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  1. ThePhysicist

    Juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex Tooth

    Identification Though smaller than many imagine T. rex teeth to be, this is indisputably one. It is characteristically robust, and has chisel-shaped denticles with similar denticle densities on each carina.1 Those qualities support its identification as a Tyrannosaurid, and with the locality information confirming it originated from the Hell Creek formation, this must be T. rex. Comments Like most isolated theropod teeth, this is a shed tooth, likely lost during feeding.2 This specimen has exquisite preservation with the enamel texture sharply retained as in life. It however has
  2. ThePhysicist

    Ankylosaurus tooth

    Identification Teeth of Nodosaurids are often confused for those of their rarer relatives, the Ankylosaurids, namely the archetypical Ankylosaurian, Ankylosaurus. (Most) teeth of Ankylosaurus are taller than they are wide, are generally conical in shape with one side flatter than the other, have large denticles on the anterior and posterior edges (6-8 anterior, 5-7 posterior), and have swollen/bulbous bases. Tooth wear is normally on the crown face, compared to wear on the tip (apex) as in Nodosaurids.1,2 Comments This tooth is partially rooted; the root is cylindrical and holl
  3. Opabinia Blues

    Is this a worn dinosaur ungual?

    This is probably a long shot but I figure I’d post it anyway because I’m really not sure what bone this chunk could be from… This is a large chunk of bone (over 15 cm in diameter) from the Hell Creek Formation with a unique shape. A personal find. It’s rounded on one end but tapers at the other, however at the tapering end it’s fairly obviously broken whereas the rounded end appears to simply be weathered. One side is convex like a dome whereas the other side is concave like a bowl. The entire piece is heavily weathered, although there is some intact cortical bone in the concave si
  4. Genera include Pachycephalosaurus, Stegoceras, Stygimoloch, and Dracorex in MT, SD and WY and all are found in the Hell Creek and Lance Formations although my specimens are just from the HC. I've identified these domes based on my, best guess, using accepted convention, however, in 2007 Horner presented a theory which proposed that Dracorex hogwartsia and Stygimoloch spinifer are growth stages of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis and represent an ontogenetic series of P. wyomingensis with Dracorex being the youngest. Pachycephalosaurid indet.: I think the shape is that of a P.
  5. ThePhysicist

    Paravians of Hell Creek

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    Even in the final years of the non-avian dinosaurs, the paravians remained diverse, with many species represented in the famed Hell Creek formation.
  6. ThePhysicist

    Avisaurus tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    Avisaurus cf. archibaldi Hell Creek Fm., Garfield Co., MT, USA More information Avisaurus is an extinct, toothed Enantiornithine bird that lived at the very end of the Cretaceous. It likely held a similar niche that hawks/eagles do today, preying on small vertebrates like lizards and mammals.
  7. ThePhysicist

    Ceratopsid Tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    A rooted Ceratopsid tooth - either Triceratops or Torosaurus (though it's more likely to be Triceratops since it was far more abundant in the HC ecosystem).
  8. PaleoZorryn

    Lance Formation Bone Id

    Hello fellow fossil hunters, I have a bit of a problematic guess here. I have a bone from the Lance Formation of Wyoming and need some help IDing it. It seems to resemble something like a crocodile coracoid, but not as spot on as I hoped it would. If you have any suggestions I would be glad to here them. Appreciate the help and if you have identified my mystery bone, please send sources to how you know what bone it is. Never will pass an opportunity to learn. Thank you.
  9. Big News, a new Pachycephalosaurid from the Hell Creek Formation Platytholus clemensi. It's intermediate in size between the small-bodied Sphaerotholus and the largest Pachycephalosaurus Paywalled https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02724634.2023.2190369#.ZDm0HAS1AH0.twitter
  10. ThePhysicist

    K-Pg Boundary Microtektites

    From the album: Dinosaurs

    K-Pg Boundary Microtektites Hell Creek Formation Garfield Co., MT, USA These aren't fossils, but are relevant to the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, large marine reptiles, and many other species of flora/fauna at the end of the Cretaceous. When a large meteor/asteroid struck the earth ~ 66 mya, it sent molten ejecta across the world. Some of this molten material, sourced from the impact site, was shaped by its trajectory through the atmosphere and cooled into small, glassy droplets. The black blobs you see are those droplets, called tektites
  11. Troodontids certainly are one of my favorite dinosaur families. Intelligent and what a set of chompers to eat you with, all you can ask for in a cool dinosaur. Will start this with the Pectinodon teeth in my collection and will continue to add as I take photos. This species has some of the coolest teeth. Pectinodon bakkeri is the only named Troodontid in the Hell Creek and Lance Formations. This is a tooth taxon and its teeth are significantly much smaller than its big cousin Troodon formosus. Lance Formation Hell Creek
  12. Bird and Pterosaur material is extremely rare in the Hell Creek and Lance Formations. Over the years I've purchased and found a few bones that I believe fit this category but not certain. Some may be mammal or reptilian. I'm not a bird guy so if you see something that does not seem right please let me know. Not a lot is published so I'm always open to learning. I showed this to a well respected theropod paleontologist and the potential ID's were his thoughts
  13. The Black Hills Institute exciting new Oviraptorid discovery this year in the Hell Creek Formation is far far from completion but Pete Larsen has been keeping everyone appraised of its status. Its still mostly in matrix and the arduous task of preparation as just begun. A new species or a new Anzu wyliei skeleton, it looks different. Not as sexy as Tuffs Love T rex skull but scientifically import. Here is a good look at what it takes to extract one of thess raptors. The site a Hell Creek lake deposit Airbraide-airpen outside, slowly making
  14. Frightmares

    Dakotaraptor tooth?

    Just want to get some opinions before I purchase a tooth. Do you guys think this is definitely a Dakotaraptor tooth? Or does it look more Nano? Size is .71” and it’s from Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana. 24506BD7-17AC-42BF-B3C6-7C613A84332B.webp 31C05BFB-8621-4C95-9A7A-4A92A0C553D7.webp E6280DD3-5623-4D78-966F-F7A20751CEFB.webp 7CFB9AAF-269D-48B6-A26E-5265AE476524.webp E04ED762-40B5-42D1-BADA-52A77A44425B.webp
  15. Nano Chick


    Found this in the Hell creek formation in eastern montana. It measures 2 7/8” long by 3/4” wide. It definitely is not crock. Leaning towards paraxenisaurus. “Strange lizard”. It would be rare in the Hell Creek.
  16. ThePhysicist

    Cimolodon tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    Cimolodon nitidus Hell Creek Fm., Meade Co., SD, USA M1 (1st upper molar) While you may have mistaken it for a rodent, Cimolodon belonged to a far more ancient and wildly successful group of mammals, the multituberculates (so named for the multiple cusps arranged in rows on their molars). It likely ate seeds and nuts which were handedly ground by its lego-shaped molars. Cimolodon had to be wary of the likes of Pectinodon or other small predatory dinosaurs in the Hell Creek ecosystem. Unlike a few other contemporaneous mammals, this cousin of ours did not survive the K-Pg ext
  17. There are two Tyrannosaurs described in the Hell Creek & Lance Formations, Tyrannosaurus rex and Nanotyrannus lancensis. Teeth from these animals are the number one sought after and coveted item by collectors. I don't understand all the hoopla and prices they command since my friends who I collect with know that I'm not a tooth person and prefer bones and claws. However I've been fortunate to find and acquire a few teeth and will post a several of my nicer ones. My two most favorite T-rex teeth are my biggest and smallest: The Baby (one of the rarest teeth around) is 1 1/8" and w
  18. Updated Nov 25, 2022 Collectors, online sellers and some dealers periodically ask me to help them in the identification of tyrannosaur type teeth. So I thought I would put together a guide from Western North America (US/Canada) to help in identification. The following is the current understanding of those Tyrannosaurids described/known with the stratigraphic unit where they are found. If I missed any let me know. Albertosaurus sarcophagus : Horseshoe Canyon Formation cf Albertosaurus indet: Wapiti Formation Gorgosaurus libratu
  19. Consolidated all my informational Topics to make it easier to reference. Will keep updating since some of the reference material is outdated. Have to thank @PFOOLEY for suggesting this consolidation and it makes it a lot easier for me to access these topics as well as our members to know what's out there. General Tips in Buying Theropod Teeth Dinosaur Anatomy 101 Stratigraphy of the Late Cretaceous in North America Best Books for Dinosaur Identification Rare Theropod Teeth (World Wide) Identification o
  20. Dakotaraptor steini was found in a multi-species bonebed in the Hell Creek Formation and lots of questions have been raised around this material since it was described. Elements of the holotype were found to belong to a turtle (furcula) and Anzu (Tibia) and questions raised on others. To make matters worst the holotype is not available for study.. So its been shrouded in controversy. A good review of where we currently stand is presented in the attached Twitter thread
  21. Edited (04/14/23) With all of the new discoveries over the past few years there is very little out there that is current or accurate. Here is my view of the Dinosaurian/Crocodilian fauna from the Hell Creek and Lance Formation excluding Avialae. Tyrannosauridae: - Tyrannosaurus rex (Osborn 1905) - Nanotyrannus lancensis (Bakker et al. 1988) - Aublysodon mirandus (Not Valid) Alverezauridae: - Trierarhunchus prairiensis (Fowler et al. 2020) Ornithomimidae: - Struthiomimus sedens? (Marsh 1982) - Ornithomimus velox
  22. Updated March 29, 2023 Changed information on Avisaurus archibaldi A few years ago most of the smaller theropod teeth from the Hell Creek/Lance Formations were identified based on teeth from the Campanian assemblages of North America. Over the past couple of years new discoveries have shed new light on the theropods of the end of the cretaceous and new species have been described. I have addressed these on separate topics but decided to put all of these together to get a better view of the current picture of the upper Hell Creek and Lance formations. If you see any omissions
  23. I've recently found a, how do I say...quite unusual Theropod dinosaur tooth from the Late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (67-66.0 Million Years ago). The paper, titled The occurrences of vertebrate fossils in the Deadhorse Coulee Member of the Milk River Formation and their implications for provincialism and evolution in the Santonian (Late Cretaceous) of North America by Derek Williams Larson, is a record of theropod teeth from various Late Cretaceous formations in Western North America, and buried on page 244 of the report an apparent megalosauridae tooth (UCMP120305) from the Hell Creek Fo
  24. ThePhysicist

    Juvenile T. rex tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    Interesting blue color near the base, and some feeding wear at the tip of this immature Tyrannosaurid tooth.
  25. Updated 1/17/20 I've taken a pretty firm position on the validity of Nanotyrannus ever since I spent some time looking at the Dueling Dinosaurs shortly after they were discovered. Subsequent to that, new information that I've become aware of just cemented my position. I'm interested in understanding the "truth" and have no problem looking at all available specimens that are in private hands or museums. The optics are very clear to me and I have difficulty understanding the debate. Collectors need to form their own opinion on this but I would like to share with you why I beli
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