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Found 99 results

  1. Triceratops tooth

    Rooted worn tooth of a triceratops.
  2. Genera include Pachycephalosaurus, Stegoceras, Stygimoloch, and Dracorex in MT, SD and WY and all are found in the Hell Creek and Lance Formations although my specimens are just from the HC. I've identified these domes based on my, best guess, using accepted convention, however, in 2007 Horner presented a theory which proposed that Dracorex hogwartsia and Stygimoloch spinifer are growth stages of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis and represent an ontogenetic series of P. wyomingensis with Dracorex being the youngest. Pachycephalosaurid indet.: I think the shape is that of a P. wyomingensis but not certain, why I labeled it indet. Braincase cavities visible in ventral view Views: Dorsal, Left Lateral, Ventral Stegoceras sp.: Braincase cavities very evident in ventral view. Views: Dorsal, Left Lateral, Ventral Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis: Interesting partial dome. One gets a great view on how thick these domes were, this one is a whopping 4 inches. A closeup of the structure of the layer beneath the outer surface is quite interesting. Views: Lateral, Dorsal, Ventral, Closeup
  3. A few years ago most of the smaller theropod teeth from the Hell Creek/Lance Formations were identified based on teeth from the Campanian assemblages of North America. Over the past couple of years new discoveries have shed new light on the theropods of the end of the cretaceous and new species have been described. I have addressed these on separate topics but decided to put all of these together to get a better view of the current picture of the upper Hell Creek and Lance formations. If you see any omissions or errors feel free to let me know. Tyrannosaurs: There are two Tyrannosaurs described Tyrannosaurus rex and Nanotyrannus lancensis Teeth of these two tyrannosaurus can be distinguished between one another however there may be some positional teeth that can be difficult and mimic one another. Denticles on both on both anterior and posterior carinae can be identical in size and shape however the carinae on Rex teeth are more robust. Serration count from my examination is not important on smaller teeth. Nanotyrannus teeth typically do not exceed 2 1/2". The best way to distinguish these teeth is to look at how compressed they are and the cross section at the base of the tooth. Rex dentary teeth are oval at the base and maxillary teeth are a bit more compressed. Some maxillary teeth can appear to look like Nano so other features need to be examined like the robustness of the tip and carinae. Nanotyrannus teeth are unique as tyrannosaurd go, they are very compressed across the entire crown and their cross section at the base is rectangular. Basically Rex teeth are fat and Nano are flat. Here are examples of the cross sections at the base of a couple of Rex teeth under 1 1/2" and adult Nano's Rex (teeth are oval but can vary depending on position.) (Maxillary teeth are more rectangular) This figure represents tyrannosaurid teeth from the Judith River but is applicable to T-rex and shows the cross sectional shape at the base for different positions. Morphometry of the teeth of western North American tyrannosaurids and its applicability to quantitative classification Article (PDF Available) in Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50(4):757–776 · April 2005  Nano (teeth are rectangular) Maxillary T Rex teeth can also take this shape so one needs to consider other features. Looking at compression Rex teeth are fat with robust tips Nano teeth are flatish Aubysodon molnari is a tooth taxon known from unserrated Pre-maxillary teeth. This taxon is a "nomen dubium" dinosaur and premaxillary teeth being sold belong to one of the other two Tyrannosaurs in these assemblages. They should be labeled as "Tyrannosaurid indet" because its impossible to differentiate between species. Albertosaurus sp.is not present in these assemblages Dromaeosaurids: There are only two described Acheroraptor temertyorum and Dakotaraptor steini and Zapsalis sp. is also present. Saurornitholestes and Dromaeosaurs species are not present. Acheroraptor temertyorum Identification: Like all Dromaeosaurid teeth the denticles are key and different between those on the anterior and posterior carinae. You should easily be able to see that the posterior ones are much larger. If the denticles are identical its probably a juvenile Nanotyrannus tooth. Secondly there are apicobasal ridges on the crown which are diagnostic to this species. There can be several on either side and fewer on posterior located teeth. The teeth are recurved and typically under 1/2" (13mm) long. Dakotaraptor steini Identification: Zapsalis sp. (UPDATE) Identification: Similar to Z. abradens from the Judith River Formation. Very compresses tooth with rounded serrations on the distal side and a smooth mesial edge. One flat tooth surface with longitudinal ridges Update: This form of tooth has been identified as a premaxillary tooth on Saurornitholestes in Alberta. So these teeth should most likely be assigned to Archoraptor but will need new discoveries to confirm it. Update: The unserrated form of this tooth (paronychodon morph) may also be a premaxillary tooth of a Dromaeosaurid or Troodontid. New discoveries are needed to properly assign it. Troodontids: There are at least two present cf Troodon formosus and Pectinodon bakkeri. but only one described Pectinodon bakkeri. cf T. formosus is an easily recognizable tooth. Denticles strongly hooked and turned toward the tip Pectinodon bakkeri signicantly smaller 6mm or less than Troodon teeth. Comb like denticles on posterior carina, lacking on the anterior side.. Positionally these teeth have different morphologies can been see in the photo. Reference from : Vertebrate Microfossil Assemblages by Sankey and Baszio Other Teeth: Paronychodon lacustris type teeth are flat on one side and usually bear three or more longitudinal ridges. The other side is convex and can be smooth or longitudinal ridges can be present as well. Richardoestesia gilmorei. these teeth are quite varied in shape and size and are also common. Some are straight and others are slightly recurved. Denticles are often limited to the posterior carina and individual denticles are minute. If the denticles are present on both carinae they are identical in size. The serrations should look like these (scale .2mm) Richardoestesia isoceles. Typically are very compressed, elongated and form an isosceles triangle. Fine serrations can be present This species along with the Paronychodon is currently under study and will most likely be described to a new taxon which may not be dinosaurian . Albertonykus sp. is known from bones. Its teeth are very small and pointed. Photo of tooth is from the smaller Mongolian species Mononychus olecranus Morph types isolated small theropod teeth are abundant in these assemblages. Morph types exist and determining the taxonomic affinities of these teeth is problematic. So be prepared to identify these teeth as Theropod indet. Note A lot of what I've described here requires a detailed examination of the serrations. The crisper they are on your tooth the better the opportunity you will have to identify them. having some magnification capability helps Bird: Avisaurus archibaldi This tooth is typically sold and known as A. archibaldi. Unfortunately the holotype is known only from one bone a diagnostic tarsometatarsus and NO other skeletal material has been published. So we really do not know if this morphology of tooth belong to this enantiornithine bird. Its probably best ID as Avisaurid indet.
  4. This new paper on the Hell Creek formation just came in myE-mail. I know many are interested in this area, so passing it along. https://www.academia.edu/18054116/The_Hell_Creek_Formation_and_its_contribution_to_the_Cretaceous_Paleogene_extinction_a_short_primer?auto=view&campaign=weekly_digest By: David Fastovsky and Antoine Bercovici
  5. Trying to differentiate a small to midsize Nanotyrannus and Dakotaraptor is pretty difficult. It appears that Dakotaraptor teeth are not common and sellers are quick to assign Nanotyrannus teeth to them. So what should one be looking for with the teeth It's a Dromaeosaurid so it will have similarities to Acheroraptor but there are differences. 1) Smooth Crown These teeth do not have the vertical ridges found in Acheroraptor and are larger and beefier 2) Serration Density The serrations on the mesial (outer) edge are greater than the distal ( inside ) carina (measured midline over 5 mm) Mestai: 5-6 serration/mm Distal: 4-5 serrations/mm These are from Adult Teeth -- juvenile teeth may be greater but there is always a difference Caution: Small Nano teeth can be found with mesial densities greater than distal but are not has fine around 2 to 3 /mm 3) Carina Shape/Location Distal: Extends to the base Mesial: Often does not reach the base and is straight. Ends 1/3 from the base. Nanotyrannus: Mesial carina may have a slight sigmoidal twist not extend to the base depending on location in jaw 4) Shape of Crown/Base Teeth are recurved and compressed. Base is elongate, narrow oval or almond shape in cross-section. Usually has a greater height to length ratio than Acherorapter or Nanotyrannus. Should be 1.6 to 1.9 (Crown Height/Length Base) Nanotyrannus typically has a rectangular base in cross-section 5) Size Crowns 7/8" (2-2.3 cm) in the holotype. 6) Denticle Shape Rounded tip Nano: Chisel Shape tip Caution 1 Some of the characteristics overlap between Dakotaraptor and Nanotyrannus so you need to take a look at all of them before you make a call 2 The sample size of Dakotaraptor teeth is very small so we really do not have a good sense of what all tooth positions look like especially with juvenile one. Mesial carina does not extends to the base (red line) Should be straight no twist Two examples from my collection Foot claws Only foot claws have been found see photo. The large claw is Digit II killing claw and the other claw is typical of the other three claws in the foot. NO hand claws have been found so we do not know what they look like.
  6. Scale with my hand

    From the album Tyrannosaurus Rex

    66.8 - 66 mya, Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, 3.75 inches on the edge and 3.28 inches straight
  7. Top view

    From the album Tyrannosaurus Rex

    66.8 - 66 mya, Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, 3.75 inches on the edge and 3.28 inches straight
  8. Front view

    From the album Tyrannosaurus Rex

    66.8 - 66 mya, Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, 3.75 inches on the edge and 3.28 inches straight
  9. Close-up of Serrations

    From the album Tyrannosaurus Rex

    66.8 - 66 mya, Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, 3.75 inches on the edge and 3.28 inches straight
  10. Bottom

    From the album Tyrannosaurus Rex

    66.8 - 66 mya, Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, 3.75 inches on the edge and 3.28 inches straight
  11. Serrations (Tyrannosaurus Rex)

    From the album Tyrannosaurus Rex

    66.8 - 66 mya, Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, 3.75 inches on the edge and 3.28 inches straight
  12. Quarter view (Tyrannosaurus Rex)

    From the album Tyrannosaurus Rex

    66.8 - 66 mya, Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, 3.75 inches on the edge and 3.28 inches straight
  13. Right Side (Tyrannosaurus Rex)

    From the album Tyrannosaurus Rex

    66.8 - 66 mya, Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, 3.75 inches on the edge and 3.28 inches straight
  14. Left Side (Tyrannosaurus Rex)

    From the album Tyrannosaurus Rex

    66.8 - 66 mya, Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, 3.75 inches on the edge and 3.28 inches straight
  15. Hello, I have a crocodile maxilla from Hell Creek Formation of Montana. It is 6.23 inches long, and has planted Borealoschus/Leidyosuchus teeth in it, though I do not know how many teeth are original. Any ideas to the genus/species?
  16. Can someone help me identify this bone? It is a toe bone from the Hell Creek Formation. The location is Carter County, Montana.
  17. I see a lot of misunderstanding on what is being sold online at auctions and dealers sites. Some have it correct but most mix up the terminology. So here is Anky 101 aimed at Novice collectors and I will keep it simple. What you see sold in most markets are teeth from late Cretaceous North American locations mostly Montana, Wyoming and the Dakota's so I will focus on those areas. (Hell Creek, Lance, Two Medicine and Judith River Formations) Teeth from Canadian locations will have similar characteristics. There are two basic families of armored dinosaurs in these regions Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. Ankylosaurids are the brutes with big tail clubs. Nodosaurids have no clubs but are fierce looking with big spikes projecting from its sides. You don't want to meet up with either family. So when these teeth come up for sale most are very worn and it can get difficult to ID, so if possible avoid buying those. There is also a variation in the teeth with jaw position. Wear facets are also very common on these teeth. My photographs show complete teeth that have little wear so you can see what they typically should look like. Let me call them your generic teeth and are good representation of these families. There are multiple genus that you run into and the species is dependent on what formation you are in, see below with what is currently understood. Some have yet to be described to a species level due to lack of skeletal remains but teeth are plentiful. Differentiating teeth between the two families is quite easy. For Ankylosaurids crowns are small with long roots with two key characteristics, a bulbous base, see white arrow and a prominent central ridge on SOME species like Ankylosaurus in the Hell Creek others it covers the entire face of the crown. Other examples of North American Ankylosaurids Nodosaur Teeth: Are much larger, both taller and wider than Ankylosaurids, a shelf is visible below a pocket in the crown, no center ridge. Looks like a mit. Hell Creek Formation Two Medicine Fm Undescribed Nodosaur Judith River FM If you are interested in additional reading let me suggest Dinosaur Systematics by Ken Carpenter. Its also a good book describing theropod teeth. Our current understanding of species described: based on the revised analysis by Paul Penkalski, 2018. These views might not be share by some paleontologists but thats normal. Let me also say that with new discoveries and research some of this is subject to change. Hell Creek and Lance Formation Ankylosaurus magniventris (Ankylosaurid) Denversaurus schlessmani (Nodosaurid) Judith River Formation Zuul crurivastator (Ankylosaurid) Undescribed Nodosaur Two Medicine Formation Oohkotokia horneri (Ankylosaurid) Edmontonia rugosidens (Nodosaurid) Dinosaur Park Formation Euoplocephalus tutus (Ankylosaurid) Anodontosaurus lambei (Ankylosaurid) Platypelta coombsi (Ankylosaurid) Scolosaurus thronus (Ankylosaurid) Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus (Ankylosaurid) Edmontonia rugosidens (Nodosaurid) Panoplosaurus mirus (Nodosaurid) Horseshoe Canyon Formation Anodontosaurus lambei (Ankylosaurid) Edmontonia longiceps (Nodosaurid) Oldman Formation Scolosaurus cutleri ? (Ankylosaurid) Undescribed Nodosaurid Revised systematics of the armoured dinosaur Euoplocephalus and its allies Paul Penkalski https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323579149_Revised_systematics_of_the_armoured_dinosaur_Euoplocephalus_and_its_allies
  18. Albertonykus borealis was theropod described by Philip Currie and Nicholas Longrich in 2008 from the lower Maastrichtian of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation in Alberta. Its range also extends into Montana, SD and Wyoming in the Hell Creek and Lance Formation. It is noted for having a single hand claw and is a very small theropod, see photo. Very few folks pay attention to small dinosaurs but this one is very cool and material does come out all of the time so I thought it might be interesting to post. If you collect North American dinosaurs the claws are a must have. Teeth have been found on its Asian cousin Mononykus olecranus but no cranial elements to my knowledge have been found in North America. Maybe one of our forum members can find one or has more information to add. Material found in the Hell Creek and Lance formation should be labeled as cf Albertonykus borealis since nothing has been described from these localities. I've seen hand and foot claws as well as phalanges sold but few sellers know what they have and label them theropod. I've personally collected some specimens and have purchased others. Published literature and the New York Museum of Natural History Mononykus display help pull the picture together for identification of specimens. Hand Claw : They are typically recurved but can be straight. A shallow vascular groove on either side, ventral foramens are present, see second photo (arrow) Carpal : Called the Alular digit and just has one. Photos L to R Medial, Ventral and Dorsal Views Associated Alular Digit : Foot digits in the following post.
  19. T-Rex (CGtalk) by Aleksander Popov Few feelings can describe the awe of holding a Tyrannosaurus Rex tooth in your hand, knowing this was the killing weapon of one of the mightiest predators ever to walk the Earth. Of course, like many of you, it has always been my dream to own a large T-Rex tooth. After years, I've finally managed to obtain one from an adult. The looks of wonder on the children's faces when I unveil this tooth just make you appreciate just how important dinosaurs are to the imagination of kids and adults alike. There is no finer fossil in my collection, nor any I love as much (nor any as expensive, but that's to be expected haha). This tooth measures 3 3/4 inches on the leading curve, and 1 3/8 inches in width. There is minor crack filling, but no other restoration. This has been authenticated by the University of Maryland, and the pictures have been shown to accredited experts like Tom Kapitany, Vanessa Weaver and George Corneille. All agree, this is the real deal. I will let the pictures speak for themselves. ______________________________________________________ Tyrannosaurus Rex mandible tooth Hell Creek Formation Garfield County, Montana, United States of America Late Cretaceous period - 66.8 - 66.0 million years old ______________________________________________________
  20. Hi everyone, Here is another mystery fossil we found last June while on a Forest Service dig in South Dakota. It was found in an area that we think was once a shoreline, since the matrix ranged from sandy to iron-rich conglomerate layers with both aquatic (rays, gars, turtle, etc.) and terrestrial fauna (hadrosaur, T. rex, thescelosaur, etc.). Our best guess is some kind of seed, but we really have no clue. I forgot to take measurements when I was at the lab and no longer have ready access, so I apologize in advance. It is pretty small - you should be able to get an idea of the size from the adjacent Xacto knife (8 mm dia.).
  21. Hell Creek Mystery Teeth

    Here are a couple of mystery teeth we found in the Hell Creek Formation in South Dakota. Any ideas?
  22. What In The Hell Creek Is It?

    Just got back from a dig in the Hell Creek formation. Everything from Hadrosaur, ray teeth, champsosaur verts, gar scales, turtle, ceratopsian frill and theropod teeth were in the immediate area of this bone. We will be heading to the lab in the morning to begin prep, but I was just wondering if any of you seasoned experts might have any idea what this is. Everything was pretty jumbled and most of the bone in the area we were digging was pretty degraded (more like coffee grounds), but this was one of the few in decent shape that seemed to be diagnostic. I will post better pics once it is prepped.
  23. i am going on a trip to montana and alberta in june and i am wondering if there are any localities where i can collect dinosaur fossils. please include directions and type of fossils found there.
  24. Well, just finished up a whirlwind pair of digs in South Dakota and Montana. I went dinosaur fossil hunting in the Hell Creek Formation at two sites: the first just northeast of Newell, South Dakota, and the second northeast of Jordan, Montana, right below Fort Peck lake. I had great weather; mostly 90-110 degrees F, low humidity and windy. The digs were very productive at both sites with many dinosaur teeth, turtle/croc scutes, dinosaur ribs and vertebra uncovered. Below are some of the better finds from South Dakota: 4+ inch T rex tooth uncovered by the group (good serrations and an intact tip) One of my finds, a complete 9 inch Thescelosaur ulna From Montana, we re-opened an old site and after pushing back some hillside we found a large depost of dinosaur bone material: Starting to uncover a probable triceratops vertebra And my favorite find, a triceratops rib that took me 3 days to dig out (with interesting breaks in the head and towards the distal end...note other partial ribs around it...) All in all, it was a great trip this year. Lance