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Found 108 results

  1. Greetings everyone! I am a long time follower of this site. This is my first posting. Thanks ahead of time for any assistance in identifying the following. I recently found a fossilized bone and what looks like a fossilized organ or concretion. I am usually pretty good about recognizing a concretion when I see one. However, this one looks a lot different from the concretions I normally come across in the area. They were both found within several feet of each other in an alluvium/terrace deposit. R. Squires describes the alluvium as "nonmarine, Holocene, last 10,000 years" and the terrace deposit as "nonmarine, upper Pleistocene, 50,000 to 10,000 years." The location is immediately adjacent to the Santa Susana Formation (marine, upper Paleocene to lower Eocene, 54 to 50 million years) and the Simi Conglomerate (nonmarine to marine, lower Paleocene, 65 million years). There are several other formations in the general vicinity of this location. I have several pictures of both (see below). The first set (F1) are of the bone, the second set (F2) is of the possible organ/concretion.
  2. Here is a fossil I found from the Miocene in Southern California. The rocks should be marine. Any idea what it could be? Thanks in advance
  3. I've heard of fossilized fish being found on Jalama Beach. Is there still lots of material being found there?
  4. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 31, 2017. United States Faunas, Localities and Stratigraphy (by State) Alabama Alabama - Carboniferous Dilcher, D.L., T.A. Lott, and B.J. Axsmith (2005). Fossil Plants from the Union Chapel Mine, Alabama. Alabama Paleontological Society Monograph Number 1. Gastaldo, R.A. and C.W. Degges (2007). Sedimentology and paleontology of a Carboniferous log jam. International Journal of Coal Geology, 69. Gastaldo, R.A., T.M. Demko and Y. Liu (1990). Carboniferous Coastal Environments and Paleocommunities of the Mary Lee Coal Zone, Marion and Walker Counties, Alabama. Geological Society of America, Guidebook for Field Trip VI. Kopaska-Merkel, D.C. and R.J. Buta (2012). Field-Trip Guidebook to the Steven C. Minken Paleozoic Footprint Site, Walker County, Alabama. Alabama Paleontological Society. Minkin, S.C. (2005). Paleoenvironment of the Cincosaurus Beds, Walker County, Alabama. In: Pennsylvanian Footprints in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. Buta, R.J., A.K. Rindsberg and D.C. Kopaska-Merkel (eds.), Alabama Paleontological Society Monograph 1. Pashin, J.C. (2005). Pottsville Stratigraphy and the Union Chapel Lagerstatte. In: Pennsylvanian Footprints in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. Buta, R.J., A.K. Rindsberg and D.C. Kopaska-Merkel (eds.), Alabama Paleontological Society Monograph 1. Thomas, W.A., et al. (1979). Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Stratigraphy of Alabama and Carboniferous Outcrops of Mississippi. Geological Survey of Alabama, Reprint 49. Alabama - Cretaceous Applegate, S.P. (1970). The Vertebrate Fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama. Part VIII - The Fishes. Fieldiana: Geology Memoirs, Vol.3, Number 8. Applin, E.R. A Microfauna from the Coker Formation, Alabama. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1160-D. Ebersole, J. and L.S. Dean (2013). The History of Late Cretaceous Vertebrate Research in Alabama. In: Contributions to Alabama Cretaceous Paleontology. Ebersole, J. and T. Ikejiri (eds.), Alabama Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 31, Volume 1. Langston, W. (1960). The Vertebrate Fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama. Part VI - The Dinosaurs. Fieldiana Geology Memoirs, Vol.3, Number 6. Mancini, E.A., et al. (1995). Upper Cretaceous Sequence Stratigraphy of the Mississippi-Alabama Area. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, Vol.45. Russell, D.A. (1970). The Vertebrate Fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama. Part VII - The Mosasaurs. Fieldiana: Geology Memoirs, Vol.3, Number 7. Schwimmer, D.R., et al. (1993). Late Cretaceous Dinosaurs from the Blufftown Formation in Western Georgia and Eastern Alabama. J.Paleont., 67(2). Stephenson, L.W. (1956). Fossils from the Eutaw Formation Chattahoochee River Region, Alabama-Georgia. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 274-J. Zangerl, R. (1960). The Vertebrate Fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama. Part V - An Advanced Cheloniid Sea Turtle. Fieldiana Geology Memoirs, Vol.3, Number 5. Zangerl, R. (1953). The Vertebrate Fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama. Part III - The Turtles of the Family Protostegidae. Fieldiana Geology Memoirs, Vol.3, Number 3. Zangerl, R. (1948). The Vertebrate Fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama. Part II - The Pleurodiran Turtles. Fieldiana Geology Memoirs, Vol.3, Number 2. Alabama - K/T Boundary Hart, M.B., P.J. Harries and A.L. Cárdenas (2013). The Cretaceous/Paleogene Boundary Events in the Gulf Coast: Comparisons Between Alabama and Texas. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, Vol.63. Smith, C.C. (1997). The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary at Moscow Landing, West-Central Alabama. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, Vol.47. Wawack, B.E. (ed.) (2007). K/T Boundary and Paleogene Stratigraphy of Southwestern Alabama. Lafayette Geological Society Field Trip. Alabama - Eocene Bybell, L.M. and T.G. Gibson (1985). The Eocene Tallahatta Formation of Alabama and Georgia: Its Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, and Bearing on the Age of the Claibornian Stage. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1615. Clayton, A.A. (2011). Analysis of an Eocene Bone-Bed Contained Within the Lower Lisbon Formation, Covington County, Alabama. Masters Thesis - Wright State University. Maisch, H.M., et al. (2016). Osteichthyans from the Tallahatta-Lisbon Formation Contact (Middle Eocene - Lutetian) Pigeon Creek, Conecuh-Covington Counties, Alabama With Comments on Transatlantic Occurrences in the Northern Atlantic Ocean Basin. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 13,3. Alabama - Miocene Hulbert, R.C. and F.C. Whitmore (2006). Late Miocene Mammals from the Mauvilla Local Fauna, Alabama. Florida Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Vol.46, Number 1. Alaska Adams, T.L. (2009). Deposition and taphonomy of the Hound Island Late Triassic vertebrate fauna: Fossil preservation within subaqueous gravity flows. Palaios, Vol.24. Allison, C.W. (1988). Paleontology of Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian Rocks of East-Central Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1449. Allison, R.C. and L. Marincovich (1981). A Late Oligocene or Earliest Miocene Molluscan Fauna from Sitkinak Island, Alaska. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1233. Blodgett, R.B. (2008). Paleontology and Stratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay-Cape Kekurnoi-Alinchak Bay Area, Karluk C-4 and C-5 Quadrangle, Alaska Peninsula. In: Bristol Bay-Alaska Peninsula region, overview of 2004-2007 geological research. United States Geological Survey. Blodgett, R.B. (2002). Paleontological Inventory of the Amphitheater Mountains, Mount Hayes A-4 and A-5 Quadrangles, Southcentral Alaska. Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Report of Investigations 2002-3. Brabb, E.E. and R.E. Grant (1971). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Revised Type Section for the Tahkandit Limestone (Permian) in East-Central Alaska. Geological Survey Professional Paper 703. Chaney, R.W. and H.L. Mason (1936). A Pleistocene Flora from Fairbanks, Alaska. American Museum Novitates, Number 887. Dall, W.H. (1920). Pliocene and Pleistocene Fossils from the Arctic Coast of Alaska and the Auriferous Beaches of Nome, Norton Sound, Alaska. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 125-C. Fiorillo, A.R. (2006). Review of the Dinosaur Record of Alaska with Comments Regarding Korean Dinosaurs as Comparable High-Latitude Fossil Faunas. J.Paleont.Soc. Korea, Vol.22, Number 1. Gangloff, R.A. (1992). The Record of Cretaceous Dinosaurs in Alaska: An Overview. 1992 ICAM Proceedings. Kurek, J., et al. (2009). Late Quaternary paleoclimate of western Alaska inferred from fossil chironomids and its relation to vegetation histories. Quaternary Science Reviews, xxx (in press). MacNeil, F.S. (1957). Cenozoic Megafossils of Northern Alaska. Shorter Contributions to General Geology, Geological Survey Professional Paper 294-C. Porter, L. (1988). Late Pleistocene Fauna of Lost Chicken Creek, Alaska. Arctic, Vol.41, Number 4. Porter, L. (1986). Jack Wade Creek: An in situ Alaskan Late Pleistocene Vertebrate Assemblage. Arctic, Vol. 39, Number 4. Watts, K. (1990). Carboniferous Lisburne Group of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Brooks Range, Northeastern Alaska. Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Public-data File 89-lg. Yarnell, J.M. (2000). Paleontology of Two North American Triassic Reef Faunas: Implications for Terrane Paleogeography. Masters Thesis - The University of Montana. Arizona Arizona - Cambrian ISCS Field Conference (2011). Cambrian Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Northern Arizona and Southern Nevada. The 16th Field Conference of the Cambrian Stage Subdivision Working Group, International Subcommission on Cambrian Stratigraphy, Hollingsworth, J.S., F.A. Sundberg and J.R. Foster (eds.), Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 67. Arizona - Devonian Huddle, J.W. and E. Dobrovolny (1952). Devonian and Mississippian Rocks of Central Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 233-D. (Thanks to DPS Ammonite for pointing this one out!) Hussakof, L. (1942). Fishes from the Devonian of Arizona. American Museum Novitates, Number 1186. Meader, N.M. (1977). Paleoecology and Paleoenvironments of the Upper Devonian Martin Formation in the Roosevelt Dam-Globe Area, Gila County, Arizona. Masters Thesis - The University of Arizona. (Thanks to DPS Ammonite for pointing this one out!) Arizona - Carboniferous Huddle, J.W. and E. Dobrovolny (1952). Devonian and Mississippian Rocks of Central Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 233-D. (Thanks to DPS Ammonite for pointing this one out!) Irmis, R.B. and D.K. Elliott (2006). Taphonomy of a Middle Pennsylvanian Marine Vertebrate Assemblage and an Actualistic Model for Marine Abrasion of Teeth. Palaios, Vol.21. Reid, A.M. (1966). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Naco Formation in the Southern Dripping Springs Mountains, Near Winkelman, Gila County, Arizona. Masters Thesis - The University of Arizona. (Thanks to DPS Ammonite for pointing me to this one!) Arizona - Permian Hunt, A.P., et al. (2005). Permian Vertebrates of Arizona. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in Arizona. Heckert, A.B. and S.G. Lucas (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin Number 29. Arizona - Triassic Heckert, A.B. and S.G. Lucas (2003). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Lower Chinle Group (Adamanian: Latest Carnian) in the Vicinity of St. Johns, Arizona. In: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 54th Field Conference, Geology of the Zuni Plateau. Heckert, A.B., S.G. Lucas and A.P. Hunt (2005). Triassic Vertebrate Fossils in Arizona. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in Arizona (Heckert, A.B. and S.G. Lucas, eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin Number 29. Kirby, R.E. Late Triassic Vertebrate Localities of the Owl Rock Member (Chinle Formation) in the Ward Terrace Area of Northern Arizona. Martz, J.W. and W.G. Parker (2010). Revised Lithostratigraphy of the Sonsela Member (Chinle Formation, Upper Triassic) in the Southern Part of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. PLoS ONE, 5(2). Parker, W.G. (2005). Faunal Review of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of Arizona. In: Vertebrate Paleontology of Arizona. McCord, R.D. (ed.), Mesa Southwest Bulletin, Number 11. Spielmann, J.A., S.G. Lucas and A.B. Heckert (2007). Tetrapod Fauna of the Upper Triassic (Revueltian) Owl Rock Formation, Chinle Group, Arizona. In: The Global Triassic. Lucas, S.G. and J.A. Spielmann (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 41. Arizona - Jurassic Irmis, R.B. (2005). A Review of the Vertebrate Fauna of the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone in Arizona. In: Vertebrate Paleontology of Arizona. McCord, R.D. (ed.), Mesa Southwest Museum Bulletin Number 11. Arizona - Cretaceous Hayes, P.T. (1970). Cretaceous Paleogeography of Southeastern Arizona and Adjacent Areas. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 658-B. Lucas, S.G. and A.B. Heckert (2005). Distribution, Age and Correlation of Cretaceous Fossil Vertebrates from Arizona. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in Arizona. (Heckert, A.B. and S.G. Lucas, eds.) New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin Number 29. Arizona - Miocene Morgan, G.S. and R.S. White (2005). Miocene and Pliocene Vertebrates from Arizona. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in Arizona (Heckert, A.B. and S.G. Lucas, eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin Number 29. Arizona - Pliocene Czaplewski, N.J. (2011). An owl-pellet accumulation of small Pliocene vertebrates from the Verde Formation, Arizona, USA. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.14, Number 3. Morgan, G.S. and R.S. White (2005). Miocene and Pliocene Vertebrates from Arizona. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in Arizona (Heckert, A.B. and S.G. Lucas, eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin Number 29. White, R.S. and G.S. Morgan (2005). Arizona Blancan Vertebrate Faunas in Regional Perspective. In: Vertebrate Paleontology of Arizona (McCord, R.D., ed.), Mesa Southwest Museum Bulletin Number 11. Arizona - General Gidley, J.W. (1925). Fossil Proboscidea and Edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 140-B. Gidley, J.W. (1922). Preliminary Report on Fossil Vertebrates of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona, With Descriptions of New Species of Rodentia and Lagomorpha. U.S. Geological Society - Shorter Contributions to General Geology. Lindsay, E.H. (1984). Windows to the Past: Fossils of the San Pedro Valley. Fieldnotes from the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology, Vol.14, Number 4. Thrasher, L.C. Fossils of the San Simon Valley, Graham County, Arizona. U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Twenter, F.R. New Fossil Localities in the Verde Formation, Verde Valley, Arizona. New Mexico Geological Society, Thirteenth Field Conference. Wilt, J. and D. Schumacher (1993). Fossils of the Paleozoic Formations of Southeastern Arizona. Arkansas Arkansas Geological Survey. Collecting Fossils in Arkansas. Brown, B. (1908). The Conard Fissue, a Pleistocene Bone Deposit in Northern Arkansas: With Descriptions of Two New Genera and Twenty New Species of Mammals. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.IX, Part IV. Collier, A.J., D. White and G.H. Girty (1907). The Arkansas Coal Field with Reports on the Paleontology. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 326. Davis, L.C. (1969). The Biostratigraphy of Peccary Cave, Newton County, Arkansas. Arkansas Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol.23. Gordon, M., et al. (1969). Revision of Some of Girty's Invertebrate Fossils from the Fayetteville Shale (Mississippian) of Arkansas and Oklahoma. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 606-A, B, C, D, E, F. Grayson, R.C. (1974). Biostratigraphic and Lithostratigraphic Analysis of the Hindsville Limestone (Mississippian) in Northwestern Arkansas. Arkansas Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol.XXVIII. Hanson, W.D. (2006). Geologic Report of Sevier County. Arkansas Geological Commission, County Geologic Report 133. Quinn, J.H. (1969). Biostratigraphy of the Morrow Group of Northern Arkansas. Arkansas Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol.23. Sanders, T.A. (1994). Pleistocene and Holocene Remains From The Red River, Southwest Arkansas. Proceedings Arkansas Academy of Science, Vol.48. Taylor, T.N. and D.A. Eggert (1967). Petrified Plants from the Upper Mississippian (Chester Series) of Arkansas. Trans.Amer.Microsc.Soc., 86(4). White, D. (1936). Fossil Plants from the Stanley Shale and Jackfork Sandstone in Southeastern Oklahoma and Western Arkansas. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 186-C. White, D. (1936). Fossil Flora of the Wedington Sandstone Member of the Fayetteville Shale. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 186-B. California California - Cambrian Hagadorn, J.W., C.M. Fedo and B.M. Waggoner (2000). Early Cambrian Ediacaran-Type Fossils from California. J.Paleont., 74(4). Waggoner, B. and J.W. Hagadorn (2005). Conical fossils from the Lower Cambrian of Eastern California. PaleoBios, 25(1). California - Cretaceous Case, J.E. (1968). Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Rocks Berkeley and San Leandro Hills, California. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1251-J. California - Paleocene Brabb, E.E., et al. (2008). Newly Discovered Paleocene and Eocene Rocks near Fairfield, California, and Correlation with Rocks in Vaca Valley and the So-Called Martinez Formation or Stage. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1228. Case, J.E. (1968). Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Rocks Berkeley and San Leandro Hills, California. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1251-J. Lofgren, D., et al. (2014). New records of eutherian mammals from the Goler Formation (Tiffanian, Paleocene) of California and the biostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications. American Museum Novitates, Number 3797. McKenna, M.C. (1960). A Continental Paleocene Vertebrate Fauna from California. American Museum Novitates, Number 2024. McKenna, M.C., J.H. Hutchison and J.H. Hartman. Paleocene Vertebrates and Nonmarine Mollusca from the Goler Formation, California. Squires, R.L. (1999). Upper Paleocene to Lower Eocene ("Meganos Stage") Marine Megafossils in the Uppermost Santa Susana Formation, Simi Valley, Southern California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 479. California - Eocene Addicott, W.O. (1967). Age of the Skooner Gulch Formation, Mendocino County, California. Contributions to Stratigraphy, Geological Survey Bulletin 1254-C. Anderson, F.M. and G.D. Hanna (1925). Fauna and Stratigraphic Relations of the Tejon Eocene at the Type Locality in Kern County, California. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, XI. (264 pages, 14.2MB download) Bown, T.M. (1994). An Assessment of the Vertebrate Paleoecology and Biostratigraphy of the Sespe Formation, Southern California. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-630. Brabb, E.E., et al. (2008). Newly Discovered Paleocene and Eocene Rocks near Fairfield, California, and Correlation with Rocks in Vaca Valley and the So-Called Martinez Formation or Stage. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1228. Creely, S. and E.R. Force (2007). Type Region of the Ione Formation (Eocene), Central California: Stratigraphy, Paleogeography, and Relation to Auriferous Gravels. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1378. Kelly, T.S. (1990) Biostratigraphy of Uintan and Duchesnean Land Mammal Assemblages from the Middle Member of the Sespe Formation, Simi Valley, California.Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 419. Kelly, T.S. and D.P. Whistler (1994). Additional Uintan and Duchesnean (Middle and Late Eocene) Mammals from the Sespe Formation, Simi Valley, California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 439. Squires, R.L. (2008). Eocene Megapaleontology, Stratigraphy, and Depositional Environments, Elsmere Canyon, Los Angeles County, Southern California. Contributions in Science - Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 517. Squires, R.L. (2001). Additions to the Eocene Megafossil Fauna of the Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, Southern California.Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 489. Squires, R.L. (1999). Upper Paleocene to Lower Eocene ("Meganos Stage") Marine Megafossils in the Uppermost Santa Susana Formation, Simi Valley, Southern California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 479. California - Oligocene Addicott, W.O. (1973). Oligocene Molluscan Biostratigraphy and Paleontology of the Lower Part of the Type Temblor Formation, California. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 791. Mason, M.A. and C.C. Swisher (1989). New Evidence for the Age of the South Mountain Local Fauna, Ventura County, California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 410. Stock, C. (1932). An Upper Oligocene Mammalian Fauna from Southern California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Vol.18. Stock, C. and F.D. Bode (1935). Occurrence of Lower Oligocene Fossil-Bearing Beds Near Death Valley, California. Geology, Vol.21. California - Miocene Barboza, M.M., et al. (2017). The age of the Oso Member, Capistrano Formation, and a review of fossil crocodylians from California. PaleoBios, 34. Beery, J.A. (1987). Depositional History and Paleoenvironments of the Lower and Middle Miocene Temblor Formation, Northern San Joaquin Basin, California. Masters Thesis - Stanford University. (146 pages, 29MB download) Boessenecker, R.W. (2013). A new marine vertebrate assemblage from the Late Neogene Purisima Formation in Central California, part II: Pinnipeds and Cetaceans. Geodiversitas, 35(4). Boessenecker, R.W. (2011). A new marine vertebrate assemblage from the Late Neogene Purisima Formation in Central California, Part I: Fossil Sharks, Bony Fish, Birds and Implications for the Age of the Purisima Formation West of the San Gregorio Fault. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 8(4). Boessenecker, R.W. (2011). Comparative Taphonomy and Taphofacies Analysis of Marine Vertebrates of the Neogene Purisima Formation, Central California. Masters Thesis - Montana State University. Boessenecker, R.W., F.A. Perry and J.G. Schmitt (2014). Comparative Taphonomy, Taphofacies, and Bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, Central California: Strong Physical Control on Marine Vertebrate Preservation in Shallow Marine Settings. 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(1979). The Hemingfordian mammal fauna of the Vedder locality, Branch Canyon Sandstone, Santa Barbara County, California. Part III: Carnivora, Perrisodactyla, Artiodactyla and summary. PaleoBios, Number 29. Powell, C.L. (1998). The Purisima Formation and Related Rocks (Upper Miocene-Pliocene), Greater San Francisco Bay Area, Central California. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 58-594. Powell, C.L., J.R. Allen, and P.J. Holland (2004). Invertebrate Paleontology of the Wilson Grove Formation (Late Miocene to Late Pliocene), Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, With Some Observations on its Stratigraphy, Thickness and Structure. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file Report 2004-1017. Prothero, D.R. and R.H. Tedford (2000). Magnetic stratigraphy of the type Montediablan Stage (Late Miocene), Black Hawk Ranch, Contra Costa County, California: Implications for regional correlations. PaleoBios, 20(3). Thanks to DPS Ammonite for this one!) Whistler, D.P. (1984). An Early Hemingfordian (Early Miocene) Fossil Vertebrate Fauna from Boron, Western Mojave Desert, California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 355. Whistler, D.P. and D.W. Burbank (1992). Miocene biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Dove Spring Formation, Mojave Desert, California, and characterization of the Clarendonian mammal age (late Miocene) in California. Geological Society of America, Bulletin, Vol.104. Whistler, D.P., et al. (2009). Revised Miocene Biostratigraphy and Biochronology of the Dove Spring Formation, Mojave Desert, California. In: Papers on Geology, Vertebrate Paleontology, and Biostratigraphy in Honor of Michael O. Woodburne. Albright, L.B. (ed.), Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 65. Wilson, L.E. (1935). Miocene Marine Mammals from the Bakersfield Region, California. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 4. California - Pliocene Arnold. R. (1903). 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Comparative Taphonomy and Taphofacies Analysis of Marine Vertebrates of the Neogene Purisima Formation, Central California. Masters Thesis - Montana State University. Boessenecker, R.W., F.A. Perry and J.G. Schmitt (2014). Comparative Taphonomy, Taphofacies, and Bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, Central California: Strong Physical Control on Marine Vertebrate Preservation in Shallow Marine Settings. PLoS ONE, 9(3). (Thanks to Boesse...a regular fount of knowledge...for pointing to this one.) Kelly, T.S. and R. Secord (2011). A Reevaluation of the Mammalian Fauna from the Hallelujah Formation, Long Valley, Lassen County, California. Paludicola, 8(3). Powell, C.L. (2008). Pliocene Invertebrates from the Travertine Point Outcrop of the Imperial Formation, Imperial County, California. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5155. Powell, C.L. (1998). 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PaleoBios, Vol.17, Numbers 2-4. Kanakoff, G.P. and W.K. Emerson (1959). Late Pleistocene Invertebrates of the Newport Bay Area, California. Contributions in Science - The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 31. Long, D.J. (1993). Preliminary List of the Marine Fishes and Other Vertebrate Remains from the Late Pleistocene Palos Verdes Sand Formation at Costa Mesa, Orange County, California. PaleoBios, Vol.15, Number 1. Maguire, K.C. and P.A. Holroyd (2016). Pleistocene vertebrates of Silicon Valley (Santa Clara County, California). PaleoBios, 33. (Thanks to doushantuo for finding this one!) Majors, C.P. (1993). Preliminary Report on a Late Pleistocene Vertebrate Assemblage From Bonita, San Diego County, California. PaleoBios, Vol.15, Number 4. Marincovich, L. (1976). Late Pleistocene Molluscan Faunas from Upper Terraces of Palos Verdes Hills, California. Contributions in Science - Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 281. Payen, L.A. and R.E. 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Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Horned Toad Hills, Mojave Desert, California, USA. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.14, Number 3. Moore, E.J. (1968). Fossil Mollusks of San Diego County. San Diego Society of Natural History, Occasional Paper 15. (Thanks to DPS Ammonite for finding this one.) Pierce, W.D. and J. Gibron (1962). Fossil Arthropods of California, 24. Some Unusual Fossil Arthropods from the Calico Mountain Nodules. Bulletin. So. Calif. Academy Sciences, Vol.61, Part 3. Powell, C.L. and D. Stevens (2000). Age and Paleoenvironmental Significance of Mega-Invertebrates from the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills, Fullerton and Buena Park, Orange County, Southern California. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 00-319. Sanborn, A.F. (1960). Geology and Paleontology of the Southwest Quarter of the Big Bend Quadrangle - Shasta County, California. California Division of Mines Special Report 63. Woodring, W.P. and M.N. Bramlette (1950). Geology and Paleontology of the Santa Maria District, California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 222. Woodring, W.P., M.N. Bramlette and W.S.W. Kew (1946). Geology and Paleontology of Palos Verdes Hills, California. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 207. Colorado Colorado - Devonian Kindle, E.M. (1909). The Devonian Fauna of the Ouray Limestone. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 391. Schultze, H.-P. and J. Chorn (1998). Sarcopterygian and other Fishes from the Marine Upper Devonian of Colorado, U.S.A. Mitt.Mus.Nat.kd.Berl., Geowiss., Vol.1. Colorado - Permian Lewis, G.E. and P.P. Vaughn (1965). Early Permian Vertebrates from the Cutler Formation of the Placerville Area, Colorado. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 503C. Colorado - Jurassic O'Sullivan, R.B., M.A. Carey and S.C. Good (2006). Fossils from the Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation near Delta in Western Colorado. United States Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5105. Colorado - Cretaceous Merewether, E.A., D.A. Sawyer and W.A. Cobban (2006). Molluscan Fossils and Stratigraphic Descriptions from the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale, West-Central Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1326. Nagrodski, M, K. Shimada and B.A. Schumacher (2012). Marine vertebrates from the Hartland Shale (Upper Cretaceous: Upper Cenomanian) in southeastern Colorado, USA. Cretaceous Research, xxx (2012). Colorado - Paleocene Burger, B.J. (2007). A New Late Paleocene Vertebrate Fauna from the Ohio Creek Formation of Western Colorado. The Mountain Geologist, Vol.44, Number 3. Colorado - Eocene Gregory, K.M. (1992). Late Eocene paleoaltitude, paleoclimate and paleogeography of the Front Range region, Colorado. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Arizona. Robinson, P. (1966). Fossil Mammalia of the Huerfano Formation, Eocene, of Colorado. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 21. Colorado - Oligocene Honey, J.G. and G.A. Izett (1988). Paleontology, Taphonomy and Stratigraphy of the Browns Park Formation (Oligocene and Miocene) Near Maybell, Moffat County, Colorado. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1358. Colorado - Miocene Honey, J.G. and G.A. Izett (1988). Paleontology, Taphonomy and Stratigraphy of the Browns Park Formation (Oligocene and Miocene) Near Maybell, Moffat County, Colorado. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1358. Thompson, J.R. Creede Shale Fossils. New Mexico Geological Society, 22nd Field Conference. Colorado - Pliocene Thompson, J.R. Creede Shale Fossils. New Mexico Geological Society, 22nd Field Conference. Colorado - Pleistocene Sertich, J.J.W., et al. (20140. High-elevation late Pleistocene (MIS 6-5) vertebrate faunas from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado. Quaternary Research, 82. Colorado - General Arnold, C.A. (1941). Some Paleozoic Plants from Central Colorado and Their Stratigraphic Significance. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.VI, Number 4. Bass, N.W. and S.A. Northrop (1963). Geology of Glenwood Springs Quadrangle and Vicinity, Northwestern Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 1142-J. Cockerell, T.D.A. (1907). An Enumeration of the Localities in the Florissant Basin , from which Fossils were Obtained in 1906. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XXIII, Article IV. Galbreath, E.C. (1953). A Contribution to the Tertiary Geology and Paleontology of Northeastern Colorado. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 4, Vertebrata. (21.6MB download. A 98.3MB high-resolution download is available here: Hi-Res Link) Itano, W.M. (2002). Fossils of McCoy, Colorado. Trilobite Tales. Matthew, W.D. (1901). Fossil Mammals of the Tertiary of Northeastern Colorado. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.1, Part 7. Meyer, H.W., S.W. Veach and A. Cook (2004). Field guide to the paleontology and volcanic setting of the Florissant fossil beds, Colorado. Geological Society of America, Field Guide 5. Milito, S. (2010). A Survey of Fossils and Geology of Red Rock Canyon Open Space, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Mountain Geologist, Vol.47, Number 1. Connecticut Abrams, J. and E. Riley (2002). A Reconstruction of the Biodiversity of the Connecticut River Valley Using Fossil and Geologic History Evidence. The Taprock, Vol.1. Colbert, E.H. (1970). Fossils of the Connecticut Valley - The Age of Dinosaurs Begins. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin Number 96. Eastman, C.R. (1911). Triassic Fishes of Connecticut. State of Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, Bulletin Number 18. Eisa, N. and L. Bellard (2006). Geology, Formation and Fossils of the Connecticut Valley. The Traprock, Vol.6. Lull, R.S. (1915). Triassic Life of the Connecticut Valley. State of Connecticut, State Geological and Natural History Survey, Bulletin Number 24. Waage, K.M., C. MacClintock, and L.J. Hickey (2001). Post-glacial fossils from Long Island Sound off West Haven, Connecticut. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 225. Delaware Benson, R.N.-ed. (1998). Geology and Paleontology of the Lower Miocene Pollack Farm Fossil Site, Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey, Special Publication No.21. Delaware Geological Survey (1992). Delaware: Its Rocks, Minerals and Fossils. Delaware Geological Survey, Special Publication Number 19. Emry, R.J. and R.E. Eshelman (1998). The Early Hemingfordian (Early Miocene) Pollack Farm Local Fauna: First Tertiary Land Mammals Described from Delaware.In: Geology and paleontology of the lower Miocene Pollack Farm Fossil Site. Benson, R.N.( ed.), Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication Number 21. Lauginiger, E.M. (1988). Cretaceous Fossils from the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal - A Guide for Students and Collectors. Delaware Geological Survey - Special Publications Number 18. Lauginiger, E.M. and E.F. Hartstein (1983). A Guide to Fossil Sharks, Skates and Rays from the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Area, Delaware. Delaware Geological Society, Open File Report Number 21. Minard, J.P., et al. (1969). Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in New Jersey, Delaware, and Eastern Maryland. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 1274-H. Pickett, T.E. (1987). Guide to Common Cretaceous Fossils of Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey Report of Investigations, Number 21. Richards, H.G. and E. Shapiro (1963). An Invertebrate Macrofauna from the Upper Cretaceous of Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey, Report of Investigations Number 7. Weems, R.E. and R.A. George (2013). Amphibians and Nonmarine Turtles from the Miocene Calvert Formation of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia (USA). Journal of Paleontology, 87(4). Florida Florida - Oligocene Albright, L.B. (1998). The Arikareean Land Mammal Age in Texas and Florida: Southern extension of Great Plains faunas and Gulf Coastal Plain Endemism. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 325. Frailey, D. (1979). The Large Mammals of the Buda Local Fauna (Arikareean: Alachua County, Florida). Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.24, Number 2. Hayes, F.G. (2000). The Brooksville 2 Local Fauna (Arikareean, Latest Oligocene): Hernando County, Florida. Florida Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Vol.43, Number 1. Florida - Miocene Albright, L.B. (1998). The Arikareean Land Mammal Age in Texas and Florida: Southern extension of Great Plains faunas and Gulf Coastal Plain Endemism. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 325. Frailey, D. (1979). The Large Mammals of the Buda Local Fauna (Arikareean: Alachua County, Florida). Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.24, Number 2. Pratt, A.E. (1990). Taphonomy of the Large Vertebrate Fauna from the Thomas Farm Locality (Miocene, Hemingfordian), Gilchrist County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.35, Number 2. Stoutamire, S. (1975). A New Middle Miocene Vertebrate Fauna from the Florida Panhandle. M.S. Thesis - Texas Tech University. (Note: this is a 24 MB download.) Florida - Pliocene Leidy, J. (1896). Fossil Vertebrates from the Alachua Clays of Florida. Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia, Vol.IV. Mansfield, W.C. (1931). Pliocene Fossils from Limestone in Southern Florida. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 170-D. Morgan, G.S. and R.W. Portell (1996). The Tucker Borrow Pit: Paleontology and Stratigraphy of a Plio-Pleistocene Fossil Site in Brevard County, Florida. Papers in Florida Paleontology, Number 7. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Morgan, G.S. and B.R. Ridgway (1987). Late Pliocene (Late Blancan) Vertebrates from the St. Petersburg Times Site, Pinellas County, Florida, With a Brief Review of Florida Blancan Faunas. Papers in Florida Paleontology, Number 1. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Robertson, J.S. (1976). Latest Pliocene Mammals from Haile XV A, Alachua County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.20, Number 3. Robertson, J.S. (1970). Blancan Mammals from Haile XVA, Alachua County, Florida. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Florida. Ruez, D.R. (2002). Mammalian Taphonomy of the Early Irvingtonian (Late Pliocene) Inglis 1C Fauna (Citrus County, Florida). Southeastern Geology, Vol.41, Number 3. Florida - Pleistocene Bader, R.S. (1957). Two Pleistocene Mammalian Faunas from Alachua County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Vol.2, Number 5. Bogan, A.E. and R.W. Portell (1995). Early Pleistocene Freshwater Bivalves (Mollusca: Unionidae) from the Leisey Shell Pits, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1, Number 6. Converse, H.H. (1973). A Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna from Palm Beach County, Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 21. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Emslie, S.D. (1995). An Early Irvingtonian Avifauna from Leisey Shell Pit, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1, Number 10. Feranec, R.S. (2004). Geographic variation in the diet of hypsodont herbivores from the Rancholabrean of Florida. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207. Holman, J.A. (1959). Birds and Mammals from the Pleistocene of Williston, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Vol.5, Number 1. Hulbert, R.C. and G.S. Morgan (1989). Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Vertebrate Fauna of the Leisey Shell Pit Local Fauna, Early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) of Southwestern Florida. Papers in Florida Paleontology, Number 2. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Jones, D.S., et al. (1995). Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy and Age Estimates for the Leisey Shell Pit Faunas, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1,L Number 2. Kittle, B.A. and R.W. Portell (2010). Mollusca: Fort Thompson Formation (Late Pleistocene). Florida Fossil Invertebrates, Part 12. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) MacFadden, B.J. (1995). Magnetic Polarity Stratigraphy and Correlation of the Leisey Shell Pits, Tampa Bay, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1, Number 3. Martin, R.A. (1969). Fossil Mammals of the Coleman IIA Local Fauna, Sumter County, Florida. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida. Meylan, P.A. (1995). Pleistocene Amphibians and Reptiles from the Leisey Shell Pit, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1, Number 9. Morgan, G.S. and R.W. Portell (1996). The Tucker Borrow Pit: Paleontology and Stratigraphy of a Plio-Pleistocene Fossil Site in Brevard County, Florida. Papers in Florida Paleontology, Number 7. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Morgan, G.S. and R.C. Hulbert (1995). Overview of the Geology and Vertebrate Biochronology of the Leisey Shell Pit Local Fauna, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1. Morgan, G.S. and J.A. White (1995). Small Mammals (Insectivora, Lagomorpha and Rodentia) from the Early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) Leisey Shell Pit Local Fauna, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part II, Number 13. Ober, L.D. (1978). The Monkey Jungle, A Late Pleistocene Fossil Site in Southern Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 28. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Portell, R.W. and B.A. Kittle (2010). Mollusca: Bermont Formation (Middle Pleistocene). Florida Fossil Invertebrates, Part 13. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Portell, R.W., K.S. Schindler and D. Nicol (1995). Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of the Pleistocene Invertebrates from the Leisey Shell Pits, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1, Number 5. Pratt, A.E. and R.C. Hulbert (1995). Taphonomy of the Terrestrial Mammals of Leisey Shell Pit 1A, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1, Number 7. Rich, F.J. and L.A. Newsom (1995). Preliminary Palynological and Macrobotanical Report for the Leisey Shell Pit, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1, Number 4. Scudder, S.J., E.H. Simons and G.S. Morgan (1995). Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes from the Early Pleistocene Leisey Shell Pit Local Fauna, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part 1, Number 8. Simpson, G.G. (1930). Additions to the Pleistocene of Florida. American Museum Novitates, Number 406. Simpson, G.G. (1929). Pleistocene Mammalian Fauna of the Seminole Field, Pinellas County, Florida. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LVI, Article VIII. Simpson, G.G. (1928). Pleistocene Mammals from a Cave in Citrus County, Florida. American Museum Novitates, Number 328. Florida - General Morgan, G.S. (2005). The Great American Biotic Interchange in Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.45, Number 4. Morgan, G.S. and A.E. Pratt (1983). Recent Discoveries of Late Tertiary Marine Mammals in Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 49. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Olsen, S.J. (1959). Fossil Mammals of Florida. Florida Geological Survey, Special Publication Number 6. Patton, T.H. and S.D. Webb (1970). Fossil Vertebrate Deposits in Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 14. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Portell, R.W. and R.C. Hulbert (2011). Haile Quarries Fieldguide, Newberry, Florida. Southeastern Geological Society, Guidebook Number 53. Scott, T.M. and F.R. Rupert (1994). A Fossil Hunter's Guide to the Geology of Southern Florida. Florida Geological Survey, Open File Report 66. Simpson, G.G. (1930). Tertiary Land Mammals of Florida. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LIX, Article III. Webb, S.D. (1981). The Thomas Farm Fossil Vertebrate Site. The Plaster Jacket, Number 37. (Thanks to Nimravis for pointing this one out!) Georgia Allen, A.T. and J.G. Lester (1954). Contributions to the Paleontology of Northwest Georgia. Georgia State Division of Conservation, Department of Mines, Mining and Geology, Bulletin Number 62. (172 pages) Bybell, L.M. and T.G. Gibson (1985). The Eocene Tallahatta Formation of Alabama and Georgia: Its Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, and Bearing on the Age of the Claibornian Stage. United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1615. Case, G.R. and D.R. Schwimmer (1988). Late Cretaceous Fish from the Blufftown Formation (Campanian) in Western Georgia. J.Paleont., 62(2). Cooke, C.W. (1943). Geology of the Coastal Plain of Georgia. United States Department of the Interior Geological Survey, Bulletin 941. (353 pages) Cooke, C.W. and H.K. Shearer (1919). Deposits of Claiborne and Jackson Age in Georgia. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 120-C. Eargle, D.H. (1955). Stratigraphy of the Outcropping Cretaceous Rocks of Georgia. United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1014. Herrick, S.M. (1965). A Subsurface Study of Pleistocene Deposits in Coastal Georgia. Georgia State Division of Conservation, Department of Mines, Mining and Geology, Information Circular 31. Herrick, S.M. and R.C. Vorhis (1963). Subsurface Geology of the Georgia Coastal Plain. Georgia State Division of Conservation, Department of Mines, Mining and Geology, Information Circular 25. Mead, A.J., et al. (2006). Preliminary Comments on the Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna from Clark Quarry, Brunswick, Georgia. CRP, 23. Pickering, S.M. (1970). Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Economic Geology of Portions of Perry and Cochran Quadrangles, Georgia. The Geological Survey of Georgia, Bulletin 81. Rindsberg, A.K. and T.M. Chowns (1986). Ringgold Gap: Progradational sequences in the Ordovician and Silurian of northwest Georgia. Geological Society of America Centennial Field Guide - Southeastern Section. Schwimmer, D.R. (1986). Late Cretaceous Fossils from the Blufftown Formation (Campanian) in Western Georgia. The Mosasaur, 3. Schwimmer, D.R. and W.M. Montante (2007). Exceptional Fossil Preservation in the Conasauga Formation, Cambrian, Northwestern Georgia, USA. Palaios, Vol.22. Schwimmer, D.R. and R.H. Best (1989). First Dinosaur Fossils from Georgia, With Notes on Additional Cretaceous Vertebrates from the State. Georgia Journal of Science, 147. Schwimmer, D.R., et al. (1993). Late Cretaceous Dinosaurs from the Blufftown Formation in Western Georgia and Eastern Alabama. J.Paleont., 67(2). Stephenson, L.W. (1956). Fossils from the Eutaw Formation Chattahoochee River Region, Alabama-Georgia. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 274-J. Idaho Christensen, A.M. (1999). Brachiopod Paleontology and Paleoecology of the Lower Mississippian Lodgepole Limestone in Southeastern Idaho. In: Guidebook to the Geology of Eastern Idaho. Hughes, S.S. and G.D. Thackray (eds.), Pocatello, Idaho Museum of Natural History. Denison, R.H. (1968). Middle Devonian Fishes from the Lemhi Range of Idaho. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.16, Number 10. Dorr, J.A. (1985). Newfound Early Cretaceous Dinosaurs and Other Fossils in Southeastern Idaho and Westernmost Wyoming. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.27, Number 3. Fortsch, D.E. and P.K. Link (1999). Regional Geology and Fossil Sites from Pocatello to Montpelier, Freedom and Wayan, Southeastern Idaho and Western Wyoming. In: Guidebook to the Geology of Eastern Idaho: Pocatello. Hughes, S.S. and G.D. Thackray (eds.), Idaho Museum of Natural History. Girty, G.H. (1910). The Fauna of the Phosphate Beds of the Park City Formation in Idaho, Wyoming and Utah. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 436. Grader, G.W. and C.M. Dehler (1999). Devonian Stratigraphy in East-Central Idaho: New Perspectives from the Lemhi Range and Bayhorse Area. In: Guidebook to the Geology of Eastern Idaho. Hughes, S.S. and G.D. Thackray (eds.), Idaho Museum of Natural History. Mansfield, G.R. and G.H. Girty (1927). Geography, Geology, and Mineral Resources of Part of Southeastern Idaho With Descriptions of Carboniferous and Triassic Fossils. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 152. Repenning, C.A., T.R. Weasma and G.R. Scott (1995). The Early Pleistocene (Latest Blancan - Earliest Irvingtonian) Froman Ferry Fauna and History of the Glenns Ferry Formation, Southwestern Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 2105. Scott, W.E., et al. (1982). Revised Quaternary Stratigraphy and Chronology In the American Falls Area, Southeastern Idaho. In: Cenozoic Geology of Idaho. B. Bonnichsen and R.M. Breckenridge (eds.), Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 26. Smith, G.R., et al. (1982). Fish Biostratigraphy of Late Miocene to Pleistocene Sediments of the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho. In: Cenozoic Geology of Idaho. B. Bonnichsen and R.M. Breckenridge (eds.), Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 26. Vallier, T.L. and H.C. Brooks (eds.)(1986). Geology of the Blue Mountains Region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1435. Contains: Paleozoic and Mesozoic faunas of the Blue Mountains province: a review of their geologic implications and comments on papers in the volume. Late Triassic bivalves of the Martin Bridge Limestone, Hells Canyon, Oregon: taphonomy, paleoecology, paleozoogeography. Late Triassic coelenterate faunas of western Idaho and northeastern Oregon: implications for biostratigraphy and paleogeography. A Norian (Late Triassic) ichthyosaur from the Martin Bridge Limestone, Wallowa Mountains, Oregon. Jurassic ammonites and biostratigraphy of eastern Oregon and western Idaho. Conodont ages for limestones of eastern Oregon and their implications for pre-Tertiary melange terranes. Faunal affinities and tectonogenesis of Mesozoic rocks in the Blue Mountains province of eastern Oregon and western Idaho. Geologic implications of radiolarian-bearing Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks from the Blue Mountains province, eastern Oregon. Illinois Carpenter, D., et al. (2011). Fishes and Tetrapods in the Upper Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian) Cohn Coal Member of the Mattoon Formation of Illinois, United States: Systematics, Paleoecology and Paleoenvironments. Palaios, Vol.26. Collinson, C. and R. Skartvedt (1960). Pennsylvanian Plant Fossils of Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, Field Book. Cooper, C.L. (1947). Upper Kincaid (Mississippian) Microfauna from Johnson County, Illinois. State of Illinois, State Geological Survey, Report of Investigations-Number 122. Cope, K.H., et al. (2005). The fauna of the Clayton Formation (Paleocene, Danian) of southern Illinois: a case of K/P survivorship and Danian recovery. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, Number 32. Crook, A.R. (1912). Geology of Sangamon County. Illinois State Journal Co., State Printers. Frye, J.C., et al. (1972). Geology and Paleontology of Late Pleistocene Lake Saline, Southeastern Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, Circular 471. Furnish, W.M., et al. (1971). Faunal Studies of the Type Chesterian, Upper Mississippian of Southwestern Illinois. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 51. Galbreath, E.C. (1938). Post-Glacial Fossil Vertebrates from East-Central Illinois. Geological Series of Field Museum of Natural History, Vol.VI, Number 20. Johnson, R.G. and E.S. Richardson (1968). Pennsylvanian Invertebrates of the Mazon Creek Area, Illinois. The Essex Fauna and Medusae. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.12, Number 7. Mikulic, D.G. and J. Kluessendorf (1999). The Classic Silurian Reefs of the Chicago Area. ISGS Guidebook 29. Richardson, E.S. (1956). Pennsylvanian Invertebrates of the Mazon Creek Area, Illinois. Marine Fauna. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.12, Number 3. Wanless, H.R. (1958). Pennsylvanian Faunas of the Beardstown, Glasford, Havana and Vermont Quadrangles. Illinois State Geological Survey, Report of Investigations 205. Weller, S. (1900). The Paleontology of the Niagaran Limestone in the Chicago Area. The Trilobita. The Natural History Survey, Bulletin Number 4, Part II. (178 pages, 26.6MB download) Willman, H.B. and D.R. Kolata (1978). The Platteville and Galena Groups in Northern Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, Circular 502. Indiana Ausich, W.I., T.W. Kammer, and N.G. Lane (1979). Fossil Communities of the Borden (Mississippian) Delta in Indiana and Northern Kentucky. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.53, Number 5. Brett, C.E., et al. (2012). Revised Telychian-Sheinwoodian (Silurian) stratigraphy of the Laurentian mid-continent: building uniform nomenclature along the Cincinnati Arch. Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(4). Farlow, J.O. and A. Argast (2006). Preservation of Fossil Bone from the Pipe Creek Sinkhole (Late Neogene, Grant County, Indiana, U.S.A.). J.Paleont.Soc. Korea, Vol.22, Number 1. Farlow, J.O., et al. (2001). The Pipe Creek Sinkhole Biota, a Diverse Late Tertiary Continental Fossil Assemblage from Grant County, Indiana. Am.Midl.Nat., 145(2). Haas, O. (1946). Annotated Faunal List of the Glen Dean Formation of Crane, Indiana. American Museum Novitates, Number 1307. Perry, T.G. (1959). Fossils: Prehistoric Animals in Hoosier Rocks. Indiana Department of Conservation Geological Survey, Circular Number 7. Pope, J.K. (1976). Upper Ordovician (Richmondian) Fossils and Strata of Eastern Indiana, Brookville to Richmond. Ohio Academy of Science, Geology Field Trip, 1976. Siemann-Gartmann, S.M. (1983). Microfauna of the Middle Silurian Waldron Shale, Southeastern Indiana. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Vol.71, Part I. Simonelli, G. (2007). Sedimentology, Geochemistry and Paleobiology of a Marginal Marine Depositional Environment, the Mansfield Formation, Martin County, Indiana. Masters Thesis - Indiana University. Smith, N.M., A.C. Brookley and D.J. McGregor (1954). Common Rocks, Minerals and Fossils Found in Indiana. Indiana Department of Conservation Geological Survey, Circular Number 3. Wayne, W.J. (1963). Pleistocene Formations in Indiana. Geological Survey Bulletin Number 25, Indiana Department of Conservation. Iowa Baumann, S.D.J. (2009). Rock Outcrop of the Maquoketa Graf Section and Highway D-17 Section, Iowa. Lower Scales and Neda Formations. Brenner, R.L., et al. (1981). Cretaceous Stratigraphy and Sedimentation in Northwest Iowa, Northeast Nebraska, & Southeast South Dakota. Iowa Geological Survey Guidebook, Series Number 4. Fenton, C.L and M.A. Fenton (1924). The Stratigraphy and Fauna of the Hackberry Stage of the Upper Devonian. Contributions from the Museum of Geology - University of Michigan, Vol.1. Fields, C. and T. Marshall (eds.)(2010). The Pennsylvanian Geology of South-Central Iowa. Geological Society of Iowa, Guidebook 86. Contains: Introduction to the Pennsylvanian Geology of South-Central Iowa. Pennsylvanian Geology of Decatur City and Thayer Quarries. Paleontology and Paleoecology of the Pennsylvanian in South-Central Iowa. Pleistocene Geology in Decatur and Union Counties, South-Central Iowa. Iowa Association of Naturalists (1999). Iowa Geology and Fossils. Iowa Physical Environment Series. Marshall, T. and C. Fields (eds.) (2010). The Pennsylvanian Geology of South-Central Iowa. Geological Society of Iowa, Guidebook 86. Miller, R.D. (1964). Geology of the Omaha-Council Bluffs Area, Nebraska-Iowa. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 472. Rose, J.N. (1966). The Fossils and Rocks of Eastern Iowa: A Half-Billion Years of Iowa History. Masters Thesis - University of Iowa. (Thanks to Bev for finding this one!) Snyder, D. (2006). A study of the fossil vertebrate fauna from the Jasper Hiemstra Quarry, Delta, Iowa and its environment. Ph.D. Thesis - The University of Iowa. Wilson, J. (2007). Lost in Iowa Road Trip - Devonian Day Trip. Iowa Outdoors. Witzke, B.J., et al. (1997). Geology in the Dubuque Area. Geological Society of Iowa, Guidebook 63. Kansas Kansas - Carboniferous Adams, G.I., G.H. Girty and D. White (1903). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Upper Carboniferous Rocks of the Kansas Section. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin Number 211. Mudge, M.R. and E.L. Yochelson (1962). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Uppermost Pennsylvanian and Lowermost Permian Rocks in Kansas. Unites States Geological Society, Professional Paper 323. Tway, L.E. (1979). Pennsylvanian Ichthyoliths from the Shawnee Group of Eastern Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 96. Kansas - Permian Mudge, M.R. and E.L. Yochelson (1962). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Uppermost Pennsylvanian and Lowermost Permian Rocks in Kansas. U.S. Geological Society, Professional Paper 323. Schultze, H-P (1985). Marine to Onshore Vertebrates in the Lower Permian of Kansas and Their Paleoenvironmental Implications. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 113. Kansas - Cretaceous Bennett, S.C. Inferring Stratigraphic Position of Fossil Vertebrates from the Niobrara Chalk of Western Kansas. Frey, R.W. (1972). Paleoecology and Depositional Environment of Fort Hays Limestone Member, Niobrara Chalk (Cretaceous), west-central Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 58, Cretaceous 3. (Download from site.) Frey, R.W. (1970). Trace Fossils of Fort Hays Limestone Member of Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous), West-Central Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 53 (Cretaceous 2). Gill, J.R., W.A. Cobban and L.G. Schultz (1972). Stratigraphy and Composition of the Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale in Western Kansas. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 728. Hattin, D.E. (1982). Stratigraphy and Depositional Environment of Smoky Hill Chalk Member, Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) of the Type Area, Western Kansas. Kansas State Geological Survey, Bulletin 225. Johnson-Ransom, E. and K. Shimada (2016). Fossil fishes from the Pfeifer Shale Member of the Upper Cretaceous Greenhorn Limestone in north-central Kansas, U.S.A. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.119, Number 2. Liggett, G.A., et al. (2005). Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous) reptiles from northwestern Russell County, Kansas.PaleoBios, 25(2). McIntosh, A.P., K. Shimada and M.J. Everhart (2016). Late Cretaceous marine vertebrate fauna from the Fairport Chalk Member of the Carlile Shale in southern Ellis County, Kansas, U.S.A. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.119, Number 2. Scott, R.W. (1970). Paleoecology and Paleontology of the Lower Cretaceous Kiowa Formation, Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 52, Cretaceous 1. (Download from site.) Shimada, K. (2006). Marine Vertebrates from the Blue Hill Shale Member of the Carlile Shale (Upper Cretaceous: Middle Turonian) in Kansas.In: Cretaceous vertebrates from the Western Interior. Lucas, S.G. and R.M.Sullivan (eds.) New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 35. Shimada, K. and C. Fielitz (2006). Annotated Checklist of Fossil Fishes from the Smoky Hill Chalk of the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) in Kansas. In: Cretaceous vertebrates from the Western Interior. Lucas, S.G. and R.M. Sullivan (eds). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 35. Kansas - Pliocene Hibbard, C.W. (1964). A Contribution to the Saw Rock Canyon Local Fauna of Kansas. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Vol.XLIX. Hibbard, C.W. (1950). Mammals of the Rexroad Formation from Fox Canyon, Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol. VIII, Number 6. Hibbard, C.W. (1949). Pliocene Saw Rock Canyon Fauna in Kansas.Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.VII, Number 5. Liggett, G.A. (1997). The Beckerdite Local Biota (Early Hemphillian) and the First Tertiary Occurrence of a Crocodilian from Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 100(3-4). Wilson, R.L. (1968). Systematics and Faunal Analysis of a Lower Pliocene Vertebrate Assemblage from Trego County, Kansas.Contributions From The Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.22, Number 7. Woodburne, M.O. (1961). Upper Pliocene Geology and Vertebrate Paleontology of Part of the Meade Basin, Kansas.Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Vol.XLVI. Kansas - Pleistocene Eshelman, R.E. (1975). Geology and Paleontology of the Early Pleistocene (Late Blancan) White Rock Fauna from North-Central Kansas. Claude W. Hibbard Memorial Volume 4. Eshelman, R.E. and C.W. Hibbard (1981). Nash Local Fauna (Pleistocene: Aftonian) of Meade County, Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.25, Number 16. Hibbard, C.W. (1963). A Late Illinoian Fauna from Kansas and Its Climatic Significance. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Vol.XLVIII. Hibbard, C.W. (1955). The Jinglebob Interglacial (Sangamon?) Fauna from Kansas and its Climatic Significance. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol. XII, Number 10. Hibbard, C.W. (1951). Vertebrate Fossils from the Pleistocene Stump Arroyo Member, Meade County, Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michgan, Vol. IX, Number 7. Hibbard, C.W. (1949. Pleistocene Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Meade County, Kansas.Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.VII, Number 4. Hibbard, C.W., et al. (1978). Mammals from the Kanopolis Local Fauna, Pleistocene (Yarmouth) of Ellsworth County, Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol. 25, Number 2. Hibbard, C.W. and D.W. Taylor (1960). Two Late Pleistocene Faunas from Southwestern Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVI, Number 1. Holman, J.A. (1987). Climatic Significance of a Late Illinoian Herpetofauna from Southwestern Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.27, Number 5. Miller, B.B. (1970). The Sandahl Molluscan Fauna (Illinoian) from McPherson County, Kansas. The Ohio Journal of Science, 70(1). Semken, R.A. (1966). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the McPherson Equus Beds (Sandahl Local Fauna), McPherson County, Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XX, Number 6. Kansas - General Bass, N.W. (1926). Geologic Investigations in Western Kansas. State Geological Survey of Kansas, Bulletin 11. (60MB download) Contains: Geology of Ellis County Geology of Hamilton County Geologic structure of the Dakota sandstone Structure and limits of the Kansas salt beds Brosius, L., et al. (2003). Geology and Paleontology of Northwestern Kansas: Public Field Trip. Kansas Geological Society, Open-file Report 2003-25. Hibbard, C.W. (1952). Vertebrate Fossils from Late Cenozoic Deposits of Central Kansas. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 11, Vertebrata 2. Liggett, G.A. (2005). A review of the dinosaurs from Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.108, Numbers 1/2. Liggett, G.A., R.J. Zakrewski, and K.L. McNinch (1998). Geologic and Paleontologic Investigation of the Cimarron National Grassland, Morton County, Kansas. Dakoterra, Vol.5. Martin, L.D. (1979). Survey of Fossil Vertebrates from East Central Kansas. Kansas River Bank Stabilization Study, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Kentucky Ausich, W.I., T.W. Kammer, and N.G. Lane (1979). Fossil Communities of the Borden (Mississippian) Delta in Indiana and Northern Kentucky. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.53, Number 5. Barron, L.S. and F.R. Ettensohn (1981). Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian Black-Shale Sequence in Eastern Kentucky With an Atlas of Some Common Fossils. United States Department of Energy. Brett, C.E., et al. (2012). Revised Telychian-Sheinwoodian (Silurian) stratigraphy of the Laurentian mid-continent: building uniform nomenclature along the Cincinnati Arch. Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(4). Chesnut, D.R. (1981). Marine Zones of the Upper Carboniferous of Eastern Kentucky. In: Coal and coal-bearing rocks of eastern Kentucky. Cobb, J.C., et al. (eds.) Davis, W.J. (1885). Kentucky Fossil Corals. A Monograph of the Fossil Corals of the Silurian and Devonian Rocks of Kentucky. Part II. Kentucky Geological Survey. Foerste, A.F. (1931). III. Silurian Fauna. In: The Paleontology of Kentucky. Jillson, W.R. (ed.), The Kentucky Geological Society. Foerste, A.G. (1909). The Bedford Fauna at Indian Fields and Irvine, Kentucky. The Ohio Naturalist, Vol.IX, Number 7. Garcia, W.J., G.W. Storrs, and S.F. Greb (2006). The Hancock County tetrapod locality: A new Mississippian (Chesterian) wetlands fauna from western Kentucky (USA). Geological Society of America, Special Paper 399. Greb, S.F., et al. (2008). Mud Mounds, Paleoslumps, Crinoids and More; the Geology of the Fort Payne Formation at Lake Cumberland, south-central Kentucky. Field Trip for the Kentucky Chapter of the American Institute of Professional Geologists. (Thanks to doushantuo for locating this one!) McDowell, R.C. (1983). Stratigraphy of the Silurian Outcrop Belt on the East Side of the Cincinnati Arch in Kentucky, With Revisions in the Nomenclature. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1151-F. McFarlan, A.C. (1931). II. The Ordovician Fauna of Kentucky. In: The Paleontology of Kentucky. Jillson, W.R. (ed.), The Kentucky Geological Society. Moodie, R.L. (1931). VII. The Pennsylvanian Vertebrate Fauna of Kentucky. In: The Paleontology of Kentucky. Jillson, W.R. (ed.), The Kentucky Geological Society. Moodie, R.L. (1931). I. The Geological Succession of Life in Kentucky. In: The Paleontology of Kentucky. Jillson, W.R. (ed.), The Kentucky Geological Society. Morse, W.C. (1931). VI. The Pennsylvanian Invertebrate Fauna of Kentucky. In: The Paleontology of Kentucky. Jillison, W.R. (ed.), The Kentucky Geological Society. Nettleroth, H. (1889). Kentucky Fossil Shells. A Monograph of the Fossil Shells of the Silurian and Devonian Rocks of Kentucky. Kentucky Geological Survey. (73.6MB download) Roberts, J.K. (1931). VIII. Mesozoic Flora and Fauna. In: The Paleontology of Kentucky. Jillson, W.R. (ed.), The Kentucky Geological Society. Savage, T.E. (1931). IV. The Devonian Fauna of Kentucky. In: The Paleontology of Kentucky. Jillson, W.R. (ed.), The Kentucky Geological Society. Weller, J.M. (1931). V. Mississippian Fauna. In: The Paleontology of Kentucky. Jillison, W.R. (ed.), The Kentucky Geological Society. Louisiana Gartner, S. and L.A. Smith (1967). Coccoliths and Related Calcarous Nannofossils from the Yazoo Formation (Jackson, Late Eocene) of Louisiana. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 20. Glawe, L.N., J.F. Anderson and D.E. Bell (2014). Late Paleocene examples of residual coloration and embryonic features in juvenile marine mollusks from Northwest Louisiana. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.17, Issue 2; 30A. Hill, J.L. (2010). Taphonomy and Sedimentology of Two Miocene Vertebrate Fossil Sites on Fort Polk, Louisiana. Masters Thesis - Louisiana State University. Mossa, J. and B.A. Schumacher (1993). Fossil Tree Casts in South Louisiana Soils. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol.63, Number 4. Schiebout, J.A. and S. Robichaud. Fossil Hunting in Louisiana Gravels. Louisiana State University. Schiebout, J.A., et al. (2004). Paleofaunal & Environmental Research on Miocene Fossil Sites TVOR SE and TVOR S on Fort Polk, Louisiana, with Continued Survey, Collection, Processing and Documentation of Other Miocene Localities. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District. Stringer, G.L. (2002). 46-Million-Year-Old Marine Fossils from the Cane River Site, North-central Louisiana. Louisiana Geological Survey, Public Information Series Number 10. Vaughn, T.W. (1896). A Brief Contribution to the Geology and Paleontology of Northwestern Louisiana. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 142. Yann, L.T. (2010). Rare Earth Elements as an Investigative Tool into the Source, Age and Ecology of Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene Fossils from the Tunica Hills, Louisiana. Masters Thesis - Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.
  5. Found this when i was a kid bit have never knownwhat kind of tooth it was. Can anyone help ID it?
  6. I've heard there are whale bones and petrified wood found in beaches in Santa Barbara, are there any specific sites that yield these specimens?
  7. I am new to fossils... I found this on the rocky shore of Cabrillo Beach, San Pedro, California. The rock is a hard sandstone. Any idea about the fossils?
  8. Went fossil collecting in Bakersfield Round mountain silt formation this weekend and found an unusual tooth. I think it belongs to a mako shark (isurus planus), but it is unlike any other shark tooth I have ever found from the locality. The root is damaged, but it is more than twice as thick as any other hook mako I have ever found. Never seen a shark tooth this thick. Any ideas on the identity of this tooth? Thanks in advance for the help.
  9. OK, I finally took a camera with me on this one. For the past year, I have visited an area about an hour south of me that is a source for Great White teeth and other marine animal parts. But for the most part, GW teeth is the majority of what is found. Now the location is perched on a steep hillside about 7 miles inland of the Pacific Ocean. It was a deposit that had been cut through by a river and re-deposited in a different location, much like many of the sites along the east coast are now. However, the redeposition was done a very long time ago. It is found about 200 feet above the valley floor and goes up at an angle due to faulting (what else would you expect in California, the land of earthquakes?) The formation consists of what I can easily call cemented gravel (heavy emphasis on the cement part!) I only have a hand pick and a trench trowel (folding shovel) to somehow work my way through that "rock". It doesn't take long swinging a pick with one hand to wear you out. By the end of the day, My arm feels like limp spaghetti. Because this ground is so hard and worked by river action, finding a whole tooth with roots intact is something of a rarity. Mostly you will find shards of crown enamel or the teeth are so worn they have no serrations at all. I had worked a hole for a while only to figure out the actual deposit was about 12" below the floor of my pit. Did I mention the deposit goes up at an angle? Missed it!!!! OH MAN! I had to backtrack removing my tailing pile and having to re dig the hole to a lower level. Did I mention the humidity was about 105%? I was completely drenched in sweat. Nobody said fossil hunting was easy work!!!! The first photos are the small hole I had to dig to establish the fossil layer once the tailings were removed. Believe me that ground is much harder than it looks. Guess I can skip the gym this week! Last photo is the day's tally. All Great Whites except for a small Cow Shark tooth. The top tooth on the left is 2 1/8" there is a small tooth in matrix at the bottom (note there is no root). I was lucky enough to get three with whole roots this trip. Thank you for putting up with my rabbling. Doren/ caldigger
  10. Humans in California 130,000 years ago? Bold study says it's possible Humans in California 130,000 years ago? Bold study says it's possible, CBS News, April 26, 2017 http://www.cbsnews.com/news/humans-in-california-130000-years-ago-bold-study-says-its-possible/ Holen, S. R., T. A. Deméré, and others, 2017, A 130,000- year-old archaeological site in southern California, USA Nature 544, 479–483 (27 April 2017) doi:10.1038/nature2206 https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v544/n7651/full/nature22065.html Yours, Paul H.
  11. Crocodiles in Orange County? CSUF student researcher shakes up fossil history, The Orange County Register http://www.ocregister.com/2017/04/16/crocodiles-in-orange-county-csuf-student-researcher-shakes-up-fossil-history/ Extending the history of crocs in California by Andrew Farke, Plos Blogs, February 9, 2017 https://phys.org/news/2017-02-history-crocs-california.html http://news.fullerton.edu/2017wi/crocodile-study.aspx Barboza, M.M., Parham, J.F., Santos, G.P., Kussman, B.N. and Velez-Juarbe, J., 2017. The age of the Oso member, Capistrano formation, and a review of fossil crocodylians from California. PaleoBios, 34. PDF file at http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6sg3v4gs Yours, Paul H.
  12. First off, I want to thank Doren for sending me a small flat rate box full of STH matrix for me to try sifting through. I still have quite a bit of fine matrix to sort through but already I've managed to find hundreds of specimens. I've found quite a few Carcharhinus, Cetorhinus, Galeorhinus, Squalus, and tons of ray teeth. When I'm finished with all the matrix, I think I'll write a follow-up post with all the nice specimens I found. I'm having a little trouble identifying various species of rays - maybe someone has a literature suggestion to help me get familiar with different tooth characteristics? From what I can tell from other posts, the features that differentiate some ray species are quite subtle and to my untrained eye, very difficult to distinguish. I wouldn't mind some ID help with these teeth in particular. Scale to the right is in mm. If you could also comment on how common/uncommon these species are and what position they are in the jaw that would be immensely helpful as well. Also, maybe someone wouldn't mind making a list of the species found at STH and rank how common they are? Also, does anyone have suggestions for removing the last bit of silt/sand from the crevices in the teeth? I've tried water and gently stirring but that does not have much of an effect. Thanks for your help!
  13. A duck-bill dinosaur, Augustynolophus morrisi: http://losangeles.cbslocal.com/2017/04/07/california-may-adopt-state-dinosaur/
  14. Hello, I recently found this object washed up on a beach in northern California. We're wondering if anyone recognizes it, or could tell us what type of animal it might be from? Thanks so much for any suggestions, Jackie Sones Bodega Bay, CA
  15. Hi, I found this nice shark tooth at the Ernst Quarries in the Slow Curve. Not really sure about the identification, but it looks like a mako to me. The tooth is 2 inches long. Thanks.
  16. Took all of my best of the last three years and laid them out last night. Thought I would share.
  17. When Calif. builders dig, paleontologists are there to bag the fossils — even whales By David Brown, Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/when-calif-builders-dig-paleontologists-are-there-to-bag-the-fossils--even-whales/2017/03/10/2a63145c-ed4f-11e6-9662-6eedf1627882_story.html Yours, Paul H.
  18. This online GoogleMap of California fossil sites may help anyone looking for new sites. It lets you search your own location so you can see which places are closest to you and how far. Additionally, there are links on the locations to articles that tell you about its geology, fossils, and directions. Hope it helps, please reply with any feedback or suggestions to improve it.
  19. Does anyone know what this is
  20. Hello! I am not really a fossil collector- or any kind of expert- but I do like to collect natural things I find in various places, and have held on to these for a few years without having an idea if they're really anything at all. I found this forum and would absolutely love some help! Even if there is no identification to be had, it would be great to know if it's still worth holding onto- or... just a rock. The first is a white hard substance with some interesting spiral patterns in it. As you can see in the first photo, the inside chamber of the main form is hollow. I found it on a California beach, probably Pismo?
  21. Picture is of my find of teeth from STH area of Bakersfield CA. All found with a few hours of digging. Not a bad day!
  22. The tooth that started it all, found while looking for rocks in the Santa Monica mountains. I just looked down and wow nice great white. At first I thought someone dropped it as why would there be a big shark tooth on the side of a mountain. Turns out I got lucky and found a great fossil. I have looked a bunch more and not found anything else in the area, it is still the largest tooth in my collection! Thanks for looking
  23. Does anyone know if this is a fossil, and if so what it might be? Thanks! -Jason
  24. Hi all, we found this at the beach today - doesn't look like a marine mammal, and my guess is recent storm run off brought it down a creek. Any idea if it is a fossil or just a bone? Seems like a cow/bison cervical vertebrae, perhaps.
  25. Hi all OK, this is an interesting one. Attached are images of the Sandollar that was found on the California coast. It is broken, but I'm curious if it is fossilized.It is extremely hard, and feels like stone. I have many Sandollar's that are extremely fragile, however this one is heavy, lacks all the brittleness that one would find in a newer Sandollar. What are the signs to look for if fossilized? I took the best pictures that I could, hope they will work. thx