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  1. From the album: Invertebrates

    Belotelson magister (Packard, 1886) Lower Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath Shale Formation Bear Gulch, Fergus County Montana USA
  2. From the album: Vertebrates

    Wendyichthys lautreci Lund & Poplin 1997 Lower Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath Shale Formation Bear Gulch Montana USA
  3. Taxonomy according to Schram and Horner, 1978, p. 394. Diagnosis (Schram and Horner, 1978, p. 394): "Rhinocarid of large size; carapace covered with hairlike ornament; furcae about 1 ½ times as long as the telson." Dithyrocaris rolfei, reconstruction from Schram and Horner, 1978, p. 395. Identified by oilshale using Schram and Horner, 1978. References: Schram, F. R. and Horner J. (1978): Crustacea of the Mississippian Bear Gulch Limestone of Central Montana. Journal of Paleontology 52(2):394-406. Factor D. F. and Feldmann R. M. (1985): Systematics
  4. Echinochimaera snyderi belongs to the peculiar looking chimaeras (also called sea cats, ratfish or ghost sharks). Chimaeras possess two dorsal fins; the first dorsal fin is supported by a movable spine associated with a venom gland. Recent sea cats live in all oceans of the world, preferably at depths between 200 and 2000m. This juvenile specimen of Echinochimaera snyderi is most likely a female; adult males are slightly smaller and have a more curved dorsal spine. References: R. Lund. 1988. New Mississippian Holocephali (Chondrichthyes) and the evolution of the Holoceeph
  5. oilshale

    Fish non det.

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Fish non det. Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Bear Gulch Montana USA
  6. oilshale

    Discoserra pectinodon Lund, 2000

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Discoserra pectinodon Lund, 2000 Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath shale Bear Gulch Montana USA
  7. oilshale

    Fish non det.

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Fish non det. Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath shale Bear Gulch Montana
  8. oilshale

    Arborispongia delicatula Rigby 1985

    Lit.: Rigby, J. K. : The sponge fauna from the Mississipian Heath Formation of Central Montana. Congres International de Stratigraphie et de Geologie du Carbonifere Compte Rendu, 9(5) 1985: 443-456. [Zoological Record Volume 122]
  9. Three (partially incomplete) specimens of Tyrannophontes acanthocercus on one plate. The largest specimen is 5cm stretched out. Lit.: R. A. Jenner, C. H. J. Hof, and F. R. Schram. 1998. Palaeo- and archaeostomatopods (Hoplocarida, Crustacea) from the Bear Gulch Limestone, Mississippian (Namurian), of Central Montana. Contributions to Zoology 67(3):155-185
  10. oilshale

    Discoserra pectinodon LUND, 2000

    Taxonomy from Lund 2000. Diagnosis for the genus Discoserra from Lund 2000, p. 180: "Teeth of the premaxilla, maxilla and dentary long, thin, and styliform. Posterior end of maxilla does not extend back to level of anterior margin of orbit. Parietals excluded from contact in dorsal midline by postrostral 2, which contacts supraoccipital. No transverse supratemporal commissure in supraoccipital. Two rows of paired bones over orbit. One to three interopercular bones; two to three small postspiraculars and a presupracleithrum. Branchiostegals very variable in size, number and shape. Dorsal r
  11. oilshale

    ? Productus moorefieldanus Girty

    From the album: Invertebrates

    ? Productus moorefieldanus Girty Early Carboniferous Heath Shale Formation Bear Gulch Fergus County Montana USA
  12. From the album: Vertebrates

    Caridosuctor populosum Lund & Lund, 1984 Heath Shale Formation Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Bear Gulch Montana USA
  13. oilshale

    Reticycloceras sp.

    With soft part preservation. Lit.: Landman, N. H., and R. A. Davis, 1988. "Jaw and crop preserved in an orthoconic nautiloid cephalopod from the Bear Gulch Limestone (Mississippian, Montana)." Mapes, R. S. 1987. "Upper Paleozoic cephalopod mandibles: frequency of occurrence, modes of preservation, and paleoecological implications". Journal of Paleontology 61: 521-538.
  14. Taxonomy from Fossilworks.org.Can also be found in Mazon Creek. References: F. R. Schram (1979): Worms of the Mississippian Bear Gulch Limestone of central Montana, USA. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History. Volume 19, No 9, pp 107-120
  15. oilshale

    Reticycloceras sp.

    From the album: Invertebrates

    Reticycloceras sp. Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath Shale Formation Bear Gulch Montana USA
  16. Janvier, P. & Lund, R. 1983 – Hardistiella montaniensis from the Lower Carboniferous of Montana with remarks on the affinity of the lampreys. J. Vert. Paleont. 2, 407-413. Janvier, P. & Lund, R. 1986 – A second lamprey from the Lower Carboniferous of Bear Gulch Montana. Geobios 19, 647-652. Robert S. Sansom, Sarah E. Gabbott, and Mark A. Purnell Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record Proc. R. Soc. B. 2011 278 1709 1150-1157
  17. From the album: Vertebrates

    Hardistella montanensis Janvier & Lund, 1983 A Lamprey Lower Carboniferous Heath Shale Formation Bear Gulch Montana USA Lit.: Janvier, P. & Lund, R. 1983 – Hardistiella montaniensis from the Lower Carboniferous of Montana with remarks on the affinity of the lampreys. J. Vert. Paleont. 2, 407-413. Janvier, P. & Lund, R. 1986 – A second lamprey from the Lower Carboniferous of Bear Gulch Montana. Geobios 19, 647-652. Robert S. Sansom, Sarah E. Gabbott, and Mark A. Purnell Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cycl
  18. oilshale

    Palaeoniscidae indet

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Palaeoniscidae indet. "Bigeye" Early Carboniferous Serpukhovian Heath Shale Formation Bear Gulch Fergus County Montana USA
  19. Taken from Lund, Richard, and Grogan, E.D., 2005, Bear Gulch web site, www.sju.edu/research/bear_gulch, 14/11/2016, page last updated 2/1/2006: "Heteropetalus elegantulus is an elegantly slim little euchondrocephalan with many different tooth shapes along its jaws. It ranges to only about 4 inches in length. Skull, jaws, and dentition place it close to Debeerius. It is common in the weedier shallow water areas. There are no scales, except for a small patch at the rear of the dorsal fin of males. Lateral line canals of the head are supported by rather la
  20. A modern Ratfish, Bischoff Island, British Columbia, Canada (from Wikipedia: Clark Anderson/Aquaimages) Lit.: Grogan, E. Lund, R. 2002: The geological and biological environment of the Bear Gulch Limestone (Mississippian of Montana, USA) and a model for its deposition. Geodiversitas 2002, 24 (2): 296-315 Lund, R. 1977 - Echinochimaera meltoni new genus and species (Chimaeriformes), from the Mississippian of Montana. Annals of Carnegie Museum, 46 (13): 195-221. Hagadorn, J.: Bear Gulch: An exceptional Upper Carboniferous Plattenkalk
  21. Taxonomy from Fossilworks.org Diagnosis from Lund & Poplin 2000, p. 429: "Aesopichthyidae up to 9 cm long, with a subterminal mouth; single median rostropostrostral remote from the rim of the mouth; premaxillae small and loose, not meeting in the midline, resulting in a median rostral notch; vertically oriented pillar-shaped antorbital; three infraorbitals, the first is below and posterior to the orbit, the third is T-shaped and contacts the nasal anterodorsally; suborbitals thin, one large and occasionally up to three; dermosphenotic small, triangular; two paired extrascapulars; tear
  22. Taxonomy from Fossilworks.org. Diagnosis from Lund & Lund 1984, p. 239: " Marine rhabdodermatids having large dentary, precoronoid and ectopterygoid teeth. The preorbital region is higher and more rounded than in other rhabdodermatids, the cheek bones deeply overlap each other and the operculum. The operculum articulates with the tabular and the posterior margin of the tabular is level with the posterior margin of the skull. Tubercular ornamentation is sparse on the anterior skull-roof and preorbital region, dense on the very thin cheek bones of large individuals. Dense vermiform orna
  23. Taxonomy from Lund & Poplin 2002. Diagnosis for P. hibbardi from Lund & Melton 1982, p. 486: "Tarrasioid fishes ranging in length to 136 mm; the maximum head length/total length ratio is 0.155; maximum body height total/length ratio is 0.172; the total length/snout-vent length ratio is 1.746. There are 27 to 29 precaudal vertebral arches and 68 to 73 precaudal scale rows. There are 28 to 31 scale rows above the lateral line at the anal notch and 50 to 54 rows below the lateral line. There are 27 to 28 caudal vertebral arches, disappearing at the downturn of the tail, and 78 to
  24. Lit.: EDWIN K. MAUGHAN and ALBERT E. ROBERTS (1967): Big Snowy and Amsden Groups and the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Boundary in Montana. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROFESSIONAL PAPER 554 7 B Lutz-Garihan, A.B. (1979). Brachiopods from the Upper Mississippian Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana. Neuvieme Congres International de Stratigraphie et de Geologie du Carbonifere. Compte Rendu Vol. 5: 457-467 pp. EDIT: Subperiod is Mississippian and Epoch is Late.
  25. Taxonomy from Fossilworks.org. Diagnosis from Lund & Poplin 1997, p. 467: "Wendyichthys with the following characters: dermosphenotic small, lateral to the anterior part of the frontal and with a slight variable contact with the nasal; thin sclerotic boues; two suborbitals not in contact with each other nor with the surrounding bones, occasionally with one additional anamestic element; maxilla with a sharp posteroventral angle; one row of marginal teeth; operculum in tight contact with suboperculum; 12—13 branchiostegal rays; presence of an extralateral gular on each side of the media
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