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First of all, the list of fish found in Madagascar - there are more than 30 species! So many that I can't treat all of them (and I've never seen some of them). There is relatively old, but good literature on it - Lehman has written one of the most comprehensive publications on this subject: J.-P.Lehman (1952) Etude Complementaire des Poisson de L'Eotrias de Madagascar. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar. Fjärde Serien Bd 2 No 6 (in French, 244 pages, 340MB!) Australosomus merlei Piveteau, 1934 is easy to recognize: Small to medium size fish (~ 10 to 15cm / 4 to 6"), fusiform body, relatively small head with a slightly rounded snout. Its dorsal fin is located in the posterior fourth of the body. Caudal fin divided with wide lobes. Scales on the flanks are noticeably stalk-shaped. Ecrinesomus dixoni Woodward, 1910 Small fish with a rounded, laterally flattened body. Snout flattened. Dorsal and anal fins broad based, attached behind the body's midpoint. Caudal fin large, deeply divided (very rare to see). Bobasatrania mahavavica White, 1932 There's quite a confusion between these two fish. Even in publications the same reconstruction (the same drawing!) is sometimes labeled as Bobasatrania and sometimes as Ecrinesomus. In the first publication about Ecrinesomus, one Bobasatrania was mistakenly mixed in between. Bobasatrania has a crooked diamond-shaped body – while Ecrinesomus's anal and dorsal fins start directly opposite. Boreosomus gillioti Priem, 1924 Small to medium sized fish (10 to 20 cm / 4 to 8"). Slender body, dorsal fin small, located before the body's midpoint. Caudal fin divided. Strong, rectangular scales. Parasemionotus labordei Priem, 1924 Small fish (up to 15cm / 6") with a rounded body, somewhat thickset appearance. Broad but short head. Dorsal fin attached to the posterior half of the body. Pectoral and anal fins small. Caudal fin moderately divided. Eyes remarkably large. Teffichthys madagascariensis Piveteau, 1934 (=Perleidus madagascariensis) Medium sized fish with a somewhat thickset appearance. Bulky head. Its dorsal fin is located in the posterior third of the body. Pteronisculus cicatrosus White, 1934 Small to medium fish with fusiform body (less than 15cm / 6" ?). Small dorsal fin, located slightly behind the midpoint of the body, diagonally opposite the anal fin. Big eyes. Relatively long and broad pectoral fins. Comparatively small scales. Pteronisculus macropterus White, 1933 In his 1933 paper, White described two new Pteroniscoids from Madagascar: Pteronisculus cicatrosus , which is rather common and the somewhat rarer Pteronisculus macropterus. According to White, P. macropterus is characterized by an "elongate-fusiform body; maximum depth rather less than length of head with opercular apparatus, and equal to one-quarter total length to base of caudal fin. length of pectoral fin exceeding distance between tip of snout and hinder margin of maxilla. Origin of dorsal fin above fortieth scale-row from pectoral girdle approximately. Scales in more than seventy vertical rows to base of caudal fin, and ornamented with oblique rugae only." Paracentrophorus madagascariensis Piveteau, 1940 Small fish (up to 15cm / 6") with a rounded body, somewhat thickset appearance. Dorsal fin attached to the posterior half of the body. Pectoral and anal fin relatively large. Anal fin starts well behind end of dorsal fin. Caudal fin moderately divided. Eyes remarkably large. Icarealcyon malagasium Beltan, 1984 Icarealcyon can be easily mixed up with Parasemionotus; characteristic are the huge pectoral fins. Due to its enormous pectoral fins, Icarealcyon malagasium was described by Beltan as a "poisson volant" - a "flying fish" - in the family Semonotidae (not related to what is now known as "flying fish" - these are Exocoetidae in the order Beloniformes). You would expect flying fish to be fast swimmers - the rather thickset appearance of Icarealcyon more likely hints to slow swimmers with relatively high maneuverability (comparable to Albertonia from British Columbia). Fig. C is Icarealcyon - the reconstruction is not quite correct. Saurichthys madagascariensis Piveteau, 1945 Medium sized fish with elongated, streamlined jaws. Head elongated. Dorsal fin almost at the end of the body, opposite the anal fin. Small scales. Whiteia woodwardi Moy-Thomas, 1935 Massive body. Pectoral fin attached slightly before the first dorsal fin. Piveteauia madagascariensis Lehman 1952 More slender body. Pectoral fin attached well before first dorsal fin lobe. Ventral fin opposite to first dorsal fin lobe. Have fun Thomas PS: If you are interested in Lehman's paper send me a PM with your email address (remember - 340MB!)