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Found 7 results

  1. what are these?...are they coprolites?

    ok not quite sure what these are find one every now and then...they have an odd coating dropped a couple in the acid bath for a few minutes and looked at them through a microscopic camera and found all sorts of little goodies... so wondering could these be some type of poo??.....fossilized feces. Coprolites...??. ..fish? turtle? lizard?...??
  2. What is this?

    Cape Jack Beach Nova Scotia
  3. coprolite

    How can you tell if a coprolite comes from a reptile or a mammal or just a different mineral formation in general?
  4. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 1, 2018. Eggs (Oolithids) and Nesting Sites Eggs and Nesting Sites - Precambrian Yin, L., et al. (2007). Doushantuo embryos preserved inside diapause egg cysts. Nature, Vol.446. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Cambrian Lin, J.-P., et al. (2006). Silicified egg clusters from a Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposit, Guizhou, south China. Geology, Vol.34, Number 12. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Ordovician Hegna, T.A., M.J. Martin and S.A.F. Darroch (2017). Pyritized and in situ trilobite eggs from the Ordovician of New York (Lorraine Group): implications for trilobite reproductive biology. Geology, Vol.45, Number 3. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Permian Abu Hamad, A., et al. (2016). First Permian Occurrence of the Shark Egg Capsule Morphotype Palaeoryxis Brongniart, 1828. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1112290. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Triassic Böttcher, R. (2010). Description of the shark egg capsule Palaeoxyris friessi n.sp. from the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) of SW Germany and discussion of all known egg capsules from the Triassic of the Germanic Basin. Palaeodiversity, 3. Fischer, J., B.J. Axsmith and S.R. Ash (2010). First unequivocal record of the hybodont shark egg capsule Palaeoxyris in the Mesozoic of North America. N.Jb.Geol.Paläont.Abh., Vol.255/3. Fischer, J., S. Voigt and M. Buchwitz (2007). First elasmobranch egg capsules from freshwater lake deposits of the Madygen Formation (Middle to Late Triassic, Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). Freiberger Forschungshefte, C254, psf (15). Kitching, J.W. (1979). Preliminary Report on a Clutch of Six Dinosaurian Eggs from the Upper Triassic Elliot Formation, Northern Orange Free State. Palaeont.afr., 22. McLean, G. (2014). A Comparative Study of the Australian Fossil Shark Egg-Case Palaeoxyris duni, with Comments on Affinities and Structure. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 136. Pott, C., et al. (2008). Fossil Insect Eggs and Ovipositional Damage on Bennettitalian Leaf Cuticles from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Austria. J.Paleont., 82(4). Eggs and Nesting Sites - Jurassic Araujo, R., et al. (2013). Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Scientific Reports, 3:1924. Garcia, G., et al. (2006). Earliest Laurasian sauropod eggshells. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(1). Joyce, W.G. and D.K. Zelenitsky (2002). Turtle egg pseudomorphs from the Late Jurassic of Schamhaupten, Germany. Archaeopteryx, 20. Mateus, I., et al. (1998). Upper Jurassic Theropod Dinosaur embryos from Lourinhã (Portugal). Memórias da Academia Ciências de Lisboa, Vol.37. Popa, M.E. and A. Zaharia (2011). Early Jurassic Ovipositories on Bennettitalean Leaves from Romania. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, Vol.7. Reisz, R.R., et al. (2012). Oldest known dinosaurian nesting site and reproductive biology of the Early Jurassic sauropodomorph Massospondylus. PNAS, Early Edition. Ribeiro, V., et al. (2014). Two new theropod egg sites from the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. Historical Biology, Vol.26, Number 2. Russo, J., et al. (2017). Two new ootaxa from the late Jurassic : The oldest record of crocodylomorph eggs from the Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. PLoS ONE, 12(3). (Thanks to Fossildude19 for finding this one!) Russo, J., et al. (2014). Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunicaҫões Geológicas, 101, Especial 1. Zaton, M. and A.A. Mironenko (2015). Exceptionally Preserved Late Jurassic Gastropod Egg Capsules. Palaios, Vol.30. Zaton, M., G. Niedzwiedzki and G. Pienkowski (2009). Gastropod Egg Capsules Preserved on Bivalve Shells from the Lower Jurassic (Hettangian) of Poland. Palaios, Vol.24. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Cretaceous Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - Africa/Middle East Garcia, G., et al. (2003). First Record of Dinosaur Eggshells and Teeth from the North-West African Maastrichtian (Morocco). Palaeovertebrata, Montpelier, 32(2-4). Gottfried, M.D., et al. (2004). Dinosaur Eggshell from the Red Sandstone Group of Tanzania. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(2). Krassilov, V., et al. (2007). Insect eggs sets on angiosperm leaves from the Lower Cretaceous of Negev, Israel. Cretaceous Research, 28. Lawver, D.R., A.H. Rasoamiaramanana and I. Werneberg (2015). An Occurrence of Fossil Eggs from the Mesozoic of Madagascar and a Detailed Observation of Eggshell Microstructure. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e973030. Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Bajpai, S., S. Srinivasan and A. Sahni (1997). Fossil Turtle Eggshells from Infratrappean Beds of Duddukuru, Anhdra Pradesh. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.49. Buffetaut, E., et al. (2005). Minute theropod eggs and embryo from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand and the dinosaur-bird transition. Naturwissenschaften, 00, Short Communications. D*ng, Z.-M. and P.J. Currie (1996). On the discovery of an oviraptorid skeleton on a nest of eggs at Bayan Mandahu, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. Can.J.Earth Sci., 33. Fernandez, V., et al. (2015). Evidence of Egg Diversity in Squamate Evolutiion from Cretaceous Anguimorph Embryos. PLoS ONE, 10(7). Huh, M., et al. (2014). First record of a complete giant theropod egg clutch from Upper Cretaceous deposits, South Korea. Historical Biology, Vol.26, Number 2. Ji, Q., et al. (2004). Pterosaur egg with a leathery shell. Nature (Brief Communications), Vol.432. Johnston, P.A., D.A. Eberth and P.K. Anderson (1996). Alleged vertebrate eggs from Upper Cretaceous redbeds, Gobi Desert, are fossil insect (Coleoptera) pupal chambers: Fictovichnus new ichnogenus. Can.J. Earth Sci., 33. (Thanks to doushantuo for finding this one!) Khosla, A. (2001). Diagenetic Alterations of Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Eggshell Fragments of India. Gaia, Number 16. Khosla, A. and A. Sahni (1995). Parataxonomic Classification of Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Eggshells from India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.40. Kim, J.Y., et al. (2011). Dinosaur Eggs from the Cretaceous Goseong Formation of Tongyeong City, Southern Coast of Korea. J.Paleont.Soc. Korea, Vol.27, Number 1. Lawver, D.R., et al. (2016). An Avian Egg from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian). Liangtoutang Formation of Zhejiang Province, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1100631. Liu, J.-Y., et al. (2013). A parataxonomic revision of spheroolithid eggs from the Upper Cretaceous Quantou Formation in Changtu, Liaoning. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 51(4). Mikhailov, K.E. (2000). 28. Eggs and eggshells of dinosaurs and birds from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. In: The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia. Benton, M.J., et al. (eds.), Cambridge University Press. Mikhailov, K.E. (1996). New Genera of Fossil Eggs from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Paleontological Journal, Vol.30, Number 2. Mohabey, D.M. (1998). Systematics of Indian Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur and Chelonian Eggshells. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18(2). Norell, M.A., J.M. Clark and L.M. Chiappe (2001). An Embryonic Oviraptorid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 3315. Paik, I.S., H.J. kim. and M. Huh (2012). Dinosaur egg deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup, Korea: Diversity and paleobiological implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, unpublished manuscript. Prasad, G.V.R., et al. (2015). Testudoid and crocodiloid eggshells from the Upper Cretaceous Deccan Intertrappean Beds of Central India. C.R. Palevol, 14. Sabath, K. (1991). Upper Cretaceous Amniotic Eggs from the Gobi Desert. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.36, Number 2. Sahni, A. (2015). Dinosaur Nesting Sites of India: A Review. Science and Culture, Vol.81, Numbers 5-6. Srivastava, A.K. and R.S. Mankar (2015). Megaloolithus Dinosaur Nest from the Lameta Formation of Salbardi Area, Districts Amravati, Maharashtra, and Betul, Madhya Pradesh. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.85. Srivastava, R., et al. (2015). Crocodilian Nest in a Late Cretaceous Sauropod Hatchery from the Type Lameta Ghat Locality, Jabalpur, India. PLoS ONE, 10(12). Varricchio, D.J. and D.E. Barta (2015). Revisiting Sabath's "Larger Avian Eggs" from the Gobi Cretaceous. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1). Vianey-Liaud, M., S.L. Jain and A. Sahni (1987). Dinosaur Eggshells (Saurischia) from the Late Cretaceous Intertrappean and Lameta Formations (Deccan, India). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 7(4). Wang, Q., et al. (2013). New forms of dictyoolithids from the Tiantai Basin, Zhejiang Province of China and a parataxonomic revision of the dictyoolithids. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 51(1). Wang, Q., et al. (2013). New turtle egg fossil from the Upper Cretaceous of the Laiyang Basin, Shandong Province, China. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 85(1). Wang, Q., et al. (2012). A new oofamily of dinosaur egg from the Upper Cretaceous Tiantai Basin, Zhejiang Province, and its mechanism of eggshell formation. Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol.57, Numbers 28-29. Wang, Q., et al. (2011). New Ootypes of Dinosaur Eggs from the Late Cretaceous in Tiantai Basin, Zhejiang Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 49(4). Wang, Q., et al. (2010). A New Oogenus of Elongatoolithidae from the Upper Cretaceous Chichengshan Formation of Tiantai Basin, Zhejiang Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(2). Wang, X.-l., et al. (2017). Egg accumulation with 3D embryos provides insight into the life history of a pterosaur. Science, 358. Wang, X.-l., et al. (2012). Dinosaur Egg Faunas of the Upper Cretaceous Terrestrial Red Beds of China and Their Stratigraphical Significance. Journal of Stratigraphy, Vol.36, Number 2. Zhang, S.-K. (2010). A Parataxonomic Revision of the Cretaceous Faveoloolithid Eggs of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(3). Zhang, S.K. and Q. Wang (2010). A New Oospecies of Ovaloolithids from Turpan Basin in Xinjiang, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(1). Zhao, H. and Z.-K. Zhou (1999). A New Form of Elongatoolithid Dinosaur Eggs from the Lower Cretaceous Shahai Formation of Heishan, Liaoning Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 37(4). Zhou, H. and Z.-K. Zhou (1998). Dinosaur Eggs from Xichuan Basin, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 36(4). Zhou, Z. and Z.-C. Li (1988). A New Structural Type of Dinosaur Eggs from Anlu County, Hubei Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica,26(2). Zou, S.-L., Q. Wang and X.-L. Wang (2013). A new oospecies of parafaveoolithids from the Pingxiang Basin, Jiangxi Province, of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 51(2). Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Botfalvai, G., et al. (2017). Taphonomical and palaeoecological investigation of the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Tustea vertebrate assemblage (Romania, Hateg Basin) - insights into a unique dinosaur nesting locality. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 268. Codrea, V., et al. (2002). Dinosaur egg nests, mammals and other vertebrates from a new Maastrichtian site of the Hateg Basin (Romania). C.R. Palevol, 1. Grellet-Tinner, G., et al. (2012). First Record of Reproductive Adaptation to "Island Effect" of a Dwarf Cretaceous Romanian Titanosaur, with Embryonic Integument In Ovo. PLoS One, 7(3). Grigorescu, D. (2016). The 'Tustea puzzle' revisited: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Megaloolithus eggs associated with Telmatosaurus hatchlings in the Hateg Basin. Historical Biology. Grigorescu, D. and Z. Csiki (2008). A New Site with Megaloolithid Egg Remains in the Maastrichtian of the Haṭeg Basin. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, v.6. Kohring, R. (1991). Lizard Egg Shells from the Lower Cretaceous of Cuenca Province, Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.34, Part 1. López-Martínez, N. (2000). Eggshell Sites from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Transition in South-Central Pyrenees (Spain). First International Symposium on Dinosaur Eggs and Babies, Extended Abstracts. López-Martínez, N. and E. Vicens (2012). A New Peculiar Dinosaur Egg, Sankofa pyrenaica Oogen.Nov. Oosp.Nov. from the Upper Cretaceous Coastal Deposits of the Aren Formation, South-Central Pyrenees, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.55, Part 2. Moreno-Azanza, M., J.I. Canudo and J.M. Gasca (2014). Spheroolithid eggshells in the Lower Cretaceous of Europe. Implications for eggshell evolution in ornithischian dinosaurs. Cretaceous Research, 51. Moreno-Azanza, M., J.I. Canudo and J.M. Gasca (2014). Unusual theropod eggshells from the Early Cretaceous Blessa Formation of the Iberian Range, Spain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Moreno-Azanza, M., et al. (2014). A re-evaluation of aff. Megaloolithidae eggshell fragments from the uppermost Cretaceous of the Pyrenees and implications for crocodylomorph eggshell structure. Historical Biology, Vol.26, Number 2. Sellés, A.G. (2012). Oological Record of Dinosaurs in South Central Pyrenees (SW Europe): Parataxonomy, Diversity and Biostratigraphical Implications. Ph.D. Thesis - Universitat de Barcelona. Sellés, A.G. and B. Vila (2015). Re-evaluation of the age of some dinosaur localities from the southern Pyrenees by means of megaloolithid oospecies. Journal of Iberian Geology, 41(1). Sellés, A.G., et al. (2013). Dinosaur Eggs in the Upper Cretaceous of the Coll de Nargo area, Lleida Province, south-central Pyrenees, Spain: Oodiversity, biostratigraphy and their implications. Cretaceous Research, 40. Skutschas, P.P., et al. (2017). The first dinosaur egg from the Lower Cretaceous of Western Siberia, Russia. Historical Biology, 2017. Zaton, M.and A.A. Mironenko (2015). Gastropod egg capsules preserved on an Early Cretaceous ammonite from Daghestan, Russia. Cretaceous Research, 55. Zaton, M., A.A. Mironenko and K. Banasik (2017). Gastropod egg capsules from the Lower Cretaceous of Russia preserved by calcitation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 466. Zaton, M., P.D. Taylor and J.W.M. Jagt (2013). Late Cretaceous gastropod egg capsules from the Netherlands preserved by bioimmuration. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(2). Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - North America Horner, J.R. (1999). Egg Clutches and Embryos of Two Hadrosaurian Dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19(4). Lawver, D.R, and F.D. Jackson (2016). An accumulation of turtle eggs with embryos from the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) Judith River Formation of Montana. Cretaceous Research, accepted manuscript. Varricchio, D.J. and F.D. Jackson (2004). A Phylogenetic Assessment of Prismatic Dinosaur Eggs from the Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(4). Varricchio, D.J., J.R. Horner and F.D. Jackson (2002). Embryos and Eggs for the Cretaceous Theropod Dinosaur Troodon formosus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3). Zelenitsky, D.K. and F. Therrien (2008). Unique Maniraptoran Egg Clutch from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana Reveals Theropod Nesting Behaviour. Palaeontology, Vol.51, Part 6. Zelenitsky, D.K., et al. (2008). First fossil gravid turtle provides insight into the evolution of reproductive traits in turtles. Biol. Lett., 4. Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - South America/Central America/Caribblean Chiappe, L.M., et al. (2004). Argentinian unhatched pterosaur fossil. Nature (Brief Communications), Vol.432. Fernández, M.S., et al. (2013). A Large Accumulation of Avian Eggs from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina) Reveals a Novel Nesting Strategy in Mesozoic Birds. PLoS ONE, 8(4). Grellet-Tinner, G. and H. Zaher (2007). Taxonomic Identification of the Megaloolothid Egg and Eggshells from the Cretaceous Bauru Basin (Minas Gerais, Brazil): Comparison With the Auca Mahuevo (Argentina) Titanosaurid Eggs. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologica, Vol.47(7). Grellet-Tinner, G., L.M. Chappe and R. Coria (2004). 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Dietary and environmental implications of Early Cretaceous predatory dinosaur coprolites from Teruel, Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in Press) Cretaceous Coprolites - North America Baghai-Riding, N.L. and J.N. DiBenedetto (2001). An Unusual Dinosaur Coprolite from the Campanian Aguja Formation, Texas. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, Vol.LI. Becker, M.A. and J.A. Chamberlain (2006). Anomuran Microcoprolites from the Lowermost Navesink Formation (Maastrichtian), Monmouth County, New Jersey. Ichnos, 13. Broughton, P.L., F. Simpson and S.H. Whitaker (1978). Late Cretaceous Coprolites from Western Canada. Palaeontology, Vol.21, Part 2. Broughton, P.L., F. Simpson and S.H. Whitaker (1977). Late Cretaceous Coprolites from Southern Saskatchewan: Comments on Excretion Plasticity and Ichnological Nomenclature. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, Vol.25, Number 5. Chin, K., J.H. Hartman and B. Roth (2009). Opportunistic exploitation of dinosaur dung: fossil snails in coprolites from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Lethaia, Vol.42. Chin, K., et al. (1998). A king-sized theropod coprolite. Nature, Vol.393. Everhart, M.J. (2007). Remains of a pycnodont fish (Actinopterygii: Pycnodontiformes) in a coprolite; An uppermost record of Micropycnodon kansasensis in the Smoky Hills Chalk, western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.110, Numbers 1/2. Harrell, S.D. and D.R. Schwimmer (2010). Coprolites of Deinosuchus and Other Crocodylians from the Upper Cretaceous of Western Georgia, USA. In: Crocodyle Tracks and Traces. Milàn, J. et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 51. Hollocher, K.T., T.C. Hollocher and J.K. Rigby (2010). A Phosphatic Coprolite Lacking Diagenetic Permineralization from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Northeastern Montana: Importance of Dietary Calcium Phosphate in Preservation. Palaios, Vol.25(2). Hollocher, K.T., et al. (2001). Bacterial Residues in Coprolite of Herbivorous Dinosaurs: Role of Bacteria in the Mineralization of Feces. Palaios, Vol.16. Mahaney, W.C., et al. (2012). Coprolites from the Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation of Saskatchewan. Cretaceous Research, xxx. (Article in Press). Mehling, C.M. (2004). Occurrence of Callianassid Coprolites in the Cretaceous of New Jersey. The Mosasaur, 7. Schwimmer, D.R., R.E. Weems and A.E. Sanders (2015). A Late Cretaceous Shark Coprolite With Baby Freshwater Turtle Vertebrae Inclusions. Palaios, Vol.30. Suazo, T.L., et al. (2012). Coprolites Across the Cretaceous/Tertiary Boundary, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Sullivan, R.M. and S.E. Jasinski (2012). Coprolites from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland, Kirtland and Ojo Alamo Formations, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Cretaceous Coprolites - South America/Central America/Caribbean Kietzmann, D.A. and R.M. Palma (2014). Early Cretaceous crustacean microcoprolites from Sierra de la Cara Cura, Neuquen Basin, Argentina: Taphonomy, environmental distribution, and stratigraphic correlation. Cretaceous Research, xxx. (Article in press) General Cretaceous Coprolites Poinar, G. and A.J. Boucot (2006). Evidence of intestinal parasites of dinosaurs. Parasitology, 133. Coprolites - Paleocene Milan, J. (2010). Coprolites from the Danian Limestone (Lower Paleocene) of Faxe Quarry, Denmark. In: Crocodyle tracks and traces. Milan, J., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 51. Milan, J. and A.P. Hunt (2016). Daniacopros hofstedtae, Ichnogen. et Ichnosp.nov., A New Vertebrate Coprolite Ichnotaxon from the Lower Danian Stevns Klint Formation of the Hammelev Limestone Quarry, Denmark. In: Fossil Record 5. Sullivan, R.M. and S.G. Lucas (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 74. Coprolites - Eocene Diedrich, C.G. and H. Felker (2012). Middle Eocene Shark Coprolites from Shallow Marine and Deltaic Coasts of the Pre-North Sea Basin in Central Europe. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2012). Crocodylian Coprolites from the Eocene of the Zaysan Basin, Kazakstan. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Robin, N., et al. (2016). Scale insect larvae preserved in vertebrate coprolites (Le Quesnoy, France, Lower Eocene): paleoecological insights. Sci.Nat., 103: 85. Coprolites - Miocene Dentzien-Dias, P., et al. (2018). Paleoecological and taphonomical aspects of the Late Miocene vertebrate coprolites (Urumaco Formation) of Venezuela. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 490. Godfrey, S.J. and J.B. Smith (2010). Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland. Naturwissenschaften, 97. Pesquero, M.D., et al. (2014). Calcium phosphate preservation of faecal bacteria negative moulds in hyaena coprolites. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Sharma, K.M. and R. Patnaik (2010). Coprolites from the lower Miocene Baripada beds of Orissa. Current Science, Vol.99, Number 6. Coprolites - Pliocene Harrison, T. (2011). Chapter 14. Coprolites: Taphonomic and Paleoecological Implications. In: Paleontology and Geology of Laetoli: Human Evolution in Context. Volume 1: Geology, Geochronolgy, Paleoecology and Paleoenvironment. Harrison, T. (ed.), Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology, Springer Science + Business Media B.V. Hunt, A.P., S.G. Lucas and A.J. Lichtig (2015). A Helical Coprolite from the Red Crag Formation (Plio-Pleistocene) of England. In: Fossil Record 4. Sullivan, R.M. and S.G. Lucas (eds.) New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 67. Coprolites - Pleistocene Pleistocene Coprolites - Africa/Middle East Bamford, M.K., et al. (2010). Botanical remains from a coprolite from the Pleistocene hominin site of Malapa, Sterkfontein Valley, South Africa. Palaeont.afr., 45. Carrión, J.S., et al. (2000). Palynology and palaeoenvironment of Pleistocene hyaena coprolites from an open-air site at Oyster Bay, Eastern Cape coast, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 96. Djamali, M., et al. (2011). Pollen analysis from coprolites from a late Pleistocene-Holocene cave deposit (Wezmeh Cave, west Iran): insights into the late Pleistocene and late Holocene vegetation and flora of the central Zagros Mountains. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38. Scott, L., E. Marais and G.A. Brook (2004). Fossil hyrax dung and evidence of Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation types in the Namib Desert. Journal of Quaternary Science, 19(8). Pleistocene Coprolites - Australia/New Zealand Wood, J.R. and J.M. Wilmshurst (2014). Late Quaternary terrestrial vertebrate coprolites from New Zealand. Quaternary Science Reviews, 98. Wood, J.R. and J.M. Wilmshurst (2013). Pollen analysis from coprolites reveals dietary details of heavy-footed moa (Pachyornis elephantopus) and coastal moa (Euryapteryx curtus) from Central Otago. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 37(1). Pleistocene Coprolites - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Alcover, J.A., et al. (1999). The diet of Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla: Caprinae), an extinct bovid from the Balearic Islands: evidence from coprolites. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 66. Argant, J. and V. Demitrijevic (2007). Pollen analyses of Pleistocene hyaena coprolites from Montenegro and Serbia. Annales Geologiques de la Peninsule Balkanique, 68. Carrión, J.S., et al. (2007). Pleistocene landscapes in central Iberia inferred from pollen analysis of hyena coprolites. Journal of Quaternary Science, 22(2). Carrión, J.S., et al. (2005). Palynology of badger coprolites from central Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 226. Diedrich, C.G. (2012). Topology of Ice Age Spotted Hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) Coprolite Aggregate Pellets from the European Late Pleistocene and Their Significance at Dens and Scavenging Sites. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Lewis, M.D. (2011). Pleistocene Hyaena Coprolite Palynology in Britain: Implications for the Environments of Early Humans. In: The Ancient Human Occupation of Britain. Ashton, N., S.G. Lewis and C. Stringer (eds.), Developments in Quaternary Science, Amsterdam: The Netherlands. Sanz, M., et al. (2016). Not only hyenids: A multi-scale analysis of Upper Pleistocene carnivore coprolites in Cova del Coll Verdaguer (NE Iberian Peninsula). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443. Reumer, J., D. Mol and W. Borst (2010). The first Late Pleistocene coprolite of Crocuta crocuta spelaea from the North Sea. DEINSEA, 14. Welker, F., et al. (2014). Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus. Quaternary Research, 81. Pleistocene Coprolites - North America Gill, F.L., et al. (2009). Lipid analysis of a ground sloth coprolite. Quaternary Research, 72. Poinar, H.N., et al. (2003). Nuclear Gene Sequences from a Late Pleistocene Sloth Coprolite. Current Biology, Vol.13. Poinar, H.N., et al. (1998). Molecular Coproscopy: Dung and Diet of the Extinct Ground Sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis. Science, Vol.281. General Pleistocene Coprolites Bon, C., et al. (2012). Coprolites as a source of information on the genome and diet of the cave hyena. Proc.R.Soc. B, Published online. General Coprolites (Feces) Chame, M. (2003). Terrestrial Mammal Feces: a Morphometric Study and Description. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz, Vol.98(Suppl.1). Chase, B.M., et al. (2012). Rock hyrax middens: a palaeoenvironmental archive for southern African drylands. Quaternary Science Reviews, 56. Chin, K. (2002). Analysis of Coprolites Produced by Carnivorous Vertebrates. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Duffin, C.J. (2009). "Records of warfare...embalmed in the everlasting hills": a History of Early Coprolite Research. Mercian Geologist, 17(2). Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas (2013). The Significance of Vertebrate Coprolites in Late Paleozoic (and Younger) Lagerstatten. In: The Carboniferous-Permian Transition. Lucas, S.G., et al. (eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 60. Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas (2012). Classification of Vertebrate Coprolites and Related Trace Fossils. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas (2012). Descriptive Terminology of Coprolites and Recent Feces. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas (2012). A Bromalite Collection at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), With Descriptions of New Ichnotaxa and Notes on Other Significant Coprolite Collections. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.) New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P., et al. (2012). Vertebrate Coprolite Studies: Status and Prospectus. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P., et al. (2012). Vertebrate Coprolites and Other Bromalites in National Park Service Areas. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Johnson, K.L., et al. (2008). A Tick from a Prehistoric Arizona Coprolite. The Journal of Parasitology, Vol.94, Number 1. Kulkarni, K.G. and R. Panchang (2015). New Insights into Polychaete Traces and Fecal Pellets: Another Complex Ichnotaxon? PLoS ONE, 10(10). (Thanks to doushantuo for finding this one!) McAllister, J.A. (1985). Reevaluation of the Formation of Spiral Coprolites. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 114. Rawlence, N.J., et al. (2016). Dietary interpretations for extinct megafauna using coprolites, intestinal contents and stable isotopes: Complementary or contradictory? Quaternary Science Reviews, 142. Reinhard, K.J. and V.M. Bryant (1992). Coprolite Analysis: A Biological Perspective on Archaeology. Papers in Natural Resources, Paper 46. Scott, L., et al. (2003). Preservation and interpretation of pollen in hyaena coprolites: taphonomic observations from Spain and southern Africa. Palaeont. afr., 39. Thulborn, R.A. (1991). Morphology, preservation and palaeobiological significance of dinosaur coprolites. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 83. Williams, M.E. (1972). The Origin of "Spiral Coprolites". The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 59. Wings, O. (2012). Gastroliths in Coprolites - A Call to Search. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Wood, J.R. and J.M. Wilmshurst (2016). A protocol for subsampling Late Quaternary coprolites for multi-proxy analysis. Quaternary Science Reviews, 138. Wood, J.R., et al. (2013). Resolving lost herbivore community structure using coprolites of four sympatric moa species (Aves: Dinornithiformes). PNAS, Early Edition. Wood, J.R., et al. (2012). High-Resolution Coproecology: Using Coprolites to Reconstruct the Habits and Habitats of New Zealand's Extinct Upland Moa (Megalapteryx didinus). PLoS ONE, 7(6).
  5. Dino poo?

    Possible poo?
  6. Not all rocks that look like poop have a fecal origin. Here are a few things to consider when trying to determine whether or not you have a coprolite: 1. Location, Location, Location – If you haven’t guessed, the first and most important thing to consider is the location your rock was found. Don’t expect to find a coprolite unless you find it in geologic area/layer where other fossils are found. If you find things like bones, teeth and fish scales, or prehistoric tracks, you may just be in in luck. 2. Shape – While fecal matter can be rather free-form when exposed to the elements or when digestion issues arise, most coprolites are shaped like poo. As with modern extrusions, fossilized feces can be shaped like pellets, spirals, scrolls, logs, piles, etc. Their shape is dependent on shape of their producers intestinal and anal structure. Look for things like compaction folds and pinch marks. 3. Texture - Most coprolites are fine grained. If your specimen appears granular under magnification, it is most likely not a coprolite. There are some exceptions, such as marine creatures that feed on bottom sediments or coral. That is why knowing the location and geology of the area where it was discovered is so important. 4. Inclusions – Many times, coprolites will have visible inclusions. Things like fish scales, bone fragments, and teeth may not get fully digested, and can be visible on the surface. Some animals ingest stones for ballast or digestive purposes. These are known as gastroliths, and if present, are generally smooth. 5. Composition – Because herbivore scat tends to break a part and decompose rapidly, it rarely survives the fossilization process. So most fossil poo that is found is from carnivores. The reason for this is that their poo is usually high in calcium phosphate, the same mineral found in bone. This mineral can appear in many forms. It can be hard and dense or soft and porous. If the potential coprolite appears soft and porous, there is a quick test that is often used in the field. If you touch to stone to the tip of your tongue and it sticks, chances are, it is high in calcium phosphate and could be a coprolite. If you are not that brave, you can also touch it with wet fingers to see if it feels sticky, but this is not nearly as fun. If the calcium phosphate takes a harder, more dense form, the “lick test” won’t work. In some instances, chemical analysis is required to definitively identify the mineral composition.
  7. Is This Coprolite?

    Hello everyone! I'm new here! Is this Coprolite? Found it in PA Down by the river. Click on images to find larger pictures. Thank you guys! Coprolite Photo Album http://imgur.com/a/Np6Pm
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