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Found 14 results

  1. Devonian Burrows? Fish Poo?

    ID help please! I recently found these strange features in a Devonian rock in Johnson County, Iowa. They are unusual looking enough that I suspect an animal may have been involved in their formation. My first guess was that they were burrows that had filled in with dense crinoid and shell debris, but I'm not sure how that would happen. My second guess was that it could be poop/coprolite from a fish or some other Devonian creature. I didn't have a scale with me, but these would be very large for fish poop. I will post another photo in a separate post below (files are too big). I would be very grateful for any assistance, thank you! Here is a link to a video that may also be helpful:
  2. Trace Fossils from Miocene Potomac

    Hi, longtime lurker first time poster here. I was wondering if you guys can help me ID this concretion my family found years ago near Calvert. I believe it might be a trace fossil of some kind, possibly a burrow or tunnel. I have found similar types at Westmoreland State Park. I can upload pictures from different angles if needed. Any suggestions of what it could be?
  3. Get Lost in Mega-Tunnels Dug by South American Megafauna By Andrew Jenner, March 28, 2017 https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/get-lost-in-mega-tunnels-dug-by-south-american-megafauna This Massive Tunnel in South America Was Dug by Ancient Mega-Sloths, BEC Crew, Science alerts, April 1, 2017 https://www.sciencealert.com/this-massive-tunnel-in-south-america-was-dug-by-ancient-mega-sloths Some online PDFs of papers are: Frank, H.T., Buchmann, F.S.C., Lima, L.G., Fornari, M., Caron, F. and Lopes, R.P., 2012. Cenozoic vertebrate tunnels in southern Brazil. Ichnology of Latin America: selected papers, 2, pp.141-158. http://www.ufrgs.br/paleotocas/Frank_et_al_2012.pdf Frank, H.T., Althaus, C.E., Dario, E.M., Tramontina, F.R., Adriano, R.M., Almeida, M.D.L., Ferreira, G.F., Nogueira, R. and Breier, R., 2017. Underground chamber systems excavated by Cenozoic ground sloths in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 18(2), pp.273-284. http://www.ppegeo.igc.usp.br/index.php/rbp/article/download/10000/9330 http://www.ppegeo.igc.usp.br/index.php/rbp/article/view/10000 Lopes, R.P., Frank, H.T., Buchmann, F.S.D.C. and Caron, F., 2017. Megaichnus igen. nov.: giant paleoburrows attributed to extinct Cenozoic mammals from South America. Ichnos, 24(2), pp.133-145. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308171281_Megaichnus_igen_nov_Giant_Paleoburrows_Attributed_to_Extinct_Cenozoic_Mammals_from_South_America https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Francisco_Buchmann Buchmann, F.S. Frank, H.T., Ferreira, G.F., and Cruz, E.A., 2016, Evidência de vida gregária em paleotocas atribuídas a mylodontidae (preguiças- gigantes). Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia. v. 19 (2). pp. 259-270 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307526053_Evidencia_de_vida_gregaria_em_paleotocas_atribuidas_a_Mylodontidae_preguicas-gigantes https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Francisco_Buchmann Frank, H.T., Lima, L.G., Gerhard, N.P., Caron, F., Buchmann, F.S.C., Fornari, M. and Lopes, R.P., 2013. Description and interpretation of Cenozoic vertebrate ichnofossils in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 16(1), pp.83-96. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273975528_Description_and_interpretation_of_Cenozoic_vertebrate_ichnofossils_in_Rio_Grande_do_Sul_State_Brazil https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Francisco_Buchmann Yours, Paul H.
  4. Hi friends, I have several of these fossils. I think they look like some sort of worm fossil but can't find anything on the internet similar for comparison. I really don't think it is trilobite tracks because it is deeper. Sorry, I could only get 2 of my pictures to upload. Thanks so much, I would really appreciate any info.
  5. Hello everyone! I found this specimen also in a creek on a walk through a local park north of Pittsburgh. Thinking it may be a burrow fossil, but if it is, was wondering if there is an actual scientific name for it, so I know how to file it away accordingly under the proper name. Found the term Cruziana online, and wondering if this would qualify. Does anyone have any opinions? Or, if it is a burrow, is there any way of narrowing down what might have made it i.e. trilobites/arthropods etc? Details: 1) Found in isolation/there were no other similar pieces nearby. 2) Measures about 8-12 inches long. Burrow notches are about the width of a penny. 3) Again, found in Carboniferous territory in Western Pennsylvania found in a creek. Thanks everyone!
  6. I thought this might be something that would be interesting enough for someone to take a stop a Penn Farm one of these days. Penn Farm in Cedar Hill State Park is a very historic and tranquil place in the rolling hills along the Eagle Ford/Austin Chalk contact that is a much loved attraction in the DFW area. I have been going to Penn Farm since I was a very young child, but in April of 2017 I went there with fossils on my mind. In Febuary I had found an ammonite on a rock used to support the door to a cellar (FIG. 37) but had not looked closely at any of the nearby rocks used as stepping stones. As I was going through Penn Farm enjoying the scenery and sights I also scrutinized any rocks that I saw. When I came upon the New Penn Farm House (see map in FIG. 1) I studied the rocks used as stepping stones and started finding both the gracile and robust forms of Collignoniceras woollgari scattered all over many of the rocks with two rocks in particular having the most specimens. It seems that all of the C. woollgari specimens are just impressions. Not sure why. I have since gone back and studied the rocks closer and have identified them as being from the local Kamp Ranch subunit based on the fauna and matrix type. On the rocks, I have found C. woollgari plates, oyster hash, and on the rock first shown in FIG. 25 I found what appears to be some type of shark tooth. I have also looked more closely at the specimen on one of the rocks used to support the door to a cellar that is right next to the stepping stones and I am pretty sure that it is a very large robust C. woollgari. HGMS’ book Texas Cretaceous Ammonites and Nautiloids does say that C. woollgari can have diameters of 200 mm which would place this specimen well within that range, but it is still the largest specimen of this species that I have seen in person if it is indeed C. woollgari. In July, I talked to a couple park rangers about the rocks and they told me that they were aware of them and that when the Penn family originally build the house in 1876 they specifically chose the rocks with fossils on them. It shows the hardiness of the matrix that these rocks have been trampled upon for 142 years and the fossils are still in decent shape. I know I wouldn’t be able to say the same for the Austin Chalk. Here are the pictures. They were taken on Wednesday, April 18, 2018. A ruler is included in many of the photos for scale. FIG 1: Map of Penn Farm.
  7. New depth limit for deep-sea marine burrows University of Leeds, January 10, 2018 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/01/180110080549.htm “Scientists have found fossil evidence of deep-sea marine life burrowing up to eight meters below the seabed -- four times the previously observed depth for modern deep-sea life.” Ancient outcrops give new depth limit for deep-sea burrows http://www.leeds.ac.uk/news/article/4165/ancient_outcrops_give_new_depth_limit_for_deep-sea_burrows The paper is: S. L. Cobain, D. M. Hodgson, J. Peakall, P. B. Wignall, M. R. D. Cobain. A new macrofaunal limit in the deep biosphere revealed by extreme burrow depths in ancient sediments. Scientific Reports, 2018; 8 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-18481-w https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-18481-w Yours, Paul H.
  8. Well it's been a while since I've last been on (over two months), and I know how much you all have been missing me , so I decided to finally get around to photographing some of the finds I've made over the summer. I've talked a bit earlier this year about collecting in the Frederick Limestone and other upper Cambrian-lower Ordovician units, but these finds are from rocks far, far older than those, nearly 100 million years older! These fossils are among some of the oldest in Maryland, and in the Mid-Atlantic region, which was part of the reason I collected them in the first place (because, let's be honest, most aren't that appealing). If you find these things interesting, the Araby was originally mapped as the Antietam Sandstone until about 1940ish when it became a separate geologic formation due to the strong difference in rock-type most common in either (the Antietam is mostly a quartz-sandstone, the Araby mostly a sandy and muddy shale and siltstone). When the time for the split came, the new name Araby was given to the formation that occupied a band roughly stretching from the Potomac River to the south north in a rough question mark shape to Pennsylvania as the type locality was situated near Araby Church (an interesting bit. A geologic formation from the Cambrian explosion named after a church!). Nowadays the church is gone as far as I know, but the area still bears the name with the apply named Araby Church Road. Going back further, in July of 1864, the Araby Formation would play a major role in the Battle of Monocacy. As Confederate forces under Jubal Early's command were marching east along the B&O RR, they were stopped in the vicinity of Frederick by scattered forces under the command of Union General Lew Wallace. During the day long battle (fought July 9), Wallace's outnumbered force of 5,000 men used the hills and small ridges to their east as a last line to stem the Confederate tide, strength roughly 15,000. This ridge, of course, was made up of the resistant Araby Formation, whose clastics didn't erode through time as quickly as the carbonates of the Frederick Limestone. Unfortunately for Wallace and the Union, the Confederates were able to outflank their positions, and forced them to retreat east past Urbana. Although it was a Confederate victory (the northernmost of the war), the battle delayed Early's advance for a crucial 24 hours, allowing reinforcements from the Union 6th Corps near Petersburg to arrive in Washington DC in time to stop the Confederate attacks on July 11-12 at Fort Stevens. Interesting to see how geology plays a role in how battles (and history!) are fought. I collected twice this summer, once in the early part and another time in September, from a roadcut near Frederick. This cut exposes the early Cambrian Araby Formation, which is nearly 550-530 million years old. The Araby is a nearshore clastic unit, likely deposited in a surf/beach zone on the elevated Piedmont block (a fancy term for a higher lying seabed). As such, it roughly correlates to the Antietam Sandstone further west, as well as, more roughly, the Kinzers Formation in Pennsylvania in the upper sections. Geologically speaking, the Araby is divided into coarser, almost buff siltstone and sandstone units and black, slaty-shale and siltstone (this includes the former Cash Smith Shale, which was found out to be in the middle of the Araby upon later work) ones. The darker, shale layers likely were deposited during times of deeper water, as there exists a degree of faunal differences between the two to suggest such (Olenellus thompsoni has been recorded from the black layers, but I never found any). Later, during the Taconic and Acadian Orogenies, the Araby Formation was slightly metamorphosed as were most other Piedmont and Blue Ridge units, though some parts escaped mostly untouched. These, of course, have the best fossils. Boring rock stuff out of the way, the Araby and the Antietam were formed at a special time in Earth's history called the Cambrian Explosion, which was a period when life underwent a rapid series of diversifications. Luckily we didn't miss out much here! Many beds of the Araby are filled with burrows and other traces of ancient wormlike creatures, as well as rarer edioasteroids, trilobites, and other creatures. Unfortunately little work has been done on the Cambrian units of Maryland, and less still on the Araby, so I haven't found any list of actual names for any species. As such, I'll use names from the Antietam Sandstone, as the two are time, stratigraphically, and lithologically equivalent. By far the most common fossils were the worm burrows, Skolithos linearis. These are rounded, somewhat tube shaped objects in their usual form, though they can sometimes occur as cross sections as you'll soon see. On top of this, they're also sometimes preserved in iron minerals, as is common with many other fossils. From what I've gathered, these "tubes" are interpreted to be the resting places of worms, likely annelids. Now, I'm not claiming to know 100% what some of these are so if any of you may have a better ID please let me know. First up are the Skolithos linearis. The first image is of a fairly typical "tube" shaped structure. The second image shows a cross section cut-away of a "tube", partially mineralized in what is likely iron (iii) oxide. The third image is of a large, albeit poorly preserved, complex of "tubes". The general way to tell where they are is by looking for the dark contours of them, and tracing them that way.
  9. A not so lazy sloth...

    Hi all, Came across this, and thought it might interest a few of you: http://interestingengineering.com/these-impressive-tunnels-were-dug-by-ancient-giant-sloths/ Those ground sloths are really my favorite, they're gigantic but still have a cute/gentle look. And they're architectural masters too. Max
  10. Just something for the group, I was just wondering if any one else would like to see a category dedicated to Trace Fossils? I like looking up info and seeing pictures on different Trace Fossils and find myself opening various topics and really finding what I am looking for. I think it could be something as simple as adding it to the "Collections" section with a category titled "Trace Fossils", and that could include sub-categories for trackways, coprolites, burrows, predation evidence, ripple marks / rain drops, trails, etc., or just lump it all under Trace Fossils. If not in the Collections area, it could be placed in the General Fossil Discussion area with a sub-category similar to Micro- Paleontology. Thanks
  11. Can anyone help me identify these. They are coming out of several cliffsides on my property. At first glance they look like bones but they crumble and break easily and appear to have a smooth inside. Surround by seashells and i have found these shark teeth in the mix. This is in south austin close to onion creek, not too far from pilots knob volcano.
  12. Shrimp Coprolite Or Burrows?

    From the album Texas Finds

    Scientific Name: Unknown (Shrimp Coprolite or Borrows)? Found: North Central Texas Date Found: Spring 2014 Formation: Alluvium Qt / Eagle Ford Size: Various
  13. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since July 22, 2018. Ichnofossils (Trace Fossils) Ediacaran/Cambrian Boundary Droser, M.L., S. Jensen and J.G. Gehling (2002). Trace fossils and substrates of the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian transition: Implications for the record of early bilaterans and sediment mixing. PNAS, Vol.99, Number 20. Jensen, S. and T. Palacios (2016). The Ediacaran-Cambrian trace fossil record in the Central Iberian Zone, Iberian Peninsula. Comunicacoes Geologicas, 103, Special 1. Laing, B.A., et al. (2018). Gyrolithes from the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary section in Fortune Head, Newfoundland, Canada: Exploring the onset of complex burrowing. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in press) Parry, L.A., et al. (2017). Ichnological evidence for meiofaunal bilaterians from the terminal Ediacaran and earliest Cambrian of Brazil. Nature Ecology & Evolution, Vol.1. Raina, B.K., et al. (1983). ?Precambrian - Low Lower Cambrian Ichnofossils from the Lolab Valley, Kashmir Himalaya, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.28. Shahkarami, S., M.G. Mangano and L.A. Buatois (2017). Ichnostratigraphy of the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary: new insights on lower Cambrian biozonations from the Soltanieh Formation of Northern Iran. Journal of Paleontology, 91(6). Srivastava, P. (2012). Treptichnus pedum: An Ichnofossil Repesenting Ediacaran - Cambrian Boundary in the Naguar Group, the Marwar Supergroup, Rajasthan, India. Proc. Indian natn.Sci.Acad., 78, Number 2. Cambrian Cambrian Ichnofossils - Africa/Middle East Mangano, M.G., et al. (2013). Exploring the aftermath of the Cambrian explosion: The evolutionary significance of marginal- to shallow-marine ichnofaunas of Jordan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaoecology, 374. Oukassou, M., et al. (2017). Middle to late Cambrian shallow marine trace fossils from the Imfout Syncline (Western Meseta, Morocco): Palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental significance in NW-Gondwana. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 129. Cambrian Ichnofossils - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Lin, J-P., et al (2010). Bioturbation in Burgess Shale-type Lagerstatten - Case study of trace fossil-body fossil association from the Kaili Biota (Cambrian Series 3), Guizhou, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 292. Parcha, S.K., B.P. Singh and B.P. Singh (2005). Palaeoecological significance of ichnofossils from the Early Cambrian succession of the Spiti Valley, Tethys Himalaya, India. Current Science, Vol.88, Number 1. Rai, V. (1987). Additional Trace Fossils from the Tal Formation (Early Cambrian) Mussoorie Hills, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.32. Raina, B.K., et al. (1983). ?Precambrian - Low Lower Cambrian Ichnofossils from the Lolab Valley, Kashmir Himalaya, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.28. Singh, B.P. (2009). Integrated Ichnological and Sedimentological Studies of the Parahio Formation (Cambrian) of the Zanskar Region (Zanskar-Spiti Basin), Northwest Himalaya. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.74. Singh, B.P., et al. (2017). Treptichus Ichnogenus from the Cambrian of India and Bhutan: Its Relevance to the Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.62(1). Tiwari, M., et al. (2013). Ichnology of the Early Cambrian Tal Group, Mussoorie Syncline, Lesser Himalaya, India. J. Earth Syst.Sci., 122, Number 6. Upadhyay, R. and S.K. Parcha (2012). Ichnofossils from the Jadhganga (Nelang) valley, Uttarakashi district, Garhwal Tethys Himalaya, India. Himalayan Geology, Vol.33(1). Weber, B., et al. (2012). A diverse ichnofauna from the Cambrian Stage 4 Wulongqing Formation near Kunming (Yunnan Province, South China). Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(1). Zhang, L.-J., et al. (2017). Middle Cambrian Diplocraterion parallelum from North China: Ethologic significance and facies controls. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 56(2). Zhang, X., W. Liu and Y. Zhao (2008). Cambrian Burgess Shale-type Lagerstatten in South China: Distribution and significance. Gondwana Research, 14. Cambrian Ichnofossils - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Gamez Vintaned, J.A., et al. (2006). Trace and soft body fossils from the Pedroche Formation (Ovetian, Lower Cambrian of the Sierra de Cordoba, S. Spain) and their relation to the Pedroche event. Geobios, 39. Jensen, S. and T. Palacios (2016). The Ediacaran-Cambrian trace fossil record in the Central Iberian Zone, Iberian Peninsula. Comunicacoes Geologicas, 103, Special 1. Jensen, S. and K. Mens (2001). Trace Fossils Didymaulichnus cf. tirasensis and Monomorphichnus isp. from the Estonian Lower Cambrian, With a Discussion on the Early Cambrian Ichnocoenoses of Baltica. Proc.Estonian Acad.Sci.Geol., 50(2). Jensen, S. and S.W.F. Grant (1998). Trace fossils from the Dividalen Group, northern Sweden: implications for Early Cambrian biostratigraphy of Baltica. Norsk Geologisk Tidsscrift, Vol.78. Mikuláš, R. (1995). Trace Fossils from the Paseky Shale (Early Cambrian, Czech Republic). Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 40/4. Mikuláš, R., J. Valicek, and M. Szabad (2002). New finds of ichnofossils from the Middle Cambrian of the Barrandian Area (Czech Republic). Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, Vol.77, Number 1. Orlowski, S. (1989). Trace Fossils in the Lower Cambrian Sequence in the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, Central Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 34(3). Orlowski, S. and A. Zylinska (1996). Non-arthropod burrows from the Middle and Late Cambrian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 41(4). Orlowski, S., A. Radwanski and P. Roniewicz (1971). Ichnospecific variability of the Upper Cambrian Rusophycus from the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.21, Number 3. Pillola, G.L., et al. (1994). The Lower Cambrian ichnospecies Austropolichnus hispanicus: palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographic significance. In: Studies on Ecology and Paleoecology of Benthic Communities. Matteucci, R., et al. (eds.), Boll.Soc.Paleont.Ital., Vol.2, Mucchi, Modena. Rydell, J., J. Hammarlund and A. Seilacher (2001). 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Geology, Vol.35, Number 10. Jurassic Jurassic Ichnofossils - Africa/Middle East Bordy, E.M. (2008). Enigmatic Trace Fossils from the Aeolian Lower Jurassic Clarens Formation, Southern Africa. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.11, Issue 3. Bordy, E.M., et al. (2017). First Lower Jurassic vertebrate burrow from southern Africa (upper Elliot Formation, Karoo Basin, South Africa). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 468. Bordy, E.M., et al. (2009). Possible trace fossils of putative termite origin in the Lower Jurassic (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa and Lesotho. South African Journal of Science, 105. Oukassou, M., et al. (2016). First occurrence of the Ichnogenus Selenichnites from the Middle Jurassic Strata of the Skoura Syncline (Middle Atlas, Morocco); Palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental context. C.R. Palevol, 15. Jurassic Ichnofossils - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Xing, L.-D., et al. (2016). 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Palaeoecologic significance of Late Jurassic trace fossils from the Boulonnais of France. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.53, Number 2. Simo, V. and A. Tomasovych (2013). Trace-fossil assemblages with a new ichnogenus in "spotted" (Fleckenmergl-Fleckenkalk) deposits: a signature of oxygen-limited benthic communities. Geologica Carpathica, 64(5). van de Schootbrugge, B., et al. (2010). The enigmatic ichnofossil Tisoa siphonalis and widespread authigenic seep carbonate formation during the Late Pliensbachian in southern France. Biogeosciences, 7. Wisshak, M. and H. Jantschke (2008). Exceptional preservation of Late Jurassic trace fossils in a modern cave (Muhlbachquellholle, S. Germany).N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 249/1. (thanks to Roberto C for finding this one!) Jurassic Ichnofossils - North America Bader, K.S. (2003). Insect Trace Fossils on Dinosaur Bones from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Northeastern Wyoming, and Their Use in Vertebrate Taphonomy. Masters Thesis - University of Kansas. Good, T.R. and A.A. Ekdale (2014). Paleoecology and Taphonomy of Trace Fossils in the Eolian Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, Northeastern Utah. PALAIOS, Vol.29. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2006). Lower Jurassic Invertebrate Ichnofossils from a Clastic Lake Margin, Johnson Farm, Southwestern Utah. In: The Triassic-Jurassic Terrestrial Transition. Harris, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 37. O'Sullivan, R.B. and J.O. Maberry (1975). Marine Trace Fossils in the Upper Jurassic Bluff Sandstone, Southeastern Utah. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 1395-1 Jurassic Ichnofossils - South America/Central America/Caribbean Dentzien-Dias, P.C., et al. (2007). The Trace Fossil Record from the Guará Formation (Upper Jurassic?), Southern Brazil. Arquivos do Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Vol.65, Number 4. General Jurassic Ichnofossils Danise, S., R.J. Twitchett and K. Matts (2014). Ecological succession of a Jurassic shallow-water ichthyosaur fall. Nature Communications, 5: 4789. Cretaceous Cretaceous Ichnofossils - Africa/Middle East Krassilov, V. and S. Shuklina (2008). Arthropod trace diversity on fossil leaves from the mid-Cretaceous of Negev, Israel. Alavesia, 2. Odumodu, C.F.R. and A.W. Mode (2017). Trace Fossils from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Enugu Formation of the Anambra Basin, South-eastern Nigeria: Implications for Paleoenvironmental Interpretation. MOJ Eco.Environ.Sci., 2(8). Rodriguez-Tovar, F.J., et al. (2016). Ichnological record of palaeoenvironment from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary interval at El Kef, Tunisia: The first study of old and new sections at the stratotype area. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 120. Cretaceous Ichnofossils - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Kotake, N., et al. (2016). First clear evidence that Archaeozostera is not an ancestor of Zosteracean sea-grass but a trace fossil. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 454. Nagendra, R., et al. (2010). Bathymetric Significance of the Ichnofossil Assemblages of the Kulakkalnattam Sandstone, Ariyalur Area, Cauvery Basin. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.76. Patel, S.J., A.D. Shitole and J.K. Joseph (2018). Plug Shaped Burrows Conichnus-Conostichus from the Late Cretaceous of Bagh Group, Gujarat, Western India. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.91. Xing, L.-D., et al. (201X). A new Dromaeosauripus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) ichnospecies from the Lower Cretaceous Hekou Group, , Gansu Province, China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 5X(X). Cretaceous Ichnofossils - Australia/New Zealand Veevers, J.J. (1962). Rhizocorallium in the Lower Cretaceous Rocks of Australia. Commonwealth of Australia, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin Number 62. Cretaceous Ichnofossils - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Bromley, R.G., A.A. Ekdale and B. Richter (1999). New Taenidium (trace fossil) in the Upper Cretaceous chalk of northwestern Europe. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.46. de Carvalho, C.N., P.A. Viegas and M. Cachao (2007). Thalassinoides and its Producer: Populations of Mecochirus Buried Within Their Burow Systems, Boca Do Chapim Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Portugal. Palaios, Vol.22. Donovan, S.K., J.W.M. Jagt and P.P.M.A. Dols (2010). Ichnology of Late Cretaceous echinoids from the Maastrichtian type area (The Netherlands, Belgium) - 2. A pentagonal attachment scar on Echinocorys gr. conoidea(Goldfuss). Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, Number 36. Hurum, J.H., et al. (2006). Tracking polar dinosaurs - new finds from the Lower Cretaceous of Svalbard. Norwegian Journal of Geology, Vol. 86. Jagt, J.W.M. (2007). A Late Cretaceous gastropod homing scar (possibly ichnogenus Lacrimichnus) from southern Limburg, The Netherlands. Scripta Geologica, 134. Jagt, J.W.M., et al. (2007). First record of the ichnofossil Podichnus centrifugalis from the Maastrichtian of northeast Belgium. Bulletin de L'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 77. Kennedy, W.J. and J.D.S. MacDougall (1969). Crustacean Burrows in the Weald Clay (Lower Cretaceous) of South-Eastern England and Their Environmental Significance. Palaeontology, Vol.12, Part 3. Monaco, P., et al. (2005). Lower Cretaceous (Albian) shell-armoured and associated echinoid trace fossils from the Sacaras Formation, Serra Gelada area, southeast Spain. Lethaia, Vol.38. Serpagli, E. (2005). First record of the ichnofossil Atollites from the Late Cretaceous of the Northern Apennines, Italy. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(2). Uchman, A. and P. Tchoumatchenco (2003). A Mixed Assemblage of Deep-sea and Shelf Trace Fossils from the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) Kamchia Formation in the Troyan Region, Central Fore-Balkan, Bulgaria. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, Vol.73. Cretaceous Ichnofossils - North America Boyd, C.A., S.K. Drumheller and T.A. Gates (2013). Crocodyliform Feeding Traces on Juvenile Ornithischian Dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Kaiparowits Formation, Utah. PLoS ONE, 8(2). Everhart, M.J. (2005). Bite marks on an elasmosaur (Sauropterygia; Plesiosauria) paddle from the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) as probable evidence of feeding by the lamniform shark, Cretoxyrhina mantelli. PalArch Foundation - vertebrate palaeontology, 2(2). Fiorillo, A.R., P.J. McCarthy and S.T. Hasiotis (2016). Crayfish burrows from the latest Cretaceous lower Cantwell Formation (Denali National Park, Alaska): Their morphology and paleoclimatic significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441. Frey, R.W. (1970). Trace Fossils of Fort Hays Limestone Member of Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous), West-Central Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 53 (Cretaceous 2). Hall, J.T. (2006). Phosphatic Concretions and Ichnofossil Preservation in a Marine Lagerstatte, Ripley Formation, Central Alabama. Masters Thesis - Auburn University. Noto, C.R., D.J. Main and S.K. Drumheller (2012). Feeding Traces and Paleobiology of a Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Crocodyliform: Example from the Woodbine Formation of Texas. Palaios, Vol.27. Varricchio, D.J., A.J. Martin, and Y. Katsura (2007). First trace and body fossil evidence of a burrowing, denning dinosaur. Proc. R. Soc. B, 274. Cretaceous Ichnofossils - South America/Central America/Caribbean Campos, H.B.N., R.C. Da Silva and J. Milan (2010). Traces of a Large Crocodylian from the Lower Cretaceous Sousa Formation, Brazil. In: Crocodyle tracks and traces. Milàn, J., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 51. Richiano, S. (2015). Environmental factors affecting the development of the Zoophycos ichnofacies in the Lower Cretaceous Rio Mayer Formation (Austral Basin, Patagonia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 439. Rivera-Sylva, H.E., D.W.E. Hone and P. Dodson (2012). Bite marks of a large theropod on an hadrosaur limb bone from Coahuila, Mexico. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, Vol.64, Number 1. Villegas-Martin, J., R. Rojas-Consuegra and A.A. Klompmaker (2016). Drill hole predation on tubes of serpulid polychaetes from the Upper Cretaceous of Cuba. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 455. General Cretaceous Ichnofossils Bednarz, M. and D. McIlroy (2009). Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of "Phycosiphoniform" Burrows: Implications for Identification of Trace Fossils in Core. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.12, Issue 3. Bienkowska-Wasiluk, M., et al. (2015). The trace fossil Lepidenteron lewesiensis: a taphonomic window on diversity of Late Cretaceous fishes. Palaontol.Z., 89(4). Carpenter, K. (1998). Evidence of Predatory Behavior by Carnivorous Dinosaurs. Gaia, Number 15. Schwimmer, D.R. (2010). Bite Marks of the Giant Crocodylian Deinosuchus on Late Cretaceous (Campanian) Bones. In: Crocodyle tracks and traces. Milàn, J., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 51. Underwood, C.J., S.F. Mitchell and C.J. Veltkamp Microborings in mid-Cretaceous fish teeth. Paleocene Aswan, A.R. and T.Z. Oo (2018). Ichnofossils study of paleocene sediment source rock cores from Bintuni basin, West Papua, Eastern Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 162. Bromley, R.G., et al. (2003). Hillichnus lobosensis igen. et isp. nov., a complex trace fossil produced by tellinacean bivalves, Paleocene, Monterey, California, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 192. Milan, J., B.E.K. Lindow and B.W. Lauridsen (2011). Bite traces in a turtle carapace fragment from the middle Danian (Lower Paleocene) bryozoan limestone, Faxe, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.59. Eocene Bown, T.M. and B.C. 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Insect Bone-Modification and the Paleoecology of Oligocene Mammal-Bearing Sites in the Doupov Mountains, Northwestern Bohemia Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 1. Hoganson, J.W. and J.J. Person (2011). Tooth puncture marks on a 30 million year old Dinictis skull. GeoNews, July 2011. Kiel, S., et al. (2010). Fossil traces of the bone-eating worm Osedax in early Oligocene whale bones. PNAS, Vol.107, Number 19. LaGarry, H.E. Taphonomic Evidence of Bone Processing from the Oligocene of Northwestern Nebraska. School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Professional Paper Number 2. Lugn, A.L. (1941). The Origin of Daemonelix. The Journal of Geology, Vol.XLIX, Number 7. Retallack, G.J. (1984). Trace Fossils of Burrowing Beetles and Bees in an Oligocene Paleosol, Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.58, Number 2. Uchman, A., M. Pika-Biolzi and P.A. Hochuli (2004). Oligocene trace fossils from temporary fluvial plain ponds: An example from the Freshwater Molasse of Switzerland. Eclogae geol.Helv., 97. Miocene Atunes, M.T., A.C. Balbino, and L. Ginsburg (2006). Ichnological evidence of a Miocene rhinoceros bitten by a bear-dog (Amphicyon giganteus). Annales de Paleontologie, 92. Belaustegui, Z., et al. (2016). Lepeichnus giberti igen.nov., isp. nov. from the upper Miocene of Lepe (Huelva, SW Spain): Evidence for its origin and development with proposal of a new concept, ichnogeny. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 452. Brustur, T. (2003-2004). An Insect Trace Fossil (Ord. Coleoptera) in the Red Formation from the Bozului Brook Paleontological Rezervation (Vrancea County). Geo-Eco-Marina, 9-10. Cardonatto, M.C. and R.N. Melchor (2018). Large mammal burrows in late Miocene calcic paleosols from central Argentina: paleoenvironment, taphonomy and producers. PeerJ, 6:e4787. (31.1MB) Cardonatto,, M.C., et al. (2016). 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Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2(1). Mueller, P. and T. McCann (2014). Ichnology of the Miocene Jaraba Formation, Almazán Basin, NE Spain - Morphological characteristics and paleoenvironmental implications of distinct continental trace fossils. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., 274/1. Pickerill, R.K., S.K. Donovan and R.W. Portell (2002). Bioerosional Trace Fossils from the Miocene of Carriacou, Lesser Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.38, Numbers 1-2. Pickerill, R.K., S.K. Donovan and R.W. Portell (2001). The Bioerosional Ichnofossil Petroxestes pera Wilson and Palmer from the Middlee Miocene of Carriacou, Lesser Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.37, Number 1-2. Suzuki, A. and N. Hiranaka (2008). Bioerosive structures formed by Miocene rock-boring bivalves in Hokkaido, Japan. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan, Vol.59(7/8). Uchman, A. and J.J. Alvaro (2000). 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