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Found 23 results

  1. Multiple Petalodus Teeth Fragments

    From the album Chondrichthians

    The more flattened version and 3 extra fragments from another Petalodus
  2. Multiple Petalodus Teeth Fragments

    From the album Chondrichthians

    A few Petalodus teeth fragments I have found
  3. Concretion 3: Braincase/Skull

    From the album Muncie Creek Shale Nodules

    Currently being donated and Identified. Will update on this specimen if this is a new species and its identification.
  4. Concretion 3: Braincase/Skull

    From the album Muncie Creek Shale Nodules

    Currently being donated and Identified. Will update on this specimen if this is a new species and its identification.
  5. From the album Muncie Creek Shale Nodules

    The second half of the cartilage pterygiophores When breaking the concretion most of the internal structure was unfortunately damaged
  6. Help request! I am putting together a tool for judging rock age based on very crude, whole-rock, hand-sample observations of fossil faunas/floras -- the types of observations a child or beginner could successfully make. I view this as a complement to the very fine, species-level identifications commonly employed as index fossils for individual stages, biozones, etc. Attached is what I've got so far, but I can clearly use help with corals, mollusks, plants, vertebrates, ichnofossils, and the post-Paleozoic In the attached file, vibrant orange indicates times in earth history to commonly observe the item of interest; paler orange indicates times in earth history to less commonly observe the item of interest. White indicates very little to no practical probability of observing the item of interest. Please keep in mind that the listed indicators are things like “conspicuous horn corals,” purposefully declining to address rare encounters with groups of low preservation potential, low recognizability, etc. Got additions/amendments, especially for the groups mentioned above? Toss them in the comments below! Thank you..... https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1tVm_u6v573V4NACrdebb_1OsBEAz60dS1m4pCTckgyA
  7. A new publication explores the transition between C. chubtensis and C. megalodon, loss of cusplets Please note the following statement about lineage by some very influential authors: "we do not feel that the transition from angustidens to chubutensis is as marked as suggested by Cappetta (2012), given that the lineage represents a chronospecies with very gradual morphological change through time. As such, we choose to maintain a single genus for all serrated forms, given that they are easily distinguished from Otodus obliquus, and use the genus Carcharocles for subsequent taxa (C. auriculatus through C. megalodon) because the description of Carcharocles by Jordan and Hannibal (1923) precedes that of Megaselachus by Glickman (1964)." Journal of Vert Paleontology https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02724634.2018.1546732 The transition between Carcharocles chubutensis and Carcharocles megalodon (Otodontidae, Chondrichthyes): lateral cusplet loss through time Victor J. Perez , Stephen J. Godfrey, Bretton W. Kent, Robert E. Weems & John R. Nance @siteseer
  8. Hello, I am looking for help identifying a specimen collected during field work for my dissertation. The piece was collected from the Lower Oxford Clay (jason zone) in Peterborough, Cambs. I suspect that it is Ischyodus egertoni, but am not positive whatsoever! Any thoughts would be appreciated Cheers, Jacob.
  9. Red Hill is a site I first went to 10 years ago with my son, Ian who was 10 at the time. It is a very deep road cut into the uppermost part of the Catskill Formation representing a late Fammenian river system that was draining the Acadian mountains to the east and emptying into the inland sea in western PA and OH. It is one of a handful of sites in the world where Devonian tetrapods have been found. The site has fossil layers in both channel margin (red layers) and flood plain (gray-green layers) facies. While it is an active research site and groups go there under the understanding that anything of scientific importance will be donated to the museum, there is a lot there that is redundant in the collections and we've been able to retain. In 2014, Ian found an exceptionally preserved moderately large osteolepiform, Hyneria (Tristichopteridae). Some of the material went into the re-description of Hyneria, much we have been allowed to take home. Since then the project has expanded to a search for more tetrapod material using the jackhammer and generator the museum purchased. This may require multiple posts. I'll start with the jaws recovered over 2014/15 seasons. This lens containing most of the head from apparently a single individual. Here Ian is working with Ted Daeschler and Doug Rowe (site manager) of the Academy Of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. Here are some images of the jaw material after removal and after prep by Fred Mullison of the ANSP. Lower left jaw after removal. This is the lower right jaw (right) and the vomer and very impressive fang. Amazingly, in 2016, we went back. I was leading a trip for DVPS. Ian found this amazing but poorly prepped jaw (I did this one). Here are a pair of cleithrums, about 29 cm long. The attachments for the scapulocoracoid are clearly visible between 17 and 21 cm. Here is part of the parietal shield. More to follow.
  10. Paleozoic selachians from the USA

    Johnson/2003Mitt.Mus.NaturkBerl., Geowiss. Reihe 6 (2003) 125-160 Nature of the beast (pun intended): taxonomical (systematic) Monograph " Dentitions of Barbclabomia (new genus, Chondrichthyes: Xenacanthiformes) from the Upper Palaeozoic of North America Gary D. Johnson' With 14 figures and 3 tables recommended, particularly for those interested in xenacanthids, orthacanthids, etc About 5 Mb Abstract Barbclabornia luedersensis (Berman, 1970) is defined on the basis of small (2 111117 high) isolated teeth that lack an intermediate cusp. It is known from the Lower Permian and possibly the Upper Pennsylvanian of North America. The two principal cusps are slightly curved orally, nearly parallel, and bear cristae mainly on their distal halves. They are cylindrical but become compressed proximally. The long axis of each cusp base is >45" to the labial margin of the tooth base. The base bears a prominent apical button in contact with the cusps; a central foramen is absent. Fewer than ten foramina occur on the aboral surface of the base, which bears a prominent concave basal tubercle. The shape of the base ranges from somewhat triangular to quadrangular. The cusps are composed of orthodentine covered by hypermineralized pallial dentine; the base is composed of orthodentine but may also contain trabecular dentine. Except for the possible occurrence of symphysial teeth, the dentition is homodont. Barbclabornia cf. B. luedersensis is stratigraphically highest in the known range of the genus and is restricted to the nearly lowermost part of the Clear Fork Group (Artinskian) of Texas. The teeth are similar to B. lztedersensis, but are more robust and have a quadrangular-shaped base. Barbclabornia was large, based on an undescribed palatoquadrate some 45 cm long. It was probably freshwater and is most closely related to Triodus. Key words: Chondrichthyans, Xenacanthiformes, Early Permian, North America.
  11. Death ray

    Giuseppe Marramà, Kerin M. Claeson, Giorgio Carnevale & Jürgen Kriwet(about 4 Mb) (2018) Revision of Eocene electric rays (Torpediniformes, Batomorphii) from the Bolca Konservat- Lagerstätte, Italy, reveals the first fossil embryo insitu in marine batoids and provides new insights into the origin of trophic novelties in coral reef fishes, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 16:14, 1189-1219, DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2017.1371257 Sensitive people should beware of figs. 15 and 16 I resisted the temptation (lover of classic photography) to work Man Ray in there somewhere
  12. awesom 11,3 Mb I just received a postcard from my retinae:"enjoying the Bahamas,won't be back anytime soon,you &*&(((()_+&@W" "And you may tell yourself :"This is not my beautiful fossil""
  13. I can't identificate it. I found it at marine sandstone from Paleogene. Also, do somebody has a handbook about chondrichthyes of Cappetta 2012 in PDF?
  14. After this horrendous attempt at a triple pun,things can only deteriorate,right? The list of species in the tags i have kept to a bare bones minimum,for clarity's sake i MIGHT not have posted this,but it figures tooth rows. Shark cognoscendi prolly already have this one(and the others by Bass)I'm sure. SO,no need to post those others orrep38a.pdf
  15. My Pennsylvanian Shark Teeth

    Over the last two years I have been able to collect a small but diverse group of shark and other chondrichthyan teeth from Pennsylvanian deposits in Illinois. Actually, all but one of the teeth are from one exposure of the La Salle Limestone of the Bond Formation- the other tooth was found in some roadside rip rap limestone in Central Illinois which seems to share many species with the La Salle, but unfortunately I have no way of determining the exact origin. Here is the first tooth, this is the one collected from rip rap in northern Champaign County. It is a cladodont type tooth, although unfortunately most of the main tooth and some of the cusps are missing. The tooth is 15 mm across at the widest point.
  16. pisces,usa!

    big the name says it all: it IS big
  17. an eocene lagerstatt shark

    Just guessing this hasn't been posted yet.... Enjoy,well illustrated account shark
  18. the edestid way of life

    Taphonomy of a fascinating oddball........... Itano-piscselach2015-AbradedEdestus-final.pdf
  19. shark vertebral column

    This might help a bit in answering questions about shark vertebrae:springerselachpiscevertebraosteologymetricsUSNMP-116_3496_1964.pdf
  20. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since March 22, 2018. Class Chondrichthyes - The Cartilaginous Fishes. Elasmobranchs by Time Period Ordovician Andreev, P.S., et al. (2015). Upper Ordovician Chondrichthyan-Like Scales from North America. Palaeontology, Vol.58, Part 4. Sansom, I.J., et al. (2012). Chondrichthyan-Like Scales from the Middle Ordovician of Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.55, Part 2. Silurian Min, Z. (1998). Early Silurian Sinacanths (Chondrichthyes) from China. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 1. Wang, N., et al. (1998). Early Silurian Chondrichthyan Microfossils from Bachu County, Xinjiang, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 36(4). Devonian Devonian Elasmobranchs - Africa/Middle East Derycke, C. and D. Goujet (2011). Multicuspidate shark teeth associated with chondrichthyan and acanthodian scales from the Emsian (Devonian) of southern Algeria. Geodiversitas, 33(2). Hairapetian, V. and M. Ginter (2010). Pelagic chondrichthyan microremains from the Upper Devonian of the Kale Sardar section, eastern Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 3. Hairapetian, V. and M. Ginter (2009). Famennian chondrichthyan remains from the Chahriseh section, central Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.59, Number 2. Hairapetian, V., M. Ginter and M. Yazdi (2008). Early Frasnian sharks from central Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Devonian Elasmobranchs - Antarctica Hampe, O. and J.A. Long (1999). The histology of Middle Devonian chondrichthyan teeth from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement Number 57. Long, J.A. and G.C. Young (1995). Sharks from the Middle-Late Devonian Aztec Siltstone, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 17. Young, G.C. (1982). Devonian Sharks from South-Eastern Australia and Antarctica. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 2. Devonian Elasmobranchs - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Ginter, M., V. Hairapetian and A. Grigoryan (2011). Chondrichthyan microfossils from the Famennian and Tournaisian of Armenia. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 2. Devonian Elasmobranchs - Australia/New Zealand Long, J.A., et al. (2015). First Shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo Formation, Western Australia Sheds New Light on the Development of Tessellated Calcified Cartilage. PLoS ONE, 10(5). Roelofs, B., et al. (2016). Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous chondrichthyans from the Fairfield Group, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.4A. Young, G.C. (1982). Devonian Sharks from South-Eastern Australia and Antarctica. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 2. Devonian Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Ginter, M. (2002). Chondrichthyan fauna of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary beds in Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 47(2). Ginter, M. and A. Ivanov (2000). Stratigraphic distribution of chondrichthyans in the Devonian on the East European Platform margin. Cour.Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 223. Ginter, M., V. Hairapetian and A. Grigoryan (2011). Chondrichthyan microfossils from the Famennian and Tournaisian of Armenia. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 2. Ginter, M., J.-C. Liao and J.I. Valenzuela-Rios (2008). New data on chondrichthyan microremains from the Givetian of the Renanue section in the Aragonian Pyrenees (Spain). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Ivanov, A.O. (1999). Late Devonian - Early Permian chondrichthyans of the Russian Arctic. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.49, Number 3. Ivanov, A.O. and D.P. Plax (2018). Chondrichthyans from the Devonian-Early Carboniferous of Belarus. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 67,1. Marss, T., A. Kleesment, and M. Niit (2008). Karksilepis parva gen. et sp. nov. (Chondrichthyes) from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(4). Devonian Elasmobranchs - North America Hanke, G.E. and M.V.H. Wilson (2010). The putative stem-group chondrichthyans Kathemacanthus and Seretolepis from the Lower Devonian MOTH locality, Mackenzie Mountains, Canada. In: Morphology, Phylogeny and Paleobiogeography of Fossil Fishes. Elliott, D.K., et al. (eds.), Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, Germany. Miller, R.F., R. Cloutier and S. Turner (2003). The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period. Nature (Letters). Potvin-Leduc, D., et al. (2015). Givetian (Middle Devonian) sharks from Cairo, New York (USA): Evidence of early cosmopolitanism. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1). General Devonian Elasmobranchs Botella, H., P.C.J. Donoghue and C. Martínez-Pérez (2009). Enameloid microstructure in the oldest known chondrichthyan teeth. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 90 (Suppl. 1). Ginter, M. (2008). Devonian filter-feeding sharks. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Ginter, M. (2000). Late Famennian pelagic shark assemblages. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.50, Number 3. Ginter, M. and A. Ivanov (1992). Devonian phoebodont shark teeth. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 37(1). Maisey, J.G. (2005). Braincase of the Upper Devonian Shark Cladodoides wildungensis (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii), With Observations on the Braincase in Early Chondrichthyans. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 288. Carboniferous Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - Africa/Middle East Habibi, T. and M. Ginter (2011). Early Carboniferous chondrichthyans from the Mobarak Formation, Central Alborz Mountains, Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 1. Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Ginter, M. and Y. Sun (2007). Chondrichthyan remains from the Lower Carboniferous of Muhua, southern China.Acta Paleontologica Polonica, 52(4). Wang, N.-Z., F. Jin and W. Wang (2004). Early Carboniferous Fishes (Acanthodian, Actinopterygians and Chondrichthyes) from the East Sector of North Qilian Mountain, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 42(2). Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - Australia/New Zealand Turner, S. (1990). Early Carboniferous Shark Remains from the Rockhampton District, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 28(1). Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Duffin, C.J. and A. Ivanov (2008). New chondrichthyan teeth from the Early Carboniferous of Britain and Russia. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Duffin, C.J. and D.J. Ward (1983). Neoselachian Sharks' Teeth from the Lower Carboniferous of Britian and the Lower Permian of the U.S.A.. Palaeontology, Vol.26, Part 1. Duncan, M. (2003). Early Carboniferous chondrichthyan Thrinacodus from Ireland, and a reconstruction of jaw apparatus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 48(1). Ginter, M., V. Hairapetian and A. Grigoryan (2011). Chondrichthyan microfossils from the Famennian and Tournaisian of Armenia. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 2. Ginter, M., et al. (2015). Late Visean pelagic chondrichthyans from northern Europe. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(4). Ivanov, A.O. and D.P. Plax (2018). Chondrichthyans from the Devonian-Early Carboniferous of Belarus. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 67,1. Smith, R., D.M. Martill and D.J. Duffin (2017). The shark-beds from the Eyam Limestone Formation (Lower Carboniferous, Visean) of Steeplehouse Quarry, Wicksworth, Derbyshire, UK. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 128. Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - North America Brusatte, S.L. (2007). Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) chondrichthyans from the LaSalle Limestone Member (Bond Formation) of Illinois, USA. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., 244. Cicimurri, D.J. and M.D. Fahrenbach (2002). Chondrichthyes from the Upper Part of the Minnelusa Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian: Desmoinesean), Meade County, South Dakota. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science, Vol.81. Elliott, D.K., et al. (2004). Chondrichthyans from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Naco Formation of Central Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(2). Hamm, S.A. and D.J. Cicimurri (2005). Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Chondrichthyans from the Lake Neosho Shale Member of the Altamont Limestone in Montgomery County, Kansas. Paludicola, 5(2). Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Duffin, C.J., M. Richter and P.A. Neis (1996). Shark remains from the Late Carboniferous of the Amazon Basin, Brazil. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Mh., Vol.4. General Carboniferous Elasmobranchs Chorn, J. and E.A. Reavis (1978). Part 2. Affinities of the Chondrichthyan Organ-Genera Listracanthus and Petrodus. In: Fossil Fish Studies, The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 89. Permian Argyriou, T., et al. (2017). The oldest record of gnathostome fossils from Greece: Chondrichthyes from the Lopingian of Hydra Island. Palaeontologica Electronica, 20.1.8A. Daymond, S.M. (1999). Gondwanodus irwinensis gen. et sp.nov., a new elasmobranch from the Early Permian (Late Sakmarian) Fossil Cliff Member of the Holmwood Shale, Perth Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australizn Museum, 19. Fischer, J., et al. (2014). Stable and radiogenic isotope analyses on shark teeth from the Early to the Middle Permian (Sakmarian - Roadian) of the southwestern USA. Historical Biology, Vol.26, Number 6. Ivanov, A.O. (2005). Early Permian Chondrichthyans of the Middle and South Urals. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 8(2). Ivanov, A.O. and O.A. Lebedev (2014). Permian Chondrichthyans of the Kanin Peninsula, Russia. Paleontological Journal, Vol.48, Number 9. Koot, M.B. (2013). Effects on the Late Permian Mass Extinction on Chondrichthyan Palaeobiodiversity and Distribution Patterns. Ph.D. Thesis - Plymouth University. Leu, M.R. (1989). A Late Permian Freshwater Shark from Eastern Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 2. Turner, S. (1990). Early Carboniferous Shark Remains from the Rockhampton District, Queensland. Mem.Qd.Mus., 28(1). Wang, N.-Z., et al. (2007). 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Govender, R. (2015). Shark-Cetacean trophic interaction, Duinefontein, Koeberg (5 Ma), South Africa. S.Afr.J.Sci., 111(11-12). Miocene Elasmobranchs - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Bhalla, S.N. and P. Dev (1972). A Preliminary Note on Miocene Elasmobranchs from Orissa. Geological Society of India. Mondal, S., et al. (2009). Miocene Shark Teeth Assemblages and Ancillary Fish Taxa from Baripada, Orissa: Taxonomic Revision and a Global Palaeobiogeographic Overview. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 54(2). Ralte, V.Z., et al. (2011). Selachian Fishes from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group, Aizawl, Mizoram. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 77(4). Tewari, B.S. (1959). On a Few Fossil Shark Teeth from the Miocene Beds of Kutch, Western India. Proc.Nat.Inst.Sci.India, Vol.25 B. Yabe, H. and R. Hirayama (1998). Selachian Fauna from the Upper Miocene Senhata Formation, Boso Peninsula, Central Japan. Nat.Hist.Res., Special Issue Number 5. Miocene Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Cappetta, H. (1970). Selachians of the Miocene of the Montpellier Region. Palaeovertebrata, 1970. (Plates not included) Holec, P, M. Hornacek and M. Sykora (1995). Lower Miocene Shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) and Whale Faunas (Mammalia, Cetacea) near Mucin, Southern Slovakia. Geologicke prace. Spravy 100. Kocsis, L. (2007). Central Paratethyan shark fauna (Ipolytarnoc, Hungary). Geologica Carpathica, 58(1). Martinez-Perez, C., et al. (2017). A Serravallian (Middle Miocene) shark fauna from Southeastern Spain and its palaeoenvironment significance. Historical Biology. Pollerspock, J. and N. Straube (2017). A new deep-sea elasmobranch fauna from the Central Paratethys (Neuhofener Beds, Mitterdorf, near Passau, Germany, Early Miocene, Middle Burdigalian). Zitteliana, 90. Radwanski, A. (1965). A Contribution to the Knowledge of Miocene Elasmobranchii from Pinczow (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.X, Number 2. Szabo, M. and L. Kocsis (2016). A new Middle Miocene selachian assemblage (Chondrichtyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Central Tethys (Nyirad, Hungary): implications for temporal turnover and biogeography. Geologica Carpathica, 67, 6. Underwood, C.J. and J. Schlogel (2013). Deep-water chondrichthyans from the Early Miocene of the Vienna Basin, (Central Paratethys, Slovakia). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Vialle, N., S. Adnet and H. Cappetta (2011). A new shark and ray fauna from the Middle Miocene of Mazan, Vaucluse (southern France) and its importance in interpreting the paleoenvironment of marine deposits in the southern Rhodanian Basin. Swiss J.Paleontol., 130. Ward, D.J. and C.G. Bonavia (2001). Additions to, and a Review of, the Miocene Shark and Ray Fauna of Malta. The Central Mediterranean Naturalist, 3(3). Miocene Elasmobranchs - North America Jordan, D.S. (1926). New Sharks from the Temblor Group in Kern County, California Collected by Charles Morrice. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series, Vol.XV, Number 8. Miocene Elasmobranchs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Aguilera, O., et al. (2017). Neogene sharks and rays from the Brazilian 'Blue Amazon'. PLoS ONE, 12(8). Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., et al. (2016). A New Early Miocene (Aquitanian) Elasmobranchii Assemblage from the La Guajira Peninsula, Colombia. Ameghiniana, 53(2). Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., et al. (2016). An Early Neogene Elasmobranch fauna from the southern Caribbean (Venezuela). Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.27A. Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., et al. (2015). A new Late Miocene chondrichthyan assemblage from the Chagres Formation, Panama. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 60. Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., et al. (2015). Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela). PLoS ONE, 10(10). Costa, S.A.R.F., et al. (2009). Shark teeth from the Pirabas Formation (Lower Miocene), northeastern Amazonia, Brazil. Bol.Mus.Para.Emilio Goeldi, Cienc.Nat. Belém, Vol.4, Number 3. dos Reis, M.A.F. (2005). Chondrichthyan Fauna from the Pirabas Formation, Miocene of North Brazil, with Comments Con Paleobiogeography. Anuario de Instituto de Geosciencias-UFRJ, 28(2). Landini, W., et al. (2017). The late Miocene elasmobranch assemblage from Cerro Colorado (Pisco Formation, Peru). Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 73. Otero, R., et al. (2015). First record of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) from the early Miocene of Chilean Patagonia. XIV Congreso Geologico Chileno. Perez, V.J., et al. (2017). Late Miocene chondrichthyans from Lago Bayano, Panama: Functional diversity, environment and biogeography. Journal of Paleontology. Pimiento, C., et al. (2013). Early Miocene chondrichthyans from the Culebra Formation, Panama: A window into marine vertebrate faunas before closure the Central American Seaway. Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Manuscript Draft). Pimiento, C., et al. (2013). Sharks and Rays (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Miocene Gatun Formation of Panama. Journal of Paleontology, 87(5). Portell, R.W., et al. (2008). Miocene sharks in the Kendeace and Grand Bay formations of Carriacou, The Grenadines, Lesser Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.44, Number 3. Staig, F., et al. (2015). Late Neogene Elasmobranch Fauna from the Coquimbo Formation, Chile. Rev.bras.paleontol., 18(2). Suarez, M.E., A. Encinas and D. Ward (2006). An Early Miocene elasmobranch fauna from the Navidad Formation, Central Chile, South America. Cainozoic Research, 4(1-2). Underwood, C.J. and S.F. Mitchell (2004). Sharks, Bony Fishes and Endodental Borings from the Miocene Montpelier Formation (White Limestone Group) of Jamaica. Cainozoic Research, Vol.3. Pliocene Boessenecker, R.W. (2011). A New Marine Vertebrate Assemblage from the Late Neogene Purisima Formation in Central California, Part I: Fossil Sharks, Bony Fish, Birds, and Implications for the Age of the Purisima Formation West of the San Gregorio Fault. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 8(4). (Thanks to Boesse for pointing me to this one!) Marsili, S. (2008). Systematic, Paleoecologic and Paleobiogeographic Analysis of the Plio-Pleistocene Mediterranean Elasmobranch Fauna. Atti Soc.tosc.Sci.nat., Mem., Serie A, 113. Marsili, S. (2007). Pliocene Elasmobranchs in the Collection of the "Museo Civico Guiseppe Scarabelli" of Imola. Quaderno di Studi e Notizie di Storia Naturale della Romagna, 24. Pleistocene Marsili, S. (2007). A new bathyal shark fauna from the Pleistocene sediments of Fiumefreddo (Sicily, Italy). Geodiversitas, 29(2). General Elasmobranchs General Elasmobranchs - Africa/Middle East Gajic, A., J. Hanjalic and B. Davidov (2014). Frequency, Taxonomy and Morphology of Different Shark Taxa of Lower Paleogene and Upper Cretaceous from Morocco, North Africa. General Elasmobranchs - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Cuny, G., et al. (2007). The Mesozoic Fossil Record of Sharks in Thailand. GEOTHAI'07 International Conference of Geology of Thailand: Towards Sustainable Development and Sufficiency Economy. General Elasmobranchs - Australa/New Zealand Pledge, N.S. (1992). Fossil shark teeth dredged from the Great Australian Bight. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, 13. Pledge, N.S. (1967). Fossil Elasmobranch Teeth of South Australia and Their Stratigraphic Distribution. Transactions of the Royal Society of of South Australia, 91. Pledge, N.S., et al. (2015). Fossil shark teeth from upland Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia: evidence for previously unknown Tertiary marine sediments. MESA Journal 76, Issue 1. General Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Avila, S.P., R. Ramalho and R. Vullo (2012). Systematics, palaeoecology, and palaeobiogeography of the Neogene fossil sharks from the Azores (Northeast Atlantic). Annales de Paleontologie, xxx. (Article in press) Cuny, G. and M.J. Benton (1999). Early Radiation of the Neoselachian Sharks in Western Europe. Geobios, 32(2). Cusumano, A. and C. Di Patti (2006). Sicilian Cenozoic sharks from the collections the G.G. Gemmellaro Museum. Quaderni del Museo Geologico Gemmellaro, Vol.9. Kocsis, L. (2007). Central Paratethyan shark fauna (Ipolytarnoc, Hungary). Geologica Carpathia, 58(1). Underwood, C.J. (2003). Environmental controls on the distribution of neoselachian sharks and rays within the British Bathonian (Middle Jurassic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol.203, Issues 1-2. General Elasmobranchs - North America Gibbes, R.W. (1848). Monograph of the Fossil Squalidae of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia. Lauginiger, E.M. and E.F. Hartstein (1983). A Guide to Fossil Sharks, Skates and Rays from the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Area, Delaware. Delaware Geological Society, Open File Report Number 21. Leriche, M. (1908). Observations on the Neogene Sharks of California. Annales da la Societe Geologique du Nord, 37. (Plates not included) Lowery, D., S.J. Godfrey and R. Eshelman (2011). Integrated Geology, Paleontology, and Archaeology: Native American Use of Fossil Shark Teeth in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Archaeology of Eastern North America, 39. Mollen, F.H. and J.W.M. Jagt (2012). The taxonomic value of rostral nodes of extinct sharks, with comments on previous records of the genus Lamna (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) from the Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina (USA). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.62, Number 1. Tessman, N. (1966). Cenozoic Sharks of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 1. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing me to this one!) Welton, B.J. (1972). Fossil Sharks in Oregon. The Ore Bin, Vol.34, Number 10. Zidek, J. (1976). Oklahoma Paleoichthyology Part V: Chondrichthyes. Oklahoma Geology Notes, Vol.36, Number 5. General Elasmobranchs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Carillo-Briceño, J.D., O.A. Aguilera and F. Rodriguez (2014). Fossil Chondrichthyes from the central eastern Pacific Ocean and their paleoceanographic significance. Journal of South American Earth Science, 51. Carillo-Briceño, J.D., et al. (2016). An Early Neogene Elasmobranch fauna from the southern Caribbean (Western Venezuela). Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.27A. Donovan, S.K. and G.C. Gunter (2001). Fossil Sharks from Jamaica. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, number 28. Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I., S.P. Applegate and L. Espinosa-Arrubarrena (2000). First Paleogene Selachifauna of the Middle American-Caribbean-Antilles Region, La Mesa De Copoya, West-Central Chiapas - Geologic Setting. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.17, Number 1. Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I., S.P. Applegate, and L. Espinosa-Arrubarrena (1999). First Paleogene Selachifauna of the Middle American-Caribbean-Antillean Region, La Mesa De Copoya, West-Central Chiapas, Mexico - Systematics and Paleontological Significance. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.16, Number 2. Iturralde-Venent, M., et al. (1996). Catalog of Cuban Fossil Elasmobranchii (Paleocene-Pliocene) and Paleooceanographic Implications of their Lower--Middle Miocene Occurrence. Boletin de la Sociedad Jamaicana de Geologia, Vol. 31. General Elasmobranchs Andreev, P. and N. Motchurova-Dekova (2010). Checklist of the Fossil Shark and Bony Fish Teeth (Elasmobranchii and Actinopterygii) Housed at the National Museum of Natural History, Sofia. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, 3. Becker, M.A., J.A. Chamberlain and P.W. Stoffer (2000). Pathologic tooth deformities in modern and fossil chondrichthians: a consequence of feeding-related injury. Lethaia, Vol.33. Botella, H., P.C.J. Donoghue and C. Martinez-Perez (2009). Enameloid microstructure in the oldest known chondrichthyan teeth. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 90 (Suppl.1). Botella, H., J.I. Valenzuela-Rios and C. Martinez-Perez (2009). Tooth replacement rates in early chondrichthyans: a qualitative approach. Lethaia, Vol.42. Cappetta, H. (1987). Extinctions and faunal renewals among post-Jurassic selachians. Mem.Soc.geol. France,N.S., Number 150. Cuny, G. (1998). Primitive Neoselachian Sharks: A Survey. Oryctos, Vol.1. Eastman, C.R. (1903). V. Sharks' Teeth and Cetacean Bones from the Red Clay of the Tropical Pacific. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Vol.XXVI, Number 4. Enault, S., et al. (2015). Chondrichtyan tooth enameloid: past, present, and future. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 174. Fischer, J., et al. (2013). Oxygen and strontium isotopes from fossil shark teeth: Environmental and ecological implications for Late Palaeozoic European basins. Chemical Geology, 342. Gillis, J.A. and P.C.J. Donoghue (2007). The Homology and Phylogeny of Chondrichthyan Tooth Enameloid. Journal of Morphology, 268. Gillis, J.A., et al. (2011). Holocephalan embryos provide evidence for gill arch appendage reduction and opercular evolution in cartilaginous fishes. PNAS, Vol.108, Number 4. Gudger, E.W. (1937). Abnormal Dentition in Sharks, Selachii. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LXXIII, Article II. Guinot, G., S. Adnet and H. Cappetta (2012). An Analytical Approach for Estimating Fossil Record and Diversification Events in Sharks, Skates and Rays. PLoS ONE, 7(9). Herman, J. and H. Van Waes (eds.)(1993). Elasmobranches Et Stratigraphie. Service Geologique de Belgique, Professional Paper 1993/6, Number 264. (Most articles in English) (272 pages) New Record of the phoebodontid chondrichthyan Thrinacodus ferox (Turner, 1982) from the Carboniferous of England. Late Triassic sharks teeth (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (north-east France). The age of the Upper Triassic vertebrate fauna from Attert (Province of Luxembourg, Belgium). Teeth of Hybodus (Selachii) from the Early Jurassic of Lyme Regis, Dorset (southern England): preliminary note. Chondrichtyens du Sinémurien de Belgique. New Evidence of Annea and Jurobatos, two rare neoselachians (Pisces, Chondrichthyes) from the Jurassic of Europe. Découverte de Parasymbolus gen. et sp.nov. (Scyliorhinidae - Elasmobranchii) dans le Kimméridgian de Normandie, France. The palaeospinacid shark "Synechodus" jurensis Schweitzer, 1964 from the Late Jurassic of Germany. Fossil Shark Teeth from the Early Cretaceous of Anoual, Morocco. Les Elasmobranches de l'Albien inférieur et moyen (Crétacé inférieur) de la Marne et de la Haute-Marne (France). The vascularization system in teeth of Selachii. Janvier, P. and A. Pradel (2016). 1. Elasmobranchs and Their Extinct Relatives: Diversity, Relationships and Adaptations Through Time. In: Physiology of Elasmobranch Fishes: Structure and Interaction With the Environment. Fish Physiology, Vol.34A. Kiso, T.M. (1995). 992. Organic components in enameloid of extant and fossil shark teeth. Trans.Proc.Palaeont.Soc. Japan, N.S., Number 179. Kriwet, J., W. Kiessling, and S. Klug (2009). Diversification trajectories and evolutionary life-history traits in early sharks and batoids. Proc.R.Soc. B, 276. Leriche, M. (1936). Upon the importance of the Fossil Sharks in the establishment of the Isochronisms of Formations at Great Distances and Upon the Stratigraphic and Geographic Distribution of Some Tertiary Species. Memoire du Musee Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 2(3). Lowry, D., et al. (2009). Determining shark size from forensic analysis of bite damage. Mar.Biol., 156. Maisey, J.G. (2013). The diversity of tessellated calcification in modern and extinct chondrichthyans. Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève, 32(2). Maisey, J.G. (1985) . Cranial Morphology of the Fossil Elasmobranch Synechodus dubrisiensis. American Museum Novitates, Number 2804. Martin, A.P. (1995). Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Evolution in Sharks: Rates, Patterns, and Phylogenetic Inferences. Mol.Biol.Evol., 12(6). Martin, J.E., et al. (2015). Calcium isotopes reveal the trophic position of extant and fossil elasmobranchs. Chemical Geology, 415. Motta, P.J. and C.D. Wilga (2001). Advances in the study of feeding behaviors, mechanisms and mechanics of sharks. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 60. Musick, J.A. and J.K. Ellis. Chapter 3 - Reproductive Evolution of Chondrichthyans. In: Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Chondrichthyes. Naylor, G.J.P., et al. Chapter 1 - Phylogenetic Relationships among the Major Lineages of Modern Elasmobranchs. In: Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Chondrichthyes. Pilgrim, B.L. and T.A. Franz-Odendaal (2009). A comparative study of the ocular skeleton of fossil and modern chondrichthyans. Journal of Anatomy, 214. Purdy, R.W. (2006). A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth. Rothschild, B.M., et al. (2005). Sharks eating mosasaurs, dead or alive? Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 84(3). Schaeffer, B. and M. Williams (1977). Relationships of Fossil and Living Elasmobranchs. Amer.Zool., 17. Shirai, S. (1996). Chapter 2. Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Neoselachians (Chondrichthyes: Euselachii). In: Interrelationships of Fishes, Academic Press, Inc. Treude, T., et al. (2011). Elasmobranch egg capsules associated with modern and ancient cold seeps: a nursery for marine deep-water predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol.437. Underwood, C., D. Ward and G. Guinot (2015). Development of understanding of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic chondrichthyan fossil record. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 430. White, E.G. (1936). Some Transitional Elasmobranchs Connecting the Catuloidea with the Carcharinoidea. American Museum Novitates, Number 879. White, E.G. (1936). A Classification and Phylogeny of Elasmobranch Fishes. American Museum Novitates, Number 837. Whitenack, L.B., D.C. Simkins and P.J. Motta (2011). Biology Meets Engineering: The Structural Mechanics of Fossil and Extant Shark Teeth. Journal of Morphology, 272. Winchell, C.J., A.P. Martin and J. Mallatt (2004). Phylogeny of elasmobranchs based on LSU and SSU ribosomal RNA genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31.