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  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 196 results

  1. calamites

  2. Whatzit

    Found this in my yard, which is covered in gravel, at least as much as I can afford. I hate mowing. The material is probably Paleozoic, but could be up through the Pleistocene. It is flat on both sides. Initially thought coral, but doesn't look right. Brent Ashcraft
  3. echinoderm or something else?

    Around 1967 Jefferies launched his preliminary ideas on "calcichordates". Many echinoderm specialists are not convinced by his ideas. But: his interpretation of functional morphology makes sense,and his plate nomenclature has been taken onboard by at least some non-adherents of his theory. Although NOT commonly found,in some parts they can be a significant part of the paleofauna. Time to meet a fascinating group of animals! NB:LARGE download,and validity of the link expires soon http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/282/990/205.full.pdf
  4. famous arthropods

    NB.:LARGE!! NNB.:get it while you can(edit:works to nov.6th) http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/272/920/537.full.pdf
  5. not burning down the house

    large file Might be gone soon http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/250/763/79.full.pdf
  6. Carboniferous coral ecology

    This one is from palcubed,2009,and ONLY contains B&W pix I like it wilsonrugoscoralecologyencrustpal3.pdf
  7. Mottled

    Found this in beach gravel while on lunch break.
  8. Galena/Platteville

    Willmann et al: https://archive.org/details/plattevillegalen502will About 4 Mb
  9. Edestus heinrichi Tooth

    Hi, I was just wondering what was considered large for a single Edestus heinrichi tooth. I have recently bought one and it was around 1.6" wide. It was labeled as being big, but I just wanted another more experienced opinion on it. Thanks for your time.
  10. Unknown Paleozoic shark teeth

    Hello, forgive me for posting these on your thread but I have a few paleo teeth and would like some info if possible. I found these in Oklahoma. A couple of Petalodus here and I was wondering if these are average in size, quality, etc. I was fortunate in that the big one I found all of the pieces of it except for some minute parts. I think the small one is a Agassizodus? The other I don't know, maybe a Deltodus? Thanks!
  11. If you have ever collected fish from the classic vertebrate locality near Linton, Ohio or have obtained fish specimens from there, I would like to share some of what I have learned about the type of fish called paleoniscoids (also spelled palaeoniscoids) that occur there. Paleoniscoid fish have thick, rhomboidal scales made of dentine-type bone with a surface of hard enamel-like material called ganoin and on the external surface of the ganoin there are pits and fine canals. They resemble (body-wise) what most people think of commonly as a “fish-shape” except they have “armor-like” scales. They are set apart from the chondrichthyans (sharks), the dipnoans (lungfish) and the coelacanths, which also occur in the Linton cannel. The Linton paleoniscoids can be divided into two family groups, the elonichthyids (1 species) and the haplolepids (6 species). I’ve attached a pdf file called “1. Identifying Linton Paleoniscoid Fish” which describes the fishes for species identification. I tried to keep the terminology minimal, but to describe the differences some was necessary. To aid in identifying haplolepid species, I have put together an illustration called “Linton Haplolepids”. The accompanying jpegs show the illustration and most of the different paleoniscoid types. Because I no longer have any specimens (see pdf file: “2. My Linton Collection and Recollections”), I cannot provide photos of two of the species. I hope this information will be useful and bring about more interest in learning about and collecting in coal measure deposits wherever they occur. 1a Identifying Linton Paleoniscoid Fish.pdf 2 My Linton Collection and Recollections.pdf
  12. Last night, a friend informed me of the passing of Don Smarjesse and asked me to post this obituary: Don Smarjesse of Novi, Michigan died early this April after a long passage through Alzheimer's disease. Don operated Earth Enterprises for around two decades selling fossils primarily from Devonian quarries in Sylvania, Ohio and Milan, Michigan, along with mineral specimens from the latter locality. At M.A.P.S. and the Denver and Tucson shows, Don did a brisk business offering trilobites, crinoids and brachiopods along with beautiful sulphur and celestite crystals, all of which he personally collected and carefully prepared. People liked Don and Don reciprocated. He had a genuine and entertaining personality which was a source of delight across a spectrum of intimates, customers and chance acquaintances. We will miss that trademark conviviality, stories which never aged by retelling, his humor and those colorful verdicts indicating certain vexatious people somehow failed to offer ongoing evidence for human evolution. Though his illness put him beyond contact for some time now and his collections have been dispersed, his character as a man and sturdy friend will remain touchstones of our conversations. Don's widow and devoted caretaker Gayle survives him. *** I knew Don too. What I remember about him is that he used to share a room in Tucson with a couple of other guys. They were there to sell fossils and minerals but they also wanted people to feel welcome and free to join their conversation even if they weren't going to buy anything. Some people are all-business and shut up when people they don't know enter the room. In the Earth Enterprises room it was like there was a friendly talk show going on all day. The thing about the Tucson shows is that they have been spread out around the city since at least the late 80's. Sometimes, it was (and still is) easier to walk from one place to another, even if it was a bit of a hike (2-3 miles), because of the limited parking at some of the venues especially if it had rained hard the day or two before. It was nice to take a break and shoot the breeze with those guys. I think Don stopped setting up at shows around 2000. The shows seem to have gotten a little more impersonal since then. Jess
  13. I just got finished working on this PDF file. It's a PDF of "The Paleozoic Fishes of North America" by John Strong Newberry from 1889. It is in two parts; text and plates. There are some versions on the Internet but none are really in complete or presentable form. One "good" version is missing a lot of the picture plates because the compilers chose to export as one small page size and so picture plates are chopped in half or totally missing. Another web version is just raw scans of the pages with no color filtering meaning the pages are all dark orange and low contrast. My version combines the relative clean text of one version with color corrected plates of the other version. I also took the time to manually crop and reframe all the pages so it prints comfortably on regular 8x11 paper. The originals had the text hugging the left margin (not good for putting in a binder) and the paper was too tall. While I did do an OCR scan I have not manually checked the text which would take days and days given all the scientific words not in the dictionary. The other drawback is the scale on the pictures is kinda useless since some of the plates were originally twice as big (foldouts) as what they are here. I figure anyone using this for an ID will go to the picture plates and the index anyways. Right-click and "save as / save link as" to avoid loading these large PDFs into the browser. Enjoy http://www.northtexasfossils.com/pdfs/PaleozoicFishes-text.pdf (11 meg) http://www.northtexasfossils.com/pdfs/PaleozoicFishes-plates.pdf (30 meg)
  14. I saw this book at a Barnes & Noble yesterday: http://www.amazon.com/Trilobite-Book-Visual-Journey/dp/022612441X/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1403737304&sr=1-1&keywords=trilobites
  15. a book review of: "Richardson's Guide to the Fossil Fauna of Mazon Creek" by Charles W. Shabica and Andrew A. Hay (editors). 1997. Northeastern Illinois University. 308 pages. Original suggested retail price: $70? One tributary of the Illinois River has become an important landmark in the world of paleontology. Fossils are found along and within many waterways but they are almost always isolated shells, teeth, and bones and even these more durable elements are often worn down to unrecognizability. The miracle of this tributary, Mazon Creek, is that the remains became encased within hardening sedimentary structures, nodules, approximately 305 to 310 million years ago. Some of these nodules contain those usual isolated hard parts but the conditions of the environment also allowed a percentage of them to preserve impressions of soft tissues and even whole soft-bodied organisms - a level of preservation rarely allowed by the elements across time. Though these nodules are found at other localities in the same general region from the same rock layer, the Francis Creek Shale, "Mazon Creek" stuck as the nickname for all the nodule-bearing sites and their fossils. "Richardson's Guide to the Fossil Fauna of Mazon Creek" was the first attempt to comprehensively review the known animal fossils from the Late Carboniferous deposit. The Mazon Creek plants had been similarly documented already. This book was born from a project started by Dr. Eugene S. Richardson Jr., a curator at the Field Museum of Natural History still fondly remembered as a leading Mazon Creek researcher and amateur-friendly museum representative. His untimely passing in 1983 left his work unfinished but also inspired a rare collaboration. Dr. Charles W. Shabica and Andrew A. Hay, acted as the book's editors overseeing 33 chapters written or co-written by several authors including themselves. Shabica was a graduate student of Richardson. and at the time of the book's publication. was a Professor of Earth Science at Northeastern Illinois University. He was the one who set out to complete Richardson's project. Andrew A. Hay is a retired geologist and book editor who continued to maintain a relationship between private collectors and scientists in the wake of Richardson's passing. An apparent all-star cast of experts compose the other chapter authors. I have to confess ignorance of many of them but I knew Rainier Zangerl's name because he wrote the Paleozoic Elasmobranchii volume (Chondrichthyes 1) of the Handbook of Paleoichthyology series and Frank M Carpenter, who wrote Chapter 13A but died three years before this book was published, was one of the foremost authorities on insects. Following a preface partly written by Richardson, the first chapter offers a general overview of what it was like collecting fossils at Pit 11, an area of an Illinois coal mine known to produce some rare Mazon Creek forms. Before a series of chapters reviewing the fossils (sometimes by scientific group; sometimes by convenient grouping), several others cover a number of connected topics: local history of coal mining; geology of the area; distribution of fossils; relative abundance of organisms; preservation of specimens; reconstruction of the living environment and significance of the deposit. Three appendices offer the most efficient techniques of splitting the nodules, a faunal list with additional notes, and a list of taxa named after collectors, professional and private. There are also pages providing a brief background on each of the authors and a list acknowledging the chapter reviewers. The writing drifts from casual to technical in the early chapters, but even in the taxon descriptions, I think the intermediate-level enthusiast can follow along. By the mid-1990's, Mazon Creek collectors had been waiting for a book like this for decades. While it is true that much of the information already existed in the professional literature, those articles were often published in less-accessible journals out of even the virtual reach of most university libraries. Some of the chapters (e.g. Bivalvia) open with a generous amount of background information (basic anatomy, chronologic range, etc.) which gives the novice a good level of grounding before having to tackle the description and interpretation of sometimes rather indistinct impressions. Other chapters (e.g. cartilaginous fishes) dive right into the taxon descriptions. I think the editors should have pushed for more introductory information to be inserted in those less-prefaced chapters, but for a book with multiple authors, it all seemed to fit together well enough. I liked the chapters that discussed how the Mazon Creek fauna fit into the larger Late Carboniferous world - similarities to faunas known from Oklahoma, Indiana, and western Europe. The reader learns that the fauna was unusual even its own time, previewing a trend of the distant future. In Chapter 5A the reader sees a paleogeographic map of that time showing the major landmasses almost clustered together with the last pieces of the Pangaean puzzle near assembly. Chapter 14B adds further analysis. It looks into the origin of flight in insects with notes on the origin of metamorphosis as well - transitions not often addressed in mainstream publications. Wing development occurred perhaps 20-50 million years before the time of the Mazon Creek fauna but some of the rare insect specimens offer clues to which anatomical structures evolved into wings - evidence largely absent elsewhere in the fossil record. The discussion adds another claim to fame for the deposit beyond its astounding level of preservation, great diversity of forms, and first (or only) appearances of various groups. The illustrations, other than the front cover, are in black-and-white. I have been told that some specimens show some startling color but the vast majority seem somewhat lighter or darker than the reddish-brown nodules that contain them. Some of the contrast is often best perceived in the texture of the fossil impression. Therefore, the lack of color photography or figures does not subtract from the value of the book. The photography is excellent, well-lit and angled to capture the depth of a faint imprint. Many fossils are paired with handrawn reconstructions of equal quality. In the drawing the reader sees the what the researcher knows or has deduced from several specimens, some showing a certain anatomical feature better than others. One thing the novice learns from this book is that each nodule is less like a box of Cracker Jacks and more like a lottery ticket. We see so many nicely-articulated specimens at shows and in books (including the spider on the cover of this one), that it can come as a surprise that almost two-thirds of the hundreds of thousands (perhaps millions) of nodules that have been collected turned out to be "duds" - nothing inside. Sometimes, just a whitish haze or disconnected hash of fragments is all that's left of whatever was encased. "Richardson's Guide to the Fossil Fauna of Mazon Creek" is one of the most complete reviews of any deposit I have read. It was well-conceived, structured to address a spectrum of related topics, and well-executed, assembling all the relevant details efficiently. It brings an understanding of arguably the most remarkable fauna in the fossil record from a time when life, fanning out on land and establishing complex ecosystems, would have seemed unstoppable. Jess
  16. Silurian; Gotland; Sweden

    From the album Some of my Fossil collection

    Rare and nice gastropod from the well known and famous silurian site at Gotland; Sweden. Still with his original shell!!!
  17. a book review of: Evolution of the Insects by David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel. Cambridge University Press. 2005. 755 pages. Hardcover retail $120 USD. When I was in the sixth grade in the 1970's, each of us had to build an insect collection for science class. We learned about biological classification before we started because each collection had to have at least nine different taxonomic orders represented. At the time I had an up-to-date insect identification guide to help me. What I didn't know then was that a basic reevaluation of the taxonomy of insects and all other organisms was in progress. It involved a more detailed study of anatomical characters and incorporated information from ongoing genetic and molecular research. This reevaluation would not completely alter the tree of life but many twigs would be rearranged onto different branches with even some branches repositioned as scientists recognized more precise indicators of ancestry. "Evolution of the Insects" is a volume that attempts to address every major aspect of the evolutionary history of insects. It's an especially ambitious goal when you consider that there are more species of insects (over 925, 000) than there are species of all other organisms put together (other invertebrates, vertebrates, plants, fungi, and all microorganisms). And that's just the modern species. Insects have risen or dwindled in diversity at different times in the geologic past just like any other class of organisms. Some have even died out across their long history which extends perhaps 400 million years The authors are both paleontologists who have traveled around the world collecting modern and fossil insects. Dr. David Grimaldi is Curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at three universities. Dr. Michael S. Engel holds two positions at the University of Kansas: Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Curator in Charge in the Division of Entomology at the Natural History Museum. He is also a Research Associate at the American Museum of Natural History. Chapter 1 introduces insect diversity and evolution. The topics range from the basic concept of the species and total insect species estimates to biological classification, history of research, and paleontology. Chapter 2 looks at the types of fossil insect preservation (compressions, impressions, amber inclusions, etc.) and the major fossil insect deposits of the world. Chapter 3 covers the arthropods, their relationship to other phyla, their diversity, and the origin of insects. Chapter 4 breaks down the anatomy of insects, the interrelationships of insect groups, and the history of entomological research. Chapters 5 through 13 review the known extinct and modern insect orders as they are now understood. Chapter 14 focuses on the evolution of the modern groups of insects and how it is linked to the rise, development, and spread of flowering plants (and other organisms) during the Cretaceous and across the Cenozoic. The reader also learns how insects were affected by the K/T extinction event and the break-up of the continents across the Cretaceous and Cenozoic. The text is technical but the first three chapters prepare the layman for that. "Technical" can mean difficult to read for the average reader but it also means detailed - the kind of detail some collectors are hoping for but cannot get in a mainstream fossil guide. This book taught me how insect interrelationships have been reinterpreted since I was in elementary school. For instance, mantises, once included within the Orthoptera with the grasshoppers and crickets, are now classified in their own order, the Mantodea. A mantis might look like a predatory grasshopper but it does not share the same modifications of anatomical characters that indicate a close relationship to grasshoppers. The particular complexity of the male reproductive organs of roaches, mantises, and termites unite them as relatives (orders within the superorder Dictyoptera) and separate them from other insect groups. Whether the reader approaches this book as something to be absorbed in its entirety (the entomologist seeking to expand perspective) or in sections (the serious hobbyist wanting to increase expertise on particular groups), I think everyone should read Chapter 14. It's the condensed history of modern insects starting in the Cretaceous, when perhaps half of today's families appeared, and it shows them against the background of a changing world. The reader sees the birth and development of complex plant-insect (as well as bird-insect and mammal-insect) relationships that we see in action today. This chapter alone would be an excellent reference for someone looking for a broader discussion of insect ecology. The preface points out that there are two other similar references available (the hexapod section of the "Treatise of Invertebrate Paleontology" by Carpenter, 1992; "History of Insects" by Rasnitsyn and Quicke, 2002). However, they are less-amateur friendly and focus only on fossil insects. Also, "History of Insects" sells for a few hundred dollars. Since "Evolution of the Insects" shows modern and fossil insects of the same order side-by-side, the reader gets the "big picture" in one book . This book provides a rich mix of detailed drawings and excellent close-up photos of fossil and modern specimens (including SEM shots of tiny forms and anatomical characters) along with numerous charts and tables. The photos are especially abundant in the chapters that discuss the orders, and in case anyone is wondering, there are a lot of nice shots of great amber specimens from several localities around the world. I would recommend this book to entomology students and serious fossil insect collectors. Even if the reader is just thinking of getting serious, I would suggest acquiring this book because it is a reference to grow into. The general fossil collector building a personal library of comprehensive volumes on various groups of organisms should invest in a copy as well. It's expensive but well worth the price. Jess
  18. I have been collecting chert gravel fossils from the Bogue Chitto river near Franklinton, LA off and on for the last couple of years. These fossils come from the Citronelle Formation, which is Pliocene in age, and contains mostly unconsolidated sands and silts, as well as rounded chert river gravel which contains paleozoic fossils. The age is poorly known, as far as I am aware, and probably contains fossils of very different age. The most reputable source I have found on the subject was mentioned in an earlier post in the Louisiana section of the forum: (http://www.msgravel.com/assets/1312/Rocks_and_Fossils_Collected_from_MS_.pdf), but I'd be happy to learn more on the subject. According to the link, they range in age from the Devonian to the Mississipian. From my experience, crinoid fossils are the most abundant. Tabulate coral, horn coral, bryozoans, and brachiopods are less common. I just posted some of my finds to the Louisiana section of the forum: (http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/39199-paleozoic-chert-gravel-fossils-from-bogue-chitto-river-washington-parish-citronelle-formation/) I have two finds in particular, however, that have stumped me. The first looks like a shark tooth, but is just an outline, and has been worn down. I think this one may be a pseudofossil. The second is more interesting. I will post a couple of pictures and then a higher quality one in a second post. Superficially, it reminds me of a cross section of a tree seed, but I don't think that's a possibility, considering all the other fossils are marine and paleozoic in age. It is bilaterally symmetrical, so perhaps a chordate or arthropod? I really have no clue. Sorry for the picture quality, I need a better camera Let me know what you think!
  19. a book review of: "Earth Before the Dinosaurs" written by Sebastien Steyer; illustrated by Alain Beneteau; translated by Chris Spence. Indiana University Press. 182 pages. Suggested retail: $35.00 USD. In the past twenty years a number of fossil discoveries have illuminated several steps of a key transition in the history of vertebrates: when they first crawled out of water and took on the gravity of life on land. Paleontologists have been sorting through the remains of a growing diversity of Devonian-age fish-like amphibians and amphibian-like fishes across a time when biologists have gone beyond just questioning traditional categories in classification, focusing on a more precise method of determining degrees of ancestry throughout the tree of life. "Earth Before the Dinosaurs" attempts to provide the layman with a guide to the early history of tetrapods, the vertebrate family tree that includes one branch of bony fishes plus all amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. It arrives in the wake of other recently-published books on the subject: the second edition of Jennifer Clack's 2002 "Gaining Ground" (a more technical review of early tetrapods), which was published earlier this year; Neil Shubin's 2008 nonfiction bestseller, "Your Inner Fish," which traced the origins of basic human anatomy down to Devonian-level adaptations and Carl Zimmer's 1998 "At the Water's Edge." Sebastien Steyer wrote the original French text under the title "La Terre avant les Dinosaures." He is a paleontologist specializing in Paleozoic amphibians at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris. Chapter 1 defines basic terms and spotlights the oldest known tetrapods. In a few cases animals familiar to the longtime paleo-enthusiast are revealed to have been reinterpreted to different degrees in recent years. For instance, decades ago, the "lobefin" Eusthenopteron was considered a fish that walked on land, occupying an intermediate stage between fishes and amphibians. Today, however, tetrapod researchers see it as a wholly-aquatic fish not directly related to amphibians. Chapter 2 explains the multi-stage development of limbs in modern vertebrate embryos with notes on how genes play a role in the process. The reader learns how some individuals can be born with incomplete limbs and why some bear an extra digit or two. Chapter 3 samples various groups of Paleozoic (and some Mesozoic) amphibians, though by this point in the book, Steyer has already pointed out that long-established terms like "fish," "amphibian," and "reptile" are no longer precise enough for defining evolutionary relationships. They remain useful as general groupings in broader discussions of diversity, distribution or extinction but too many groups known to have separate ancestries had been shoehorned into the same traditional class because of some shared superficial structures. Today, scientists sort through the full set of known anatomical characters in a given taxon in an effort to isolate only those that link an ancestral group to all its descendants. Chapter 4 reviews early amniotes, lineages that have led to traditional reptile groups (and by extension to mammals and birds), a few still living but most extinct. Steyer discusses amniote origins and how the group was affected by the mass extinction that occurred at the end of the Permian Period. He also notes some unusual Triassic forms. Chapter 5 looks at the work of modern paleontologists, informing the reader on how they have learned to extract more information from past discoveries even as they continue to bring home more fossils from the field. The book is off to a good start with Chapter 1 sorting out the early tetrapods as they are now understood. A handy chart on page 26 places the various genera in time, locality, and paleoenvironment. I liked Chapter 2 for its review of how embryology is connected to paleontology and Chapter 3 informs the reader on how incredibly diverse the tetrapods were during the Paleozoic Era. The reader also gets an education in how difficult it can be for researchers, often working with fragmentary remains, to determine which groups led to modern amphibians, which ones were more closely related to early amniotes, and which ones were simply offshoots that dead-ended during the Paleozoic. As a side note, fans of J.R.R. Tolkien may pick up on an intentionally-humorous passage in Chapter 3. However, it is in Chapter 4 that the level in coverage seems to drop off. I noticed it at the first mention of the synapsids, the technical name for a group formerly known as "mammal-like reptiles." The most famous early synapsid, Dimetrodon, is noted in the text along with some nice illustrations but most of the information on it is found in a caption in the margin. Relatively little text is devoted to Permian synapsids (pelycosaurs and therapsids) despite the fact that they include the dominant carnivores and herbivores across the entire period. I expected more to be said about the first "sabertooth" carnivores on earth. Steyer does include about one page of text on Triassic synapsids, one group of which is noted to have been ancestral to mammals. Chapter 5 is an interesting behind-the-scenes look at the tools of the paleontologist trying to deduce behavior from bones, tooth marks, footprints, and burrows. Translating a book from one language to another is always problematic. Idiomatic expressions and creative metaphors often defy a word-by-word breakdown so any poetry in the original writing can be only approximated if not destroyed. A paleo book can be easier to translate (more literal) than a novel as many technical terms are the same or intuitable but many pitfalls remain. Interpreting the original text required not just competent French-English translating but also a good understanding of the terminology of geology and vertebrate anatomy. The translator, Chris Spence, is described as an "amateur paleontologist" but he makes several mistakes beyond those that would be considered just "awkward English." An example of "awkward English" is his phrase "at the limit between two Devonian stages..." on page 63. He uses "limit" because it is so close to the appropriate French word "limite." But in English, you would say "at the boundary between two Devonian stages" because "boundary" is the word commonly used to express a border between geologic time units (as in "K-T boundary"). It is a fine point that can get past a translator but it should have been picked up by an editor at Indiana University Press. One of Spence's more conspicuous errors is seen on page 28 where he refers to tetrapods discovered in the 20th century as "mentors" to more recently-described forms. I think he meant a word in opposition to "newcomers" but I could not figure out how he came up with "mentors" (no obvious French connection). For the last word on page 69, he employs a false cognate of the French word "bassin" and writes "basin" where he should have said "pelvis," resulting in a baffling sentence. Other problems closer to mere typos include: his choice of "paleosoils" on page 66 when he should have gone with "paleosols"; "chiropters" on page 138 instead of "chiropterans" and "amphisbaenas" on page 156 over "amphisbaenids." On the whole I would have to say that Spence delivered a smooth text. It is a lot more difficult and time-consuming to preserve the meaning of every phrase, sentence, and paragraph of a book in one language and express it fluently in another language than it is for a reviewer to spot isolated problems. Again, a round of editing should have caught at least most of the loose ends. Supporting the text are numerous excellent, and at times imaginative, illustrations by Alain Beneteau. Many of the animals are not quickly recognizable as subjects in American paleo-books so Beneteau's drawings and paintings also offer a variety of fresh faces and forms. Nearly every page facing a solid page of text bears at least one informative chart, artwork, or photograph (SEM photos, close-ups of fossils, shots of scientists in the field, etc.), with some pages carrying several illustrations. I was told about this book by a paleontologist who thinks the pictures alone were worth the purchase price. Looking past the relatively minor negatives, I recommend "Earth Before the Dinosaurs" to fossil collectors of all levels of experience. It is a good introductory book on the early evolution of tetrapods, a subject getting more attention these days. Jess
  20. Some Recent Acquisitions

    Some recent acquisitions that I think are 'pretty cool' ... If you know any of my data to be incorrect, please let me know. Graptolite: Cyrtograptus murchisoni Silurian, Wenlockian ~425my Builth Wells, Wales details:
  21. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 7, 2018. General Papers in Paleontology Archaean Eon Allwood, A.C., et al. (2009). Controls on development and diversity of Early Archaean stromatolites. PNAS, Vol.106, Number 24. Altermann, W. and J. Kazmierczak (2003). Archaean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth. Research in Microbiology, 154. Awramik, S.M. (1992). The oldest records of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research, 33. Brasier, M., et al. (2006). A fresh look at the fossil evidence for early Archaean cellular life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 361. Brasier, M., et al. (2004). Earth's Oldest (~3.5 Ga) Fossils and the 'Early Eden Hypothesis': Questioning the Evidence. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 34. Brocks, J.J., et al. (1999). Archaean Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes. Science, Vol.285. Knauth, L.P. (2005). Temperature and salinity history of the Precambrian ocean: implications for the course of microbial evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 219. Moorbath, S. (2005). Oldest rocks, earliest life, heaviest impacts, and the Hadean-Archaean transition. Applied Geochemistry, 30. Sankaran, A.V. (2002). The controversy over early-Archaean microfossils. Current Science, Vol.83, Number 1. Schopf, J.W. (2006). Fossil evidence of Archaean life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 361. Schopf, J.W. (1993). Microfossils of the Early Archaean Apex Chert: New Evidence of the Antiquity of Life. Science, Vol.260. Schopf, J.W., et al. (2007). Evidence of Archaean life: Stromatolites and microfossils. Precambrian Research, 158. Sharma, M. and Y. Shukla (2009). The evolution and distribution of life in the Precambrian eon - Global perspective and the Indian record. J.Biosci., 34. Stueken, E.E., D.C. Catling and R. Buick (2012). Contributions to late Archaean sulphur cycling by life on land. Nature Geoscience, published on-line. Waldbauer, J.R., D.K. Newman and R.E. Summons (2011). Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular record of Archaean life. PNAS, Vol.108, Number 33. Proterozoic Eon Ediacaran Period Barroso, F.R.G., et al. (2014). First Ediacaran Fauna Occurrence in Northeastern Brazil (Jairabas Basin, ?Ediacaran-Cambrian): Preliminary Results and Regional Correlation. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 86(3). Bottjer, D.J. (2002). 2. Enigmatic Ediacara Fossils: Ancestors or Aliens? In: Exceptional Fossil Preservation. Bottjer, D.J., et al. (eds.), Columbia University Press, New York. Clapham, M.E., G.M. Narbonne and J.G. Gehling (2003). Paleoecology of the oldest known animal communities: Ediacaran assemblages at Mistaken Point, Newfoundland. Paleobiology, 29(4). Droser, M.L. and J.G. Gehling (2015). The advent of animals: The view from the Ediacaran. PNAS, Vol.112, Number 16. Droser, M.L., J.G. Gehling, and S.R. Jensen (2006). Assemblage palaeoecology of the Ediacara biota: The unabridged edition?. Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 232. Dzik, J. The Verdun Syndrome: Simultaneous Origin of Protective Armor and Infaunal Shelters at the Precambrian-Cambrian Transition. Dzik, J. (2003). Anatomical Information Content in the Ediacaran Fossils and Their Possible Zoological Affinities. Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Gehling, J. (2015). First Fossil Animals - Ediacara Fauna of South Australia. Flinders Ranges Treasures. Glaessner, M.F. and M. Wade (1966). The Late Precambrian Fossils from Ediacara, South Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 4. Grazhdankin, D. (2004). Patterns of distribution in the Ediacaran biotas: facies versus biogeography and evolution. Paleobiology, 30(2). Jensen, S. and T. Palacios (2016). The Ediacaran-Cambrian trace fossil record in the Central Iberian Zone, Iberian Peninsula. Comunicacoes Geologicas, 103, Especial 1. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2006). The Ediacaran Period: a new addition to the geologic time scale. Lethaia, Vol.39. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2004). A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale. Science, Vol.305. Liu, A.G. (2011). Reviewing the Ediacaran fossils of the Long Mynd, Shropshire. Proceedings of the Shropshire Geological Society, 16. Meert, J.G., et al. (2010). Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan. Gondwana Research, xx-xxxx. Narbonne, G.M. (2005). The Ediacara Biota: Neoproterozoic Orgin of Animals and Their Ecosystems. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 33. Narbonne, G.M. (2004). Modular Construction of Early Ediacaran Complex Life Forms. Science, Vol.305. Narbonne, G.M. and J.G. Gehling (2003). Life after snowball: The oldest fossil Ediacaran fossils. Geology, Vol.31, Number 1. O'Brien, S.J. and A.F. King (2004). Ediacaran Fossils from the Bonavista Peninsula (Avalon Zone), Newfoundland: Preliminary Descriptions and Implications for Regional Correlation. Current Research (2004) Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Report 04-1. Peterson, K.J., B. Waggoner and J.W. Hagadorn (2003). A Fungal Analog for Newfoundland Ediacaran Fossils. Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Peterson, K.J., et al. (2008). The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the geological fossil records. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 363. Retallack, G.J. (2013). Ediacaran life on land. Nature, Vol.493. Retallack, G.J. (1994). Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens? Paleobiology, 20(4). Schiffbauer, J.D., J.W. Huntley and G.R. O'Neil (2016). The Latest Ediacaran Wormworld Fauna: Setting the Ecological Stage for the Cambrian Explosion. GSA Today, Vol.26, Number 11. Seilacher, A., D. Grazhdankin and A. Legouta (2003). Ediacaran biota: The dawn of animal life in the shadow of giant protists. Palaeontological Research, Vol.7, Number 1. Wood, R. and A. Curtis (2015). Extensive metazoan reefs from the Ediacaran Nama Group, Namibia: the rise of benthic suspension feeding. Geobiology, 13. Phanerozoic Eon Paleozoic Era General Paleozoic Brett, C.E. and S.E. Walker (2002). Predators and Predation in Paleozoic Marine Environments. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Eldredge, N. (1971). The Allopatric Model and Phylogeny in Paleozoic Invertebrates. Evolution, Vol.25, Number 1. Schonlaub, H.-P. and H. Heinisch (1994). The Classic Fossiliferous Palaeozoic Units of the Eastern and Southern Alps. IUGS Subcomm. Silurian Stratigraphy, Field Meeting 1994, Bibl.Geol. B.-A., 30. Smith, M.P., P.C.J. Donoghue and I.J. Sansom (2002). The spatial and temporal diversification of Early Palaeozoic vertebrates. In: Palaeobiogeography and Biodiversity Change: the Ordovician and Mesozoic-Cenozoic Radiations. Crame, J.A. and A.W. Owen (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 194. Ye, H., et al. (1996). Late Paleozoic Deformation of Interior North America: The Greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains. AAPG Bulletin, Vol.80, Number 9. Cambrian Period Blair, J.E. and S.B. Hedges (2004). Molecular Clocks Do Not Support the Cambrian Explosion. Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol.22, Number 3. Davidek, K., et al. (1998). New uppermost Cambrian U-Pb date from Avalonian Wales and age of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Geol.Mag., 135(3). Dzik, J. (2005). Behavioral and anatomical unity of the earliest burrowing animals and the cause of the "Cambrian Explosion". Paleobiology, 31(3). Hagadorn, J.W. Chengjiang: Early Record of the Cambrian Explosion. Hagadorn, J.W. (2002). 4. Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom. Jacobs, D.K., et al. (2005). Terminal addition, the Cambrian radiation and the Phanerozoic evolution of bilaterian form. Evolution & Development, 7:6. Kirschvink, J.L. and T.D. Raub (2003). A methane fuse for the Cambrian explosion: carbon cycles and true polar wander. C.R. Geoscience, 335. Landing, E., et al. (2000). Cambrian-Ordovician boundary age and duration of the lowest Ordovician Tremadoc Series based on U-Pb zircon dates from Avalonian Wales. Geol.Mag., 137(5). Lieberman, B.S. (2008). The Cambrian radiation of bilaterians: Evolutionary origins and palaeontological emergence; earth history change and biotic factors. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258. Marshall, C.R. (2006). Explaining the Cambrian "Explosion" of Animals. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 34. Mitchell, R.N., et al. (2015). Was the Cambrian Explosion Both an Effect and an Artifact of True Polar Wander? American Journal of Science, Vol.315. Morris, S.C. (2006). Darwin's dilemma: the realities of the Cambrian 'explosion'. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 361. Morris, S.C. (2000). The Cambrian "explosion": Slow-fuse or megatonnage? PNAS, Vol.97, Number 9. Morris, S.C. (1993). Ediacaran-Like Fossils in Cambrian Burgess Shale-Type Faunas of North America. Palaeontology, Vol.36, Part 3. Peng, S., L.E. Babcock and R.A. Cooper (2012). Chapter 19. The Cambrian Period. In: The Geologic Time Scale 2012. F.M. Gradstein, et al. (eds.), Elsevier B.V. Phoenix, C. (2009). Cellular differentiation as a candidate "new technology" for the Cambrian Explosion. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 20(2). Plotnick, R.E., S.Q. Dornbos and J. Chen (2010). Information landscapes and sensory ecology of the Cambrian Radiation. Paleobiology, 36(2). Shu, D.-G. (2008). Cambrian explosion: Birth of tree of animals. Gondwana Research, 14. Shu, D.-G., et al. (2009). The earliest history of the deuterostomes: the importance of the Chengjiang Fossil-Lagerstatte. Proc.R.Soc. B, published online. Valentine, J.W. (2002). Prelude to the Cambrian Explosion. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 30. Valentine, J.W., et al. (1999). Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion. Development, 126. von Bloh, W., C. Bounama and S. Franck (1963). Cambrian explosion triggered by geosphere-biosphere feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.30, Number 18. Yang, B. (2014). Cambrian small shelly fossils of South China and their application in biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography. Ph.D. Dissertation - Freie Universitat Berlin. Zhang, X.-L. and D.-G. Shu (2013). Causes and consequences of the Cambrian explosion. Science China - Earth Sciences, 57(5). Zhang, Z. and G.A. Brock (2018). New evolutionary and ecological advances in deciphering the Cambrian explosion of animal life. Journal of Paleontology, 92(1). Ordovician Period Brocke, R., et al. (1995). First Appearance of Selected Early Ordovician Acritarch Taxa from Peri-Gondwana. In: Ordovician Odyssey: Short Papers for the Seventh International Symposium on the Ordovician System. Cooper, J.D., M.L. Droser and S.C. Finney (eds.), The Pacific Section Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), Fullerton, California, USA. cocks, L.R.M. (1985). The Ordovician-Silurian Boundary. Episodes, Vol.8, Number 2. Connolly, S.R. and A.I. Miller (2002). Global Ordovician faunal transitions in the marine benthos: ultimate causes. Paleobiology, 28(1). Cooper, R.A., G.S. Nowlan and S.H. Williams (2001). Global Stratotype Section and Point for base of the Ordovician System. Episodes, Vol.24, Number 1. Elliot Smith, M., B.S. Singer and T. Simo (2011). A time like our own? Radioisotopic calibration of the Ordovician greenhouse to icehouse transition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 311. Farrell, U.C., et al. (2009). Beyond Beecher's Trilobite Bed: Widespread pyritization of soft tissues in the Late Ordovician Taconic foreland basin. Geology, 37. (Thanks to piranha for finding this one!) Finnegan, S., S. Peters and W.W. Fischer (2011). Late Ordovician-Early Silurian Selective Extinction Patterns in Laurentia and Their Relationship to Climate Change. In: Ordovician of the World. Gutierrez-Marco, J.C., I. Rabano and D. Garcia-Bellido (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 14. Fortey, R.A. and L.R.M. cocks (2003). Palaeontological evidence bearing on global Ordovician-Silurian continental reconstructions. Earth-Science Reviews, 61. Havlicek, V. (1989). Climatic changes and development of benthic communities through the Mediterranean Ordovician. Sbor.geol. ved, Geologie 44. Melott, A.L., et al. (2004). Did a gamma-ray burst initiate the late Ordovician mass extinction? International Journal of Astrobiology, 3(1). Miller, A.I. and S.R. Connolly (2001). Substrate affinities of higher taxa and the Ordovician Radiation. Paleobiology, 27(4). Miller, A.I. and S. Mao (1995). Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life. Geology, Vol.23, Number 4. Niocaill, C.M., B.A. van der Pluijm and R. Van der Voo (1997). Ordovician paleogeography and the evolution of the Iapetus ocean. Geology, Vol.25, Number 2. Rasmussen, C.M.O. and D.A.T. Harper (2011). Interrogation of distributional data for the End Ordovician crisis interval: where did disaster strike? Geological Journal, published on-line in Wiley Online Library. Silurian Period Calner, M. (2008). Silurian global events - at the tipping point of climate change. In: Mass extinctions. A.M.T. Elewa (ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg. Calner, M. (2005). A Late Silurian extinction event and anachronistic period. Geology, Vol.33, Number 4. Cronin, T.C. (1971). A Study of the Silurian System and a Silurian Reef in West Texas and Southern New Mexico. Masters Thesis - Texas Tech University. Woodcock, N.H. (2000). Chapter 1. Introduction to the Silurian. In: British Silurian Stratigraphy. Palmer, D., et al. (eds.),Geological Conservation Review Series, No.19, Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Devonian Period Anderson, J. (2008). Reconstructing the Aftermath of the Late Devonian Alamo Meteor Impact in the Pahranagat Range, Southeastern Nevada. Masters Thesis - Idaho State University. Brame, R.I. (2001). Revision of the Upper Devonian in the Central-South Appalachian Basin: Biostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy. Ph.D. Dissertation - Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Brett, C.E. and G.C. Baird (1996). Middle Devonian sedimentary cycles and sequences in the northern Appalachian Basin. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 306. (Thanks to xonenine for finding this one). Elliott, D.K., et al. (2000). Middle and Late Devonian vertebrates of the western Old Red Sandstone Continent. Cour.Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 223. George, D. and A. Blieck (2011). Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment. PLoS ONE, 6(7). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Marynowski, L., M. Rakocinski and M. Zaton (2007). Middle Famennian (Late Devonian) interval with pyritized fauna from the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland): Organic geochemistry and pyrite framboid diameter study. Geochemical Journal, Vol.41. Sandberg, C.A., J.R. Morrow and W. Ziegler (2002). Late Devonian sea-level changes, catastrophic events and mass extinctions. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. Stigall, A.L. (2010). Invasive Species and Biodiversity Crises: Testing the Link in the Late Devonian. PLoS ONE, 5(12). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Ziegler, W. and G. Klapper (1985). Stages of the Devonian System. Episodes, Vol., Number 2. Carboniferous Period Heckel, P.H. and G. Clayton (2006). The Carboniferous System. Use of the New Official Names for the Subsystems, Series and Stages. Geologica acta, Vol.4, Number 003. Permian Period Basu, A.R., et al. (2003). Chondritic Meteorite Fragments Associated with the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Antarctica. Science, Vol.302. Benton, M.J. and R.J. Twitchett (2003). How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol.18, Number 7. Bottjer, D.J., et al. (2008). Understanding mechanisms for the end-Permian mass extinction and the protracted Early Triassic aftermath and recovery. GSA Today, Vol.18, Number 9. Gastaldo, R.A., et al. (2009). The terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary event bed is a nonevent. Geology, Vol.37, Number 3. Kiehl, J.T. and C.A. Shields (2005). Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction. Geology, Vol.33, Number 9. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2007). Paleophysiology and end-Permian mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 256. Lucas, S.G. (2004). A global hiatus in the Middle Permian tetrapod fossil record. Stratigraphy, Vol.1, Number 1. Marusek, J.A. (2004). The Great Permian Extinction Debate. Lunar and Planetary Science, XXXV. Retallack, G.J., et al. (2006). Middle-Late Permian mass extinctions on land. GSA Bulletin, Vol.118, Numbers 11-12. Shen, S.Z., et al. (2006). End-Permian mass extinction pattern in the northern peri-Gondwanan region. Palaeoworld, 15. Stephenson, M.H., L. Angiolini and M.J. Leng. The Early Permian fossil record of Gondwana and its relationship to deglaciation: a review. Virgili, C. (2008). The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe. Journal of Iberian Geology, 34(1). Mesozoic Era Triassic Period Cisneros, J.C., et al. (2010). Spondarthritis in the Triassic. PLoS ONE, 5(10). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Fraser, N.C. (1992). Late Triassic Faunal Successions of Central Pangaea. Virginia Journal of Science, Vol.43, Number 1B. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2007). Global Triassic Tetrapod Biostratigraphy and Biochronology: 2007 Status. In: The Global Triassic. Lucas, S.G. and J.A. Spielmann (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41. Michalik, J., et al. (2010). Climate change at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in the northwestern Tethyan realm, inferred from sections in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 4. Ochev, V.G. and M.A. Shishkin (1989). On the Principles of Global Correlation of the Continental Triassic on the Tetrapods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.34, Number 2. Olsen, P.E., et al. (2002). Ascent of Dinosaurs Linked to an Iridium Anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. Science, Vol.296. Olsen, P.E., et al. (2002). Continental Triassic-Jurassic boundary in central Pangaea: Recent progress and discussion of an Ir anomaly. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. Spray, J.G., S.P. Kelley and D.B. Rowley (1998). Evidence for a late Triassic multiple impact event on Earth. Nature, Vol.392. Tanner, L.H., S.G. Lucas and M.G. Chapman (2004). Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions. Earth-Science Reviews, 65. Tucker, M.E. and M.J. Benton (1982). Triassic Environments, Climates and Reptile Evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 40. Jurassic Period Munnecke, A., H. Westphal and M. Kolbl-Ebert (2008). Diagenesis of plattenkalk: examples from the Solnhofen area (Upper Jurassic, southern Germany). Sedimentology, 55. Palfy, J., et al. (2007). Triassic-Jurassic boundary events inferred from integrated stratigraphy of the Csovar section, Hungary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 244. Svensen, H., et al. (2007). Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 256. Turner, C.E. and F. Peterson (2004). Reconstruction of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation extinct ecosystem - a synthesis. Sedimentary Geology, 167. van de Schootbrugge, B., et al. (2005). Early Jurassic climate change and the radiation of organic-walled phytoplankton in the Tethys Ocean. Paleobiology, 31(1). Cretaceous Period Alegret, L., et al. (2002). The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE Mexico. Terra Nova, Vol.14, Number 5. Alvarez, W., et al. (1992). Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540. Geology, Vol.20. Arenillas, I., et al. (2006). Chicxulub impact event is Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in age: New micropaleontological evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, XX. Baraboshkin, E.Y., A.S. Alekseev and L.F. Kopaevich (2003). Cretaceous palaeogeography of the North-Eastern Peri-Tethys. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 196. Bennington, J.B. and S. Hesselbarth. Sediment analysis of a Stratigraphic Sequence across the K/T Boundary, Manasquan River Basin, NJ. 17th Annual Long Island Geologists Conference, Stony Brook, New York. Bice, K.L., B.T. Huber and R.D. Norris (2003). Extreme polar warmth during the Cretaceous greenhouse? Paradox of the late Turonian 18O record at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 511. Paleoceanography, Vol.18, Number 2. Bice, K.L., et al. (2006). A multiple proxy and model study of Cretaceous upper ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Paleoceanography, Vol.21. Bottke, W.F., D. Vokrouhlicky and D. Nesvorny (2007). An asteroid breakup 160 Myr ago as the probable source of the K/T impactor. Nature, Vol.449. Bralower, T.J., I.P. Silva and M.J. Malone (2002). New evidence for abrupt climate change in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. GSA Today. Bralower, T.J., C.K. Paull and R.M. Leckie (1998). 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