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Found 17 results

  1. Post Oak Creek

    I hit my honey hole at Post Oak Creek Texas again. I found a few good Ptychodus teeth, another crustacean and my first giant armadillo scute. it was worth the 5 hr round trip.
  2. Peace river scute of some kind

    I found this yesterday in the Peace River and only really looked at it now, I think it’s an armadillo scute but I’m not %100 sure. Help is appreciated!
  3. Finally managed to get out for a few hours when I visited Florida earlier this month. Walked in to a Peace river tributary where I got to spend a few hours shifting gravel while keeping an eye on the local wildlife. Was interesting how different the finds were when compared to the previous site which was about 25 miles further north. Nothing overly special, but was a pleasant way to spend an afternoon. Found a lot of bone fragments this trip, but no dugong which surprised me after my first experience. There were also fewer shark teeth this time around. Not sure what the big bone chunk in the upper left is from as there is very little of the surface left, but the fragment is 4 x 5 x 2.5 inches
  4. A little of my son's art work

    We had a few requests to see some of the art work my 17 year old son Carter is creating for our education programs. Due to the fact that I am a dad first and he is still a senior in high school, we will not have a lot of finished art before summer. I do not let him spend much time on this stuff yet. He was okay with me posting a few early versions of the sharks we are covering. Educating kids and getting fossils into their hands was not the only reason we started this. He wants to be an artist and I support that. I am paying him for his work and he has a title, scientific illustrator. He has his first professional gig as an artist. We do not talk about this often as I am protective of my kids but Carter has had some struggles with his health. Art is not only his passion but it is important as a vehicle for self expression for him that helps keep him in a positive mental place. To the art... An early version of an Orthacanthus shark. I love where he is headed with this and though you can not see it in the picture, he nailed the teeth which is always his goal as that is what the kids see. I can not wait to see the finished product. I also included an Armadillo that he did last year for a school project. The picture does not do it justice at all. It is really quite good and he turned down a couple of offers to sell this one from an art show it was in. I will update his progress. By fall, we have some seriously good art to pair with the fossils and science. The future is bright I would say
  5. I found this worn bone fragment on Indian Rocks Beach, Florida. It's about 2 3/8" x 1 1/4". After looking at it, it has a home plate shape similar to armadillo and turtle scutes. It appears to have a plate on the front and back, possibly the plastron and carapace of a turtle? (I have 6 views)
  6. Well, I think I am done. I was out on Memorial day. The water was waist to chest level. I rarely go back to back days so Wednesday the 30th was possible. I had an interesting morning -- see below. 6 inches up was barely hand-able... We left a little after noon. Did find some neat fossils: This place is worth a return visit. Interesting open cavity at the end of the root. Very fragile #s 2,3,4. I know what these are... because I have seen them previously. I find thousands of the Asian clam ,an invasive species in the Peace River but I am hoping that @MikeR can identify this salt water clam from an earlier age. Then a Sawfish or Shark vert which are relatively uncommon. Finally, one I am unsure of: I have seen those "eyes" on the inside of a turtle shell... so I think that is what this is, although the shape is odd. See this thread. http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/71000-prospecting-trip/. This season started off slow and started picking up in December. I will miss going to the river, but it gives me time to sort , catalogue, and pay attention to other important facets of living. Its all good.
  7. claws

    I found these together in the Peace River yesterday. I am pretty confident they are from one of the Xenarthrans, but not clear on which one. The sizes overlap and are too close to being the same for me to say. I suspect Glyptodont or Holmesina.Thoughts?
  8. Is this Dasypus bellus ?

    This the smallest armadillo osteoderm that I have found yet. Is it even possible to ID it to species? I found it today in Sacha's 'frog toe' matrix.
  9. I came upon this beauty in Post Oak Creek, Sherman; Grayson Co. Texas this past weekend which looks like a very large Armadillo scute. I didn't think that they migrated into the north Texas region? It measures 1 1/2" long and 1 1/8" wide. Cretaceous, Lower Austin / Upper Eagle Ford Formation
  10. A couple old finds to ID

    Both of these fossils come from Peace river in Florida. Judging from the edge and size I'm wondering if the top one is from the scapula of a mammoth/mastodon? Either that or something from a whale. Any ideas? The bottom is an armadillo scute that I once mistook for scrap bone and left in the scrap box until being rediscovered. Any way to tell if it's Holmesia septentrionalisis or Holmesina floridanus? Thanks
  11. Peace River, again

    Last week I tied my previous (paltry) record for last season's number of visits to the Peace River on an outing with John (@Sacha). Last weekend I surpassed that measly mark by making it to the river for a third time in as many weeks. On a good course to have a record setting year if water and weather cooperate. Weather brought my brother Dan and his Wife Jen from Chicago for a long weekend. The day before they left the chilly north that was in the grips of an Arctic blast, he sent me this photo from his car's dashboard as he was driving to work in the morning. I said it looked like the temperature display from my car but missing the leading '8'. We picked them up at Fort Lauderdale Airport and stopped for some yummy Greek food nearby before heading back home for a relatively early night. I double checked the water level on the Peace River and it was holding nicely (actually dropping an inch or two since last I dipped a sifting screen in it). I then did a Google search for the weather report for Arcadia to verify that the temperature forecast and precipitation percentage were in line with what seen the day before. Instead of the balmy weather I'd been planning on, the forecast showed an overnight low of 40F and a high of only 58F--nearly 30 degrees colder than I'd been expecting. I was shocked that the Arctic weather had managed to extend its frigid reach to this part of Florida and headed off to bed thinking of how I'd have to change my plans to make this a welcoming activity for my brother and his wife--both first time fossil hunters. The next morning, my alarm went off at 3:00am and I tossed the last of the equipment into the car, I tossed in my wetsuit and some jackets which I figured would be needed. Just before I bundled in three sleepy passengers for the trip across state, I did one more quick check on the internet to verify the dire weather prediction. It was then that I realized that my previous night's search was incomplete and I had only Googled "weather Arcadia" and had missed the very important addition of "fl". What I had seen the night before was the forecast for Arcadia, CA which was significantly different from that for Arcadia, FL. I was quite relieved to see the high once again forecast at 86F which would actually make the still chilly 61F water feel refreshing. In a much happier mood, we once again made the trek over Lake Okeechobee and on to Arcadia, arriving in time to rent our canoes from Canoe Outpost and leave for Brownville on the 8:00am bus. We set off downstream and stopped at the well-known gravel bed just a few minutes paddling from the put in. This is an area that gets worked hard throughout the season and ends up looking like a bombing range with all the pot holes in the bottom (but is reset each summer like a large fluvial Etch-a-Sketch). To hunt here you need to be careful not to waste too much time digging in gravel that is just redistributed spoils of someone else's searches. It takes a bit of prospecting but once you turn up a few nice finds that you are pretty sure a previous fossil hunter would have grabbed given the opportunity, you can be pretty certain you are digging in fresh (and hopefully productive) gravel. It wasn't long before the finds started turning up in the sifting screen and Dan and Jen started seeing why I'm always on about hunting in the Peace River.
  12. Dec14th Peace River

    About to travel for the holidays and need to pack. Just a few minutes for this post. Out today, hunting the Peace River. What a GORGEOUS !!! day. Sun shining, warm water, out in nature. None of those fantastic finds this day, bit even an average day on the Peace is pretty good. Lots of small shark teeth, many of them broken, a couple of turtle spurs, glyptodont osteoderms, puffer fish mouth plates all with quality issues. And then these.. .
  13. Pleistocene bones Florida

    These are a bunch of bones from the pleistocene period found in Florida, USA. I haven't got a clue as to what these come from so I am guessing raccoon, giant armadillo, duck, deer and maybe birds. Not sure what species but I am psyched. It would be very much be appreciated if anyone can take a look and with your pleistocene expertise maybe help me decent what bones belong to what animal.
  14. Tooth Cross-Section

    I've come close to putting this giant armadillo jaw into my scraps box each time I looked at it in the past. It's too good to throw out, yet it doesn't have much collector appeal. This morning it occurred to me (whence come these inspirations?) that this jaw is unique in one way: It reveals the cross-section of a tooth (second from the last tooth) in the mandible. Ho-hum you say. Well, armadillos like all xenarthrans have hypselodont teeth; they are peglike, open-rooted, and continuously growing. In cross section they don't look like horse or bison or dire wolf teeth. Lacking a branch-like or hooked root, teeth of an otherwise-preserved armadillo jaw are likely to fall out of the alveoli. It is common for a fossil jaw to be edentulous. Amadillo teeth have no enamel. They grow continuously, they had to. Without enamel, they would have worn pretty quickly. They are open-rooted; that is, the tooth pulp-cavity was not closed as in many other taxa of mammals. Think of the continuously growing incisors of rodents and lagomorphs but without the enamel. The term used to describe this condition is "hypselodonty" and is usually applied to mammal teeth. The term describes teeth that are open-rooted and ever-growing. Hypselodont teeth are found in xenarthrans, rabbits, some rodents, and a few ungulates, according to Hulbert's book. Anyone have an interesting cross-section to share with us?
  15. Looking For Small Teeth

    I went to the Peace for the 5th time in the last 8 days. This time with friends who were really only looking for small shark teeth around 1/2 inch. We went to an area known for lots of small teeth and we all found many Bulls, Hemis, Lemons, and Tigers around that size. I found some gravel and was digging deep -- first I found some nice sized lower snaggles, then a couple of osteoderns (2 Armadillo and 1 Glyptodont), then the biggest , nicest Meg I have ever found, then a much smaller posterior meg, another lower snaggle, and a nice mako. After about 90 minutes, I could not dig deeper without drowning, and went back to find small shark teeth. I dug other nearby holes, but without a similar result. Good things happen when/where you least expect it. Traveling to Thanksgiving dinner in the morning, but wanted to share my joy!!!! Happy Thanksgiving to all -- enjoy your families and friends. SS I also found a fossilized toe bone -- added here to see if someone can ID..
  16. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since March 23, 2018. Superorder Xenarthra Order Cingulata - The Armadillos and Their Allies. Family Dasypodidae - The Armadillos Dasypodidae - North America Osborn, H.F. (1904). An Armadillo from the Middle Eocene (Bridger) of North America. Vol.XX, Article XII. Schubert, B.W. and R.W. Graham (2000). Terminal Pleistocene armadillo (Dasypus) remains from the Ozark Plateau, Missouri, USA. PaleoBios, 20(1). Shapiro, B., R.W. Graham and B. Letts (2015). A revised evolutionary history of armadillos (Dasypus) in North America based on ancient mitochondrial DNA. Boreas, Vol.44. Slaughter, B.H. (1959). The first noted Occurrence of Dasypus bellus in Texas. Field and Laboratory, SMU, Vol.XXVII, Number 2. Dasypodidae - South America/Central America/Caribbean Babot, J., D.A. Garcia and T.J. Gaudin (2012). The Most Ancient Xenarthran Petrosal: Morphology and Evolutionary Significance. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32(5). Carbot-Chanona, G. (2010). The First Record of Dasypus (Xenarthra: Cingulata: Dasipodidae) in the Late Pleistocene of Mexico. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 27. Castro, M.C., et al. (2014). A new Dasypodini armadillo (Xenarthra: Cingulata) from San Gregorio Formation, Pliocene of Venezuela: affinities and biogeographic interpretations. Naturwissenschaften, Published on-line. Castro, M.C., et al. (2013). Redescription of Dasypus punctatus Lund, 1840 and Considerations on the Genus Propaopus Ameghino, 1881 (Xenarthra, Cingulata). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(2). Francia, A. and M.R. Ciancio (2013). First record of Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae) in the late Pleistocene of Corrientes Province (Argentina). Revista del Museo de La Plata, 13(70). Gonzalez-Ruiz, L.R., et al. (2012). A new species of Peltephilidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the late Miocene (Chasicoan SALMA) of Argentina. Zootaxa, 3359. Olveira, E.V. and L.P. Bergqvist (1998). A New Paleocene Armadillo (Mammalia, Dasypodoidea) from the Itaborai Basin, Brazil. Asociacion Paleontologica Argentina, Special Publication 5. Olveira, E.V., et al. (2014). The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (2014). Scillato-Yane, G.J., C.M. Krmpotic and G.I. Esteban (2010). The species of genus Chasicotatus Scillato-Yane (Eutatini: Dasypodidae). Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.27, Number 1. Tomassini, R.L., C.I. Montalvo and M.C. Esquiaga (2016). The oldest record of flea/armadillos interaction as example of bioerosion on osteoderms from the late Miocene of the Argentine Pampas. International Journal of Paleopathology, 15. Vizcaino, S.F., et al. (2006). The armadillos (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) of the Santa Cruz Formation (early-middle Miocene): An approach to their paleobiology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 237. General Dasypodidae Farina, R.A. and S.F. Vizcaino (1997). Allometry of the bones of living and extinct armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypoda). Z. Saugetierkunde, 62. Galliari, F.C., A.A. Carlini and M.R. Sanchez-Villagra (2010). Evolution of the axial skeleton in armadillos (Mammalia, Dasypodidae). Mammalian Biology, 75(4). Gaudin, T.J. and J.R. Wible. The Phylogeny of Living and Extinct Armadillos (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata): A Craniodental Analysis. Guillaume, B., et al. (2011). Oldest cingulate skulls provide congruence morphological and molecular scenarios of armadillo evolution. Proc.R.Soc. B, published on-line. Vizcaino, S.F. and G. De Iuliis (2003). Evidence for advanced carnivory in fossil armadillos (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae). Paleobiology, 29(1). Family Chlamyphoridae (Glyptodontidae) (†) - The Glyptodonts Glyptodontidae - North America Carlini, A.A., A.E. Zurita and O.A. Aguilera (2008). North American Glyptodontines (Xenarthra, Mammalia) in the Upper Pleistocene of of northern South America. Palaontol.Z., Vol.82/2. Gidley, J.W. (1925). Fossil Proboscidea and Edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 140-B. Gillette, D.D. and C.E. Ray (1981). Glyptodonts of North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 40. (262 pages) Gould, C.N. The Fossil Glyptodon in the Frederick Gravel Beds. The University of Oklahoma - Academy of Science, Article XV. Melton, W.G. (1964). Glyptodon fredericensis (Meade) from the Seymour Formation of Knox County, Texas. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Vol. XLIX. Osborn, H.F. (1903). Glyptotherium texanum, a New Glyptodont, from the Lower Pleistocene of Texas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XIX, Article XVII. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). Late Pliocene Glyptodontinae (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) of South and North America: Morphology and paleobiogeographical implications in the GABI. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 31. Glyptodontidae - South America/Central America/Caribbean Brown, B. (1912). Brachyostracon, a New Genus of Glyptodonts from Mexico. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XXXI, Article XVII. Carlini, A.A., A.E. Zurita and O.A. Aguilera (2008). North American Glyptodontines (Xenarthra, Mammalia) in the Upper Pleistocene of of northern South America. Palaontol.Z., Vol.82/2. Carlini, A.A., et al. (2008). New Glyptodont from the Codore Formation (Pliocene), Falcon State, Venezuela, its relationships with the Asterostemma problem, and the paleobiogeography of the Glyptodontinae. Palaontol.Z., Vol.82/2. Croft, D.A., J.J. Flynn and A.R. Wyss (2007). A New Basal Glyptodontid and Other Xenarthra of the Early Miocene Chucal Fauna, Northern Chile. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(4). Da Costa Pereira, P.V.L., et al. (2014). Osteoderm histology of Late Pleistocene cingulates from the intertropical region of Brazil. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(3). Dantas, M.A.T., et al. (2011). About the occurrence of Glyptodon sp. in the Brazilian intertropical region. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press) de los Reyes, M., et al. (2013). First evidence of scavenging of a Glyptodont (Mammalia, Glyptodontidae) from the Pliocene of the Pampean region (Argentina): taphonomic and paleoecological remarks. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.16, Issue 2. Fernicola, J.C., et al. (2012). A neomorphic ossification of the nasal cartilages and the structure of paranasal sinus system of the glyptodont Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto 1957 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.15, Issue 3:27A. Ferreira, J.D., M. Zamorano and A.M. Ribeiro (2015). On the fossil Remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 87(1). González Ruiz, L.R., et al. (2017). Old and new specimens of a poorly known glyptodont from the Miocene of Patagonia and their biochronological implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(X). González Ruiz, L.R., et al. (2010). The southernmost record of a Neuryurini Hoffstetter, 1958 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae). Paläontol Z, published on-line. Mead, J.I., et al. (2007). Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) Glyptodont and Pampathere (Xenarthra, Cingulata) from Sonora, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.24, Number 3. Mitchell, K.J., et al. (2016). Ancient DNA from the extinct South American giant glyptodont Doedicurus sp. (Xenarthra: Glyptodontidae) reveals that glyptodonts evolved from Eocene armadillos. Molecular Ecology. Olveira, E.V., K.O. Porpino and A.F. Barreto (2010). On the presence of Glyptotherium in the Late Pleistocene of Northeastern Brazil, and the status of "Glyptodon" and "Chlamydotherium". Paleobiogeographic implications. N.Jb.Geol.Paläont.Abh., 258/3. Ramirez-Cruz, G.A. and M. Montellano-Ballesteros (2014). Two New Glyptodont Records (Mammalia: Cingulata) from the Late Pleistocene of Tamaulipas and Tlaxcala, Mexico: Implications for the Taxonomy of the Genus Glyptotherium. The Southwestern Naturalist, 59(4). Simpson, G.G. (1947). A Miocene Glyptodont from Venezuela. American Museum Novitates, Number 1368. Vizcaino, S.F., A. Rinderknecht and A. Czerwonogora (2003). An Enigmatic Cingulata (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from the Late Miocene of Uruguay. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(4). Zamorano, M. and D. Brandoni (2013). Phylogenetic analysis of the Panochthini (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae), with remarks on their temporal distribution. Alcheringa, 37. Zamorano, M., G.J. Scillato-Yane and A.E. Zurita (2013). An enigmatic and large-sized specimen of Panochthus (Glyptodontidae, "Panochthini") from the Ensenadan (Early-Middle Pleistocene) of the Pampean region, Argentina. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 84. Zurita, A.E. and S.A. Aramayo (2007). New Remains of Eoslcerocalyptus tapinocephalus (Cabrera) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae): Description and Implications for Its Taxonomic Status. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.113, Number 1. Zurita, A.E., A.A. Carlini and G.J. Scillato-Yane (2008). A new species of Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto, 1957 (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae, Hoplophorinae) from the middle Pleistocene of the Pampean region, Argentina. Geodiversitas, 30(4). Zurita, A.E., E. Soibelzon and A.A. Carlini (2006). Neuryurus (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae) in the Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene) of the Pampean region. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Mh., 2006(2). Zurita, A.E., et al. (2016). On the status of "Urotherium antiquum" (Ameghino) (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae). C.R. Palevol, xxx. (Article in press) Zurita, A.E., et al. (2016). Regarding the real diversity of Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) in the late Pliocene (Chapadmalalan Age/Stage) of Argentina. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 88. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2014). First Neogene skulls of Doedicurinae (Xenartha, Glyptodontidae): morphology and phylogenetic implications. Historical Biology. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2013). The Most Complete Known Neogene Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata) from Northern South America: Taxonomic, Paleobiogeographic, and Phylogenetic Implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(3). Zurita, A.E., et al. (2013). A new species of Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto ((Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata): the oldest record of the genus and morphological and phylogenetic aspects. Zootaxa, 3721(4). Zurita, A.E., et al. (2012). The Pleistocene Glyptodontidae Gray, 1869 (Xenarthra: Cingulata) of Colombia and Some Considerations About the South American Glyptodontinae. Rev.bras.paleontol., 15(3). Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). Neosclerocalyptus spp. (Cingulata: Glyptodontidae: Hoplophorini): cranial morphology and palaeoenvironments along the changing Quaternary. Journal of Natural History, Vol.45, Numbers 15-16. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). On the taxonomic status of some Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of South America. Annales de Paleontologie, 97. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). Late Pliocene Glyptodontinae (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) of South and North America: Morphology and paleobiogeographical implications in the GABI. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 31. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). An exceptional Pleistocene specimen of Panochthus Burmeister (Xenarthra, Glyptodontoidea) from Bolivia: Its contribution to the understanding of the Early-Middle Pleistocene Panochthini. C.R. Palevol, 10. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2009). The diversity of Glyptodontidae (Xenarthra, Cingulata) in the Tarija Valley (Bolivia): systematic, biostratigraphic, and paleobiogeographic aspects of a particular assemblage. N.Jb.Geol.Paläont.Abh., Vol.251/2. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2009). First record and description of an exceptional unborn specimen of Cingulata Glyptodontidae: Glyptodon Owen (Xenarthra). C.R. Palevol, 8. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2009). The earliest record of Neuryurus Ameghino (Mammalia, Glyptodontidae, Hoplophorinae). Alcheringa, 33. General Glyptodontidae Alexander, R. McNeil, R.A Farina and S.F. Vizcaino (1999). Tail blow energy and carapace fractures in a large glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 126. Barbosa, F.H.D.s., et al. (2014). Arthritis in a Glyptodont. PLoS ONE, 9(2). Blanco, R.E., W.W. Jones and A. Rinderknecht (2009). The sweet spot of a biological hammer: the centre of percussion of glyptodont (Mammalia: Xenarthra) tail clubs. Proc.R.Soc. B. Farina, R.A. and S.F. Vizcaino (2001). Carved teeth and strange jaws: How glyptodonts masticated.Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 46(2). Gonzalez-Ruiz, L.R., et al. (2015). First Record of Supernumerary Teeth in Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e885033. Vizcaino, S.F., et al. (2011). Evaluating Habitats and Feeding Habits Through Ecomorphological Features in Glyptodonts (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Ameghiniana, 48(3). Zamorano, M. and D. Brandoni (2013). Phylogenetic analysis of the Panochthini (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae), with remarks on their temporal distribution. Alcheringa, 37. Zurita, A.E., et al (2010). Accessory protection structures in Glyptodon Owen (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae). Annales de Paleontologie, 96. (Author's copy) Family Pampatheriidae (†) - The Pampatheres De Iuliis, G., M.S. Bargo and S.F. Vizcaino (2000). Variations in Skull Morphology and Mastication in the Fossil Giant Armadillos Pampatherium spp. and Allied Genera (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Pampatheriidae), With Comments on Their Systematics and Distribution. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(4). Gois, F., et al. (2015). A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity. PLoS ONE, 10(6). Gois, F., et al. (2013). A new species of Scirrotherium Edmund & Theodor, 1997 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Pampatheriidae) from the late Miocene of South America. Alcheringa, 37. Mead, J.I., et al. (2007). Late Pleistocene (Ranchlabrean) Glyptodont and Pampathere (Xenarthra, Cingulata) from Sonora, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, Vol.24, Number 3. Rodriguez-Bualó, S., et al. (2014). Pampatheriidae (Xenarthra, Cingulata) from the Tarija Valley, Bolivia: A Taxonomic Update. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.120, Number 2. Simpson, G.G. (1930). Holmesina septentrionalis, Extinct Giant Armadillo of Florida. American Museum Novitates, Number 442. Vizcaino, S.F., G. de Iuliis and M.S. Bargo (1998). Skull Shape, Masticatory Apparatus, and Diet of Vassallia and Holmesina (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Pampatheriidae): When Anatomy Constrains Destiny. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, Vol.5, Number 4. Wolf, D., D.C. Kalthoff and P.M. Sander (2012). Osteoderm Histology of the Pampatheriidae (Cingulata, Xenarthra, Mammalia): Implications for Systematics, Osteoderm Growth, and Biomechanical Adaptation. Journal of Morphology, 273. General Cingulata Ciancio, M.R., et al. (2016). Diversity of cingulate xenarthrans in the middle-late Eocene of Northwestern Argentina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(3). Downing, K.F. and R.S. White (1995). The Cingulates (Xenarthra) of the Leisey Shell Pit Local Fauna (Ivringtonian), Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part II, Number 12. Milne, S., S.F. Vizcaino and C.J. Fernicola (2009). A 3D geometric morphometric analysis of digging ability in the extant and fossil cingulate humerus. Journal of Zoology. Oliveira, E.V. and J.C. Pereira (2009). Intertropical Cingulates (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Quaternary of Southern Brazil: Systematics and Paleobiogeographical Aspects. Rev.bras.paleontol., 12(3). Rincon, A.D., R.S. White and H.G. McDonald (2008). Late Pleistocene Cingulates (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Mene de Inciarte Tar Pits, Sierra de Perija, Western Venezuela. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(1). Soibelzon, E., L.S. Avilla and M. Castro (2015). The cingulates (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from the late Quaternary of northern Brazil: Fossil records, paleoclimates and displacements in America. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press) Vizcaino, S.F., et al. (2004). Functional and phylogenetic assessment of the masticatory adaptations in Cingulata (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Ameghiniana, 41(4). Order Pilosa - The Anteaters and Sloths. Suborder Folivora - The Sloths Family Megalonychidae Megalonychid Sloths - North America Hirschfeld, S.E. (1981). Pliometanastes protistus (Edentata, Megalonychidae) from Knight's Ferry, California with discussion of Early Hemphillian megalonychids. PaleoBios, 36. Hirschfeld, S.E. and S.D. Webb (1968). Plio-Pleistocene Megalonychid Sloths of North America. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Vol.12, Number 5. Hoganson, J.W. and H.G. McDonald (2007). First Report of Jefferson's Ground Sloth Megalonyx jeffersonii in North Dakota: Paleobiogeographical and Paleoecological Significance.Journal of Mammalogy, 88(1). Lindahl, J. (1892). Description of a Skull of Megalonyx leidyi n.sp. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol.17, Number 1. McDonald, H.G. and J.C. Anderson (1983). A Well-Preserved Ground Sloth (Megalonyx) Cranium from Turin, Monona County, Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad.Sci., 90(4). McDonald, H.G., T.W. Stafford and D.M. Gnidovec (2015). Youngest radiocarbon age for Jefferson's ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii (Xenarthra, Megalonychidae). Quaternary Research, xxx. (Article in press) McDonald, H.G., W.E. Miller and T.H. Morris (2001). Taphonomy and Significance of Jefferson's Ground Sloth (Xenartha: Megalonychidae) from Utah. Western North American Naturalist, 61(1). McDonald, H.G., et al. (2000). The Ground Sloth Megalonyx from Pleistocene Deposits of the Old Crow Basin, Yukon, Canada. Arctic, Vol.53, Number 3. Mills, R.S. (1974). A Ground Sloth, Megalonyx, from a Pleistocene Site in Darke Co., Ohio. Schubert, B.W., et al. (2004). Latest Pleistocene paleoecology of Jefferson's ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) and elk-moose (Cervalces scotti) in northern Illinois.Quaternary Research, 61. Wilson, M.C, H.G. McDonald and C.L. Hill (2005). Fossil Ground Sloths, Megalonyx and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra), from the Doeden Local Fauna, Montana. Current Research in the Pleistocene, Vol.22. Megalonychid Sloths - South America/Central America/Caribbean Bargo, M.S., S.F. Vizcaino and R.F. Kay (2009). Predominance of Orthal Masticatory Movements in the Early Miocene Eucholaeops (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megalonychidae) and Other Megatherioid Sloths. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(3). Brandoni, D. (2014). A New Genus of Megalonychidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Late Miocene of Argentina. Rev.bras.paleontol., 17(1). Brandoni, D. (2011). The Megalonychidae (Xenarthra, Tardigrada) from the late Miocene of Entre Rios Province, Argentina, with remarks on their systematics and biogeography. Geobios, 44. Brandoni, D. (2010). On the Systematics of Ortotherium Ameghino (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megalonychidae) from the 'Congolmerado Osifero' (Late Miocene) of Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30(3). Cartelle, C., G. De Iuliis and F. Pujos (2008). A new species of Megalonychidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Quaternary of Poco Azul (Bahia, Brazil). C.R. Palevol, 7. De Iuliis, G., C. Cartelle and F. Pujos (2016). New Pleistocene remains of megalonychid ground sloths (Xenartha: Pilosa) from the intertropical Brazilian region. Journal of Paleontology, published on-line. De Iuliis, G.C., F. Pujos and C. Cartelle (2009). A new ground sloth (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from the Quaternary of Brazil. C.R. Palevol, 8. De Iuliis, G.C., et al. (2014). Eucholeops Ameghino, 1887 (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megalonychidae) from the Santra Cruz Formation, Argentine Patagonia: implications for the systematics of Santacrucian sloths. Geodiversitas, 36(2). Gaudin, T.J. (2011). On the Osteology of the Auditory Region and Orbital Wall in the Extinct West Indian Sloth Genus Neocnus Arredondo, 1961 (Placentalia, Xenarthra, Megalonychidae). Annals of Carnegie Museum, Vol.80, Number 1. Gaudin, T.J., et al. (2015). The Basicranium and Orbital Region of the Early Miocene Eucholoeops ingens Ameghino, (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Megalonychidae). Ameghiniana, Vol.52(2). MacPhee, R.D.E. and M.A. Iturralde-Vinent (1994). First Tertiary Land Mammal from Greater Antilles: An Early Miocene Sloth (Xenarthra, Megalonychidae) from Cuba. American Museum Novitates, Number 3094. MacPhee, R.D.E., J.L. White, and C.A. Woods (2000). New Megalonychid Sloths (Phyllophaga, Xenarthra) from the Quaternary of Hispaniola. American Museum Novitates, Number 3303. McAfee, R.K. (2011). Feeding Mechanics and Dietary Implications in the Fossil Sloth Neocnus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megalonychidae) from Haiti. Journal of Morphology, 272. Pujos, F., et al. (2007). A peculiar climbing Megalonychidae from the Pleistocene of Peru and its implications for sloth history. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149. Rega, E., et al. (2002). A New Megalonychid Sloth from the Late Wisconsinan of the Dominican Republic. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.38, Numbers 1-2. General Megalonychid Sloths Fields, S.E. (2009). Hypsodonty in the Pleistocene ground sloth Megalonyx: Closing the "diastema" of data. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54(1). Lyon, L.M., et al. (2015). Premaxillae of the Extinct Megalonychid Sloths Acratocnus, Neocnus, and Megalonyx, and Their Phylogenetic Implications (Mammalia, Xenarthra). J.Mammal.Evol., 23(2). Family Megatheriidae (†) Megatheriid Sloths - North America McDonald, H.G. and E.L. Lundelius (2009). The Giant Ground Sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in Texas. In: Papers on Geology, Vertebrate Paleontology, and Biostratigraphy in Honor of Michael O. Woodburne. Albright, L.B. (ed.), Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 65, Flagstaff, Arizona. Megatheriid Sloths - South America/Central America/Caribbean Amson, E., C. De Muizon and T.J. Gaudin (2017). A reappraisal of the phylogeny of the Megatheria (Mammalia: Tardigrada), with an emphasis on the relationships of the Thalassocninae, the marine sloths. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 179. Amson, E., et al. (2015). Osteology and Functional Morphology of the Forelimb of the Marine Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Tardigrada). Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 22(2). (156 pages) Amson, E., et al. (2014). Osteology and Functional Morphology of the Hind Limb of the Marine Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Tardigrada). Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 22(3). Amson, E., et al. (2014). Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru. Proc.R.Soc. B, 281. Bargo, M.S. (2001). The ground sloth Megatherium americanum: Skull shape, bite forces, and diet. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 46(2). Bonini, R.A. and D. Brandoni (2015). Pyramiodontherium Rovereto (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megatheriinae) from the Early Pliocene of San Fernando, Catamarca Province, Argentina. Ameghiniana, Vol.52(6). Brandoni, D. (2006). A review of Pliomegatherium KRAGLEVICH, 1930 (Xenarthra: Phyllophaga: Megatheriidae). N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Mh., 2006(4). Brandoni, D. and A.A. Carlini (2009). On the Presence of Pyramiodontherium (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Late Miocene of Northeastern Argentina and its Biogeographical Implications. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia y Stratigrafia, Vol.115, Number 1. Brandoni, D. and G. De Iuliis (2007). A new genus for the Megatheriinae (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megatheriidae) from the Arroya Chasico Formation (Upper Miocene) of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., Vol.244/1. Brandoni, D., J.E. Powell and O.E. González (2012). Anisodontherium from the Late Miocene of north-western Argentina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57(2). Brandoni, D., E. Soibelzon and A. Scarano (2008). On Megatherium gallardoi (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) and the Megatheriinae from the Ensenedan (lower to middle Pleistocene) of the Pampean Region, Argentina. Geodiversitas, 30(4). Brandoni, D., et al. (2016). Megatheroidea (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada) from the Pinturas Formation (Early Miocene), Santa Cruz Province (Argentina) and their chronological implications. Palaontol. Z. Brandoni, D., et al. (2004). The pes of Pyramiodontherium bergi (Moreno & Mercerat, 1891) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Phyllophaga): the most complete pes of a Tertiary Megatheriinae. Geodiversitas, 26(4). Canto, J., et al. (2008). The Aquatic Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Late Miocene of North-Central Chile: Biogeographic and Ecological Implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(3). Carlini, A.A., D. Brandoni and C.N. Dal Molin (2013). A new genus and species of Planopinae (Xenarthra: Tardigrada) from the Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Zootaxa, 3694(6). Carlini, A.A., D. Brandoni and R. Sanchez (2008). Additions to the knowledge of Urumaquia robusta (Xenarthra, Phyllophaga, Megatheriidae) from the Urumaco Formation (Late Miocene), Estado Falcon, Venezuela. Palaontol.Z., Vol.82/2. Carlini, A.A., D. Brandoni and R. Sanchez (2006). First Megatheriines (Xenarthra, Phyllophaga, Megatheriidae) from the Urumaco (Late Miocene) and Codore (Pliocene) Formations, Estado Falcon, Venezuela. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 4(3). De Iuliis, G., D. Brandoni and G.J. Scillato-Yane (2008). New Remains of Megathericulus patagonius Ameghini, 1904 (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae): Information on Primitive Features of Megatheriines. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(1). De Muizon, C. and H.G. McDonald (1995). An aquatic sloth from the Pliocene of Peru. Nature (Letters), Vol.375. De Muizon, C., et al. (2004). The Youngest Species of the Aquatic Sloth Thalassocnus and a Reassessment of the Relationships of the Nothrothere Sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(2). De Muizon, C., et al. (2004). The Evolution of Feeding Adaptations of the Aquatic Sloth Thalassocnus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(2). De Muizon, C., et al. (2003). A New Early Species of the Aquatic Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Late Miocene of Peru. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(4). Martinelli, A.G., et al. (2012). First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Trîangulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 37. McDonald, H.G. and C. De Muizon (2002). The Cranial Anatomy of Thalassocnus (Xenarthra, Mammalia), A Derived Nothrothere from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation (Peru). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(2). Pujos, F. and G. De Iuliis (2007). Late Oligocene Megatherioidea Fauna (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Salla-Luribay (Bolivia): New Data on Basal Sloth Radiation and Cingulata-Tardigrada Split. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(1). Pujos, F. and R. Salas (2004). A New Species of Megatherium (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megatheriidae) from the Pleistocene of Sacaco and Tres Ventanas, Peru. Palaeontology, Vol.47, Part 3. Pujos, F., G. De Iuliis and B.M. Quispe (2011). Hiskatherium saintandrei, Gen. et Sp.Nov.: An Unusual Sloth from the Santacrucian of Quebrada Honda (Bolivia) and an Overview of Middle Miocene, Small Megatherioids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(5). Pujos, F., et al. (2013). Implication of the presence of Megathericulus (Xenarthra: Tardigrada: Megatheriidae) in the Laventan of Peruvian Amazonia. Journal of Systematic Paleontology, Vol.11, Issue 8. Saint-Andre, P.-A. and G. De Iuliis (2001). The smallest and most ancient representative of the genus Megatherium Cuvier, 1796 (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megatheriidae) from the Pliocene of the Bolivian Altiplano. Geodiversitas, 23(4). General Megatheriid Sloths Amson, E., C. de Muizon and T.J. Gaudin (2016). A reappraisal of the phylogeny of the Megatheria (Mammalia: Tardigrada), with an emphasis on the relationships of the Thalassocninae, the marine sloths. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Buckley, M., et al. (2015). Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium. PLoS ONE, 10(11). De Iuliis, G. (1996). A Systematic Review of the Megatheriinae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megatheriidae). Ph.D. Thesis - University of Toronto. De Iuliis, G., F. Pujos and G. Tito (2009). Systematic and Taxonomic Revision of the Pleistocene Ground Sloth Megatherium (Pseudomegatherium) tarijense (Xenarthra: Megatheriidae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(4). Gill, F.L., et al. (2009). Lipid analysis of a ground sloth coprolite. Quaternary Research, 72.Green, J.L. and D.C. Kalthoff (2015). Xenarthran dental microstructure and dental microwear analysis, with new data for Megatherium americanum (Megatheriidae). Journal of Mammalogy, 96(4). Naples, V.L. and R.K. McAfee (2012). Reconstruction of the cranial musculature and masticatory function of the Pleistocene panamerican ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae). Historical Biology, Vol.24, Number 2. Family Mylodontidae (†) Mylodontid Sloths - North America Brown, B. (1903). A New Genus of Ground Sloth from the Pleistocene of Nebraska. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XIX, Article XXII. Dundas, R.G. and L.M. Cunningham (1993). Harlan's Ground Sloth (Glossotherium harlani) and a Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) from Stevenson Bridge, Yolo County, California.PaleoBios, Vol.15, Number 3. McAfee, R.K. (2009). Reassessment of the cranial characters of Glossotherium and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Mylodontidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155. McAfee, R.K. (2007). Reassessing the Taxonomy and Affinities of the Mylodontinae Sloths, Glossotherium and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Tardigrada). Ph.D. Dissertation - Northern Illinois University. (178 pages) McDonald, H.G. (2012). Harlan's Ground Sloth (Paramylodon harlani) (Xenarthra: Mylodontidae) from the Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) of Iowa. The Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, 119(1-4). McDonald, H.G. (2006). Sexual Dimorphism in the Skull of Harlan's Ground Sloth. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 510. McDonald, H.G., L.D. Agenbroad and C.M. Haden (2004). Late Pleistocene Mylodont Sloth Paramylodon harlani (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Arizona. The Southwestern Naturalist, 49(2). Prothero, D.R. and K.R. Raymond (2011). Stasis in the Late Pleistocene Ground Sloths (Paramylodon harlani) from Rancho La Brea Tar Pits, California. In: Fossil Record 3. Sullivan, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 53. Ruez, D.R. (2005). Diet of Pleistocene Paramylodon harlani (Xenarthra: Mylodontidae): Review of Methods and Preliminary Use of Carbon Isotopes. Texas J.Sci., 57(4). Sinclair, W.J. (1910). Dermal Bones of Paramylodon from the Asphaltum Deposits of Rancho La Brea, near Los Angeles, California. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol.49, Number 195. Stock, C. (1914). The Systematic Position of the Mylodont Sloths from Rancho La Brea. Science, N.S., Vol.XXXIX, Number 1012. Wilson, M.C, H.G. McDonald and C.L. Hill (2005). Fossil Ground Sloths, Megalonyx and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra), from the Doeden Local Fauna, Montana. Current Research in the Pleistocene, Vol.22. Mylodontid Sloths - South America/Central America/Caribbean Bargo, M.S., et al. (2000). Limb-Bone Proportions, Strength and Digging in Some Lujanian (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) Mylodontid Ground Sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(3). Cartelle, C., G. De Iuliis and R.L. Ferreira (2009). 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