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Found 416 results

  1. Unidentified Fern

    Hi All, I'm having a hard time nailing down an exact ID for this large fern imprint I found earlier this month. This imprint is from the Pennsylvanian time period and was found in the Rhode Island Formation. below I've included a list of the possible suspects/known flora from the Rhode Island Formation. Right now my leading candidate is Pecopteris lepidorachis. It doesn't help that fossils from the Rhode Island Formation are often distorted. This distortion can be seen in the close up image of the pinnules below. The red arrows are pointing to pinnules I believe are the way they should look versus distorted. Anyone have any ideas as to an ID?? Thanks as always!
  2. The Ferns are Growing!

    Well... I seem to be turning into a Rhode Island native at this point. This past weekend I was able to head down to Cory's Lane for an afternoon of digging. Here's my latest find from the Carboniferous period. This fern still needs to be cleaned up a bit and I'm still trying to nail down an exact ID. At just over 3 feet long this is now my biggest and most complete find to date (1-upped myself again). More pics to come once I finish cleaning this guy up. P.S. This was definitely not fun to carry back to the car . I couldn't save the entire second half of this fern as it was partially destroyed when I ripped up the 8 foot slab of rock this fossil was on. I did manage to save the middle section at least!
  3. Hi, I've started to do a little exploring around the lower Hunter. Started off with some of the more well known sites mention elsewhere in this forum, also some of the fossil localities marked on the 1;100,000 geological series (Camberwell, Dungog, Bulahdelah) http://www.resourcesandenergy.nsw.gov.au/miners-and-explorers/geoscience-information/products-and-data/maps/geological-maps/1-100-000 The explanatory notes focus on geology, but also give a little info on fossils. Some localities yield very little, others more rewarding. My first Trilobite (Pygidium?), from the Williams River, (Bonnington Formation, early Carboniferous, 340Ma). Not that easy to find, took a lot of rock splitting. On the left, fragmented Crinoids, from the Williams River. On the right, Crinoid (arm with pinnules?) and a Bryozoan, from Cedar Tree Creek,(Ararat formation, early Carboniferous, 350Ma). Williams River has quite a bit of marine fauna, but it is mostly fragmented or crushed. In some rocks it forms a layer 5mm thick. I could use a little help with this one! On the right is a "piece of shell" I picked up at Cedar Tree Creek, it was unattached on a sandy/pebbly bank. I was going to pass it by, thinking it a modern species. But not being sure, put it in my bag ïncase". On the left is a specimen from Kitchener, (Branxton formation, mid Permian, 265Ma). Uncanny resemblance! Is there enough of it for ID? If it is the same, is it likely to have made it thru the extinction event to modern times? My best guess is Spiriferid, (Neospirifer??), but only based on the size and fine plications. Most Spiriferid became extinct at the end of the Permian. Cheers, Mike.
  4. Our Fossilicious Summer

    WHAT WE LEARNED IN OUR FIRST FOSSIL HUNTING SUMMER This is a short recap of what we learned on our fossil trips this summer, in our first 3 months as very new fossil collectors. This week, Nancy and I gave a slide presentation on our summer fossil hunting experiences, to the Delaware Valley Paleontological Society. We didn't realize it ourselves but in 3 months we visited 8 sites in Pennsylvania and New York including: Antes Creek, Deer Lake, Red Hill, Juniata County, McIntyre Mountain, Montour and St. Clair in Pennsylvania, and a very productive trip to Tully, NY. We visited St. Clair 4 times, which has become our home site. At St. Clair, we were astonished by the diversity of species - we collected well articulated samples of more than a dozen species including: Alethopteris, Annularia, Asterophyllites, Cordaites, Cyclopteris, Eusphenopteris, Lepidophylloides, Neuropteris, Odontopteris, Pecopteris, Sphenophyllum, Sphenopteris, and numerous Seeds, Bark, Roots. Most notably - I learned to pronounce all of these without stuttering! At St. Clair, we spent one trip looking exclusively for seeds trigonocarpus), and one trip looking just for roots (stigmaria). Our most significant finds have included very large (2 foot long) display pieces covered with well articulated orange ferns, an alethopteris seed attached to a leaf stem, and many Carboniferous leaves that have different shapes from traditional ferns. What we learned this summer has really helped us find some interesting fossils - here are a few things we did that helped a lot: 1. DOING OUR HOMEWORK. It helped to study each site in advance using Internet websites and books on fossils (Dave's "Views of the Mahantango" and "Louisville Fossils" are among the best, imho). Several universities also have great educational sites that bring each era to life in very creative and interesting ways, with lots of illustrations and photos. I like the UC-Berkeleyand University of West Virginia websites. 2. LEARNING FROM TRIP REPORTS. We read trip reports from other groups and individuals to see what they reported - sometimes this helps us stumble across new places to visit such as the site at Tully, NY and Deer Lake. 3. SETTING GOALS AND TARGETS FOR EACH TRIP. For each trip, we establish specific goals - for example we may look for seeds, or roots at St. Clair, or trilobites or shell assemblages at a Devonian site. Our interest right now is in looking for things that are scarce or rare, and fossils that are extremely well articulated (which is also rare!). We also like solving puzzles so eventually we would like to find things that help add to the fossil record in areas where there are still questions or missing links. 4. DISPLAYING WHAT WE FIND. Personally, Nancy and I like collecting larger fossils that we can display in mounts and frames, and we are also looking for larger pieces that we can display like sculptures - we have a few pieces that we drilled holes in, inserted wooden dowels that we stained, and then drilled/inserted the dowels in wooden trophy bases - all available from a craft store. This allows us to display thicker fossils esp. assemblages, like sculptures, and you can turn them around and look at all sides when they are mounted like this. 5. WE AVOID FOSSIL HORDING. We both agreed that we would NOT become "fossil horders" putting hundreds of rocks in boxes and sticking them away in the basement or garage - instead, we focus on finding display-quality items, and rare or scarce finds which we are slowly putting in frames. 6. DOCUMENTING OUR FINDS WITH CLOSEUP PHOTOS. We photograph everything we find as soon as possible after returning from a trip, using a digital camera with a closeup attachment - many times we find new discoveries while taking closeup photos and some of our best finds came AFTER we returned from the trip and inspected our fossils. I usually put the finds on a white background on an ironing board and use window light, nothing fancy, but it works. 7. FOSSIL ID. We post anything we can't identify on the Fossil Forum and are EXTREMELY grateful for the terrific response from our friends on the site! We are also accumulating a growing library of fossil books (some modern, some from the 19th and early 20th century) so we can identify more fossils ourselves without having to post on Fossil ID. 8. WRITING ABOUT OUR EXPERIENCES GIVES US NEW INSIGHTS. We report everything that interests and excites us about fossil hunting on Fossil Forum to share our experiences - and we find that writing about what we're doing helps us learn more and gain insights, just from writing about it. We have also started videotaping some of our adventures and are thinking about the best place to post some of these. 9. WINTER PLANS: COPING WITH CABIN FEVER. Our winter plans are to visit one or two more sites, then go into "fossil hibernation" and organize, identify and label fossils we haven't processed yet. We have a Dremel to do some light preservation work where needed. We are not planning to become "chemical conservators" - using chemicals to dissolve limestone and so forth - that's a bit too ambitious for us at this point. We may get involved in some interesting activities by local universities that are using 3D printing to process and replicate large dinosaur bones. We are also planning to provide an exhibit (on Carboniferous plants and trees/coal swamps) at a fossil fair in April. 10. RECOMMENDED READING: I enjoy reading fossil books - I'm currently reading with great interest a small book entitled "Leaves and Stems from Fossil Forests" by Raymond E. Janssen (1939) which I bought last night at the DVPS meeting, and a textbook entitled Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record by Benton and Harper (2008) (excellent book). The book that has been the most useful to me so far is the classic book "Fossil Collecting in Pennsylvania" by Hoskins et. al. (3rd ed. 1983). I am constantly re-reading the Hoskins book and find something new each time as my knowledge grows. A book that impressed Nancy and me is a large beautifully illustrated book entitled "Prehistoric Life: The Definitive Visual History of Life on Earth" (published by Dorling Kindersley, 2012) UPDATE (Oct 11): Nancy is taking some college courses which are prerequisites to enter grad school, so I am doing most of the fossil reading and ID. I read several books at the same time and other books I purchased that I am currently reading are: Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants (second edition) by Thomas Taylor; and Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record by Benton and Harper. I guess you can tell from this that I'm reading up on fossil plants - my main interest is not just to understand the evolution and fossil record, identification tips, etc. - but also to try to figure out where the missing links and gaps are so if we come across something that adds to the fossil record, we will be able to recognize the value. What is most surprising is that there is a lot missing from the Carboniferous record - partly because after this period, many of the oceans and swamps apparently dried up and there were ice ages and other factors that caused mass extinctions. Here are some interesting things I have learned this summer about Fossil Plants and Trees: 1. More Carboniferous insect fossils and evidence of insects are needed (by the way, there are some GREAT current discussions about insects on this forum!). 2. Many categories of lycopsids and other Carboniferous trees and plants do not have verified associations between the leaves and seeds, or leaves and trunks/stems. Many trigonocarpus (fossilized seeds and "fruits") are found with leaves, but examples of seeds actually ATTACHED to leaf sprigs are rare (we have found one example of a seed attached to Alethopteris). 3. More Leaf and Bark Verifications are Needed. Another interesting thing I learned is that there are more than 30 different types of "scale tree" patterns but only half a dozen leaves for these trees - suggesting that a lot of different species had the same leaves - or - there are a lot of missing leaf types or the existing leaf types have not been matched to the bark patterns yet. 4. Another peculiar revelation is that most Carboniferous leaves that do not fall neatly into classic fern shapes seem to be lumped together as "sphenopteris" - we have many "non-traditional fern" leaf fossils that are VERY different from each other and obviously different species, but when we go online to ID them, they all seem to be grouped as "sphenopteris!" Maybe some of these leaf types match up with the bark patterns I mentioned. 5. Last but certainly not least is the insight that fern trees could have 2 or 3 different types of leaves on the same tree! This was really interesting. Also, some leaf types can come in different shapes - for example, Neuropteris can be round at the base of a stem and elongated along the stem and at the tip...AND...some paleobotanists now classify cyclopteris - the round fan shaped leaf - as a form of Neuropteris. This definitely adds to the confusion. I'm still reading and trying to understand all of this and these are only my initial impressions, which are still forming and there may be explanations for some of these questions that I haven't discovered yet but these are the questions that I am trying to answer by reading, and of course, by fossil collecting. I hope that many of our new friend (and I should add, VERY COOL new friends!) on the fossil forum will help clarify some of these interesting questions. Hope this is helpful.
  5. "Palaeoxyris corrugata" Lesquereux, 1870

    From the album Vertebrates

    "Palaeoxyris corrugata" Lesquereux, 1870 Late Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Late Moskovian Illinois Mazon Creek USA
  6. Black shale oddity, any ideas?

    I went down to a new spot i found to see if i could find more Carboniferous shark teeth. Sadly, no teeth. But i found this oddity. I've personally have never seen anything like it, and it kind of reminds me of shark skin, but i'm leaning more towards a strange trace fossil. In the upper right corner and top center you can see symmetry somewhat in the shape i can only describe as a sunflower shape. Other than that the spots seem random. Any opinoins are welcome. I've been searching and searching without any luck. Thanks, guys and gals This is Carboniferous black shale.
  7. Trace fossil or jellyfish

    Hi, I'd appreciate some help with this one, it's got me completely foxed and I can't find anything similar online. The matrix is a mudstone, it was a loose rock in a stream, the rocks in the area are all Brigantian (Upper Visean) - Carboniferous Cyclothem deposits (Northumberland, UK). There were 3 of these, all about an inch long, oval shaped, but fairly irregular, with faint radial lines/corrugations from a central 'spine'. They are three dimensional about a quarter of an inch thick. Small spiriferid brachiopod shell fragments in the same rock are undeformed, so I think the irregular shape is original. They remind me of small jellyfish but I think that's highly unlikely to have fossilised so I'm guessing some sort of trace fossil. All three are similar in shape and size so I'm wondering if there's a specific name for these, and whether it's known sort of creature made them? Cheers Steve
  8. In between all of the 4th of July weekend barbecues I was able to make it down to Cory's Lane, Rhode Island for a few hours of shale splitting. The day started out slow with only a few small plant imprints found, but I eventually managed to rip up a 5 foot slab of rock with a larger fern section on one end of it. After cutting the slab down to a little over a foot and a half in length this Pecopteris arborescens manages to go down as the largest fern I've found at this locality! It was a nice start to the long weekend, but the real win was the awesome weather .
  9. Large Pecopteris arborescens

    From the album Cory's Lane Fossil Locality

    Large Negative imprint of Pecopteris arborescens. Found in 2017 at Cory's Lane fossil locality, Rhode Island.
  10. Palastraea regia

    Formerly often included in Palaeosmilia which is now restricted to solitary forms. A very distinctive colonial coral, astraeoid to aphroid (aphroid in this case, i.e. with septa that do not join between corallites). The calices can be up to 5cm across. In this specimen, many of the voids are lined with quartz crystals, others are filled completely. (Traces of blue are from a polishing paste).
  11. Weird "7" shaped fossil

    Here's another fossil from Carbondale, shaped like a check, or an L or a 7. Two in fact, I split the rock and it's inside it as well, so its thick. Any ideas?
  12. Mazon Arthropod?

    Here is an interesting one. This looked like a shrimp tail at first but once I cleaned it I saw all of these little bumps on and around what I thought was shell.
  13. Carboniferous shark crushing tooth

    I found a new spot in Illinois that is loaded with carboniferous black shale. And this tooth fragment has gotten me pretty excited. Can anyone attempt an ID on this partial? The tooth measures about 1/2" × 1/2".
  14. Carboniferous Brachiopods

    These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since July 11, 2017. Phylum Brachiopoda - The Lamp Shells Carboniferous Carboniferous Brachiopods - Africa/Middle East Brice, D., M. Legrand-Blain and J.-P. Nicollin (2007). Brachiopod faunal changes across the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in NW Sahara (Morocco, Algeria). In: Devonian Events and Correlations. Becker, R.T. and W.T. Kirchgasser (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 278. Carboniferous Brachiopods - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Angiolini, L., H. Brunton and A. Zanchi (1999). Late Carboniferous Brachiopods from Karakorum, Pakistan. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.105, Number 1. Balinski, A. and Y. Sun (2008). Micromorphic brachiopods from the Lower Carboniferous of South China, and their life habits. Fossils and Strata, Number 54. Balinski, A. and Y. Sun (2005). A New Early Carboniferous Micro-Productid Brachiopod from South China. Palaeontology, Vol.48, Part 3. Chen, Z.-Q. and J. Tazawa (2007). Redescription of the brachiopod genus Globispirifer Tachibana, 1964 from the lowest Carboniferous of the South Kitakami Belt, NE Japan. Sci. Rep., Niigata Univ. (Geology), Number 22. Chen, Z.-Q. and G.R. Shi (2002). Late Carboniferous to Early Permian brachiopod faunas from the Bachu and Kalpin areas, Tarim Basin, NW China. Alcheringa, 25. Chen, Z.-Q., G.R. Shi and L.-P. Zhan (2003). Early Carboniferous Athyridid Brachiopods from the Qaidam Basin, Northwest China. J.Paleont., 77(5). Sun, Y. and A. Balinsky (2011). Silicified Mississippian brachiopods from Muhua, southern China: Rhynchonellides, athyridides, spiriferides, spirifierinides, and terebratulides. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(4). Sun, Y., et al. (2004). A New Meristid Brachiopod Genus from the Lower Carboniferous of Guizhou, China. J.Paleont., 78(1). Sun, Z., et al. (2004). New bizarre micro-spiriferid brachiopod from the Early Carboniferous of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49(2). Tazawa, J.-I. (1984). 775. Early Carboniferous (Visean) Brachiopods from the Hikoroichi Formation of the Kitakami Mountains, Northeast Japan. Trans.Proc.Palaeont.Soc. Japan, N.S., Number 133. Tazawa, J.-I. and T. Katayama (1979). Lower Carboniferous Brachiopods from the Odaira Formation in the Southern Kitakami Mountains. Tohoku Univ., Sci.Rep., 2nd Ser. (Geol.), Vol.49, Number 2. Waterhouse, J.B. (1982). New Carboniferous brachiopod genera from Huai Bun Nak, North-east Thailand. Palaont.Z., 56, 1/2. Waterhouse, J.B. (1966). Lower Carboniferous and Upper Permian Brachiopods from Nepal. JB.Geol.B.A., 12,S. (126 pages) Carboniferous Brachiopods - Australia/New Zealand Maxwell, W.G.H. (1951). Upper Devonian and Middle Carboniferous Brachiopods of Queensland. University of Queensland Papers, Department of Geology, Vol.III, Number 14. Roberts, J. (1968). Mantle Canal Patterns in Schizophoria (Brachiopoda) from the Lower Carboniferous of New South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 3. Carboniferous Brachiopods - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Alvarez, F. and C.H.C. Brunton (2000). A Review of Two De Koninck Retzioid Brachiopod Species, and Description of a New Genus from the Carboniferous of Europe. Palaeontology, Vol.43, Part 5. Brunton, C.H.C. (1971). An Endopunctate Rhynchonellid Brachiopod from the Visean of Belgium and Britain. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 1. Brunton, C.H.C. and C. Champion (1974). A Lower Carboniferous Brachiopod Fauna from the Manifold Valley, Staffordshire. Paleontology, Vol.17, Part 4. Gischler, E., M.R. Sandy and J. Peckmann (2003). Ibergirhynchia contraria (F.A. Roemer, 1850), An Early Carboniferous Seep-Related Rhynchonellide Brachiopod from the Harz Mountains, Germany - A Possible Successor to Dzieduszyckia? J.Paleont., 77(2). Gobbett, D.J. (1963). Carboniferous and Permian Brachiopods of Svalbard. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter, Number 27. (256 pages) Japundžić, M. and J. Sremac (2016). Palaeobiogeography of the Late Carboniferous brachiopoda from Velebit Mt. (Croatia). Geologia Croatica, 69/2. Legrand-Blaine, M. (1985). A New Genus of Carboniferous Spiriferid Brachiopod from Scotland. Palaeontology, Vol.28, Part 3. Legrand-Blain, M. and M.-L. M. Chacon (1988). Brachiopods at the Devonian-Carboniferous Boundary, La Serre (Montagne Noire; Herault, France): Preliminary report. Cour.Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 100. Martinez-Chacon, M.L. (1977). New Carboniferous Stenoscismatacean Brachiopods from Oviedo and Leon, Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1. Pocock, Y.P. (1968). Carboniferous Schizophoriid Brachiopods from Western Europe. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 1. Zakowa, H. (1989). Orthid Brachiopods from the Upper Visean (Carboniferous) of the Swietokrzyskie Mts., Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 34(2). Carboniferous Brachiopods - North America Brusatte, S.L. (2004). A Preliminary Paleoecological Investigation of Late Pennsylvanian Brachiopods from the LaSalle Limestone, LaSalle County, Illinois. The Mosasaur, 7. Christensen, A.M. (1999). Brachiopod Paleontology and Paleoecology of the Lower Mississippian Lodgepole Limestone in Southeastern Idaho. in: Guidebook to the Geology of Eastern Idaho, Hughes, S.S. and G.D. Thackray (eds.) Deline, B., et al. (2003). Edge-drilling on the brachiopod Perditocardinia cf. P. dubia from the Mississippian of Missouri (USA). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 201. Ehlers, G.M. and M.S. Chang (1926). New Brachiopods from the Warsaw Formation of Wayne County, Kentucky. Contributions from the Museum of Geology - The University of Michigan, Vol.II, Number 7. Gehrig, J.L. (1958). Middle Pennsylvanian Brachiopods from the Mud Springs Mountain and Derry Hills, New Mexico. State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources - New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Memoir 3. Grossman, E.L., et al. (1991). Stable-isotope stratigraphy of brachiopods from Pennsylvanian shales in Texas. Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 103. Haglund, W.M. (1967). Brachiopod Genus Enteletes in Pennsylvanian Deposits of Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 23. Henry, T.W. (1998). The Brachiopod Antiquatonia coloradoensis (Girty) from the Upper Morrowan and Atokan (Lower Middle Pennsylvanian) of the United States. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1588. Perez-Huerta, A. (2004). New Carboniferous Brachiopods from the Eastern Great Basin, Nevada, USA: Implications for Loop Ontogeny and Evolution in Late Palaeozoic Terebratuloids. Palaeontology, Vol.47, Part 6. Spencer, R.S. (1967). Pennsylvanian Spiriferacea and Spiriferinacea of Kansas. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 14. Sturgeon, M.T. and R.D. Hoare (1968). Pennsylvanian Brachiopods of Ohio. State of Ohio, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, Bulletin 63. (21.4MB download) Weller, S. (1914). The Mississippian Brachiopoda of the Mississippi Valley Basin. Illinois State Geological Survey, Monograph 1. (516 pages, 48.3MB download) Carboniferous Brachiopods - South America/Central America/Caribbean Badyrka, K., M.E. Clapham and S. Lopez (2013). Paleoecology of brachiopod communities during the late Paleozoic ice age in Bolivia (Copacabana Formation, Pennsylvanian-Early Permian). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 387. Isaacson, P.E. and J.T. Dutro (1999). Lower Carboniferous Brachiopods from Sierra De Almeida, Northern Chile. J.Paleont., 73(4). Navarro-Santillan, D., et al. (2002). Lower Mississippian (Osagean) brachiopods from the Santiago Formation, Oaxaca, Mexico: stratigraphic and tectonic implications.Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 15. Taboada, A.C. (2010). Mississippian-Early Permian brachiopods from western Argentina: Tools for middle- to high-latitude correlation, paleobiogeographic and paleoclimatic reconstruction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298. Torres-Martinez, M.A., F. Sour-Tovar and A. Perez-Huerta (2008). Neospiriferinid brachiopods (Spiriferida, Trigonotretidae) from Ixtaltepec Formation, Pennsylvanian of Oaxaca State, Southern Mexico. Fossils and Strata, Number 54. General Carboniferous Brachiopods Brunton, H. (1966). Predation and Shell Damage in a Visean Brachiopod Fauna. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 3. Cisterna, G.A. and A.F. Sterren (2016). Late Carboniferous postglacial brachiopod faunas in the Southwestern Gondwana margin. Palaeoworld, xxx. (Article in Press) Grossman, E.L., et al. (1996). Chemical Variation in Pennsylvanian Brachiopod Shells - Diagenetic, Taxonomic, Microstructural and Seasonal Effects. Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol.66, Number 5. Heim, N.A. (2009). Stability of regional brachiopod diversity structure across the Mississippian/Pennsylvanian boundary. Paleobiology, 35(3). Hoffmeister, A.P., et al. (2003). Intense drilling in the Carboniferous brachiopod Cardiarina cordata Cooper, 1956. Lethaia, Vol.36. Leighton, L.R. (2005). The latitudinal diversity gradient through deep time: testing the "Age of the Tropics" hypothesis using Carboniferous productine brachiopods. Evolutionary Ecology, 19. Perez-Huerta, A. (2013). Functional morphology and modifications on spine growth in the productid brachiopod Heteralosia slocomi. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(2). Qiao, L. and S.-Z. Shen (2014). Global paleobiogeography of brachiopods during the Mississippian - Response to the global tectonic reconfiguration, ocean circulation, and climate changes. Gondwana Research, 26. Richards, R.P. (1974). Mississippian Discinid Brachiopods Attached to a Soft-Bodied Organism. The Ohio Journal of Science, 74(3).
  15. Aulophyllum fungites

    Characteristic of the Upper Visean and Lower Namurian of Europe and Africa. Easily identified by its compact, cuspidate axial column made of small tabellae. One of the less common solitary corals in the Great Limestone, this one is in a dark matrix locally known as "Frosterley Marble".
  16. More Mazon Creek nodules

    1 2 3
  17. some unknown

    Jurassic, flint, Kraków region, Poland, coin size=15,50mm crinoid skeletal elements?
  18. Mazon Creek nodule

    Now I know these are something 1 2 2
  19. ancient urchin

    Yes,L.& E. http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/65304-archaeocidaris-teeth-and-other-bits-uk/#comment-683845 http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/41735-another-quiz/#comment-455460
  20. Calamities Brand and Fern

    From the album Carbondale, PA

    Carbondale, PA Lewellyn Formation Pennsylvanian period 299-323 myo
  21. old literature

    here it is
  22. Harvard team fossil hunting at Blue Beach, Nova Scotia Heather Desveaux, Chronicle Herald, June 22, 2017 http://thechronicleherald.ca/novascotia/1480307-video-harvard-team-fossil-hunting-at-blue-beach The Blue Beach Fossil Museum http://www.novascotia.com/see-do/attractions/blue-beach-fossil-museum/1611 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Beach Mansky, C.F. and Lucas, S.G., 2013. Romer’s Gap revisited: continental assemblages and ichno-assemblages from the basal Carboniferous of Blue Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada. The Carboniferous-Permian Transition. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, 60, pp. 244-273. http://www.academia.edu/12658498/Romers_Gap_revisited_continental_assemblages_and_ichnoassemblages_from_the_basal_Carboniferous.. Yours, Paul H.
  23. Earlier this week I got the chance to get out for a hunt at a great site on the east coast of Scotland for the Lower Carboniferous shrimp Tealliocaris woodwardi. The specimens here are beautifully preserved but decent sized blocks of the right bed can be hard to find so I was really happy to get this large multi-block with three well preserved shrimp, and in both dorsal and lateral views! The largest shrimp is 34mm. Thanks for looking Sam
  24. Carboniferous fossils

    Is there anyone places to hunt for carboniferous fossils in the eastern US? I live in georgia and heard that there are some but they're in private property.
  25. Coalmines in georgia?

    Is there any coalmines in georgia? I heard there are some but where are they?