). Early Dinosaurs: a Phylogenetic Study. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 4(4). Lee, Y-N. (2003). Dinosaur Bones and Eggs in South Korea. Memoir of the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum, 2. Liggett, G.A. (2005). A review of the dinosaurs from Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.108, Numbers 1/2. Lucas, S.G., A.B. Heckert and R.M. Sullivan (2000). Cretaceous Dinosaurs in New Mexico. In: Dinosaurs of New Mexico, Lucas, S.G. and A.B. Heckert (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin Number 17. Mateus, O. (2006). Late Jurassic Dinosaurs from the Morrison Formation (USA), the Lourinha and Alcobaca Formations (Portugal), and the Tendaguru Beds (Tanzania): A Comparison. In: Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. Foster, J.R. and S.G. Lucas (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 36. Nesbitt, S.J., R.B. Irmis and W.G. Parker (2007). A Critical Re-Evaluation of the Late Triassic Dinosaur Taxa of North America. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 5(2). Nesbitt, S.J., et al. (2009). Hindlimb Osteology an Distribution of Basal Dinosauromorphs from the Late Triassic of North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(2). Noto, C.R. and A. Grossman (2010). Broad-Scale Patterns of Late Jurassic Dinosaur Paleoecology. PLoS ONE, 5(9). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Padian, K. and J.R. Horner (2011). 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Faunal Composition and Significance of High Diversity, Mixed Bonebeds Containing Agujaceratops mariscalensis and other Dinosaurs, Aguja Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Big Bend, Texas. In: New Perspectives on Horned Dinosaurs. Ryan, M., B. Chinnery-Allgeier and D. Eberth (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington. Smith, N.D., et al. (2007). The Dinosaurs of the Early Jurassic Hanson Formation of the Central Transantarctic Mountains: Phylogenetic Review and Synthesis. U.S. Geological Survey and The National Academies, Short Research Paper 003. Sullivan, R.M. (2006). The Shape of Mesozoic Dinosaur Richness: A Reassessment. In: Late Cretaceous vertebrates from the Western Interior. Lucas, S.G. and R.M. Sullivan (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 35. Varricchio, D.J. (1995). Taphonomy of Jack's Birthday Site, a diverse dinosaur bonebed from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 114. 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(Read on-line or download a copy.) Zhang, F., et al. (2010). Fossilized melanosomes and the colour of Cretaceous dinosaurs and birds. Nature, Vol.463/25. (Thanks to xonenine for finding this one!) Dinosaur Extinctions Archibald, J.D. and N. MacLeod (2007). Dinosaurs, Extinction Theories For. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Elsevier Inc. Archibald, J.D. and D.E. Fastovsky (2004). Dinosaur Extinction. In: The Dinosauria. Weishampel, D.B., P. Dodson and H. Osmolska (eds.), University of California Press. Buffetaut, E. (2004). Polar dinosaurs and the question of dinosaur extinction: a brief review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 214. Casadevall, A. (2005). Fungal virulence, vertebrate endothermy, and dinosaur extinction: is there a connection? Fungal Genetics and Biology, 42. Fastovsky, D.E. and P.M. Sheehan (2005). The Extinction of Dinosaurs in North America. GSA Today, Vol.15, Number 3. Galbrun, B. (1997). Did the European dinosaurs disappear before the K-T event? 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A possible causal relationship between extinction of dinosaurs and K/T iridium enrichment in the Nanxiong Basin, South China: evidence from dinosaur eggshells. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 178. Paleocene Dinosaurs? The Debate in Chronological Order Fassett, J.E., L.M. Heaman and A. Simonetti (2012). Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: REPLY. Geology, Vol.40 (Forum). Ludwig, K.R. (2012). Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: COMMENT. Geology, Vol.40 (Forum). Fassett, J.E., L.M. Heaman and A. Simonietti (2012). Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: REPLY. Geology, Vol.40 (Forum). Renne, P.R. and M.B. Goodwin (2012). Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: COMMENT. Geology, Vol.40 (Forum). Koenig, A.E., et al. (2012). Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: COMMENT. Geology, 40 (Forum). Fassett, J.E., L.M. Heaman and A. Simonetti (2011). Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Geology, Vol.39. Clyde, W.C., et al. (2010). New Paleomagnetic and Stable-Isotope Results from the Nanxiong Basin, China: Implications for the K/T Boundary and the Timing of Paleocene Mammalian Turnover. The Journal of Geology, Vol.118. Fassett, J.E. (2009). Response to Critique by Lucas, et al. (2009) of Paper by Fassett (2009) Documenting Paleocene Dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.12, Issue 2. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2009). No Definitive Evidence of Paleocene Dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.12, Issue 2. Fassett, J.E. (2009). New Geochronologic and Stratigraphic Evidence Confirms the Paleocene Age of the Dinosaur-Bearing Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.12, Issue 1. Williamson, T.E. (2008). Paleocene palynomorph assemblages from the Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and their biostratigraphic significance. New Mexico Geology, Vol.30, Number 1. Fassett, J.E., Fastovsky, D.E and P.M. Sheehan (2005). Comment and Reply. The extinction of dinosaurs in North America. GSA Today, Vol.15, Number 3. Buck, B.J.,et al. (2004). "Tertiary Dinosaurs" in the Nanxiong Basin, Southern China, Are Reworked from the Cretaceous. The Journal of Geology, Vol.112. Zhao, Z., et al. (2002). A possible causal relationship between extinction of dinosaurs and K/T iridium enrichment in the Nanxiong Basin, South China: evidence from dinosaur eggshells. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 178. Fassett, J.E., R.A. Zielinski and J.R. Budhan (2002). Dinosaurs that did not die: Evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Geological Society of America Special Papers, 356. (NOT AVAILABLE for free but reference included for chronology.) Fassett, J.E., et al. (2001). Compelling New Evidence for Paleocene Dinosaurs in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, USA. Catastrophic Events Conference. Zhao, Z., et al. (1991). Extinction of the Dinosaurs Across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in Nanxiong Basin, Guangdong Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 29(1).
  19. Floridian dugong extinction

    Hugolee has a recent post showing pictures of dugong bone. The responses to his post tickled my interest in the subject and caused me to do a little research on both manatees and dugongs. I am now more intelligent regarding this subject, BUT could not figure out a question that came to mind. Any help in educating me is appreciated!! Waters in Florida must have been infested with dugongs for as many bones that are found. Dugongs in Florida died out at the time that manatees arrived. WHY???? Was it possible that manatees outcompeted the dugongs? I saw a cold snap was given as a reason for a particular population studied. Was this the reason for all dugongs? If so, why did the manatees survive the cold? Just askin!!! Mike
  20. Bison in Iowa

    Does anyone know when Bison died out in Iowa? I myself have a single vertebrae and the front lower left half of a buffalo jaw with 2 teeth in it. I think it must be any wear from 500-to a couple thousand years as it is dark brown in color. 16 - 1.webp
  21. Back to the Cretaceous badlands. Fall has come to the Alberta Badlands and cooler temperatures. This is a positive for exploring the steeper slopes and KT dino extinction boundary high above the Red Deer River. This report is a bit top heavy in scenery photos. Didn't want to get sidetracked by fossils along long trek through lower levels or would never make it up to the destination. Encountered Bullwinkle a couple of kms before our driving destination. Lots of wildlife this day including grouse, mule deer , coyotes and a million migrating waterfowl. Need to push our way through some non-badland topography. Boreal and aspen forests.
  22. According to this recent study, the popular belief that mammals diversified after the extinction that killed the non-avian dinosaurs is incorrect; mammals diversified in the shadow of the dinos long before the extinction, and actually had a drop in diversity after it. The reason for this diversification was the evolution of angiosperms (flowering plants), which provided mammals with new food sources. Research paper: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1832/20160256 Simplified version: http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/early-mammals-diversification-03931.html
  23. Interesting paper that suggests ichthyosaurs went extinct because of climate change. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-03-09/ichthyosaurs-may-have-been-wiped-out-by-climate-change/7230400 Izak
  24. Meteorites & Gravity

    Could all of the large meteorite impacts, especially the one(s) that drove the dinosaurs to extinction, increase the earths gravity? And if so is it likely this is a big factor in the next evolutionary step for dinosaurs, feathered flight?
  25. Five Islands Provincial Park [2012]

    Taken from my recent blog post: http://redleafz.blogspot.ca/2013/04/five-islands-provincial-park-2012.html Here's another of my belated posts on one of my trips last year. Me and my buddy Craig went for one of many trips to the beautiful town of Parrsboro, Nova Scotia. From town, we headed East towards the small village of Five Islands, which has a Provincial park of the same name: Five Islands Provincial Park. Islands from right to left: Moose i., Diamond i., Long i., Pinnacle i., Egg i., Pinnacle rock Five Islands Provincial Park is a location that has witnessed several events, including a major extinction. Most of the rocks South of the park, towards Red Head and continuing on to Lower Economy, are of a red sandstone from the Triassic Period. These red sandstones from around Red Head are indicative of an arid, desertic climate. On top of the Triassic rock is a layer that corresponds to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, sandwiched between Triassic sandstone and Jurassic basalts right on top of it. This Triassic-Jurassic layer is identified by its white sandstone and mudstone. The importance of this layer is that it represents one of the major extinction events that had occurred at the boundary. It is still being studied today. The basalts that top these sandstone layers South of the park and protrude West and created the islands, are of the same found at Blomidon and Cape d'Or. These Jurassic age ancient lava flows and dykes could have been part of an active volcanic network seen all over the Minas Basin. The Old Wife is a result of this contorted, violent past. The islands which dot the landscape are also mostly composed of this Jurassic basalt, and some sections of Jurassic sandstones. "Old Wife", with Moose Island in the background The red cliffs just North of the basalt and separated by faults is of Jurassic age. Dinosaur tracks and other fossils have been found occasionally from either the cliff face, or from loose rocks on the beach. A local by the name of Eldon George had found, among many other wonderful fossils, the smallest dinosaur tracks ever found back in the 1980s at Wasson's Bluff, sandstones of the same age and formation not too far from here. See Jon Tattrie's article. Organic layers within water channel Jurassic McCoy Brook Frm. (left), Jurassic North Mountain Frm. (right) But I digress, as I keep rambling on the technical and less on the practical. We arrived at the park when the tide was going down. We walked down the beach and was met with a thick band of fog that was going out the bay. Lava flows Heading South after searching the beach for agate and fossil fragments, the fog lifted and the Sun came out. We went around the Old Wife and headed towards Red Head. Fault running through columnar basalt Beach made up of basalt and minerals "Red Head", seperating the Triassic-Jurassic Blomidon Frm. (West) and Triassic Wolfville Frm. (East) Triassic Wolfville Frm. red sandstone cliffs Modern day trackways (crab) This area is only accessible at extreme low tide, so the window of opportunity is very small. Getting trapped or stranded is a very highly probable so good planning and looking up the tide charts before heading down this way is an ABSOLUTE MUST! This is one of the places in Nova Scotia that I highly recommend visiting, among other sites of course. =)