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Found 623 results

  1. Hi to everybody, I've been struggling a lot of time in ID these little bones. I think they are some otoliths, but I can't identify them using internet images or articles. They are Pliocene in age (from Spain). Every line from the scale is 1 mm. Thanks in advance!
  2. Big Pliocene Bone

    Hi to everybody, Yesterday I was on the field and I found this crushed bone found in spanish Pliocene sediments. Any guesses? Thanks in advance!
  3. Fish Or Reptilian Tooth?

    Hi to everybody, Yesterday I found this tooth in Pliocene fluviodeltaic sediments here in Spain. Could it be a reptilian tooth or it's a fish tooth? Thanks!
  4. Another Day At The Bluffs

    I took another trip out to the Scotia Bluffs, Located in Northern CA, on monday. Here is a description of the geology according to wikipedia: The course of the lower Eel River changes from northeasterly to westerly as it encounters a resistant formation of fossiliferous upper Pliocene marine sandstone 15 miles (25 kilometers) inland from the Pacific Ocean.River turbulence has created deep pools beneath steep sandstone cliffson the northeasterly bank. Tributary streams, including Nanning Creek, cut steep, narrow canyons through the cliffs. The southwesterly bank ofthe river is an alluvial plain extending to the estuary. The community of Rio Dell occupies the bank opposite the cliffs.[1] The cliffs expose abundant remains of ancient clams and sand dollars.[2] This is a beautiful spot and has many fossils, but not a whole lot of variety. The area is constantly changing and somewhat dangerous during the rainy season, but it has been an uncharacteristicly dry winter this year. I had another good day and found many scallops and clams as well as some moon snails. There were an incredible amount of clams this time, I probably could have brought 100 home, but I figured I'd leave some to appease the fossil gods. In fact if anyone wants a clam, PM me with your address and I will mail you one. I included pictures of my finds for the day. I am particularly pleased with the trace scallop fragment, it stands and displays very nicely. I am getting more familiar with the site and will be going back today to hopefully find some sand dollars and maybe bring home some concretions to experiment with cracking them open. Happy Fossil Hunting, Rodney
  5. Andy's Gmr Fossil

    My friend Andy E. found this fossil about a week ago in Green Mill Run Creek in Greenville NC. The creek produces fossils from the late Cretaceous through the Pliocene. It is a part of the upper Yorktown formation. He asked me to post these pictures on this website in hopes that someone might have an idea as to what this fossil may have once been. We are all stumped, any help or hints would be greatly appreciated. I can probably get him to send more pictures if these are inadequate for identification. Thanks
  6. A Phalanx And Two Other Little Bones

    The other day I found this three bones on Spanish Pliocene sediments. The first is a phalanx: But don't know what animal belongs to. And I have no idea of which animal would be these other two bones: Any help? Thanks!
  7. Teeth And Jaw

    I have found these specimens on spanish pliocene fluviodeltaic sediments. Any help with the ids? Thanks in advance!
  8. Shark vertebra

    From the album Vertebrates

    Shark vertebra from Pliocene of Spain
  9. Feather

    From the album Vertebrates

    Bird feather from Pliocene of Italy.
  10. Internal Structure Of A Tree Trunk?

    Hi to everybody, I just found this fossil-looking sandstone from Pliocene. It looks like a the internal structure of trunk, but I don't know if it could be some kind of bioturbation or any other think. Any guesses? Thanks!
  11. Bones Id

    Hi to everybody, This afternoon I've found these two bones in Pliocene sediments (fluviodeltaic/shallow marine sediments)... can anybody help me identifying them? Thanks in advance Edit: I forgot to say that the black and white squares are 1 cm. across.
  12. Teeth Id

    Hi to everybody, I have found these two teeth in Spanish Pliocene sediments (river/delta/coastal)... Can anybody help me identifying the owner? Thanks in advance
  13. Bayside fossil an ancient sea bird by Nicky Phillips ‎Sydney Morning Herald, June 28, 2012 http://www.smh.com.a...0627-212wo.html Bayside fossil an ancient sea bird, video http://media.smh.com...rd-3411380.html “A fossil uncovered on a Melbourne beach belonged to a giant prehistoric bird with a five-metre wing span and serrated beak, scientists report.” Giant bony-toothed bird fossil found by Tiffany Hoy Australian Geographic, June 29, 2012 http://www.australia...n-australia.htm The paper is: Fitzgerald, E. M. G., T. Parka, and T. H. Worthy. 2012, First giant bony-toothed bird (Pelagornithidae) from Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. vol 32, no. 4., pp. 971-974. http://www.tandfonli...634.2012.664596 The skeleton of this genera was found in Chile as discussed in “Fossil of Giant Bony-Toothed Bird from Chile Sets Wingspan Record” at http://volcanomadnes...ny-toothed.html The press release is: Fossil of Giant Bony-Toothed Bird from Chile Sets Wingspan Record, ScienceDaily, Sep. 18, 2010) http://www.scienceda...00918210719.htm The paper is: Mayr, G., and D. Rubilar-Rogers, 2010, Osteology of a new giant bony-toothed bird from the Miocene of Chile, with a revision of the taxonomy of Neogene Pelagornithidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. vol. 30, no 5, pp. 1313-1330. http://www.tandfonli...634.2010.501465 Best wishes, Paul H.
  14. Pliocene Microfossils, Uk

    Dear All, I have these two pictures that I took it from my sample of Pliocene microfossils, but am not sure about them. Could you please help me to identify them: the firs one is transparent wall (hyaline) i think, elongated with narrows end in both sides: the second picture: Cheers, Majed
  15. Hey Folks, Back in August I organized a dig to excavate a Pliocene baleen whale skull from the Purisima Formation. I finally got around to putting together some blog posts about it, and here they are. Part 3 has the poor man's "time lapse" animation of the dig. Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 (with animation of the excavation)
  16. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 7, 2018. General Papers in Paleontology Archaean Eon Allwood, A.C., et al. (2009). Controls on development and diversity of Early Archaean stromatolites. PNAS, Vol.106, Number 24. Altermann, W. and J. Kazmierczak (2003). Archaean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth. Research in Microbiology, 154. Awramik, S.M. (1992). The oldest records of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research, 33. Brasier, M., et al. (2006). A fresh look at the fossil evidence for early Archaean cellular life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 361. Brasier, M., et al. (2004). Earth's Oldest (~3.5 Ga) Fossils and the 'Early Eden Hypothesis': Questioning the Evidence. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 34. Brocks, J.J., et al. (1999). Archaean Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes. Science, Vol.285. Knauth, L.P. (2005). Temperature and salinity history of the Precambrian ocean: implications for the course of microbial evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 219. Moorbath, S. (2005). Oldest rocks, earliest life, heaviest impacts, and the Hadean-Archaean transition. Applied Geochemistry, 30. Sankaran, A.V. (2002). The controversy over early-Archaean microfossils. Current Science, Vol.83, Number 1. Schopf, J.W. (2006). Fossil evidence of Archaean life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 361. Schopf, J.W. (1993). Microfossils of the Early Archaean Apex Chert: New Evidence of the Antiquity of Life. Science, Vol.260. Schopf, J.W., et al. (2007). Evidence of Archaean life: Stromatolites and microfossils. Precambrian Research, 158. Sharma, M. and Y. Shukla (2009). The evolution and distribution of life in the Precambrian eon - Global perspective and the Indian record. J.Biosci., 34. Stueken, E.E., D.C. Catling and R. Buick (2012). Contributions to late Archaean sulphur cycling by life on land. Nature Geoscience, published on-line. Waldbauer, J.R., D.K. Newman and R.E. Summons (2011). Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular record of Archaean life. PNAS, Vol.108, Number 33. Proterozoic Eon Ediacaran Period Barroso, F.R.G., et al. (2014). First Ediacaran Fauna Occurrence in Northeastern Brazil (Jairabas Basin, ?Ediacaran-Cambrian): Preliminary Results and Regional Correlation. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 86(3). Bottjer, D.J. (2002). 2. Enigmatic Ediacara Fossils: Ancestors or Aliens? In: Exceptional Fossil Preservation. Bottjer, D.J., et al. (eds.), Columbia University Press, New York. Clapham, M.E., G.M. Narbonne and J.G. Gehling (2003). Paleoecology of the oldest known animal communities: Ediacaran assemblages at Mistaken Point, Newfoundland. Paleobiology, 29(4). Droser, M.L. and J.G. Gehling (2015). The advent of animals: The view from the Ediacaran. PNAS, Vol.112, Number 16. Droser, M.L., J.G. Gehling, and S.R. Jensen (2006). Assemblage palaeoecology of the Ediacara biota: The unabridged edition?. Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 232. Dzik, J. The Verdun Syndrome: Simultaneous Origin of Protective Armor and Infaunal Shelters at the Precambrian-Cambrian Transition. Dzik, J. (2003). Anatomical Information Content in the Ediacaran Fossils and Their Possible Zoological Affinities. Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Gehling, J. (2015). First Fossil Animals - Ediacara Fauna of South Australia. Flinders Ranges Treasures. Glaessner, M.F. and M. Wade (1966). The Late Precambrian Fossils from Ediacara, South Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 4. Grazhdankin, D. (2004). Patterns of distribution in the Ediacaran biotas: facies versus biogeography and evolution. Paleobiology, 30(2). Jensen, S. and T. Palacios (2016). The Ediacaran-Cambrian trace fossil record in the Central Iberian Zone, Iberian Peninsula. Comunicacoes Geologicas, 103, Especial 1. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2006). The Ediacaran Period: a new addition to the geologic time scale. Lethaia, Vol.39. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2004). A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale. Science, Vol.305. Liu, A.G. (2011). Reviewing the Ediacaran fossils of the Long Mynd, Shropshire. Proceedings of the Shropshire Geological Society, 16. Meert, J.G., et al. (2010). Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan. Gondwana Research, xx-xxxx. Narbonne, G.M. (2005). The Ediacara Biota: Neoproterozoic Orgin of Animals and Their Ecosystems. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 33. Narbonne, G.M. (2004). Modular Construction of Early Ediacaran Complex Life Forms. Science, Vol.305. Narbonne, G.M. and J.G. Gehling (2003). Life after snowball: The oldest fossil Ediacaran fossils. Geology, Vol.31, Number 1. O'Brien, S.J. and A.F. King (2004). Ediacaran Fossils from the Bonavista Peninsula (Avalon Zone), Newfoundland: Preliminary Descriptions and Implications for Regional Correlation. Current Research (2004) Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Report 04-1. Peterson, K.J., B. Waggoner and J.W. Hagadorn (2003). A Fungal Analog for Newfoundland Ediacaran Fossils. Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Peterson, K.J., et al. (2008). The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the geological fossil records. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 363. Retallack, G.J. (2013). Ediacaran life on land. Nature, Vol.493. Retallack, G.J. (1994). Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens? Paleobiology, 20(4). Schiffbauer, J.D., J.W. Huntley and G.R. O'Neil (2016). The Latest Ediacaran Wormworld Fauna: Setting the Ecological Stage for the Cambrian Explosion. GSA Today, Vol.26, Number 11. Seilacher, A., D. Grazhdankin and A. Legouta (2003). Ediacaran biota: The dawn of animal life in the shadow of giant protists. Palaeontological Research, Vol.7, Number 1. Wood, R. and A. Curtis (2015). Extensive metazoan reefs from the Ediacaran Nama Group, Namibia: the rise of benthic suspension feeding. Geobiology, 13. Phanerozoic Eon Paleozoic Era General Paleozoic Brett, C.E. and S.E. Walker (2002). Predators and Predation in Paleozoic Marine Environments. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Eldredge, N. (1971). The Allopatric Model and Phylogeny in Paleozoic Invertebrates. Evolution, Vol.25, Number 1. Schonlaub, H.-P. and H. Heinisch (1994). The Classic Fossiliferous Palaeozoic Units of the Eastern and Southern Alps. IUGS Subcomm. Silurian Stratigraphy, Field Meeting 1994, Bibl.Geol. B.-A., 30. Smith, M.P., P.C.J. Donoghue and I.J. Sansom (2002). The spatial and temporal diversification of Early Palaeozoic vertebrates. In: Palaeobiogeography and Biodiversity Change: the Ordovician and Mesozoic-Cenozoic Radiations. Crame, J.A. and A.W. Owen (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 194. Ye, H., et al. (1996). Late Paleozoic Deformation of Interior North America: The Greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains. AAPG Bulletin, Vol.80, Number 9. Cambrian Period Blair, J.E. and S.B. Hedges (2004). Molecular Clocks Do Not Support the Cambrian Explosion. Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol.22, Number 3. Davidek, K., et al. (1998). New uppermost Cambrian U-Pb date from Avalonian Wales and age of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Geol.Mag., 135(3). Dzik, J. (2005). Behavioral and anatomical unity of the earliest burrowing animals and the cause of the "Cambrian Explosion". Paleobiology, 31(3). Hagadorn, J.W. Chengjiang: Early Record of the Cambrian Explosion. Hagadorn, J.W. (2002). 4. Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom. Jacobs, D.K., et al. (2005). Terminal addition, the Cambrian radiation and the Phanerozoic evolution of bilaterian form. Evolution & Development, 7:6. Kirschvink, J.L. and T.D. Raub (2003). A methane fuse for the Cambrian explosion: carbon cycles and true polar wander. C.R. Geoscience, 335. Landing, E., et al. (2000). Cambrian-Ordovician boundary age and duration of the lowest Ordovician Tremadoc Series based on U-Pb zircon dates from Avalonian Wales. Geol.Mag., 137(5). Lieberman, B.S. (2008). The Cambrian radiation of bilaterians: Evolutionary origins and palaeontological emergence; earth history change and biotic factors. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258. Marshall, C.R. (2006). Explaining the Cambrian "Explosion" of Animals. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 34. Mitchell, R.N., et al. (2015). Was the Cambrian Explosion Both an Effect and an Artifact of True Polar Wander? American Journal of Science, Vol.315. Morris, S.C. (2006). Darwin's dilemma: the realities of the Cambrian 'explosion'. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 361. Morris, S.C. (2000). The Cambrian "explosion": Slow-fuse or megatonnage? PNAS, Vol.97, Number 9. Morris, S.C. (1993). Ediacaran-Like Fossils in Cambrian Burgess Shale-Type Faunas of North America. Palaeontology, Vol.36, Part 3. Peng, S., L.E. Babcock and R.A. Cooper (2012). Chapter 19. The Cambrian Period. In: The Geologic Time Scale 2012. F.M. Gradstein, et al. (eds.), Elsevier B.V. Phoenix, C. (2009). Cellular differentiation as a candidate "new technology" for the Cambrian Explosion. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 20(2). Plotnick, R.E., S.Q. Dornbos and J. Chen (2010). Information landscapes and sensory ecology of the Cambrian Radiation. Paleobiology, 36(2). Shu, D.-G. (2008). Cambrian explosion: Birth of tree of animals. Gondwana Research, 14. Shu, D.-G., et al. (2009). The earliest history of the deuterostomes: the importance of the Chengjiang Fossil-Lagerstatte. Proc.R.Soc. B, published online. Valentine, J.W. (2002). Prelude to the Cambrian Explosion. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 30. Valentine, J.W., et al. (1999). Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion. Development, 126. von Bloh, W., C. Bounama and S. Franck (1963). Cambrian explosion triggered by geosphere-biosphere feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.30, Number 18. Yang, B. (2014). Cambrian small shelly fossils of South China and their application in biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography. Ph.D. Dissertation - Freie Universitat Berlin. Zhang, X.-L. and D.-G. Shu (2013). Causes and consequences of the Cambrian explosion. Science China - Earth Sciences, 57(5). Zhang, Z. and G.A. Brock (2018). New evolutionary and ecological advances in deciphering the Cambrian explosion of animal life. Journal of Paleontology, 92(1). Ordovician Period Brocke, R., et al. (1995). First Appearance of Selected Early Ordovician Acritarch Taxa from Peri-Gondwana. In: Ordovician Odyssey: Short Papers for the Seventh International Symposium on the Ordovician System. Cooper, J.D., M.L. Droser and S.C. Finney (eds.), The Pacific Section Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), Fullerton, California, USA. cocks, L.R.M. (1985). The Ordovician-Silurian Boundary. Episodes, Vol.8, Number 2. Connolly, S.R. and A.I. Miller (2002). Global Ordovician faunal transitions in the marine benthos: ultimate causes. Paleobiology, 28(1). Cooper, R.A., G.S. Nowlan and S.H. Williams (2001). Global Stratotype Section and Point for base of the Ordovician System. Episodes, Vol.24, Number 1. Elliot Smith, M., B.S. Singer and T. Simo (2011). A time like our own? Radioisotopic calibration of the Ordovician greenhouse to icehouse transition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 311. Farrell, U.C., et al. (2009). Beyond Beecher's Trilobite Bed: Widespread pyritization of soft tissues in the Late Ordovician Taconic foreland basin. Geology, 37. (Thanks to piranha for finding this one!) Finnegan, S., S. Peters and W.W. Fischer (2011). Late Ordovician-Early Silurian Selective Extinction Patterns in Laurentia and Their Relationship to Climate Change. In: Ordovician of the World. Gutierrez-Marco, J.C., I. Rabano and D. Garcia-Bellido (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 14. Fortey, R.A. and L.R.M. cocks (2003). Palaeontological evidence bearing on global Ordovician-Silurian continental reconstructions. Earth-Science Reviews, 61. Havlicek, V. (1989). Climatic changes and development of benthic communities through the Mediterranean Ordovician. Sbor.geol. ved, Geologie 44. Melott, A.L., et al. (2004). Did a gamma-ray burst initiate the late Ordovician mass extinction? International Journal of Astrobiology, 3(1). Miller, A.I. and S.R. Connolly (2001). Substrate affinities of higher taxa and the Ordovician Radiation. Paleobiology, 27(4). Miller, A.I. and S. Mao (1995). 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A review of the evidence for a human role in the extinction of Australian megafauna and an alternative interpretation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25. Other General Paleontology Papers Babcock, L.E. (2005). Asymmetry in the fossil record. European Review, Vol.13, Supp. Number 2. Bassett, M.G., L.E. Popov and L.E. Holmer (2004). The Oldest-Known Metazoan Parasite? J.Paleont., 78(6). Bengston, S. (2002). Origin and Early Evolution of Predation. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Benton, M.J. (2005). Vertebrate Paleontology. Third Edition. Blackwell Publishing. (Entire book!) (Thanks to doushantuo for locating this one!) Benton, M.J. and P.C.J. Donoghue (2007). Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life. Mol.Biol.Evol., 24(1). Bisulca, C., et al. (2012). Variation in the Deterioration of Fossil Resins and Implication for the Conservation of Fossils in Amber. American Museum Novitates, Number 3734. Bryant, H.N. and A.P. Russell (1992). The role of phylogenetic analysis in the inference of unpreserved attributes of extinct taxa. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond.B, 337. Cartwright, P. and A. Collins (2007). Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages. Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol.47, Number 5. Dietl, G.P. and P.H. Kelley (2002). The Fossil Record of Predator-Prey Arms Races: Coevolution and Escalation Hypotheses. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Donoghue, P.C.J. and M.A. Purnell (2009). The Evolutionary Emergence of Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives. Evo.Edu. Outreach. Dzik, J. (2002). Chapter 11.3 Early diversification of organisms in the fossil record. In: Fundamentals of Life. Editions scientifiques et medicales, Elsevier SAS. Dzik, J. (1999). Chapter 13. Evolutionary Origin of Asymmetry in Early Metazoan Animals. In: Advances in BioChirality. Palyi, G., C. Zucchi and L. Caglioti (eds.), Elsevier Science S.A. Emlen, D.J. (2008). The Evolution of Animal Weapons. Annu.Rev.Ecol.Evol.Syst., 39. Fedonkin, M.A. (2003). The origin of the Metazoa in the light of the Proterozoic fossil record. Paleontological Research, Vol.7, Number 1. Gans, C. (1989). Stages in the Origin of Vertebrates: Analysis by Means of Scenarios. Biol.Rev., 64. Ghaffar, A., M.A. Khan and M. Akhtar (2009). Predator-Prey Relationship (Cervidae & Carnivora) and its Impact on Fossil Preservation from the Siwaliks of Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 19(1). Harris, J.D. (2004). Confusing Dinosaurs With Mammals: Tetrapod Phylogenetics and Anatomical Terminology in the World of Homology. The Anatomical Record Part A, 218A. Heim, N.A. (2008). The Spatial Structure of Biodiversity in the Fossil Record: Contrasting Global, Continental, and Regional Responses to Climate Change. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Georgia. Holland, N.D. and J. Chen (2001). Origin and early evolution of the vertebrates: new insights from advances in molecular biology, anatomy, and paleontology. Bioessays 23.2. Hunt, G. (2010). Evolution in Fossil Lineages: Paleontology and The Origin of Species. The American Naturalist, Vol. 176 Supplement. Jablonski, D. (2005). Evolutionary Innovations in the Fossil Record: The Intersection of Ecology, Development and Macroevolution. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Mol.Dev.Evol.), 304B. Kowalewski, M. (2002). The Fossil Record of Predation: An Overview of Analytical Methods. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Labandeira, C.C. (2007). The origin of herbivory on land: Initial patterns of plant tissue consumption by arthropods. Insect Science, 14. Labandeira, C.C. (2002). Paleobiology of Predators, Parasitoids, and Parasites: Death and Accomodation in the Fossil Record of Continental Invertebrates. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Lawver, L.A., et al. Intercontinental Dispersal Routes for South American Land Mammals: Paleogeographic Restraints. Long, J.A. and M.S. Gordon (2004). The Greatest Step in Vertebrate History: A Paleobiological Review of the Fish-Tetrapod Transition. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 77(5). McMillan, M.E., C.L. Angevine and P.L. Heller (2002). Postdepositional tilt of the Miocene-Pliocene Ogallala Group on the western Great Plains: Evidence of late Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains. Geology, Vol.30, Number 1. Morris, S.C. (1993). The fossil record and the early evolution of the Metazoa. Nature, Vol.361. Motani, R. (2009). The Evolution of Marine Reptiles. Evo.Edu. Outreach, 2. Nudds, J. and P. Selden (2008). Fossils explained 56. Fossil-Lagerstatten. Geology Today, Vol.24, Number 4. Peters, S.E. and N.A. Heim (2010). The geological completeness of paleontological sampling in North America. Paleobiology, 36(1). Pojeta, J. and D.A. Springer (2001). Evolution and the Fossil Record. American Geological Institute/The Paleontological Society. Racki, G. (2012). The Alvarez impact theory of mass extinction: limits to its applicability and the "great expectations syndrome". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57(4). Raia, P. and S. Meiri (2006). The Island Rule in Large Mammals: Paleontology Meets Ecology. Evolution, 60(8). Schultze, H.-P. (1995). The Origin of Tetrapods - Past and Present Hypotheses. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 33(4). Shu, D. (2003). A paleontological perspective of vertebrate origin. Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol.48, Number 8. Sole, R.V. and M. Newman. Patterns of extinction and diversity in the fossil record. Staples, L.W. (1965). Zeolite Filling and Replacement in Fossils. The American Mineralogist, Vol.50. Steele, T.E. (2003). Using Mortality Profiles to Infer Behavior in the Fossil Record. Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2). Taylor, P.D. and M.A. Wilson (2003). Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews, 62. Trammer, J. (2011). Differences in global biomass and energy use between dinosaurs and mammals. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 2. Vermeij, G.J. (2016). Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life. PLoS ONE, 11(1). Weishampel, D.B. and D.B. Norman (1989). Vertebrate herbivory in the Mesozoic; Jaws, plants, and evolutionary metrics. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 238. Wood, R. (1998). The Ecological Evolution of Reefs. Annu.Rev.Ecol.Syst., 29. Young, G.C. (2008). Early Evolution of the Vertebrate Eye - Fossil Evidence. Evo.Edu. Outreach, 1. Astropaleontology (Exopaleontology) Cady, S.L., et al. (2003). Morphological Biosignatures and the Search for Life on Mars. Astrobiology, Vol.3, Number 2. Farmer, J. (1998). Thermophiles, early biosphere evolution, and the origin of life on Earth: Implications for the exobiological exploration of Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.103, Number E12. Hoover, R.B. (1997). Meteorites, Microfossils and Exobiology. SPIE, Vol.3115. McMahon, S., et al. (2018). A Field Guide to Finding Fossils on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 123. (Thanks to Oxytropidoceras for pointing this out!) Newsom, H.E., et al. (2001). Search for life on Mars in surface samples: Lessons from the 1999 Marsokhod rover field experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.106, Number E4. Preston, L.J. and M.J. Genge (2010). The Rhynie Chert, Scotland, and the Search for Life on Mars. Astrobiology, Vol.10, Number 5. Schopf, J.W., et al. (2012). Gypsum-Permineralized Microfossils and Their Relevance to the Search for Life on Mars. Astrobiology, Vol.12, Number 7. Wacey, D., N. McLoughlin and M.D. Brasier (2009). Looking Through Windows Onto the Earliest History of Life on Earth and Mars. In: From Fossils to Astrobiology. Sekbach, J. and M. Walsh (Eds.), Springer COLE book series. Walter, M.R. and D.J. Des Marais (1993). Preservation of Biological Information in Thermal Spring Deposits: Developing a Strategy for the Search for Fossil Life on Mars. Icarus, 101. Wierzchos, J. and C. Ascaso (2002). Microbial fossil record of rocks from the Ross Desert, Antarctica: implications in the search for past life on Mars. International Journal of Astrobiology, 1(1).
  17. In picking out my sample of microfossils from the Middle Pliocene Coralline Crag Formation, Suffolk, England, I noted a few fragments of what appeared to be a species of the ostracode genus Pterygocythereis, a particularly spiny-looking genus of the family Trachyleberididae. I assumed it to be Pterygocythereis jonesi (Baird, 1850), the common species of the North Sea. As luck would have it, while finishing the picking of the last bit of the sample, up popped a complete valve, in almost perfect condition. To my surprise, it turned out not to be the common North Sea species; rather, it is Pterygocythereis siveteri Athersuch, 1972. The image does not do it justice, as even with image stacking software, the great length of the alae and the 3-D spininess are not very apparent. (Published dorsal views of the complete carapace are quite impressive!) Further cleaning of the specimen should greatly improve its appearance. In the standard book on the recent Ostracoda of Great Britain, we find the following: "British records of P. siveteri are sub-Recent, and there are, as yet, no live records outside the Mediterranean." (Athersuch, Horne and Whittaker 1989: 146) Presence of this species thus provides further evidence that the Middle Pliocene sea around southern Great Britain was warmer than it is now, and that the ostracode fauna was essentially Lusitanian, characteristic of the modern Mediterranean Sea and of the Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of Africa. The genus Pterygocythereis today is commonly encountered in the sublittoral zone, down to a depth of about 200 meters. Faunal studies of the Coralline Crag have suggested that it was deposited in a high energy environment with a maximum depth of about 20 meters, which seems to fit. However, this species is rather rare in the Coralline Crag, suggesting that it may not have been a member of the original, local biocoenosis. Athersuch, J., D. J. Horne, and J. E. Whittaker, 1989, Marine and Brackish Water Ostracods, The Linnaean Society of London.
  18. I have always enjoyed looking at ostracodes of the family Trachyleberididae, for their varied and complex structures, and interesting ornamentation. The family seemingly first appeared in the Middle Jurassic, became abundant during the Cretaceous, and remains abundant in the seas of today. About a month ago, in an exchange of microfossil material with an Italian friend, I received a sample of material from the Coralline Crag of southeastern England, a well-known and extensively studied Middle Pliocene (Zanclean) marine deposit of cross-bedded sands. The deposit averages about 12 meters in thickness, varies from weakly to more strongly consolidated, and is highly fossiliferous. The name comes from an abundance of bryozoans, which early scholars mistakenly thought were corals. Ostracodes and foraminifera are both abundant. Faunal studies have suggested that the sea was a bit warmer when this formation was laid down, perhaps more closely resembling the Mediterranean Sea, or the Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of Africa. Hence the Coralline Crag contains many species that do not much resemble those found in the marine littoral deposits of modern-day England. I have recovered quite a few species of both forams and ostracodes from my sample, and am just beginning the identification process. The species I want to show off in this entry is the first I have identified, chosen to be investigated first because it is both common and showy. The taxon is correctly known as Cletocythereis jonesi Wood et al., although it was previously known by various other names through misidentification. It is a typical trachyleberidid, although with much coarser surface sculpture than most. The valves are subquadrate and rather thick, with an amphidont hinge. The surface is coarsely reticulate, with a strong sub-central tubercle, and dorsal and ventral ridges. The anterior margin is also reticulate, divided into elongate, transverse cells. The ventral ridge terminates posteriorly in a complex loop. The eye tubercle, just below the anterior dorsal margin, is large and shiny. Here is an interior view of the same right valve, unfortunately obscured by residual matrix. The ventral margin exhibits a strong concavity; the posterior dorsal corner is not broken, contrary to appearances, and is a close match to images of the type specimens. The hinge of the right valve has a strong, round anterior tooth. The posterior tooth is weaker, and the middle element is of the smooth groove-and-bar type; the right valve has the grooved element, and there is a corresponding thin bar in the left valve. This dorsal view shows the thickened central part of the carapace, due to the dorsal and ventral ridges, and the relatively flat anterior and posterior margins. Personally, I think this is a really handsome microfossil -- considering that its largest dimension is only about 1 millimeter in length! In future entries in this blog I hope to illustrate a few other ostracodes and forams from this interesting formation, if I am able to make more identifications. Fortunately, I have access to a good research library! Two interesting references are: Wilkinson, I. P., 1980, "Coralline Crag Ostracoda and their environmental and stratigraphical significance," Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 91:291-306. Wood, A. M., R. C. Whatley, C. A. Maybury, and I. P. Wilkinson, 1992, "Three new species of cytheracean Ostracoda from the Coralline Crag at Orford, Suffolk," Journal of Micropaleontology 11:211-220.
  19. From the album Vertebrates

    Argyropelecus hemigymnus Cocca 1829 Pliocene Vrica,Crotone Calabria Italy Argyropelecus (Hatchetfish) is a ray-finned fish genus which belongs in the family Sternoptychidae. A hatchetfish is of so bizarre an appearance that once seen it could be hardly be mistaken for any other spicies unless one of its own tribe. They are mostly deep bodied, compressed fishes with rather big, upwardly directed eyes. Hatchetfishes are provided with a complex system of conspiciuous light producing spots (photophores). All members of this genus are oceanic and inhabit the mid-depths.
  20. From the album Invertebrates

    Agriopis leucophaearia foss. ([DENIS & SCHIFFERMÜLLER], 1775) Forewing Upper Pliocene Willershausen am Harz Germany The determination may be a bit shaky, but in my opinion size and weakly recognizable color pattern fit well to that of the recent form Agriopis leucophaearia ([DENIS & SCHIFFERMÜLLER], 1775). For comparison a picture from Lepiforum.de:
  21. From the album Plants

    Parrotia persica foss. with leaf miner galleries Late Pliocene Willershausen a. Harz Germany
  22. Aeoliscus strigatus

    From the album Vertebrates

    Aeoliscus strigatus Günther 1861 Pliocene Fiume Marecchia Rimini Italy The species in the genera Aeoliscus and Centriscus belong to the family Centriscidae (Razorfishes) within the order Syngnathiformes. The name "Syngnathiformes" means "conjoined-jaws". Syngnathiformes is an order of ray-finned fishes that includes among others the pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae), razorfishes (Centriscidae), trumpetfishes (Aulostomidae) and cornetfishes (Fistulariidae). Fishes of this order have elongate, narrow, bodies surrounded by a series of bony rings, and small, tubular mouths. The tubular mouth shows that these members of the Syngnathiformes fed on small Crustaceans and such, much as their modern-day relatives Seahorses and Pipefishes. Centriscidae (Razorfishes) have elongated, strongly compressed and blade like bodies. The head is elongate with a long and slender, tubular snout; the mouth being small and toothless. There are two short-based dorsal fins with the first dorsal-fin spine being fused with the body armor plates. The caudal fin is small, nearly at a right angle to the body axis; the pelvic fins are small, with 4 short soft rays, originating at or behind midbody. Aeoliscus and Centriscus look very much alike however Centriscus differs from Aeoliscus by having a rigid first dorsal spine which is straight and lacking a hinge. The species in the genera Aeoliscus and Centriscus are found in relatively shallow tropical parts of the Indo-Pacific. Razorfish live among seaweed and swim with the body aligned vertically, to blend in with the stems. Kotlarczyk, J., A. Jerzmanska, E. Swidnicka, and T. Wiszniowska. 2006. A framework of ichthyofaunal ecostratigraphy of the Oligocene-early Miocene strata of the Polish outer Carpathian basin. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 76: 1–111. Parin, N., N. Micklich. 1996. Fossil gasterosteiformes from the lower oligocene of Frauenweiler (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) I. New information on the morphology and systematics of the genus Aeoliscus Jordan &Starks 1902. Palaeontologische Zeitschrift, Volume 70, Numbers 3-4, 521-545.
  23. Triassic to Pleistocene Brachiopods

    These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since April 5, 2018. Phylum Brachiopoda - The Lamp Shells Triassic Triassic Brachiopods - Africa/Middle East Angiolini, L., et al. (2007). Brachiopods and other fossils from the Permo-Triassic boundary beds of the Antalya Nappes (SW Taurus, Turkey). Geobios, xxx. (Article in press) Gaetani, M. (2016). Brachiopods from the Type-Section of the Bithynian Substage (Anisian, Middle Triassic, Northwestern Turkey). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.122(2). Hudson, R.G.S. and R.P.S. Jefferies (1961). Upper Triassic Brachiopods and Lamellibranchs from the Oman Peninsula, Arabia. Palaeontology, Vol.4, Part 1. Sandy, M.R. and M.F. Aly (2000). A Southern Tethyan Brachiopod Fauna from the Late Triassic of the United Arab Emirates. Geobios, 33,5. Siblik, M. (1991). Triassic Brachiopods from Aghdarband (NE-Iran). In: The Triassic of Aghdarband (AqDarband), NE Iran, and its Pre-Triassic Frame. Ruttner, A.W. (ed.), Abh. Geol.B.-A., 38. Triassic Brachiopods - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Chen, J., Z.-Q. Chen and J.-N. Tong (2010). Palaeoecology and taphonomy of two brachiopod shell beds from the Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Guizhou, Southwest China: Recovery of benthic communities from the end-Permian mass extinction. Global and Planetary Change, 73. Chen, Z.-Q., G.R. Shi and K. Kaiho (2002). A New Genus of Rhynchonellid Brachiopod from the Lower Triassic of South China and Implications for Timing the Recovery of Brachiopoda After the End-Permian Mass Extinction. Palaeontology, Vol.45, Part 1. Shen, S.-Z. and X. He (1994). Brachiopod assemblages from the Changxingian to lowermost Triassic of Southwest China and Correlations over the Tethys. Newsl.Stratigr., 13(3). Shen, S.-Z and J. Yugan (1999). Brachiopods from the Permian-Triassic boundary beds at the Selong Xishan section, Xizang (Tibet), China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 17. Sun, Z., et al (2009). Silicified Anisian (Middle Triassic) spiriferinid brachiopods from Guizhou, South China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54(1). Xu, G.-R. and R.E. Grant (1994). Brachiopods Near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in South China. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 76. Triassic Brachiopods - Australia/New Zealand Campbell, J.D. (1991). A Late Triassic spiriferinacean brachiopod (Family Laballidae) from the Taringatura Hills, Southland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, Vol.34. Triassic Brachiopods - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Kaim, A. (1997). Brachiopod-bivalve assemblages of the Middle Triassic Terebratula Beds, Upper Silesia, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 42,2. Marquez-Aliaga, A., C.C. Emig and J.M. Brito (1999). Triassic Lingulide Brachiopods from the Iberian Range (Spain). Geobios, 32,6. Palfy, J. (1990). Paleoecological significance of Anisian (Middle Triassic) brachiopod assemblages from the Balaton Highland, Hungary. In: Brachiopods through time. MacKinnon, Lee and Campbell (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam. Tomasovych, A. (2006). Brachiopod and Bivalve Ecology in the Late Triassic (Alps, Austria): Onshore-Offshore Replacements Caused by Variations in Sediments and Nutrient Supply. Palaios, Vol.21. Tomasovych, A. and M. Siblik (2007). Evaluating compositional turnover of brachiopod communities during the end-Triassic mass extinction (Northern Calcareous Alps): Removal of dominant groups, recovery, and community reassembly. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 244. Torti, V. and L. Angiolini (1997). Middle Triassic Brachiopods from Val Parina, Bergamasc Alps, Italy. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.103, Number 2. Triassic Brachiopods - North America Peckmann, J., et al. (2011). Mass Occurrences of the Brachiopod Halorella in Late Triassic Methane-Seep Deposits, Eastern Oregon. The Journal of Geology, Vol.119. Sandy, M.R. and G.D. Stanley (1993). Late Triassic Brachiopods from the Luning Formation, Nevada, and Their Palaeobiogeographical Significance. Palaeontology, Vol.36, Part 2. Zonneveld, J.-P., T.W. Beatty and S.G. Pemberton (2007). Lingulide Brachiopods and the Trace Fossil Lingulichnus from the Triassic of Western Canada: Implications for Faunal Recovery After the End-Permian Mass Extinction. Palaios, Vol.22. General Triassic Brachiopods Bonuso, N. and D.J. Bottjer (2008). A Test of Biogeographical, Environmental, and Ecological Effects on Middle and Late Triassic Brachiopod and Bivalve Abundance Patterns. Palaios, Vol.23. Chen, Z.-Q., K. Kaiho ad A.D. George (2005). Early Triassic recovery of the brachiopod faunas from the end-Permian mass extinction: A global review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 224. Tomasovych, A. and J. Farkas (2005). Cathodoluminescence of Late Triassic terebratulid brachiopods: implications for growth patterns. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 216. Trammer, J., A. Kaim and K. Malkowski (1996). Disturbance rings and shell shape in the Triassic brachiopod Coenothyris vulgaris. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 201(1). Usnarska-Talerzak, K. (1988). Morphology and Postembryonic Development of Coenothyris vulgaris (Schlotheim) Brachiopoda Middle Triassic. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 33(2). Yan, K., et al. (2016). Global brachiopod palaeobiogeographical evolution from Changhsingian (Late Permian) to Rhaetian (Late Triassic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 448. Jurassic Jurassic Brachiopods - Africa/Middle East Adabi, M.H. and D.V. Ager (1997). Late Jurassic Brachiopods from North-East Iran. Palaeontology, Vol.40, Part 2. Baeza-Carratala, J.F. and B. Sepehriannasab (2014). Early Jurassic (latest Toarcian) brachiopods from the northeastern margin of Western Tethys (Central Iran) and their paleobiogeographical significance. Geobios, xxx. (Accepted manuscript) Cooper, G.A. (1989). Jurassic Brachiopods of Saudi Arabia. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 65. (224 pages, 11.5 MB) Feldman, H.R. and E.F. Owen (1988). Goliathyris lewyi, New Species (Brachiopoda, Terebratulacea) from the Jurassic of Gebel El-Minshera, Northern Sinai. American Museum Novitates, Number 2908. Feldman, H.R., E.F. Owen and F. Hirsch (2001). Brachiopods from the Jurassic (Callovian) of Hamakhtesh Hagadol (Kernub Anticline), Southern Israel. Palaeontology, Vol.44, Part 4. Feldman, H.R., E.F. Owen and F. Hirsch (1991). Brachiopods from the Jurassic of Gebel El-Maghara, Northern Sinai. American Museum Novitates, Number 3006. Feldman, H.R., et al. (2012). Jurassic rhynchonellide brachiopods from the Jordan Valley. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57(1). Feldman, H.R., et al. (2012). Taxonomy and Paleobiogeography of Late Bathonian Brachiopods from Gebel Engabashi, Northern Sinai. J.Paleont., 86(2). Krawczynski, C. and M. Wilson (2011). The first Jurassic thecideide brachiopods from the Middle East: A new species of Moorellina from the Upper Callovian of Hamakhtesh Hagadol, southern Israel. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 1. Mancenido, M.O. and C.D. Walley (1979). Functional Morphology and Ontogenetic Variation in the Callovian Brachiopod Septirhynchia from Tunisia. Palaeontology, Vol.22, Part 2. Muir-Wood, H.M. and G.A. Cooper (1951). A New Species of the Jurassic Brachiopod Genus Septirhynchia. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.116, Number 6. Vörös, A. and R. Kandemir (2011). A new Early Jurassic brachiopod fauna from the Eastern Pontides (Turkey). N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 260/3. Jurassic Brachiopods - Antarctica Quilty, P.G. (1972). Middle Jurassic Brachiopods from Ellsworth Land, Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 15:1. Jurassic Brachiopods - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Mukherjee, D. (2015). Diversity Dynamics of the Jurassic Brachiopod Fauna of Kachchh and Jaisalmer Basins, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.60(2). Mukherjee, D. (2010). New Record of Plectoidothyris from the Middle Jurassic Sequence of Jaisalmer Basin, Western India: Implications on the Easterly Brachiopod Migrations. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.76. Mukherjee, D., et al. (2003). The terebratulid Kutchithyris (Brachiopoda) from the Jurassic sequence of Kutch, western India - Revisited. Paleontological Research, Vol.7, Number 2. Jurassic Brachiopods - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Andrade, B., et al. (2016). Palaeobiogeographic patterns of brachiopod assemblages of the Iberian Subplate during the Late Toarcian-Early Aalenian (Jurassic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 442. Baeza-Carratala, J.F. (2013). Diversity patterns of Early Jurassic brachiopod assemblages from the westernmost Tethys (Eastern Subbetic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 381-382. Baeza-Carratala, J.F. (2011). New Early Jurassic brachiopods from the Western Tethys (Eastern Subbetic, Spain) and their systematic and paleobiogeographic affinities. Geobios, 44. (Author's personal copy) Baeza-Carratala, J.F., F. Garcia Joral and J. Sandoval (2014). Bajocian-Early Bathonian (Jurassic) brachiopods from the Subbetic domain (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain): Taxonomy and palaeobiogeographic implications. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 274/1. Baeza-Carratala, J.F., F. Garcia Joral and J.E. Tent-Manclus (2011). Biostratigraphy and paleobiogeographic affinities of the Jurassic brachiopod assemblages from Sierra Espuna (Malaguide Complex, Internal Betic Zones, Spain). Journal of Iberian Geology, 37(2). Baeza-Carratala, J.F., et al. (2015). Evolution of the last koninckinids (Athyridida, Koninckinidae), a precursor signal of the early Toarcian mass extinction event in the Western Tethys. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeogeography, 429. Baeza-Carratala, J.F., et al. (2011). Brachiopod assemblages from the Early-Middle Jurassic transition in the Eastern Subbetic (SE Spain): Systematic and palaeobiogeograpic implications and palaeoenvironmental significance. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 262/2. Baker, P.G. (2005). A New Lacazellin Thecideoid Brachiopod from the Middle Jurassic of Cotswolds, England. Palaeontology, Vol.48, Part 6. Baker, P.G. (1989). Evaluation of a Thecideidine Brachiopod from the Middle Jurassic of the Cotswolds, England. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 1. Baker, P.G. (1983). The Diminutive Thecideidine Brachiopod Enallothecidia pygmaea (Moore) from the Middle Jurassic of England. Palaeontology, Vol.26, Part 3. Baker, P.G. (1971). A New Micromorphic Rhynchonellide Brachiopod from the Middle Jurassic of England. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 4. Baker, P.G. (1970). The Morphology and Microstructure of Zellania davidsoni (Brachiopoda), from the Middle Jurassic of England. Palaeontology, Vol.13, Part 4. Baker, P.G. (1970). 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