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  1. ThePhysicist

    Ankylosaurus tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    One of my favorites as a kid - the archetypical Ankylosaurian - Ankylosaurus. Ankylosaurus teeth appear to be fairly uncommon in Hell Creek - some paleontologists have suggested that Ankylosaurus may have lived in the highlands or nearer the coast of Laramidia. Most "Ankylosaurus" teeth you see for sale are actually Nodosaurid (cf. Denversaurus), for whatever reason, they seem to be far more common. Ankylosaurus teeth also often have wear facets, as this one does. The denticles give their teeth a "leaf-like" appearance. Given their shorter stature, Ankylosaurians probably were low-browsers.
  2. ThePhysicist

    Tyrannosaur premaxillary tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    This kind of incisor-like ("incisorform") tooth was originally thought to have belonged to a large, Cretaceous mammal. Later discoveries revealed that these teeth were actually the front teeth ("premaxillary teeth") of Tyrannosaurs - and are now known as a hallmark of their clade, Tyrannosauroidea. Closely-spaced, parallel grooves on bones suggest that Tyrannosaurs used these teeth to scrape meat from bone. Given the size, this is from a very young animal. Should Nanotyrannus be valid, then this should be considered an indeterminate Tyrannosaurid.
  3. ThePhysicist

    Tyrannosaur premaxillary tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    This kind of incisor-like ("incisorform") tooth was originally thought to have belonged to a large, Cretaceous mammal. Later discoveries revealed that these teeth were actually the front teeth ("premaxillary teeth") of Tyrannosaurs - and are now known as a hallmark of their clade, Tyrannosauroidea. Closely-spaced, parallel grooves on bones suggest that Tyrannosaurs used these teeth to scrape meat from bone. Given the size, this is from a juvenile animal (smaller than "Jane"). Should Nanotyrannus be valid, then this should be considered an indeterminate Tyrannosaurid.
  4. ThePhysicist

    Pectinodon tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    Pectinodon (meaning "comb-tooth") is a tooth taxon, since no remains attributable to the genus beyond teeth have been found. Pectinodon seems to be a rare member of the Hell Creek fauna, with their teeth being fairly uncommon (though being so small, I'd guess that few people actively search for them). It was a small Troodontid theropod, with teeth that couldn't handle stresses as well as their Dromaeosaurid and Tyrannosaurid cousins (Torices et al. (2018)). This coupled with their small size suggest that Pectinodon was a small/soft prey specialist, preferring the rodent-sized mammals of the ti
  5. Updated Nov 25, 2022 Collectors, online sellers and some dealers periodically ask me to help them in the identification of tyrannosaur type teeth. So I thought I would put together a guide from Western North America (US/Canada) to help in identification. The following is the current understanding of those Tyrannosaurids described/known with the stratigraphic unit where they are found. If I missed any let me know. Albertosaurus sarcophagus : Horseshoe Canyon Formation cf Albertosaurus indet: Wapiti Formation Gorgosaurus libratu
  6. Edited (11/16/22) With all of the new discoveries over the past few years there is very little out there that is current or accurate. Here is my view of the Dinosaurian/Crocodilian fauna from the Hell Creek and Lance Formation excluding Avialae. Tyrannosauridae: - Tyrannosaurus rex (Osborn 1905) - Nanotyrannus lancensis (Bakker et al. 1988) - Aublysodon mirandus (Not Valid) Alverezauridae: - Trierarhunchus prairiensis (Fowler et al. 2020) Ornithomimidae: - Struthiomimus sedens? (Marsh 1982) - Ornithomimus velox
  7. Updated 1/17/20 I've taken a pretty firm position on the validity of Nanotyrannus ever since I spent some time looking at the Dueling Dinosaurs shortly after they were discovered. Subsequent to that, new information that I've become aware of just cemented my position. I'm interested in understanding the "truth" and have no problem looking at all available specimens that are in private hands or museums. The optics are very clear to me and I have difficulty understanding the debate. Collectors need to form their own opinion on this but I would like to share with you why I beli
  8. ThePhysicist

    Juvenile Tyrannosaur premaxillary teeth

    From the album: Dinosaurs

    These strange, incisor-like teeth were originally thought to have belonged to a large Cretaceous mammal. Later discoveries showed that these teeth matched the front teeth of young Tyrannosaurs quite well. Given closely spaced, parallel feeding traces on bones, these "incisorform" teeth likely were used to scrape meat from bone.
  9. ThePhysicist

    Ankylosaurus tooth

    From the album: Dinosaurs

    A rare tooth from the Hell Creek formation. Curiously most Ankylosaurian teeth you see online are actually Nodosaurid. This one is the Ankylosaurus.
  10. ThePhysicist

    Lightning strike trike

    From the album: Dinosaurs

    Plant roots often intrude upon a fossil's resting place, leaving behind white streaks when removed.
  11. I'll break my trip report to South Dakota into two parts. First will be my visit to the BHI followed by collecting adventure The purpose of going to the BHI was to pick up the Leptoceratops maxilla's I left during my June trip. Pete has been collecting and pulling together specimens to understand and possibly describe this ceratopsid in the Hell Creek. The material he's collected so far appears to be from an adult and is much smaller than L. gracilis. My maxilla's seem to fit the smaller morphotype. In addition, the BHI provided me two sets of replicas of my
  12. ThePhysicist

    T. rex tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    It's remarkable that the minute features of this tooth can be preserved with such clarity after 66 million years!
  13. ThePhysicist

    Young T. rex tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    The preservation of theropod teeth doesn't get much better than this.
  14. ThePhysicist

    Ankylosaurus tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    The denticles and enamel of this Ankylosaurus tooth are exceedingly well-preserved.
  15. I know next to nothing about radioactivity-- enough to know licking fossils is inadvisable, although I'll admit that wasn't terribly disappointing news. What I'm wondering is whether specimens not radioactive enough to endanger a person are capable of damaging other specimens. Is there a need to segregate displays here, or am I just confused about the mechanics of this? My specific reason for asking is that at the moment I'm planning for my current favorite mineral specimen (which I am babying forever), an almandine garnet from Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia, to share a small shelf ar
  16. 'Hell fish' likely killed by dinosaur-ending asteroid is preserved in stunning detail Joanna Thompson, Live Science, October 12, 2022 Four exceptional fossils represent newly described species. https://www.livescience.com/3d-sturgeon-fossils-tanis The open access paper is: Hilton, E.J. and Grande, L., 2022. Late Cretaceous sturgeons (Acipenseridae) from North America, with two new species from the Tanis site in the Hell Creek Formation of North Dakota. Journal of Paleontology, pp.1-29. Another open access paper is: DePalma,
  17. North Dakota's Edmontosaurus mummy has finally been published https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0275240
  18. Two new Sturgeons from the Tanis site of North Dakota, Hell Creek Formation https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-paleontology/article/late-cretaceous-sturgeons-acipenseridae-from-north-america-with-two-new-species-from-the-tanis-site-in-the-hell-creek-formation-of-north-dakota/0D5838149405C8798B8F3164CEBD3650#
  19. ThePhysicist

    Pectinodon tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    Pectinodon (meaning "comb-tooth") is a tooth taxon, since no remains attributable to the genus beyond teeth have been found. Pectinodon seems to be a rare member of the Hell Creek fauna, with their teeth being fairly uncommon (though being so small, I'd guess that few people actively search for them). It was a small Troodontid theropod, with teeth that couldn't handle stresses as well as their Dromaeosaurid and Tyrannosaurid cousins (Torices et al. (2018)). This coupled with their small size suggest that Pectinodon was a small/soft prey specialist, preferring the rodent-sized mammals of the ti
  20. ThePhysicist

    Paravians of Hell Creek

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    Even in the final years of the non-avian dinosaurs, the paravians remained diverse, with many species represented in the famed Hell Creek formation.
  21. This is part two of my fall trip the first part was posted under trips to the museum Link Part one: Sept Dig Trip: Black Hills Institute - A Trip to the Museum - The Fossil Forum A short trip but like many enjoyed it, found some nice items and the weather was much better that what I saw in June. First let me share some photos of items collected in June that are finished. All Edmontosaurus annectens, Hell Creek Formation Skull element : quadrate 13.75" long Before: After to see its location
  22. ThePhysicist

    Hell Creek Multituberculate

    Hi y'all, recently acquired this beautiful multituberculate. Total tooth height is 3 mm. Mesodma sp. P4? @jpc Cf. Mesodma sp. Hell Creek Fm., Garfield Co., MT, USA 3 mm
  23. FB003

    Tooth ID request - Dinosaur

    Hi all! Got another tooth here I'm looking for help on ID with. Only unfortunate thing is the exact county is unknown. Bought from an older collection so all the seller knew for sure is Hell Creek Formation. Seller has been very cooperative and is also very interested if an ID can be found with that little caveat. It was labeled dakotaraptor from the old collection. Initial thought was R. gilmorei or nano but doesn't look to have the defined nano pinch. No mesial serrations visible or can be felt. Best picture he could get of the serrations is below as well. Appreciate any inp
  24. ThePhysicist

    Tyrannosaurid vs Dromaeosaurid

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    As a theropod tooth aficionado, I thought it useful to compare two families present in the Hell Creek Formation. They become increasingly difficult to distinguish as they get smaller, but this graphic presents some features which may be used to differentiate them on two similarly-sized exceptional specimens. Keep in mind there is some variability due to position, ontogeny, etc., so it's beneficial to study more than one tooth for each family.
  25. ThePhysicist

    Worn T. rex tooth (annotated)

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    Not the prettiest tooth, but I very much enjoy fossils like this that demonstrate behavior and tell a story. T. rex and other Tyrannosaurs were unusual among theropods in that they consumed the entire carcass of an animal - bones and all. Most theropod dinosaurs have ziphodont teeth, thin and knife-like, good for cutting muscle from bone. The thick and robust teeth of adult Tyrannosaurs, coupled with their incredible bite force, allowed them to shatter and pulverize bone - even those of the large, formidable herbivores they hunted. Despite the robustness of their teeth, Tyrannosaur
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