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Found 12 results

  1. I just came back from a surveying trip with some specialists from the museum this weekend, and naturally on the day after they left I happened to come across this oddball... It's really nothing like I've ever seen in the area before. The fossil itself is a piece of fragile lignitic wood inside a sandstone concretion, found in a thin layer of the late cretaceous marine Bearpaw formation associated with trace burrow fossils, and known to be deposited in a near-shore deltaic environment. Very well preserved, fragile lignitic wood is common, as well as other trace burrow fossils (you can see some in the concretion itself), which leads me to believe that these are infilled burrows of some kind (termites?). But I've never seen burrows in fossil wood that look like this, never mind in mud or any other substrate. They look to be too closely clustered together to be burrows, as in most substrates this would cause the walls between them to collapse. I know the chances are astronomically low, and that this almost definitely isn't the case, but this looks the most to me like some sort of fungal colony more than anything. Could it be a trace fossil of some kind of fungus or plant? I only have these photos from the field currently, as the specimen is currently jacketed, but I might have a chance to get some better photos either tomorrow or sometime later this week. (PS, I still find myself unable to upload any images to the forum. I get an error message that says, "The page you are trying to access is not available to guests, but may be available if you sign in.") View of concretion Note the lignitic wood still clinging to the top and bottom of the hollow once presumably filled by it. Left close-up Right close-up Some of the smaller "nodules"
  2. Hi friends, I have several of these fossils. I think they look like some sort of worm fossil but can't find anything on the internet similar for comparison. I really don't think it is trilobite tracks because it is deeper. Sorry, I could only get 2 of my pictures to upload. Thanks so much, I would really appreciate any info.
  3. Hello everyone! I found this specimen also in a creek on a walk through a local park north of Pittsburgh. Thinking it may be a burrow fossil, but if it is, was wondering if there is an actual scientific name for it, so I know how to file it away accordingly under the proper name. Found the term Cruziana online, and wondering if this would qualify. Does anyone have any opinions? Or, if it is a burrow, is there any way of narrowing down what might have made it i.e. trilobites/arthropods etc? Details: 1) Found in isolation/there were no other similar pieces nearby. 2) Measures about 8-12 inches long. Burrow notches are about the width of a penny. 3) Again, found in Carboniferous territory in Western Pennsylvania found in a creek. Thanks everyone!
  4. I thought this might be something that would be interesting enough for someone to take a stop a Penn Farm one of these days. Penn Farm in Cedar Hill State Park is a very historic and tranquil place in the rolling hills along the Eagle Ford/Austin Chalk contact that is a much loved attraction in the DFW area. I have been going to Penn Farm since I was a very young child, but in April of 2017 I went there with fossils on my mind. In Febuary I had found an ammonite on a rock used to support the door to a cellar (FIG. 37) but had not looked closely at any of the nearby rocks used as stepping stones. As I was going through Penn Farm enjoying the scenery and sights I also scrutinized any rocks that I saw. When I came upon the New Penn Farm House (see map in FIG. 1) I studied the rocks used as stepping stones and started finding both the gracile and robust forms of Collignoniceras woollgari scattered all over many of the rocks with two rocks in particular having the most specimens. It seems that all of the C. woollgari specimens are just impressions. Not sure why. I have since gone back and studied the rocks closer and have identified them as being from the local Kamp Ranch subunit based on the fauna and matrix type. On the rocks, I have found C. woollgari plates, oyster hash, and on the rock first shown in FIG. 25 I found what appears to be some type of shark tooth. I have also looked more closely at the specimen on one of the rocks used to support the door to a cellar that is right next to the stepping stones and I am pretty sure that it is a very large robust C. woollgari. HGMS’ book Texas Cretaceous Ammonites and Nautiloids does say that C. woollgari can have diameters of 200 mm which would place this specimen well within that range, but it is still the largest specimen of this species that I have seen in person if it is indeed C. woollgari. In July, I talked to a couple park rangers about the rocks and they told me that they were aware of them and that when the Penn family originally build the house in 1876 they specifically chose the rocks with fossils on them. It shows the hardiness of the matrix that these rocks have been trampled upon for 142 years and the fossils are still in decent shape. I know I wouldn’t be able to say the same for the Austin Chalk. Here are the pictures. They were taken on Wednesday, April 18, 2018. A ruler is included in many of the photos for scale. FIG 1: Map of Penn Farm.
  5. New depth limit for deep-sea marine burrows University of Leeds, January 10, 2018 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/01/180110080549.htm “Scientists have found fossil evidence of deep-sea marine life burrowing up to eight meters below the seabed -- four times the previously observed depth for modern deep-sea life.” Ancient outcrops give new depth limit for deep-sea burrows http://www.leeds.ac.uk/news/article/4165/ancient_outcrops_give_new_depth_limit_for_deep-sea_burrows The paper is: S. L. Cobain, D. M. Hodgson, J. Peakall, P. B. Wignall, M. R. D. Cobain. A new macrofaunal limit in the deep biosphere revealed by extreme burrow depths in ancient sediments. Scientific Reports, 2018; 8 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-18481-w https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-18481-w Yours, Paul H.
  6. Well it's been a while since I've last been on (over two months), and I know how much you all have been missing me , so I decided to finally get around to photographing some of the finds I've made over the summer. I've talked a bit earlier this year about collecting in the Frederick Limestone and other upper Cambrian-lower Ordovician units, but these finds are from rocks far, far older than those, nearly 100 million years older! These fossils are among some of the oldest in Maryland, and in the Mid-Atlantic region, which was part of the reason I collected them in the first place (because, let's be honest, most aren't that appealing). If you find these things interesting, the Araby was originally mapped as the Antietam Sandstone until about 1940ish when it became a separate geologic formation due to the strong difference in rock-type most common in either (the Antietam is mostly a quartz-sandstone, the Araby mostly a sandy and muddy shale and siltstone). When the time for the split came, the new name Araby was given to the formation that occupied a band roughly stretching from the Potomac River to the south north in a rough question mark shape to Pennsylvania as the type locality was situated near Araby Church (an interesting bit. A geologic formation from the Cambrian explosion named after a church!). Nowadays the church is gone as far as I know, but the area still bears the name with the apply named Araby Church Road. Going back further, in July of 1864, the Araby Formation would play a major role in the Battle of Monocacy. As Confederate forces under Jubal Early's command were marching east along the B&O RR, they were stopped in the vicinity of Frederick by scattered forces under the command of Union General Lew Wallace. During the day long battle (fought July 9), Wallace's outnumbered force of 5,000 men used the hills and small ridges to their east as a last line to stem the Confederate tide, strength roughly 15,000. This ridge, of course, was made up of the resistant Araby Formation, whose clastics didn't erode through time as quickly as the carbonates of the Frederick Limestone. Unfortunately for Wallace and the Union, the Confederates were able to outflank their positions, and forced them to retreat east past Urbana. Although it was a Confederate victory (the northernmost of the war), the battle delayed Early's advance for a crucial 24 hours, allowing reinforcements from the Union 6th Corps near Petersburg to arrive in Washington DC in time to stop the Confederate attacks on July 11-12 at Fort Stevens. Interesting to see how geology plays a role in how battles (and history!) are fought. I collected twice this summer, once in the early part and another time in September, from a roadcut near Frederick. This cut exposes the early Cambrian Araby Formation, which is nearly 550-530 million years old. The Araby is a nearshore clastic unit, likely deposited in a surf/beach zone on the elevated Piedmont block (a fancy term for a higher lying seabed). As such, it roughly correlates to the Antietam Sandstone further west, as well as, more roughly, the Kinzers Formation in Pennsylvania in the upper sections. Geologically speaking, the Araby is divided into coarser, almost buff siltstone and sandstone units and black, slaty-shale and siltstone (this includes the former Cash Smith Shale, which was found out to be in the middle of the Araby upon later work) ones. The darker, shale layers likely were deposited during times of deeper water, as there exists a degree of faunal differences between the two to suggest such (Olenellus thompsoni has been recorded from the black layers, but I never found any). Later, during the Taconic and Acadian Orogenies, the Araby Formation was slightly metamorphosed as were most other Piedmont and Blue Ridge units, though some parts escaped mostly untouched. These, of course, have the best fossils. Boring rock stuff out of the way, the Araby and the Antietam were formed at a special time in Earth's history called the Cambrian Explosion, which was a period when life underwent a rapid series of diversifications. Luckily we didn't miss out much here! Many beds of the Araby are filled with burrows and other traces of ancient wormlike creatures, as well as rarer edioasteroids, trilobites, and other creatures. Unfortunately little work has been done on the Cambrian units of Maryland, and less still on the Araby, so I haven't found any list of actual names for any species. As such, I'll use names from the Antietam Sandstone, as the two are time, stratigraphically, and lithologically equivalent. By far the most common fossils were the worm burrows, Skolithos linearis. These are rounded, somewhat tube shaped objects in their usual form, though they can sometimes occur as cross sections as you'll soon see. On top of this, they're also sometimes preserved in iron minerals, as is common with many other fossils. From what I've gathered, these "tubes" are interpreted to be the resting places of worms, likely annelids. Now, I'm not claiming to know 100% what some of these are so if any of you may have a better ID please let me know. First up are the Skolithos linearis. The first image is of a fairly typical "tube" shaped structure. The second image shows a cross section cut-away of a "tube", partially mineralized in what is likely iron (iii) oxide. The third image is of a large, albeit poorly preserved, complex of "tubes". The general way to tell where they are is by looking for the dark contours of them, and tracing them that way.
  7. A not so lazy sloth...

    Hi all, Came across this, and thought it might interest a few of you: http://interestingengineering.com/these-impressive-tunnels-were-dug-by-ancient-giant-sloths/ Those ground sloths are really my favorite, they're gigantic but still have a cute/gentle look. And they're architectural masters too. Max
  8. Just something for the group, I was just wondering if any one else would like to see a category dedicated to Trace Fossils? I like looking up info and seeing pictures on different Trace Fossils and find myself opening various topics and really finding what I am looking for. I think it could be something as simple as adding it to the "Collections" section with a category titled "Trace Fossils", and that could include sub-categories for trackways, coprolites, burrows, predation evidence, ripple marks / rain drops, trails, etc., or just lump it all under Trace Fossils. If not in the Collections area, it could be placed in the General Fossil Discussion area with a sub-category similar to Micro- Paleontology. Thanks
  9. Can anyone help me identify these. They are coming out of several cliffsides on my property. At first glance they look like bones but they crumble and break easily and appear to have a smooth inside. Surround by seashells and i have found these shark teeth in the mix. This is in south austin close to onion creek, not too far from pilots knob volcano.
  10. Shrimp Coprolite Or Burrows?

    From the album Texas Finds

    Scientific Name: Unknown (Shrimp Coprolite or Borrows)? Found: North Central Texas Date Found: Spring 2014 Formation: Alluvium Qt / Eagle Ford Size: Various
  11. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since July 22, 2018. Ichnofossils (Trace Fossils) Ediacaran/Cambrian Boundary Droser, M.L., S. Jensen and J.G. Gehling (2002). Trace fossils and substrates of the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian transition: Implications for the record of early bilaterans and sediment mixing. PNAS, Vol.99, Number 20. Jensen, S. and T. Palacios (2016). The Ediacaran-Cambrian trace fossil record in the Central Iberian Zone, Iberian Peninsula. Comunicacoes Geologicas, 103, Special 1. Laing, B.A., et al. (2018). Gyrolithes from the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary section in Fortune Head, Newfoundland, Canada: Exploring the onset of complex burrowing. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in press) Parry, L.A., et al. (2017). Ichnological evidence for meiofaunal bilaterians from the terminal Ediacaran and earliest Cambrian of Brazil. Nature Ecology & Evolution, Vol.1. Raina, B.K., et al. (1983). ?Precambrian - Low Lower Cambrian Ichnofossils from the Lolab Valley, Kashmir Himalaya, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.28. Shahkarami, S., M.G. Mangano and L.A. Buatois (2017). Ichnostratigraphy of the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary: new insights on lower Cambrian biozonations from the Soltanieh Formation of Northern Iran. Journal of Paleontology, 91(6). Srivastava, P. (2012). Treptichnus pedum: An Ichnofossil Repesenting Ediacaran - Cambrian Boundary in the Naguar Group, the Marwar Supergroup, Rajasthan, India. Proc. Indian natn.Sci.Acad., 78, Number 2. Cambrian Cambrian Ichnofossils - Africa/Middle East Mangano, M.G., et al. (2013). Exploring the aftermath of the Cambrian explosion: The evolutionary significance of marginal- to shallow-marine ichnofaunas of Jordan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaoecology, 374. Oukassou, M., et al. (2017). Middle to late Cambrian shallow marine trace fossils from the Imfout Syncline (Western Meseta, Morocco): Palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental significance in NW-Gondwana. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 129. Cambrian Ichnofossils - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Lin, J-P., et al (2010). Bioturbation in Burgess Shale-type Lagerstatten - Case study of trace fossil-body fossil association from the Kaili Biota (Cambrian Series 3), Guizhou, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 292. Parcha, S.K., B.P. Singh and B.P. Singh (2005). Palaeoecological significance of ichnofossils from the Early Cambrian succession of the Spiti Valley, Tethys Himalaya, India. Current Science, Vol.88, Number 1. Rai, V. (1987). Additional Trace Fossils from the Tal Formation (Early Cambrian) Mussoorie Hills, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.32. Raina, B.K., et al. (1983). ?Precambrian - Low Lower Cambrian Ichnofossils from the Lolab Valley, Kashmir Himalaya, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.28. Singh, B.P. (2009). Integrated Ichnological and Sedimentological Studies of the Parahio Formation (Cambrian) of the Zanskar Region (Zanskar-Spiti Basin), Northwest Himalaya. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.74. Singh, B.P., et al. (2017). Treptichus Ichnogenus from the Cambrian of India and Bhutan: Its Relevance to the Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.62(1). Tiwari, M., et al. (2013). Ichnology of the Early Cambrian Tal Group, Mussoorie Syncline, Lesser Himalaya, India. J. Earth Syst.Sci., 122, Number 6. Upadhyay, R. and S.K. Parcha (2012). Ichnofossils from the Jadhganga (Nelang) valley, Uttarakashi district, Garhwal Tethys Himalaya, India. Himalayan Geology, Vol.33(1). Weber, B., et al. (2012). A diverse ichnofauna from the Cambrian Stage 4 Wulongqing Formation near Kunming (Yunnan Province, South China). Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(1). Zhang, L.-J., et al. (2017). Middle Cambrian Diplocraterion parallelum from North China: Ethologic significance and facies controls. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 56(2). Zhang, X., W. Liu and Y. Zhao (2008). Cambrian Burgess Shale-type Lagerstatten in South China: Distribution and significance. Gondwana Research, 14. Cambrian Ichnofossils - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Gamez Vintaned, J.A., et al. (2006). Trace and soft body fossils from the Pedroche Formation (Ovetian, Lower Cambrian of the Sierra de Cordoba, S. Spain) and their relation to the Pedroche event. Geobios, 39. Jensen, S. and T. Palacios (2016). The Ediacaran-Cambrian trace fossil record in the Central Iberian Zone, Iberian Peninsula. Comunicacoes Geologicas, 103, Special 1. Jensen, S. and K. Mens (2001). Trace Fossils Didymaulichnus cf. tirasensis and Monomorphichnus isp. from the Estonian Lower Cambrian, With a Discussion on the Early Cambrian Ichnocoenoses of Baltica. Proc.Estonian Acad.Sci.Geol., 50(2). Jensen, S. and S.W.F. Grant (1998). Trace fossils from the Dividalen Group, northern Sweden: implications for Early Cambrian biostratigraphy of Baltica. Norsk Geologisk Tidsscrift, Vol.78. Mikuláš, R. (1995). Trace Fossils from the Paseky Shale (Early Cambrian, Czech Republic). Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 40/4. Mikuláš, R., J. Valicek, and M. Szabad (2002). New finds of ichnofossils from the Middle Cambrian of the Barrandian Area (Czech Republic). Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, Vol.77, Number 1. Orlowski, S. (1989). Trace Fossils in the Lower Cambrian Sequence in the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, Central Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 34(3). Orlowski, S. and A. Zylinska (1996). Non-arthropod burrows from the Middle and Late Cambrian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 41(4). Orlowski, S., A. Radwanski and P. Roniewicz (1971). Ichnospecific variability of the Upper Cambrian Rusophycus from the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.21, Number 3. Pillola, G.L., et al. (1994). The Lower Cambrian ichnospecies Austropolichnus hispanicus: palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographic significance. In: Studies on Ecology and Paleoecology of Benthic Communities. Matteucci, R., et al. (eds.), Boll.Soc.Paleont.Ital., Vol.2, Mucchi, Modena. Rydell, J., J. Hammarlund and A. Seilacher (2001). Trace fossil association in the Swedish Mickwitzia sandstone (Lower Cambrian): Did trilobites really hunt for worms? GFF, Vol.123. Sadlok, G. (2014). Rusophycus inexpectus Isp.Nov. from the Furongian (Upper Cambrian) of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, Vol.84. Sadlok, G. (2013). Compaction-Related Style of Rusophycus Preservation from Furongian (Upper Cambrian) of Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, Vol.83. Sadlok, G. and M. Machalski (2010). The trace fossil Rusophycus versans from the Furongian (Upper Cambrian) of central Poland - an example of behavioural convergence amongst arthropods. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 1. Savazzi, E. (2012). A reassessment of the Lower Cambrian psammocoral Spatangopsis costata. Paleontological Research, Vol.16, Number 2. Stachacz, M. (2012). New finds of Rusophycus from the Lower Cambrian Ocieseki Standstone Formation (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). Geological Quarterly, 56(2). Vizcaïno, D., J.J. Álvaro and É. Monceret (2004). Trilobites and ichnofossils from a new fossil Lagerstätte in the Lower Cambrian Pardailhan Formation, southern Montagne Noire, France. Geobios, 37. Zamora, S., et al. (2011). Exoskeletal abnormalities in paradoxidiid trilobites from the Cambrian of Spain, and a new type of bite trace. Bulletin of Geosciences, 86(3). (Thanks to piranha for finding this one!) Cambrian Ichnofossils - North America Alpert, S.P. (1976). Trilobite and Star-Like Trace Fossils from the White-Inyo Mountains, California. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.50, Number 2. Bullock, R.J., J.R. Morris and D. Selby (2011). New Findings of Body and Trace Fossils in the St. Bride's Area, Cape St. Mary's Peninsula, Newfoundland. Current Research (2011) Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Report 11-1. Knaust, D., R.D.K. Thomas and H.A. Curran (2018). 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Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 3. Carboniferous Ichnofossils - North America Bandel, K. (1967). Isopod and Limulid Marks and Trails in Tonganoxie Sandstone (Upper Pennsylvanian) of Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 19. Bandel, K. (1967). Trace Fossils from Two Upper Pennsylvanian Sandstones in Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 18. Falcon-Lang, H.J., et al. (2015). Mid-Carboniferous diversification of continental ecosystems inferred from trace fossil suites in the Tynemouth Creek Formations of New Brunswick, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 440. Hakes, W.G. (1976). Trace Fossils and Depositional Environment of Four Clastic Units, Upper Pennsylvanian Megacyclothems, Northeast Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 63. Irmis, R.B. and D.K. Elliott (2006). 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Marchetti, L., et al. (2015). The Gerola Valley site (Orobic Basin, Northern Italy): A key for understanding late Early Permian tetrapod ichnofaunas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 439. McCahon, T.J. and K.B. Miller (2015). Environmental significance of lungfish burrows (Gnathorhiza) within Lower Permian (Wolfcampian) paleosols of the US midcontinent. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 435. Minter, N.J., et al. (2008). Augerinoichnus helioidalis, A New Helical Trace Fossil from the Nonmarine Permian of New Mexico. J.Paleont., 82(6). (Thanks to piranha for re-locating this one!) Ortega-Hernandez, J. (2009). Misplaced trace fossils in unlikely environments. Geology Today, Vol.25, Number 2. Santi, G. (2005). Lower Permian Palaeoichnology from the Orobic Basin (Northern Italy). GeoAlp, Vol.2, S. Triassic Triassic Ichnofossils - Africa/Middle East Abbassi, N., R. Shabanian and R. Hamede Golparvar (2015). Environmental impacts on ichnofossil diversity of the lower part of the Elika Formation (Lower Triassic), Moro Mountain, NW Iran. Iranian Journal of Science & Technology, 39A3. Bordy, E.M. and W.M. Krummeck (2016). Enigmatic Continental Burrows from the Early Triassic Transition of the Katberg and Burgersdorp Formations in the Main Karoo Basin, South Africa. Palaios, Vol.31. Vaziri, S.H. and F.T. Fursich (2007). Middle to Upper Triassic Deep-Water Trace Fossils from the Ashin Formation, Nakhlak Area, Central Iran. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 18(3). Wetzel, A., et al. (2007). A Highly Diverse Ichnofauna in Late Triassic Deep-Sea Fan Deposits of Oman. Palaios, Vol.22. Triassic Ichnofossils - Antarctica De Souza Carvalho, I., et al. (2005). The Ichnofossils of the Triassic Hope Bay Formation, Trinity Peninsula Group, Antarctic Peninsula. Ichnos, 12. Hasiotis, S.T., et al. (2004). Vertebrate Burrows from Triassic and Jurassic Continental Deposits of North America and Antarctica: Their Paleoenvironmental and Paleoecological Significance. Ichnos, 11. Triassic Ichnofossils - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Zhang, L.-J., et al. (2016). Early Triassic estuarine depauperate Cruziana Ichnofacies from the Sichuan area of South China and its implications for the biotic recovery in brackish-water settings after the end-Permian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in press) Triassic Ichnofossils - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Avanzini, M. and P. Mietto (2008). The occurrence of the vertebrate ichnogenus Synaptichnium in the Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Southern Alps. Studi Trent.Sci.Nat., Acta Geol., 83. Bernardi, M. and M. Avanzini (2011). Asteriacites lumbricalis from the Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Vallarsa (Southern Trentino, NE Italy). Studi Trent.Sci.Nat., 88. Klompmaker, A.A., A. Nutzel and A. Kaim (2016). Drill hole convergence and a quantitative analysis of drill holes in mollusks and brachiopods from the Triassic of Italy and Poland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 457. Niedzwiedzki, G. (2011). A Late Triassic dinosaur-dominated ichnofauna from the Tomanova Formation of the Tatra Mountains, Central Europe. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(2). Simo, V. and M. Olsavsky (2007). Diplocraterion parallelum Torell, 1870, and other trace fossils from the Lower Triassic successions of the Drienok Nappe in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia. Bulletin of Geosciences, 82(2). Todesco, R. and M. Avanzini (2008). First record of the fish ichnofossil Undichna from the Middle Triassic of Italy. Studi Trent.Sci.Nat., Acta Geol., 83. Triassic Ichnofossils - North America Fraser, N.C. and P.E. Olsen (1996). A New Dinosauromorph Ichnogenus from the Triassic of Virginia. Jeffersoniana, Number 7. Good, T.R. and A.A. Ekdale (2014). Paleoecology and Taphonomy of Trace Fossils in the Eolian Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, Northeastern Utah. PALAIOS, Vol.29. Hasiotis, S.T., et al. (2004). Vertebrate Burrows from Triassic and Jurassic Continental Deposits of North America and Antarctica: Their Paleoenvironmental and Paleoecological Significance. Ichnos, 11. Triassic Ichnofossils - South America/Central America/Caribbean Da Silva, R.C., I. De Souza Carvalho and C. Schwanke (2007). Vertebrate dinoturbation from the Caturrita Formation (Late Triassic, Parana Basin), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Gondwana Research, 11. Paes Neto, V.D., et al. (2016). Oldest evidence of osteophagic behavior by insects from the Triassic of Brazil. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 453. General Triassic Ichnofossils Beatty, T.W., J.-P. Zonneveld and C.M. Henderson (2008). Anomalously diverse Early Triassic ichnofossil assemblages in northwest Pangea: A case for a shallow-marine habitable zone. Geology, Vol.35, Number 10. Jurassic Jurassic Ichnofossils - Africa/Middle East Bordy, E.M. (2008). Enigmatic Trace Fossils from the Aeolian Lower Jurassic Clarens Formation, Southern Africa. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.11, Issue 3. Bordy, E.M., et al. (2017). First Lower Jurassic vertebrate burrow from southern Africa (upper Elliot Formation, Karoo Basin, South Africa). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 468. Bordy, E.M., et al. (2009). Possible trace fossils of putative termite origin in the Lower Jurassic (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa and Lesotho. South African Journal of Science, 105. Oukassou, M., et al. (2016). First occurrence of the Ichnogenus Selenichnites from the Middle Jurassic Strata of the Skoura Syncline (Middle Atlas, Morocco); Palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental context. C.R. Palevol, 15. Jurassic Ichnofossils - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Xing, L.-D., et al. (2016). Middle Jurassic tetrapod burrows preserved in association with the large sauropod Omeisaurus jiaoi from the Sichuan Basin, China. Historical Biology, 2016. Jurassic Ichnofossils - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Avanzini, M., L. Pinuela and J.C. Garcia-Ramos (2008). Theropod Palaeopathology inferred from a Late Jurassic trackway, Asturias (N.Spain). Oryctos, Vol.8. de Carvalho, C.N., et al. (2010). Patterns of occurrence and distribution of crustacean ichnofossils in the Lower Jurassic - Upper Cretaceous of Atlantic occidental margin basins, Portugal. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 1. Evans, J.N. and D. McIlroy (2016). Palaeobiology of Schaubcylindichnus heberti comb.nov. from the Lower Jurassic of Northeast England. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Paleoecology, 449. Mateus, O. and J. Milan (2008). Ichnological evidence for giant ornithopod dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Lourinha Formation, Portugal. Oryctos, Vol.8. Schlirf, M. (2003). 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Masters Thesis - University of Kansas. Good, T.R. and A.A. Ekdale (2014). Paleoecology and Taphonomy of Trace Fossils in the Eolian Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, Northeastern Utah. PALAIOS, Vol.29. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2006). Lower Jurassic Invertebrate Ichnofossils from a Clastic Lake Margin, Johnson Farm, Southwestern Utah. In: The Triassic-Jurassic Terrestrial Transition. Harris, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 37. O'Sullivan, R.B. and J.O. Maberry (1975). Marine Trace Fossils in the Upper Jurassic Bluff Sandstone, Southeastern Utah. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 1395-1 Jurassic Ichnofossils - South America/Central America/Caribbean Dentzien-Dias, P.C., et al. (2007). The Trace Fossil Record from the Guará Formation (Upper Jurassic?), Southern Brazil. Arquivos do Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Vol.65, Number 4. General Jurassic Ichnofossils Danise, S., R.J. Twitchett and K. Matts (2014). 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Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 454. Nagendra, R., et al. (2010). Bathymetric Significance of the Ichnofossil Assemblages of the Kulakkalnattam Sandstone, Ariyalur Area, Cauvery Basin. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.76. Patel, S.J., A.D. Shitole and J.K. Joseph (2018). Plug Shaped Burrows Conichnus-Conostichus from the Late Cretaceous of Bagh Group, Gujarat, Western India. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.91. Xing, L.-D., et al. (201X). A new Dromaeosauripus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) ichnospecies from the Lower Cretaceous Hekou Group, , Gansu Province, China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 5X(X). Cretaceous Ichnofossils - Australia/New Zealand Veevers, J.J. (1962). Rhizocorallium in the Lower Cretaceous Rocks of Australia. Commonwealth of Australia, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin Number 62. Cretaceous Ichnofossils - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Bromley, R.G., A.A. Ekdale and B. Richter (1999). New Taenidium (trace fossil) in the Upper Cretaceous chalk of northwestern Europe. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.46. de Carvalho, C.N., P.A. Viegas and M. Cachao (2007). Thalassinoides and its Producer: Populations of Mecochirus Buried Within Their Burow Systems, Boca Do Chapim Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Portugal. Palaios, Vol.22. Donovan, S.K., J.W.M. Jagt and P.P.M.A. Dols (2010). Ichnology of Late Cretaceous echinoids from the Maastrichtian type area (The Netherlands, Belgium) - 2. A pentagonal attachment scar on Echinocorys gr. conoidea(Goldfuss). Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, Number 36. Hurum, J.H., et al. (2006). Tracking polar dinosaurs - new finds from the Lower Cretaceous of Svalbard. Norwegian Journal of Geology, Vol. 86. Jagt, J.W.M. (2007). A Late Cretaceous gastropod homing scar (possibly ichnogenus Lacrimichnus) from southern Limburg, The Netherlands. Scripta Geologica, 134. Jagt, J.W.M., et al. (2007). 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Cretaceous Ichnofossils - North America Boyd, C.A., S.K. Drumheller and T.A. Gates (2013). Crocodyliform Feeding Traces on Juvenile Ornithischian Dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Kaiparowits Formation, Utah. PLoS ONE, 8(2). Everhart, M.J. (2005). Bite marks on an elasmosaur (Sauropterygia; Plesiosauria) paddle from the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) as probable evidence of feeding by the lamniform shark, Cretoxyrhina mantelli. PalArch Foundation - vertebrate palaeontology, 2(2). Fiorillo, A.R., P.J. McCarthy and S.T. Hasiotis (2016). Crayfish burrows from the latest Cretaceous lower Cantwell Formation (Denali National Park, Alaska): Their morphology and paleoclimatic significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441. Frey, R.W. (1970). Trace Fossils of Fort Hays Limestone Member of Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous), West-Central Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 53 (Cretaceous 2). Hall, J.T. (2006). Phosphatic Concretions and Ichnofossil Preservation in a Marine Lagerstatte, Ripley Formation, Central Alabama. Masters Thesis - Auburn University. Noto, C.R., D.J. Main and S.K. Drumheller (2012). Feeding Traces and Paleobiology of a Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Crocodyliform: Example from the Woodbine Formation of Texas. Palaios, Vol.27. Varricchio, D.J., A.J. Martin, and Y. Katsura (2007). First trace and body fossil evidence of a burrowing, denning dinosaur. Proc. R. Soc. B, 274. Cretaceous Ichnofossils - South America/Central America/Caribbean Campos, H.B.N., R.C. Da Silva and J. Milan (2010). Traces of a Large Crocodylian from the Lower Cretaceous Sousa Formation, Brazil. In: Crocodyle tracks and traces. Milàn, J., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 51. Richiano, S. (2015). Environmental factors affecting the development of the Zoophycos ichnofacies in the Lower Cretaceous Rio Mayer Formation (Austral Basin, Patagonia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 439. Rivera-Sylva, H.E., D.W.E. Hone and P. Dodson (2012). Bite marks of a large theropod on an hadrosaur limb bone from Coahuila, Mexico. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, Vol.64, Number 1. Villegas-Martin, J., R. Rojas-Consuegra and A.A. Klompmaker (2016). Drill hole predation on tubes of serpulid polychaetes from the Upper Cretaceous of Cuba. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 455. General Cretaceous Ichnofossils Bednarz, M. and D. McIlroy (2009). Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of "Phycosiphoniform" Burrows: Implications for Identification of Trace Fossils in Core. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.12, Issue 3. Bienkowska-Wasiluk, M., et al. (2015). The trace fossil Lepidenteron lewesiensis: a taphonomic window on diversity of Late Cretaceous fishes. Palaontol.Z., 89(4). Carpenter, K. (1998). Evidence of Predatory Behavior by Carnivorous Dinosaurs. Gaia, Number 15. Schwimmer, D.R. (2010). Bite Marks of the Giant Crocodylian Deinosuchus on Late Cretaceous (Campanian) Bones. In: Crocodyle tracks and traces. Milàn, J., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 51. Underwood, C.J., S.F. Mitchell and C.J. Veltkamp Microborings in mid-Cretaceous fish teeth. Paleocene Aswan, A.R. and T.Z. Oo (2018). Ichnofossils study of paleocene sediment source rock cores from Bintuni basin, West Papua, Eastern Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 162. Bromley, R.G., et al. (2003). Hillichnus lobosensis igen. et isp. nov., a complex trace fossil produced by tellinacean bivalves, Paleocene, Monterey, California, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 192. Milan, J., B.E.K. Lindow and B.W. Lauridsen (2011). Bite traces in a turtle carapace fragment from the middle Danian (Lower Paleocene) bryozoan limestone, Faxe, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.59. Eocene Bown, T.M. and B.C. Ratcliffe (1988). The Origin of Chubutolithes Ihering, Ichnofossils from the Eocene and Oligocene of Chubut Province, Argentina. J.Paleont., 62(2). Demircan, H. and A. Uchman (2010). Kiss of death of a hunting fish: trace fossil Osculichnus labialis igen. et isp. nov. from late Eocene - early Oligocene prodelta sediments of the Mezardere Formation, Thrace Basin, NW Turkey. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 1. Martin, A.J., G.M. Vazquez-Prokopec and M. Page (2010). First Known Feeding Trace of the Eocene Bottom-Dwelling Fish Notogoneus osculus and its Paleontological Significance. PLoS ONE, 5(5). Starek, D. and V. Simo (2015). Trace fossils from Eocene turbiditic deposits: A case study from the Slovak-Moravian Carpathians. Acta Geologica Slovaca, 7(2). Oligocene Bernardi, M., et al. (2010). Echinoid burrows Bichordites monastiriensis from the Oligocene of NE Italy. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(3). Fejfar, O. and T.M. Kaiser (2005). Insect Bone-Modification and the Paleoecology of Oligocene Mammal-Bearing Sites in the Doupov Mountains, Northwestern Bohemia Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 1. Hoganson, J.W. and J.J. Person (2011). Tooth puncture marks on a 30 million year old Dinictis skull. GeoNews, July 2011. Kiel, S., et al. (2010). Fossil traces of the bone-eating worm Osedax in early Oligocene whale bones. PNAS, Vol.107, Number 19. LaGarry, H.E. Taphonomic Evidence of Bone Processing from the Oligocene of Northwestern Nebraska. School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Professional Paper Number 2. Lugn, A.L. (1941). The Origin of Daemonelix. The Journal of Geology, Vol.XLIX, Number 7. Retallack, G.J. (1984). Trace Fossils of Burrowing Beetles and Bees in an Oligocene Paleosol, Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.58, Number 2. Uchman, A., M. Pika-Biolzi and P.A. Hochuli (2004). Oligocene trace fossils from temporary fluvial plain ponds: An example from the Freshwater Molasse of Switzerland. Eclogae geol.Helv., 97. Miocene Atunes, M.T., A.C. Balbino, and L. Ginsburg (2006). Ichnological evidence of a Miocene rhinoceros bitten by a bear-dog (Amphicyon giganteus). Annales de Paleontologie, 92. Belaustegui, Z., et al. (2016). Lepeichnus giberti igen.nov., isp. nov. from the upper Miocene of Lepe (Huelva, SW Spain): Evidence for its origin and development with proposal of a new concept, ichnogeny. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 452. Brustur, T. (2003-2004). An Insect Trace Fossil (Ord. Coleoptera) in the Red Formation from the Bozului Brook Paleontological Rezervation (Vrancea County). Geo-Eco-Marina, 9-10. Cardonatto, M.C. and R.N. Melchor (2018). Large mammal burrows in late Miocene calcic paleosols from central Argentina: paleoenvironment, taphonomy and producers. PeerJ, 6:e4787. (31.1MB) Cardonatto,, M.C., et al. (2016). 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Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2(1). Mueller, P. and T. McCann (2014). Ichnology of the Miocene Jaraba Formation, Almazán Basin, NE Spain - Morphological characteristics and paleoenvironmental implications of distinct continental trace fossils. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., 274/1. Pickerill, R.K., S.K. Donovan and R.W. Portell (2002). Bioerosional Trace Fossils from the Miocene of Carriacou, Lesser Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.38, Numbers 1-2. Pickerill, R.K., S.K. Donovan and R.W. Portell (2001). The Bioerosional Ichnofossil Petroxestes pera Wilson and Palmer from the Middlee Miocene of Carriacou, Lesser Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.37, Number 1-2. Suzuki, A. and N. Hiranaka (2008). Bioerosive structures formed by Miocene rock-boring bivalves in Hokkaido, Japan. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan, Vol.59(7/8). Uchman, A. and J.J. Alvaro (2000). 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