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Found 41 results

  1. Foraminifera for Christmas

    The Nerdiest Christmas Cards Ever May Be These Microscope Slides Composed of Shells The unusual holiday exchange, which lasted decades during the early 20th-century, hints at the drama between the two colleagues Smithsonian By Allison C. Meier, December 17, 2018 https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/two-scientists-exchanged-christmas-greetings-microscope-slides-180971049/ A century ago, two scientists exchanged fantastic microscope slides as Christmas cards https://boingboing.net/2018/12/17/a-century-ago-two-scientists.html Yours, Paul H.
  2. Hi guys! This is a continuation of a previous post focusing just on the sponges. These fossils are from the Capitan Formation, which is Permian Period, Guadalupian Epoch, Capitanian Stage. Because these fossils are in the park, no collecting was allowed, and I can't provide additional images. Any confirmations about the identification or suggestions about a more specific identification are welcome. This trilobite is the only fossil out of these images that was actually found in Carlsbad Caverns, right behind the elevator. Can I get more specific on an ID? Cross section of rugose coral? Sponge? Bryozoan. Acanthocladia? Bryozoan? Crinoid.
  3. Hi guys! I don't post here often, but I'm a PhD student in geology, currently working on tropical Paleogene palynology. I'm taking an unrelated class on the Permian Basin and I am working on identifying some of the fossils our class saw in Guadalupe Mountains National Park. I'm not a sponge expert, and I was hoping someone on the forum might be able to confirm or correct my identifications. I might make a follow-up post on the non-sponge fossils we saw on the trip. A bit of background, these pictures were taken in the field with a metric scale, the scale has been cropped out of the pictures and a 5 mm scale bar is added. No fossil collecting was allowed on this trip so I won't be able to provide additional images. The fossils are from the Capitan Formation, which is Permian Period, Guadalupian Epoch, Capitanian Stage. The global stage name is actually named after the nearby El Capitan peak. Amblysiphonella? Archaeolithoporella?
  4. Retracing Antarctica’s Glacial Past LSU geologist uncovers new data to inform future sea level rise https://www.lsu.edu/mediacenter/news/2018/09/25gg_bart_scireports.php https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180925140417.htm https://phys.org/news/2018-09-retracing-antarctica-glacial.html The open-access paper is: Bart, P.J., DeCesare, M., Rosenheim, B.E., Majewski, W. and McGlannan, A., 2018. A centuries-long delay between a paleo-ice-shelf collapse and grounding- line retreat in the Whales Deep Basin, eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica. Scientific reports, 8(1), article 12392. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-29911-8 Yours, Paul H.
  5. As some of you may know, I am building a foraminifera catalog of all times. So Iam happy about contributions by professional and avocational scientists: Dr. M.Dan Georgescu, Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, AB, Canada is making a great contribution of SEM images of foraminifera from his publications on foram lineages in the fossil record. Check it out at www.foraminifera.eu/collection.php…
  6. Living sands

    langerjeukarcyclebeachfaciesCarbonate Production ms 2008.pdf J.Eukar.Microbiol.v55/3-2008 M.Langer: Asessing the Contribution of foraminiferan protists to global ocean carbonate production "With an estimated production of at least 130 million tons of CaCO3 per year, they contribute almost 5% of the annual present-day carbonate production in the world’s reef and shelf areas (0–200 m) and approximately 2.5% of the CaCO3 of all oceans." Nice figures:1-8 Important figure: 9,12
  7. What is this seed looking fossil?

    Can you help me identify this fossil? Late Miocene/Miocene, Phillipines, Camarines Norte
  8. Id Cretaceous Foraminifera

    Hi everyone, does anyone know these foraminifera? Age: Aptian-lower Santonian. Environment: carbonate platform.
  9. Hi everyone, does anyone know this Foraminifera from carbonate platform? They look like Miliolidae
  10. I was out hunting near Spring Valley, Minnesota with @Bev and @minnbuckeye the last couple of days. As always, I was looking for coprolites. Mike came across this first piece, sitting loose in a piece of weathered matrix. While we were splitting rocks, we found a virgin layer of the source matrix. When we got back to Bev's fossil barn (everyone should have one), I took a peak under the microscope at two of the loose, irregular objects but couldn't really see much because of the powdery iron oxide coating. When I lightly rinsed them, they revealed these microscopic (calcareous) jack-shaped objects. Similar inclusions were in both objects loose objects. You can see from the broken spine on the inclusion in the lower right that they are hollow. In the other loose piece and those still embedded in the matrix, I can also see random straw-like spines of the same material. I'm not sure if these are coprolites, algal masses or something else. I have seen coprolites covered in powdery iron oxide before. Eventually I would like to free more of these from the matrix so that I can sacrifice one to get a look at the interior. Can anyone identify the little jack-shaped inclusions? The spines may have been quite a bit longer. The only things I can think of are forams or perhaps diatoms. Bev and Mike - What was the name of that cliff again? Decorah Shale? @Carl
  11. Some foraminifera I found in the past, picture take with Microscope...
  12. Since the upload of Part 1 succeeded, I'll now offer up Part 2, a look at two interesting taxa from the family Globigerinidae. This family contains most of the taxa that we associate with the idea of "planktonic forams", perhaps due to our familiarity with the "globigerina oozes" that form a significant part of the floor of the modern world oceans. Globigerinoides ruber (d’Orbigny, 1839) is one of the two “red” species of globigerinids, as the specific epithet indicates. It is well-known that the color of individual specimens varies from white to pinkish-red, and it is typically the case that only some of its globular chambers exhibit the red coloration. I have specimens with all white chambers, one red chamber, two red chambers, etc., and have a single individual that is all red. Interestingly, the intensity of the color seems to increase with the number of chambers affected, so the all red specimen is very red indeed -- it is also a little smaller than average. Here is a typical specimen seen from the umbilical side, in a slightly oblique view, showing the primary aperture and one red chamber: The genus Globigerinoides differs from Globigerina in that its species exhibit secondary apertures, formed at the junctions of the spiral suture with intercameral sutures: Here is the spiral side of the same specimen, again presented in an oblique view, with two supplementary apertures, two red chambers at the left, and a pale pink one at the right. The top, final chamber is white, as is most frequently the case. This taxon is the commonest foram in the sample, by a large margin. The other red globigerinid is Globoturborotalita rubescens (Hofker, 1956). According to the World Foraminifera Database, it also occurs in the Gulf of Mexico, but I have seen no specimens in my sample as yet. This taxon shows four chambers in the umbilical view, rather than three, and lacks the secondary apertures. A second interesting globigerinid, quite different from the preceding, is Globigerinella siphonifera (d’Orbigny, 1839). This genus exhibits planispiral forms, rather than trochospiral -- all of the chambers are in the same plane. (Actually, the test begins growth in a trochospire, but quickly switches growth pattern to planispiral.) There is a primary aperture at the base of the final chamber, and in fully mature specimens like this one, the initial chambers enter the final one through the primary aperture: The final chamber appears to be “gobbling up” the initial chambers, like the snake that swallows its own tail. In Part 3 of this entry, I’ll examine three taxa from the Family Globorotaliidae. Stay tuned.......
  13. Planktonic Foraminifera are particularly important in biostratigraphic studies and correlation, as they are ubiquitous in marine deposits, and evolve rapidly. They first appeared in Middle Jurassic time, and thus have a long geological history. There are many phylogenetic and correlational studies available, and their rapid evolution makes them exceptionally useful as temporal markers, or guide fossils. I am currently looking at planktonic Foraminifera from a deep-water sample that was collected from the Dry Tortugas Islands, off of the coast of southern Florida. The sample was dredged from a depth of 215 meters, due south of the islands. This is an interesting area, as it represents the eastern extremity of the Gulf of Mexico, as well as the northern edge of the Caribbean Sea. The sample is a very rich one, with numerous species of benthic Foraminifera, as well as a few ostracodes. There is a good selection of planktonic forams -- I have thus far identified ten species, and would like to discuss one of these, a member of the Family Pulleniatinidae. Pulleniatina obliquiloculata (Parker & Jones, 1862) is a rather unusual looking taxon, starting with a trochospiral growth pattern, but switching to a streptospiral pattern for its final chambers. It is globulose, and quite shiny, making it easy to recognize. It took me some time to locate a specimen for imaging, as most specimens have their aperture clogged with matrix. The aperture is low, but very broad, and the apertural surface of the chamber below it is strongly pustulose. If this image were rotated toward the viewer a bit it would be clear that a thin area just above the lip of the aperture (seen here as an imperforate band) also bears pustules, although they are not as strong as those beneath the aperture. For those interested in taxonomy, this species is the generotype of Pulleniatina. I am submitting this short blog entry to see if the recent problems with uploading to the forum have been fixed. If so, I'll be submitting other entries on this sample.
  14. One of the problems I experience in studying microfossils is that of orienting a specimen so that crucial characters are visible. An example: for identification it is often necessary to check the shape of the tooth in the aperture of taxa in the family Hauerinidae. The tooth can be long or short, plain or bifid, present or missing, etc. The aperture is on the end of the test, so it isn't possible to look into it when the test is lying flat -- which it always does when the test is lying in a tray under the scope. Of course, it is possible to use a little glue on the opposite end and manipulate it into a vertical position: but this is a lot easier said than done! However, there is a much easier way to look at such things -- use a mechanical two-axis stage, which will allow you to turn a specimen to literally any position under the stereo 'scope. One of my holiday gifts this year was just such a stage, of the type most commonly used by entomologists to examine pinned insects. To use the stage, I have a size 0 insect pin from which I removed the head with side-cutter pliers. I put a small drop of gum tragacanth on the resulting blunt end of the pin, and touch it to the side of the specimen I wish to examine, where it quickly dries. I stick the sharp end of the pin into the soft rubber plug of the rotating arm of the stage, and I'm set to go. I can alter the orientation of the specimen by rotating either of the two axles of the stage; by rotating the whole stage around its vertical axis I get the third "axle". The pin is not too distracting, and only the little area under the glue is not visible. This works quite well! In this image, the aperture is at the upper end, toward the top. (Oops, mispelled "hauerinid", drat...) Two chambers are visible on this side, and there are three chambers visible on the opposite side. One can't see the tooth in the aperture, par for the course when the test is lying flat. Let's look at another specimen, mounted on the mechanical stage: I rotated this specimen by 90 degrees from its "flat" position, and now the aperture is perfectly placed for inspection. The long tooth in the aperture is clearly visible, as is the thickening of the lip. Another example using different orientations: here the specimen is perched on top of the pin. The genus Lenticulina is planispiral and involute, and the aperture is at the upper end of the exposed face of the final chamber. The aperture is radiate; i.e., composed of several thin slits in the shape of an asterisk. This can be difficult to see. In this image the position of the aperture is marked by the arrow, but the nature of the aperture is not at all clear. Rotating the test by 90 degrees to get a profile view gives us a better look, and this profile view is also most useful in species identification: In this image, the test is mounted on the pin, which is glued to the underside of the specimen. So why is the pin not visible? To light specimens under the 'scope I use a two-arm fiber optic illuminator -- careful adjustment of the twin light heads can "eliminate" the pin with shadows. (Any remaining reflections from the pin are easily removed with image processing software.) If the pin were visible, it would extend downward to the lower edge of the image. Eliminating the pin makes the specimen appear to "float in midair", but at the expense of a weakly illuminated underside. This image shows the involute structure nicely, the apertural face, the swollen center of the test, the thin peripheral keel, and the pale aperture area at the right end. The aperture itself is still not well revealed, however. Let's adjust the orientation a little more: Turning the right end of the test upward toward the objective lenses, and boosting the magnification a bit, brings the radiate aperture into better view. Three of the radial slits, filled with contrasting matrix, are fairly clearly shown. Further rotation upward toward the objectives would provide a fuller view of the aperture, but this view is sufficient to demonstrate that the aperture is indeed radiate in structure. This method of mounting a specimen on a pin is totally non-destructive: to remove the specimen from the pin one just immerses it in a drop of water, where the gum tragacanth will quickly dissolve, leaving the specimen completely undamaged. Hopefully this blog entry will encourage others to explore ways to alter the orientation of their specimens, whether for identification purposes or photo-imaging.
  15. When I was preparing my previous entry on nodosariid forams from the Pecan Gap Chalk, I originally included a specimen that I had identified as a member of the genus Dentalina. This identification was incorrect, and I edited the entry to remove that specimen. Here it is again, with what I hope is the correct identification! The genus Strictocostella is a member of the family Stilostomellidae, and this species is illustrated in Frizzell's "Handbook of Cretaceous Foraminifera of Texas" as a member of the genus Stilostomella. He also listed it as occurring in the Pecan Gap Chalk. Better images can be found on the World Foraminifera Database -- they show specimens with some very small spines around the bases of each chamber, almost what one might call "hispid". The drawing in Frizzell does not show this feature, nor does my specimen. I have not yet looked at Cushman's original description, but I am reasonably confident that this difference is within the range of natural variation. (I have seen this kind of variation on images of other stilostomellids.) I like it when I "Live and Learn!" And I'm glad that I caught the error.............
  16. I have recently been studying a sample of washed residues from the Pecan Gap Chalk Formation of the Cretaceous Gulfian Series, from an outcrop in the vicinity of Austin, Texas. Most of the Gulfian formations are richly fossiliferous, and the Pecan Gap is no exception. It has abundant, well-preserved microfossils, particularly forams and ostracodes. In this blog entry I would like to show some forams of the family Nodosariidae, which I find of particular interest. All belong to the genus Frondicularia, which has compressed, biserial tests. Frondicularia archiaciana d'Orbigny, 1840 is one of the maddeningly similar "narrow" forms within the genus, whose identification often requires close attention to the contours of the test outline. The biserial growth form of the test appears in most members of the genus as inverted chevrons when the image is oriented with the aperture uppermost. This structure is more-or-less apparent depending on the relative transparency of the individual test, and it shows quite well in this image. What one is seeing are the suture lines between the chambers. The aperture in members of the Nodosariidae is radiate; this type of aperture does not stand up very well to post-depositional forces, and is very frequently broken away -- true of all four specimens in this entry. Frondicularia frankei Cushman, 1936 is one of a group of taxa within the genus in which the base of the test is not compressed. In profile, the base appears to be bulbous, with rather wide "ripples" oriented lengthwise. The upper 3/4 of the test is compressed, and appears quite flat in profile. The basal spine is one of the distinguishing characters of this species, although many others show such a spine also. Frondicularia intermittens Reuss, 1865 is another taxon of the "narrow" group, in which the chevrons produced by the biserial structure are less apparent. A few bright, length-wise streaks show that the sutures separating the chambers are depressed. The largest of the nodosariids that I have found thus far is Frondicularia mucronata Reuss, 1845. The larger, more ovoid appearance of this taxon is due in part to the greater length of the individual chambers, which also gives the "inverted chevron effect" a somewhat different character. The specific epithet is from the small basal tooth on the initial chamber (proloculus) of the test. Hopefully, readers have enjoyed looking at these little fossils. If so, stay tuned -- I'll be writing more about microfossils from the Texas Gulfian Series, and will also upload an entry on Pleistocene Ostracoda from the San Pedro Formation of California in the near future.
  17. I think it is a Nodobolivinella compressa - a foraminifera smaller than 0,5mm. I found it in an Oligocene sample from SW France sent to me by malacologist Dirk F. www.foraminifera.eu/single.php?no=1012309&aktion=suche Optical images. Three views of the same specimen.
  18. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 31, 2017. Phylum Foraminifera - Forams and Fusulinids Silurian Bell, K.N., P. Cockle and R. Mawson (2000). Agglutinated Foraminifera (Silurian and Early Devonian) from Borenore and Windellama, New South Wales. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement Number 58. Holcova, K. (2002). Silurian and Devonian Foraminifers and Other Acid-Resistant Microfossils from the Barrandian Area. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Natural History, 58(3-4). Kaminski, M.A., et al. (2016). Silurian agglutinated foraminifera from the Dingle Peninsula, Ireland. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 55(2). Zuravel, D.L. (1986). Wenlockian (Silurian) Agglutinated Foraminifera from the Wayne Formation, Tennessee. Masters Thesis - Texas Tech University. (34.5MB download) Devonian Conkin, J.E. and B.M. Conkin (1968). A Revision of Some Upper Devonian Foraminifera from Western Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 4. Copeland, M.J. and R.V. Kesling (1955). A New Occurrence of Semitextularia thomasi Miller and Carmer, 1933. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - University of Michigan, Vol.XII, Number 7. Holcova, K. (2002). Silurian and Devonian Foraminifers and Other Acid-Resistant Microfossils from the Barrandian Area. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Natural History, 58(3-4). Holcova, K. and L. Slavik (2013). The morphogroups of small agglutinated foraminifera from the Devonian carbonate complex of the Prague Synform, (Barrandian area, Czech Republic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 386. Malec, J. (1992). Arenaceous Foraminifera from Lower-Middle Devonian Boundary Beds of Western Part of the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, Vol.62. Schieber, J. (2009). Discovery of agglutinized benthic foraminfera in Devonian black shales and their relevance for the redox state of ancient seas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 271. Carboniferous Carboniferous - Africa/Middle East Leven, E.Ja. and M.N. Gorgij (2008). New Fusulinids of the Moscovian Stage Found in Iran. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlations, Vol.16, Number 4. Leven, E.Ja. and M.N. Gorgij (2006). Upper Carboniferous - Permian stratigraphy and fusulinids from the Anarak region, central Iran. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.8. Leven, E.Ja., V.I. Davydov and M.N. Gorgij (2006). Pennsylvanian Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of Central and Eastern Iran. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.9, Issue 1. Okuyucu, C. (2009). Systematics and biostratigraphic notes of the upper Moscovian-upper Gzhelian fusulinid foraminifers from the Anatolian Platform in the Southern Turkey. Geologica Balcanica, 38, 1-3. Carboniferous - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Leven, E.Ja. (1998). Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of the Moscovian Stage (Middle Carboniferous) in the Southwestern Darvaz (Pamir). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.104, Number 1. Ota, Y. (1994). Upper Carboniferous Fusulinids from Mt. Maruyama, Mine City, Yamaguchi Prefecture. Bull. Kitakyushu Mus.Nat.Hist., 13. Carboniferous - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Blazejowski, B., A. Holda-Michalska and K. Michalski (2006). Schellwienia arctica (Fusulinidae) from the Carboniferous-?Permian strata of the Treskelodden Formation, south Spitsbergen. Polish Polar Research, Vol.27, Number 1. Colpaert, C. (2014). The Tournaisian (Early Carboniferous) Foraminifers from the Kuznetsk Basin (South-West Siberia, Russia): Taxonomy, Biometry, Biostratigraphy. Examensarbete vid Institutionen fӧr geovetenskaper, Number 303. Davydov, V.I. and I. Nilsson (1999). Fusulinid Succession from the Middle-Upper Carboniferous Boundary Beds on Spitsbergen, Arctic Norway. Palaeontologia Electronica. Davydov, V.I., I. Nilsson and L. Stemmerik (2001). Fusulinid zonation of the Upper Carboniferous Kap Jungersen and Foldedal Formations, southern Amdrup Land, eastern North Greenland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.48. Khodjanyazova, R.R., et al. (2014). Climate- and eustasy-driven cyclicity in Pennsylvanian fusulinid assemblages, Donets Basin (Ukraine). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 396. Kulagina, E.I. (2009). Evolution of the fusulinid Depratina in the Bashkirian-Moscovian interval. Palaeoworld, 18. Strank, A.R.E. (1983). New Stratigraphically Significant Foraminifera from the Dinantian of Great Britian. Palaeontology, Vol.26, Part 2. Carboniferous - North America Alexander, R.D. (1954). Desmoinesian Fusulinids of Northeastern Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Circular No. 31. Cushman, J.A. and J.A. Waters (1930). Foramina of the Cisco Group (Exclusive of the Fusilinidae). The University of Texas Bulletin Number 3019. Douglass, R.C. (1971). Pennsylvanian Fusulinids from Southeastern Alaska. Geological Survey Professional Paper 706. Dunbar, C.O. (1932). Fusulinids of the Big Lake Oil Field, Reagan County, Texas. In: Contributions to Geology, 1932. University of Texas Bulletin 3201. (Note: the download includes the entire bulletin. The article on Fusulinids is on pages 46-51 of the pdf file.) Galloway, J.J. and C. Ryniker (1930). Foraminifera from the Atoka Formation of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Circular Number 21. Groves, J.R. (1983). Calcareous Foraminifers and Algae from the Type Morrowan (Lower Pennsylvanian) Region of Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Kansas. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Bulletin 133. Harris, R.W. and T.C. Jobe (1956). Chester Foraminifera and Ostracoda from the Ringwood Pool of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Circular 39. Mamet, B.L. (1985). Carboniferous Foraminifera and Algae of the Amsden Formation (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian) of Wyoming. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 848-B. Mamet, B.L., S. Pinard and A.K. Armstrong (1993). Micropaleontological Zonation (Foraminifers, Algae) and Stratigraphy, Carboniferous Peratrovich Formation, Southeastern Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2031. Marple, M.F. (1955). Small Foraminifera of the Pottsville Formation in Ohio. The Ohio Journal of Science, 55(2). Myers, D.A. (1988). Stratigraphic Distribution of Fusulinid Foraminifera from the Manzano Mountains, New Mexico. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1446-A, B. Myers, D.A. (1988). Stratigraphic Distribution of some Pennsylvanian Fusulinids from the Sandia Formation and the Los Moyos Limestone, Manzano Mountains, New Mexico. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1446-A. Myers, D.A. (1960). Stratigraphic Distribution of Some Pennsylvanian Fusulinidae from Brown and Coleman Counties, Texas. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 315-C. Nail, R.S. (1996). Middle-Late Pennsylvanian Fusulinid Faunas from Midcontinent North America and the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Tech University. Plummer, H.J. (1930). Calcareous Foraminifera in the Brownwood Shale near Bridgeport, Texas. The University of Texas Bulletin, Number 3019. Sabins, F.F. and C.A. Ross (1965). Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of Naco Group in Chiricahua and Dos Cabezas Mountains, Arizona. In: Southwestern New Mexico II. Fitzsimmons, J.P. and C.L. Balk (eds.), New Mexico Geological Society 16th Annual Fall Field Conference Guidebook. Smyth, P. (1957). Fusulinids from the Pennsylvanian Rocks of Ohio. The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.57, Number 5. Thomas, H.D. (ed.)(1953). Fusulinids of the Casper Formation of Wyoming. The Geological Survey of Wyoming, Bulletin Number 46. Verville, G.J., G.A. Sanderson and M.E. Madsen (1986). Pennsylvanian Fusulinids from the Fra Cristobal Range, Sierra County, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 37th Field Conference, Truth or Consequences, 1986. Wahlman, G.P. and R.R. West (2010). Fusulinids from the Howe Limestone Member (Red Eagle Limestone, Council Grove Group) in Northeastern Kansas and their Significance to the North American Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) - Permian Boundary. Current Research in Earth Sciences, Bulletin 258, Part 4. Carboniferous - South America/Central America/Caribbean Stevens, C.H., F.G. Poole and R. Amaya-Martinez (2014). Late Paleozoic fusulinids from Sonora, Mexico: Importance for interpretation of depositional settings, biogeography and paleotectonics. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.31, Number 1. Permian Permian - Africa/Middle East Davydov, V.I. and S. Arefifard (2007). Permian Fusulinid Fauna of Peri-Gondwanan Affinity from the Kalmard Region, East-Central Iran and its Significance for Tectonics and Paleogeography. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.10, Issue 2. Okuyucu, C. and M.C. Goncuoglu (2010). Middle-late Asselian (Early Permian) fusulinid fauna from the post-Variscan cover in NW Anatolia (Turkey): Biostratigraphy and geological implications. Geobios, 43. Orlov-Labkovsky, O. (2003). Permian Fusulinids (Foraminifera) of the Subsurface of Israel: Taxonomy and Biostratigraphy. Revista Española de Micropaleontologia, 36(3). Skinner, J.W. (1969). Permian Foraminifera from Turkey. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 36. Skinner, J.W. and G.L. Wilde (1967). Permian Foraminifera from Tunisia. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 30. Permian - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Choi, D.R. (1973). Permian Fusulinids from the Setamai-Yahagi District, Southern Kitakami Mountains. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series 4, Geology and Mineralogy, 16(1). (19.5MB download) Choi, D.R. (1970). Permian Fusulinids from Imo, Southern Kitakami Mountains, N.E. Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series 4, Geology and Mineralogy, 14(3). Choi, D.R. (1970). On Some Permian Fusulinids from Iwaizaki, N.E. Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series 4, Geology and Mineralogy, 14(3). Huang, H. (2011). Fusulinid species determination based on population variation: An example from Eopolydiexodina. Science China - Earth Sciences, Vol.54, Number 3. Permian - Australia/New Zealand Crespin, I. (1958). Permian Foraminifera of Australia. Commonwealth of Australia Department of National Development, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin Number 48. (48 MB download) Hornibrook, N. de B. (1951). Permian Fusulinid Foraminifera from the North Auckland Peninsula, New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Vol.79, Part 2. Permian - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Nestell, G.P., et al. (2011). Foraminifera from the Permian-Triassic transition in western Slovenia. Micropaleontology, Vol.57, Number 3. Skinner, J.W. and G.L. Wilde (1966). Permian Fusulinids from Sicily. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 8. Permian - North America Myers, D.A. (1988). Stratigraphic Distribution of Fusulinid Foraminifera from the Manzano Mountains, New Mexico. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1446-A, B. Ross, C.A. (1962). 236. Fusulinids from the Leonard Formation (Permian), Western Glass Mountains, Texas. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Vol.XIII, Part 1. Ross, C.A. and J.R.P. Ross (2003). Fusulinid Sequence Evolution and Sequence Extinction in Wolfcampian and Leonardian Series (Lower Permian), Glass Mountains, West Texas. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.109, Number 2. Sabins, F.F. and C.A. Ross (1965). Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of Naco Group in Chiricahua and Dos Cabezas Mountains, Arizona. In: Southwestern New Mexico II. Fitzsimmons, J.P. and C.L. Balk (eds.), New Mexico Geological Society 16th Annual Fall Field Conference Guidebook. Skinner, J.W. (1971). New Lower Permian Fusulinids from Culberson County, Texas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 53. Skinner, J.W. and G.L. Wilde (1966). Permian Fusulinids from Pacific Northwest and Alaska. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 4. (Download from site.) Skinner, J.W. and G.L. Wilde (1965). Permian Biostratigraphy and Fusulinid Faunas of the Shasta Lake area, northern California. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 39, Protozoa 6. (Download from site.) Thomas, H.D. (ed.)(1953). Fusulinids of the Casper Formation of Wyoming. The Geological Survey of Wyoming, Bulletin Number 46. Thompson, M.L. (1954). American Wolfcampian Fusulinids. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 14, Protozoa 5. (Download from site.) Williams, T.E. (1963). Fusulinidae of the Hueco Group (Lower Permian), Hueco Mountains, Texas. Peabody Museum of Natural History - Yale University, Bulletin 18. Permian - South America/Central America/Caribbean Perez-Ramos, O. and M. Nestell (2002). Permian fusulinids from Cobachi, central Sonora, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.19, Number 1. Ross, C.A. (1962). Permian Foraminifera from British Honduras. Palaeontology, Vol.5, Part 2. Stevens, C.H., F.G. Poole and R. Amaya-Martinez (2014). Late Paleozoic fusulinids from Sonora, Mexico: Importance for interpretation of depositional settings, biogeography and paleotectonics. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.31, Number 1. Triassic Kristan-Tollmann, E. (1988). A Comparison of Late Triassic Agglutinated Foraminifera of Western and Eastern Tethys. Abh.Geol.B.-A., Vol.41. Payne, J.L., et al. (2011). Early and Middle Triassic trends in diversity, evenness, and size of foraminifers from a carbonate platform in south China: implications for tempo and mode of biotic recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction. Paleobiology, 37(3). Rigaud, S., R. Martini and R. Rettori (2013). A new genus of Norian involutinid foraminifers: Its morphological, biostratigraphic, and evolutionary significance. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(2). Styk, O. (1975). Foraminifera from the Lower and Middle Triassic of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XX, Number 4. Tappan, H. (1951). Foraminifera from the Arctic Slope of Alaska - General Introduction and Part 1, Triassic Foraminifera. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 236-A. Jurassic BouDagher-Fadel, M.K. and A.R. Lord (2002). Larger Foraminifera of the Jurassic Western Tethys Ocean. Archaeology & History in Lebanon, Issue 15. Gordon, W.A. (1961). Some Foraminifera from the Ampthill Clay, Upper Jurassic, of Cambridgeshire. Palaeontology, Vol.4, Part 4. Kottachchi, N. (2001). Jurassic Foraminifera from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: biostratigraphy, paleoenvironments and paleogeographic implications. Masters Thesis - Carleton University. Lalicker, C.G. (1950). Foraminifera of the Ellis Group, Jurassic, at the Type Locality. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 5, Protozoa 2. Lloyd, A.J. (1959). Arenaceous Foraminifera from the Type Kimeridgian (Upper Jurassic). Palaeontology, Vol.1, Part 4. Rigaud, S., et al. (2015). Taxonomy, phylogeny, and functional morphology of the foraminiferal genus Involutina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1). Schmid, D.U. and R.R. Leinfelder (1996). The Jurassic Lithocodium aggregatum - Troglotella incrustans Foraminiferal Consortium. Palaeontology, Vol.39, Part 1. Tappan, H. (1955). Foraminifera from the Arctic Slope of Alaska - Part 2. Jurassic Foraminifera. U.S. Geological Survey Report. Cretaceous Cretaceous - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Asano, K. (1950) Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from Japan. Pacific Science, Vol. IV. Cretaceous - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Alegret, L., E. Molina and E. Thomas (2003). Benthic foraminiferal turnover across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary at Agost (southeastern Spain): paleoenvironmental inferences. Marine Micropaleontology, 48. Barr, F.T. (1966). Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from the Ballydeanlea Chalk, County Kerry, Ireland. Palaeontology, Vol. 9, Part 3. Barr, F.T. (1961) Upper Cretaceous Planktonic Foraminifera from the Isle of Wight, England. Palaeontology, Vol.4, Part 4. Renema, W. and M.B. Hart (2012). Larger benthic Foraminifera of the type Maastrichtian. In: Fossils of the type Maastrichtian (Part 1). Jagt, J.W.M., S.K. Donovan and E.A. Jagt-Yazykova (eds.), Scripta Geologica Special Issue 8. Rogl, F. (1995). A Late Cretaceous Flysch-type Agglutinated Foraminiferal Fauna from the Trochamminoides proteus Type Locality (Wien-Hutteldorf, Austria). In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera, Krakow, Poland. Kaminski, M.A., S. Geroch and M.A. Gasinski (eds.), Grzybowski Foundation Special Publication Number 3. Cretaceous - North America Abramovich, S., et al. (2011). Maastrichtian Planktic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy and Paleoenvironment of Brazos River, Falls County, Texas, USA. In: The End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction and the Chicxulub Impact in Texas. SEPM Special Bulletin 100. Beddoes, L.R. (1959). Foraminiferal Populations of the Goodland Formation, Tarrant County, Texas. Field & Laboratory, SMU, 27(2). Carsey, D.O. (1926). Foraminifera of the Cretaceous of Central Texas. University of Texas Bulletin, Number 2612. Frizzell, D.L. (1954). Handbook of Cretaceous Foraminifera of Texas. Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations Number 22. (230 pages) Loeblich, A.R. and H. Tappan (1950). Foraminifera from the Type Kiowa Shale, Lower Cretaceous, of Kansas. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 6, Protozoa 3. Martin, L. (1964). Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Foraminifera from Fresno County, California. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, Sonderband 9. Patterson, R.T., J.W. Haggart and A.P. Dalby (2010). A Guide to Late Albian-Cenomanian (Cretaceous) Foraminifera from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.13, Issue 2. Sliter, W.V. (1968). Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from Southern California and Northwestern Baja California, Mexico. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 49, Protozoa 7. (Download from site) Cretaceous - South America/Central America/Caribbean Alegret, L., E. Molina and E. Thomas (2001). Benthic foraminifera at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary around the Gulf of Mexico. Geology, Vol.29, Number 10. Omana, L. and G. Alencaster (2009). Lower Aptian shallow-water benthic foraminiferal assemblage from the Chilacachapa range in the Guerrero-Morelos Platform, south Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.26, Number 3. Sliter, W.V. (1968). Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from Southern California and Northwestern Baja California, Mexico. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 49, Protozoa 7. (Download from site) Paleocene Afzal, J., et al. (2005). Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy and Paleoenvironments of the Paleocene Lockhart Limestone from Kotal Pass, Kohat, Northern Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research, Vol.15. Malarkodi, N., et al. (2010). Foraminifera from the Early Danian Intertrappean Beds in Rajahmundry Quarries, Andhra Pradesh. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.75. Eocene Anan, H.S. (2005). Agglutinated Middle-Upper Eocene foraminifera in Jabal Hafit, Al Ain area, United Arab Emirates. Revue de Paleobiolgie, Geneve, 24(1). Lunt, P. (2003). Biogeography of Some Eocene Larger Foraminifera and Their Application in Distinguishing Geological Plates. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.6, Issue 2. Plummer, H.J. (1932). Foraminiferal Evidence of the Midway-Wilcox Contact in Texas. In: Contributions to Geology, 1932. University of Texas Bulletin 3201. (Note: download includes the entire bulletin. The article on Forams is on pages 28-45 of the pdf file.) Todd, R. (1970). Smaller Foraminifera of Late Eocene Age from Eua, Tonga. Geological Survey Professional Paper 640-A. Oligocene Gedik, F. (2008). Foraminiferal description and biostratigraphy of the Oligocene shallow marine sediments in Denizli region, SW Turkey. Revue de Paleobiologie, Geneve, 27(1). Miocene Adams, C.G. (1959). Geologial Distribution of Discospirina (Foraminifera) and Occurrence of D. italica in the Miocene of Cyprus. Palaeontology, Vol.1, Part 4. Belford, D.J. (1962). Miocene and Pliocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Papua-New Guinea. Commonwealth of Australia, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin Number 62. Buzas, M.A. and T.G. Gibson (1990). Spatial Distribution of Miocene Foraminifera at Calvert Cliffs, Maryland. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 68. Crihan, I.-M. (2000). Palaeoecology of the Badenian Foraminifera Between the Prahova Valley and Teleajen Valley (Subcarpathians of Muntenia). Hayward, B.W. and M.A. Buzas (1979). Taxonomy and Paleoecology of Early Miocene Benthic Foraminifera of Northern New Zealand and the North Tasman Sea. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 36. Pliocene Belford, D.J. (1962). Miocene and Pliocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Papua-New Guinea. Commonwealth of Australia, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin Number 62. General Forams and Fusilinids Barnard, T. (1958). Some Mesozoic Adherent Foraminifera. Palaeontology, Vol.1, Part 2. Bellier, J.-P., R. Mathieu and B. Granier (2010). Short Treatise on Foraminiferology (Essential on modern and fossil foraminifera). Carnets de Geologie, 2(2). Burnaby, T.P. (1961). The Palaeoecology of the Foraminifera of the Chalk Marl. Palaeontology, Vol.4, Part 4. Carter, D.J. (1957). The Distribution of the Foraminifer Alliatina excentrica (Di Napoli Alliata) and the New Genus Alliatinella. Palaeontology, Vol.1, Part 1. Coxall, H.K., et al. (2007). Iterative evolution of digitate planktonic foraminifera. Paleobiology, 33(4). Cushman, J.A. (1959). A Monograph of the Foraminiferal Family Nonionidae. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 191. Davydov, V. (2014). Warm water benthic foraminifera document the Pennsylvanian-Permian warming and cooling events - The record from Western Pangaea tropical shelves. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 414. Dilley, F.C. (1973). Larger Foraminifera and Seas Through Time. Special Papers in Palaeontology, Number 12. Douglass, R.C. (1987). Fusulinid Biostratigraphy and Correlations Between the Appalachians and Eastern Interior Basins. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1451. Douglass, R.C. (1960). The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 333. Holbourn, A.E. and A.S. Henderson (2002). Re-Illustration and Revised Taxonomy for Selected Deep-Sea Benthic Foraminifers. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.4, Issue 2. Huang, H. (2011). Fusulinid species determination based on population variation: An example from Eopolydiexodina. Science China - Earth Sciences, Vol.54, Number 3. Kochansky-Devide, V. (1969). Parallel Tendencies in the Evolution of the Fusulinids. Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, Vol.XXXIX. Murray, J.W. and E. Alve (2011). The distribution of agglutinated foraminifera in NW European seas: Baseline data for the interpretation of fossil assemblages. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.14, Issue 2. Murray, J.W. and C.A. Wright (1974). Palaeogene Foraminiferida and Palaeoecology, Hampshire and Paris Basins and the English Channel. Special Papers in Palaeontology, Number 14. Nielsen, K.S.S., J.K. Nielsen and R.G. Bromley (2003). Palaeoecological and Ichnological Signifiance of Microborings in Quaternary Foraminifera. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.6, Issue 1. Pawlowski, J., et al. (2003). The evolution of early Foraminifera. PNAS, Vol.100, Number 20. Platon, E. (1997). Coiling Modes in the Family Plectorecurvoididae (Foraminiferida). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, Vol.67. Schmidt, D.N., et al. (2004). Abiotic Forcing of Plankton Evolution in the Cenozoic. Science, Vol.303. Shi, Y. and N. MacLeod (2016). Identification of life-history stages in fusulinid foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, 122. Skinner, J.W. (1971). The Fusulinid Genera Polydiexodina and Skinnerina. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 57. Smout, A.H. and F.E. Eames (1958). The Genus Archaias (Forminifera) and its Stratigraphical Distribution. Palaeontology, Vol.1, Part 3. Stainforth, R.M., et al. (1975). Cenozoic Planktonic Foraminiferal Zonation and Characteristics of Index Forms. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 62. (Download from site.) Thompson, M.L. (1948). Studies of American Fusulinids. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 4, Protozoa 1. (184 Pages, download from site.) Utah Geological Survey and A.J. Wells (2017). Fossil Fusulinid Evaluation Results for the Rush Valley, Wildcat Mountain, Grouse Creek and Tremonton 30' X 60' Quadrangles, Utah. Utah Geological Survey, Open-File Report 664. Vachard, D., L. Pille and J. Gaillot (2010). Palaeozoic Foraminifera: Systematics, palaeoecology and responses to global changes. Revue de micropaleontologie, 53. Wade, B.S., et al. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth Science Reviews, 104. White, M.P. (1932). Some Texas Fusulinidae. The University of Texas Bulletin, Number 3211. Wray, C.G., et al. (1995). Origin of the foraminifera. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. USA, Vol.92.
  19. Coprolite with cephalopod inclusions

    This coprolite is from a marine creature that swam in the Jurassic seas that once covered this parts of England. The dark inclusions that can be seen on the surface are cephalopod hooks. In April 2016, the University of Minnesota X-ray Computed Tomography Lab scanned the specimen using a X5000 high resolution microCT system with a twin head 225 kV x-ray source and a Dexela area detector (3073 x 3889 pixels). Many of the images shown here are of individual 3D elements/features within the coprolite that were separated/isolated using Blob3D. The taxonomic classification given is for the inclusions, not the coprolite. Aside from the hooks, it is hard to definitively identify the inclusions without damage to the coprolite. The following is a list of inclusions: 241 hooks of various sizes that are at least 75% intact. 200+ plate-like fragments of various sizes. 19 ellipsoidal structures, possibly forams or parasite eggs. 2 unidentified long, straight conical structures joined at wide end (A) 1 long rod-like structure with a bulbous end (B) 1 unidentified mass that looks like it was the attachment point for 5 rod-like structures (C) 1 1ong cylindrical (rod) structure that tapers in the center. The center density is much lower than the outer shell (D) 1 irregular structure that looks I originally thought might be an ink sack or buccal mass, but the size is wrong. Experta think it is more likely foraminifera (E) 1 irregular structure, possibly a statolith (F) Acknowledgements: Thank you to Neale Monks and Christian Klug for providing input.
  20. Dear microfossil hunting colleagues, in a sq-inch on the seafloor and the water column above dozens or thousands of microorganisms usually live and lived. In fossil rocks and samples microfossils if present do not come alone but as an assemblage of different species and many specimens. These assemblages represent the environment in which the specimens lived. Besides of the micro-organisms living on the sea-ground there maybe many planktonic ones living in the water column above. When they die, their shell/remnants sink to the seafloor and intermingle with the remnants of those, who lived on the bottom. Please find in the image an example of my work on a Miocene sample from Quelfes, Portugal. It is just a start as many more species can be found in this material. Nonetheless is already tells the story of a nearshore Miocene and nutrient rich environment. I strongly recommend you to work on your samples likewise. WORK ON THE ASSEMBLAGE ! It is the true fossil record. Picking just the big, nice looking specimens is a man-made fabricate, which gives a misleading idea about, what is really there. Respect nature as it is and appears. Get a microcell with 10 or more holes and put the assemblage sorted by morphology in it. Then you have a true picture of the assemblage, environment, and geological time of the material. Have fun with your assemblages ! Foram-Mike
  21. Star-shaped microfossil

    Hi, having a bit of trouble identifying this microfossil. It was found in a marl formation of late Bartonian in age in the southern Spanish Pyrenees (the Oliana Anticline). The marl is rich in nummlitoid formainifera, however, this does not appear like the others. It could possibly be the cross section through an echinoderm spine?? Any suggests are much appreciated! (photo taken with x10 magnification)
  22. Pennsylvanian Foraminifera?

    I have found quite a number of these ranging from 1-4 mm or so. They are from the Kansas City Group of the Pennsylvanian Subsystem. I don't know the name of the strata, but for the locals, these come from the road cut about 1/4 mile west of I-49 on Route 150 near Belton, MO. I have found them in large (three to six inch) nodules. I will appreciate any help you can give me with identification? Russ
  23. In this entry I would like to show two of the commonest Foraminifera from my sample of the Florena Shale. The most common forams by far are the fusulinids, but as these are not identifiable without thin sections, they will have to wait until I'm equipped to deal with them. Excepting the fusulinids, the commonest foram is Globivalvulina bulloides (Brady, 1876): This taxon has an enrolled biserial structure, and in spiral view it typically exhibits one large and two smaller chambers, the sutures between them forming a rough T-shape. In the umbilical view the triangular projection into the umbilical area is characteristic. The many specimens show several different growth stages, but all are easily identifiable. The second most common non-fusulinid is Tetrataxis corona Cushman and Waters, 1928: This taxon is looks much like a Chinese straw hat: a very low cone, with a concave umbilical area. Chambers are added marginally, typically four per whorl, hence the generic name. Specimens vary greatly in size, representing various growth stages. The larger ones very frequently exhibit chipped or broken edges, probably due to postmortem damage.
  24. I have about 8 acres of coastal estuary in northern Nova Scotia, and decided to take a look at the estuary sediments to see if I could find any fossils. Yes, they are there! Microfossils and lots of other life including ostracoda. Using my hand lens I could see them very well. Will invest at sometime in a microscope and maybe I will see even more. Hand lens for scale for foraminifera and ostracod scale is in millimeters.
  25. Pyritized Jurassic foraminifer

    In our Jurassic samples from the Algarve, Portugal we found this pyritized Spirillina tenuissima. It is about 150µm in size. The work on this sample is ongoing and will take a while. First results are at www.foraminifera.eu/loc.php?locality=Mareta Michael Hesemann Foraminifera.eu Project Hamburg, Germany Have you got any Jurassic soft samples of marine origin to share ?