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On occasion I'm asked about collecting regulations in Ontario and other provinces. This got me thinking what are the regulations across Canada. Listed below are various regulations pertaining to fossil collecting in different provinces across Canada. The information is merely an amalgamation of different sources with the sources linked or stated. I do not have the legal training to state whether fossil collecting is legal or not in each province but have put forth information that can help one come to a conclusion. Collecting fossils in Canada Fossils hold a great deal of scientific significance and can be the key to uncovering the lost linkage between ancestral organisms providing answers to modern day life. As a student geologist I work with beautiful specimens that have been properly catalogued for scientific research. As a member of a local geology club I have been searching for fossils for many years. Collecting fossils is a fun way to enjoy the outdoors but it is important that proper cataloguing and information be obtained when collecting. It is also important to understand local laws when collecting. In Canada every province has a different perspective on collecting fossils, ranging from provinces where collecting in forbidden to others with limited regulations. Ontario Sourced from the Fossil Forum: “Ontario is one of the less restrictive Canadian provinces. In speaking to one of the Paleobiology curators from the Royal Ontario Museum, you can take a fossil out of the province without a permit, if it is valued under $500 Canadian.” Source: http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/46868-fossil-collecting-laws-and-crossing-the-border/ Ontario has been doing a good job at promoting the province as a great source for recreational geology. For more information on recreational geology check out: http://ohto.ca/wp-content/uploads/Informational-Resources_FINAL.pdf British Columbia Source from the British Columbia government website: “Amateur collectors bring many important discoveries to the attention of professional paleontologists. The contribution of amateur collectors is becoming increasingly important for scientific discovery as the number of professional paleontologists in the field decreases. Recreational or amateur collecting is restricted to the collection of small amounts of the types of fossils that are common at the site. When unusual or rare specimens are discovered or when small quantities of fossils are present at a site, amateur collectors are encouraged to assist by reporting the findings to determine if they are significant. Under the Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing Act, the Minister has the authority to grant a general permission to the public to collect fossils, and to affix terms and conditions to that permission. Until the Minister’s formal permission is provided, minor collecting may continue as long as the amounts are small, the fossils are common at the site, the fossils are kept for personal use, and are not sold, or removed from BC. Exceptions to this general permission to collect fossils from the surface are where the land is in a park or protected area, or where exclusive rights have been issued to another party. The Crown retains ownership of fossils collected by amateur collectors. Amateur collectors may retain possession of the fossils as long as they do not sell them or export them from the Province without permission. The permission to collect for recreational purposes does not apply to the removal of vertebrate skeletal fossils or fossil tracks. The removal of these fossils must be undertaken by a qualified person holding a research permit. Guidelines will be developed and made publicly available to assist amateur collectors in following the guidelines relating to quantity and type of fossils that are allowed to be gathered.” Source: http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/employment-business/natural-resource-use/land-use/fossil-management/collection-and-use Alberta Sourced from the Royal Tyrrell Museum: “If you live in Alberta, and legally surface collected, you may keep the material as a custodian of the fossil, although ownership remains within the Province of Alberta. The Historical Resources Act prohibits removal of fossils from the province without a Disposition Certificate issued by the Government of Alberta.” Surface collected: the act of collecting a fossil that requires no ad (no use of tools) and can be picked up freely. Source: http://www.tyrrellmuseum.com/research/fossils_law.htm Manitoba Reading The Heritage Resources Act from Manitoba it appears that all fossils, which fall under “Heritage object,” are protected and collecting is not permitted. Sourced from Manitoba Laws The Heritage Resource Act: Section 51 - “No person shall destroy, damage or alter any heritage object, whether or not the person is the owner thereof, or any human remains.” Section 52 – “No person shall remove a heritage object from the province, whether or not the person is the owner thereof, except pursuant to a heritage permit and in accordance with such terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the minister and set out in or attached to the heritage permit.” Source: http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/h039-1e.php Saskatchewan Sourced from The Heritage Property Act: Section 66.1 – Ownership of vertebrate fossils is by the crown. Section 66.2 (7) “No person shall buy, sell, offer for sale, trade, or otherwise dispose of or remove from Saskatchewan any archaeological object or palaeontological object found in or taken from land in Saskatchewan without the written permission of the minister.” Section 67 appears as though the act of searching for and removing fossils requires a permit. Source: http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/H2-2.pdf Quebec Sourced from Cultural Property Act: Looking over the Cultural Property Act it appears as though Quebec has the most ambiguous rules pertaining to paleontological items. There is numerous use of “Archaeological property” but under the definition section there is no mention of fossils or palaeontological objects concluding that this wouldn’t apply. Typing in palaeontology or fossils, no record shows up. Sources: http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=2&file=/B_4/B4_A.html New Brunswick Sourced from New Brunswick government website: “The importance of our palaeontological record is officially recognized in the Heritage Conservation Act. Formally asserting provincial ownership of all palaeontological objects, it stipulates that any fossils discovered in the Province must not be destroyed or removed from sites where they are found, without the required permit.” “Any activity carried out for the purpose of obtaining and documenting data on fossils, including excavation and/or removal, is defined by the Act as palaeontological field research. Exacting standards must be met under any permit authorizing such research in regard to observation, collection, preservation and recording techniques.” “Individuals who wish to study fossils, but who are not considered professionals, may also apply for field research permits. To qualify, they must demonstrate basic understanding of palaeontology, as well as appropriate knowledge of current collection and reporting techniques. The relevant application form is accessible here. Enquiries from all those interested in such palaeontological research in New Brunswick should contact the New Brunswick Museum.” Source: http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/departments/thc/heritage/content/heritage_conservationact/palaeontological.html Nova Scotia Sourced from the Nova Scotia Government website: Nova Scotia is very similar to New Brunswick. Collecting fossils in Nova Scotia is only to be carried out by those with a “Heritage Research Permit.” This permit allows you to search for fossils, document, and photograph. Collected specimens are to be deposited at the Nova Scotia Museum. Source: https://cch.novascotia.ca/exploring-our-past/special-places/palaeontology-permits-and-guidelines Prince Edward Island Sourced from Government of P.E.I. Under the Heritage Places Protection Act fossils fall within “historical resource” as palaeontological. Going through the act I was unable to see any distinct mentioning of how the law applies to collecting and maintaining of fossils. Source: http://www.gov.pe.ca/law/statutes/pdf/h-03_1.pdf Newfoundland Sourced from the Geological Survey of Canada, also Natural Resources: It appears as though the Geological Survey has a good section describing various collecting tips indicating that collecting is permitted in Newfoundland. I did not come across any regulations pertaining to the removal of fossils from Newfoundland. “When looking for fossils, it important to remember that complete specimens are rarely found. While complete specimens are better for scientific description in paleontological studies, even a poorly preserved fossil fragment is often enough for field identification and dating of rocks. Fossils can be found by picking through weathered rubble along cliffs, beaches, streams, quarries, road and railway cuts and rock outcrops. Finding them in place, however, requires a careful layer-by-layer examination of the enclosing sedimentary rocks with a hammer and chisel. Many Newfoundland fossils are quite small and easily overlooked. It is wise, therefore, to have a magnifying glass or a hand lens for checking favorable rock types. Good eye protection is essential, preferably in the form of safety glasses. A good geological hammer with either a chisel or a point made of well tempered, shatter-free metal is advisable. A stone chisel and small sledge hammer are also useful. Broken fossil specimens can be repaired in the field with nontoxic white glues such as Lepage Bond Fast. Modelling clay, liquid latex (such as Lewiscraft rubbertex compound or ETI Mold Builder) or plaster can be used to obtain a replica of an otherwise nonretrievable specimen. Fossils which can't be collected may also be photographed or sketched. After collection, all specimens ought to be securely wrapped in tissue or newspaper and then placed in a well labelled bag to prevent damage during transportation. It is also a good idea to note the location of the fossil collection on a map and/or in a fieldbook in order to make it easier to find again if the need arises.” “Note: Fossil collecting is illegal in National and Provincial Parks and Ecological Reserves, unless you have special permits.” Source: http://www.nr.gov.nl.ca/mines&en/geosurvey/education/fossils.stm IMPORTANT: on the Department of Natural Resources there is a link to a new legislation, “Significant Fossils.” Source: http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2012/tcr/0109n01.htm Nunavut Sourced from Government of Canada website: Searching for and collecting fossils in Nunavut are similar to those of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Manitoba. In order to collect fossils from a “palaeontological site,” as defined by the act as being any site with fossils, one must obtain a permit. Once obtaining a permit, a series of guidelines are laid out to produce a formal report which will be submitted to the Government of Nunavut. Specimens collected in the field are to be deposited to the minister of the government of Nunavut responsible for culture and heritage before March 31 of the year following the permit issue. March 31st seems to be a popular date amongst government organizations when fossils are to be deposited. Source: http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2001-220/FullText.html Northwest Territories Sourced from the Northern News Services: Based on the article linked below it appears as though there is no regulations on fossil in the Northwest Territories, although it appears as though researchers are thinking it is a good idea. Source: http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2014-01/jan27_14fos.html Yukon Sourced from the Yukon Government website: “You are required under the Historic Resources Act to tell the Yukon Palaeontology Program about any fossils found in the Yukon. Any fossils found on settlement lands are to be reported to the appropriate First Nation. The Historic Resources Act applies everywhere in Yukon except in National Parks. If you find a fossil, please leave it where it is, record its location, take a photo if possible, and contact the Yukon Palaeontology program or appropriate First Nation. If you find a fossil in the Yukon, you may be allowed to keep it in your possession, but the Yukon Government or First Nation owns it. If you find a fossil on private land, the land owner takes custody of it unless some other agreement has been made. The Yukon First Nation government will set terms and conditions to protect the fossil.” “The Heritage Resources Act prohibits the collection of fossils without a permit. If you are from a qualified research institute and are interested in collecting fossils in the Yukon you require a Scientists and Explorers Research License. Please contact the Yukon Palaeontology Program for further information.” Source: http://www.tc.gov.yk.ca/faq_palaeontology.html Additional sources: Canada Wide General Information http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/docs/r/pfa-fap/notes.aspx
Fruitbat posted a topic in DocumentsThese are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at firstname.lastname@example.org and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 6, 2018. Canada Faunas and Localities Alberta Alberta - Devonian Meijer Drees, N.C., et al. (2002). Lithostratigraphy, Sedimentology, Paleontology, Organic Petrology, and Organic Geochemistry of the Middle Devonian Ashern, Winnipegosis, and Eyot Formations in East-Central Alberta and West-Central Saskatchewan. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 572. Alberta - Jurassic Frebold, H. (1966). Upper Pliensbachian Beds in the Fernie Group of Alberta. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 66-27. Martindale, R.C., et al. (2017). A new Early Jurassic (ca. 183 Ma) fossil Lagerstätte from Ya Ha Tinda, Alberta, Canada. The Geological Society of America, open access. (Thanks to Oxytropidoceras for finding this one!) Martindale, R.C., et al. (2017). Supplementary Data to "A new Early Jurassic fossil Lagerstätte from Ya Ha Tinda, Canada (~183 Ma)" - GSA Data Repository 2017066. Alberta - Cretaceous Brinkman, D.B. and A.G. Neuman (2002). Teleost Centra from Uppermost Judith River Group (Dinosaur Park Formation, Campanian) of Alberta, Canada. J.Paleont., 76(1). Brinkman, D.B., et al. (2004). Vertebrate palaeocommunities of the lower Judith River Group (Campanian) of southeastern Alberta, Canada, as interpreted from vertebrate microfossil assemblages. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 213. Cullen, T.M., et al. (2016). A vertebrate microsite from a marine-terrestrial transition in the Foremost Formation (Campanian) of Alberta, Canada, and the use of faunal assemblage data as a paleoenvironmental indicator. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 444. Dalzell, M.T.J. (2007). Correlated Biostratigraphy and Palaeoecology of Microplankton from the Bearpaw Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian) of Alberta, Canada. Masters Thesis - University of Saskatchewan. Dodson, P. (1983). A Faunal Review of the Judith River (Oldman) Formation, Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta. The Mosasaur, Vol.1. Eberth, D.A. (2010). A Revised Stratigraphic Architecture and History for the Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Upper Cretaceous) , Southern Alberta Plains. GeoCanada 2010 - Working with the Earth. Fanti, F. and T. Miyashita (2009). A high latitude vertebrate fossil assemblage from the Late Cretaceous of west-central Alberta, Canada: evidence for dinosaur nesting and vertebrate latitudinal gradient. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 275. Lavigne, J.M. (1999). Aspects of Marginal Marine Sedimentology, Stratigraphy and Ichnology of the Upper Cretaceous Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Drumheller, Alberta. Masters Thesis - University of Alberta. (158 pages) Lillegraven, J.A. (1969). Latest Cretaceous Mammals of Upper Part of Edmonton Formation of Alberta, Canada, and Review of Marsupial-Placental Dichotomy in Mammalian Evolution. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 50 (Vertebrata 12). Mellon, G.B. (1967). Stratigraphy and Petrology of the Lower Cretaceous Blairmore and Manville Groups, Alberta Foothills and Plains. Research Council of Alberta, Bulletin 21. Mychaluk, K.A., A.A. Levinson and R.L. Hall (2001). Ammolite: Iridescent Fossilized Ammonite from Southern Alberta, Canada. Gems and Gemology, Vol.37, Number 1. Nielsen, K.S., et al. (2008). Turonian to Santonian paleoenvironmental changes in the Cretaceous Western Interior Sea: The Carlile and Niobrara formations in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 270. (Author's personal copy) Peng, J. (1997). Palaeoecology of Vertebrate Assemblages from the Upper Cretaceous Judith River Group (Campanian) of Southeastern Alberta, Canada. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Calgary. (330 pages) Quinney, A. (2011). The Upper Cretaceous Horseshoe Canyon Formation: using paleosols to reconstruct ancient environments, climates, and record of sea level change in a dinosaur-dominated terrestrial ecosystem. Masters Thesis - University of Calgary. (156 pages) Wood, J.M., R.G. Thomas and J. Visser (1988). Fluvial Processes and Vertebrate Taphonomy: The Upper Cretaceous Judith River Formation, South-Central Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 66. Alberta - Paleocene Scott, C.S. (2001). Middle Paleocene Mammals from Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Masters Thesis - University of Alberta. Scott, C.S., R.C. Fox and G.P. Youzwyshyn (2002). New earliest Tiffanian (late Paleocene) mammals from Cochrane 2, southwestern Alberta, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 47(4). Simpson, G.G. (1927). Mammalian Fauna and Correlation of the Paskapoo Formation of Alberta. American Museum Novitates, Number 268. Alberta - Pleistocene Barendregt, R.W., C.S. Churcher and A. MacS. Stalker (1988). Stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, and vertebrate paleontology of Quaternary preglacial sediments at the Maser-Frisch Site, southeastern Alberta. Geological Society of America Bulletin. Vol.100. Burns, J.A. and R.R. Young (1994). Pleistocene mammals of the Edmonton area, Alberta. Part I. The Carnivores. Can.J. Earth Sci., 31. British Columbia British Columbia - Precambrian Hofmann, H.J., E.W. Mountjoy and M.W. Teitz (1985). Ediacaran fossils from the Miette Group, Rocky Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Geology, Vol.13 British Columbia - Cambrian Caron, J.-B. and D.A. Jackson (2008). Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258. Caron, J.-B. and D. Rudkin (eds.)(2009). A Burgess Shale Primer. History, Geology and Research Highlights. International Conference on the Cambrian Explosion, Field Trip Companion Volume. Caron, J.-B., et al. (2014). A new phyllopod bed-like assemblage from the Burgess Shale of the Canadian Rockies. Nature Communications, 5:3210. Johnston, K.J., P.A. Johnston and W.G. Powell (2009). A new, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale-type biota, Bolaspidella Zone, Chancellor Basin, southeastern British Columbia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in press) Johnston, P.A., et al. (2009). Palaeontology and depositional environments of ancient brine seeps in the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale at The Monarch, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 277. Morris, S.C. and R.A. Robison (1988). More Soft-Bodied Animals and Algae from the Middle Cambrian of Utah and British Columbia. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 122. British Columbia - Triassic Schaeffer, B. and M. Mangus (1976). An Early Triassic Fish Assemblage from British Columbia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.156, Article 5. Stanley, G.D. and B. Senowbari-Daryan (1999). Upper Triassic Reef Fauna from the Quesnel Terrane, Central British Columbia, Canada. J.Paleont., 23(5). Zonneveld, J.-P., M.K. Gingras and S.G. Pemberton (2001). Trace fossil assemblages in a Middle Triassic mixed siliciclastic carbonate marginal marine depositional system, British Columbia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 166. British Columbia - Cretaceous Haggart, J.W., et al. (2009). Molluscan biostratigraphy and paleomagnetism of Campanian strata, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: implications for Pacific coast North America biochronology. Cretaceous Research, 30. Plint, A.G. (1996). Marine and non-marine systems tracts in fourth-order sequences in the Early-Middle Cenomanian, Dunvegan Alloformation, northeastern British Columbia, Canada. In: High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy: Innovations and Applications. Howell, J.A. and J.F Aitken (eds.), Geological Society Special Publication Number 104. British Columbia - Eocene Archibald, S.B., et al. (2011). Great Canadian Lagerstätten 1. Early Eocene Lagerstätten of the Okanagan Highlands (British Columbia and Washington State). Geoscience Canada, Vol.38, Number 4. Archibald, S.B., et al. (2010). Lagerstätten of the Okanagan Highlands (British Columbia and Washington): emergent communities in Early Eocene climates. GeoCanada 2010 - Working with the Earth. Dillhoff, R.M., E.B. Leopold and S.R. Manchester (2005). The McAbee flora of British Columbia and its relation to the Early-Middle Eocene Okanagan Highlands flora of the Pacific Northwest. Can.J. Earth Sci., Vol.42. Greenwood, D.R., et al. (2005). Fossil biotas from the Okanagan Highlands, southern British Columbia and northeastern Washington State: climates and ecosystems across an Eocene landscape. Can.J. Earth Sci., 42. Ludvigsen, R. (2001). The fossils at Driftwood Canyon Provincial Park: A management plan for BC parks. Mathewes, R.W., D.R. Greenwood and S.B. Archibald (2016). Paleoenvironments of the Quilchena flora, British Columbia during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. Can.J. Earth Sci., 53. Poinar, G., B. Archibald and A. Brown (1999). New Amber Deposit Provides Evidence of Early Paleogene Extinctions, Paleoclimates and Past Distributions. The Canadian Entomologist, 131. Villeneuve, M. and R. Mathewes (2005). An Early Eocene age for the Quilchena fossil locality, southern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research, 2005-A4. Wilson, M.V.H. (1977). Paleoecology of Eocene lacustrine varves at Horsefly, British Columbia. Can.J. Earth Sci., 14. British Columbia - Pleistocene Driver, J.C. (1988). Late Pleistocene and Holocene vertebrates and palaeoenvironments from Charlie Lake Cave, northeast British Columbia. Can.J. Earth Sci., 25. General British Columbia Costenius, K.N., et al. (1989). Reconnaissance Paleontologic Study of the Kishenehn Formation, Northwestern Montana and Southeastern British Columbia. 1989 MGS Field Conference, Montana Centennial. Johns, M.J., C.R. Barnes and Y.R. Narayan (2005). Cenozoic and Cretaceous Ichtyoliths from the Tofino Basin and Western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 2. Manitoba Bamburak, J.D., J. Hatcher and M.P.B. Nicholas (2012). Chemostratigraphy, paleontology and mineral potential of the Gammon Ferruginous Member of the Cretaceous Pierre Shale in southwestern Manitoba (parts of NTS 62F, G, H, J, K, N, O, 63C, F). In: Report of Activities 2012. Manitoba Innovation, Energy and Mines, Manitoba Geological Survey. Elias, R.J., et al. (2013). Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in the Williston Basin outcrop belt of Manitoba: a record of global and regional environmental and biotic change. Field Trip Guidebook FT-C5/ Open File OF2013-1. Kilmury, A. (2016). Deposition and Fauna of the Chasm Creek Formation (Upper Ordovician): Core M-3-03 (Airport Cove West) near Churchill, Manitoba. Bachelors Thesis (Honours) - The University of Manitoba. McGregor, D.C., et al. (1971). Fossils of the Red River Formation (Cat Head Member), Manitoba. Contributions to Canadian Paleontology, Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 202. Nelson, S.J. and M.E. Johnson (2002). Jens Munk Archipelago: Ordovician-Silurian Islands in the Churchill Area of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Northern Manitoba. The Journal of Geology, Vol.110. Stewart, L.A. (2012). Paleoenvironment, Paleoecology, and Stratigraphy of the Uppermost Ordovician Section, North of Grand Rapids, Manitoba. Masters Thesis - The University of Manitoba. (266 pages) Young, G.A., et al. (2012). Great Canadian Lagerstätten 3. Late Ordovician Konservat-Lagerstätten in Manitoba. Geoscience Canada, Vol.39. Young, G.A., et al. Late Ordovician Lagerstatten in Manitoba, Canada: Glimpses of Soft-Bodied Diversity. Young, H.R., R. Li and M.Kuroda (2012). Silicification in Mississippian Lodgepole Formation, Northeastern Flank of Williston Basin, Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.23, Number 1. New Brunswick Bay of Fundy Ecosystem Partnership (2010). Fundy's Fascinating Fossils: The Unique Palaeontology of the Bay of Fundy. Fundy Issues, Issue 31. Falcon-Lang, H.J. and R.F. Miller (2007). Palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology of the Early Pennsylvanian Lancaster Formation ('Fern Ledges') of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol.164. Gilpin, J.B. (1874). Observations on some Fossil Bones found in New Brunswick, Dominion of Canada. Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science, 3(4). Jutras, P., J. Utting and S.R. McCutcheon (2005). Basin inversion at the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary in northern New Brunswick, Canada. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, Vol.53, Number 4. Kennedy, K. (2011). The Campbellton Formation, New Brunswick, Canada: A Sedimentological and Paleoenvironmental Description of an Early Devonian (Emsian) Vegetated Landscape. Masters Thesis - Dalhousie University. Landing, E. (1980). Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Macrofaunas and Phosphatic Microfaunas, St. John Group, New Brunswick. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.54, Number 4. Landing, E. and S.R. Westrop (1996). Upper Lower Cambrian depositional sequence in Avalonian New Brunswick. Can.J. Earth Sci., 33. Landing, E., S.C. Johnson and G. Geyer (2008). Faunas and Cambrian Volcanism on the Avalonian Marginal Platform, Southern New Brunswick. J.Paleont., 82(5). Palacios, T., et al. (2011). New biostratigraphical constraints on the lower Cambrian Ratcliffe Brook Formation, southern New Brunswick, from organic-walled microfossils. Stratigraphy, Vol.8, Number 1. Tanoli, S.K. and R.K. Pickerill (1990). Lithofacies and basinal development of the type 'Etcheminian Series' (Lower Cambrian Ratcliffe Brook Formation), Saint John area, southern New Brunswick. Atlantic Geology, 26. Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador - Precambrian Antcliffe, J.B., A.D. Hancy and M.D. Brasier (2015). A new ecological model for the ~565 Ma Ediacaran biota of Mistaken Point, Newfoundland. Precambrian Research, 268. Clapham, M.E., G.M. Narbonne and J.G. Gehling (2003). Paleoecology of the oldest known animal communities: Ediacaran assemblages at Mistaken Point, Newfoundland. Paleobiology, 29(4). Darroch, S.A.F., M. Laflamme and M.E. Clapham (2013). Population structure of the oldest known macroscopic communities from Mistaken Point, Newfoundland. Paleobiology, 39(4). Misra, S.B. (2010). Origin and Growth of the Ediacaran Fauna at Mistaken Point, Newfoundland, Canada: A Hypothesis. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 55(2). O'Brien, S.J. and A.F. King (2004). Ediacaran Fossils from the Bonavista Peninsula (Avalon Zone), Newfoundland: Preliminary Descriptions and Implications for Regional Correlation. Current Research (2004) Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy Geological Survey, Report 04-1. O'Brien, S.J., et al. (2006). Lithostratigraphic and Biostratigraphic Studies on the Eastern Bonavista Peninsula: An Update. Current Research (2006) Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources Geological Survey, Report 06-1. Retallack, G.J. (2014). Volcanosedimentary paleoenvironments of Ediacaran fossils in Newfoundland. GSA Bulletin, Vol.126, Numbers 5/6. Newfoundland and Labrador - Cambrian Boyce, W.D., I. Knight and J.S. Ash (1992). The Weasel Group, Goose Arm Area, Western Newfoundland: Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, Correlation, and Implications. Current Research (1992), Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Branch, Report 92-1. Bullock, R.J., J.R. Morris and D. Selby (2011). New Findings of Body and Trace Fossils in the St. Bride's Area, Cape St. Mary's Peninsula, Newfoundland. Current Research (2011) Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Report 11-1. Droser, M.L., et al. (2002). Lowermost Cambrian Ichnofabrics from the Chapel Island Formation, Newfoundland: Implications for Cambrian Substrates. Palaios, Vol.17. Gehling, J.G., et al. (2001). Burrowing below the basal Cambrian GSSP, Fortune Head, Newfoundland. Geol.Mag., 138(2). Landing, E. (1993). In Situ Earliest Cambrian Tube Worms and the Oldest Metazoan-Constructed Biostrome (Placentian Series, Southeastern Newfoundland). J.Paleont., 67(3). Landing, E., et al. (1989). The Placentian Series: Appearance of the Oldest Skeletalized Faunas in Southeastern Newfoundland. J.Paleont., 63(6). Skovsted, C.B. and J.S. Peel (2007). Small shelly fossils from the argillaceous facies of the Lower Cambrian Forteau Formation of western Newfoundland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52(4). Newfoundland and Labrador - Ordovician Boyce, W.D., L.M.E. McCobb and I. Knight (2011). Stratigraphic Studies of the Watts Bight Formation (St. George Group), Port Au Port Peninsula, Western Newfoundland. Current Research (2011), Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey, Report 11-1. Boyce, W.D., J.S. Ash and B.H. O'Brien (1991). A New Fossil Locality in the Bay of Exploits, Central Newfoundland. Current Research, Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Branch, Report 91-1. Boyce, W.D., et al. (2000). The Upper St. George Group, Western Port Au Port Peninsula: Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, Depositional Environments and Regional Implications. Current Research (2000) Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey, Report 2000-1. Gillespie, H. (1998). Acritarch Biostratigraphy and Taxonomy of the Waterhouse Formation (Upper Ordovician, Port Au Port Peninsula, Newfoundland). Masters Thesis - Memorial University of Newfoundland. Pratt, B.R. and N.P. James (1982). Cryptalgal-metazoan bioherms of early Ordovician age in the St. George Group, western Newfoundland. International Association of Sedimentologists. Quinn, L., et al. (1999). Late Ordovician foreland basin fill: Long Point Group of onshore western Newfoundland. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, Vol.47, Number 1. Williams, S.H., et al. (1994). 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