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Found 18 results

  1. Unknown "toothed" microfossil

    So...while splitting my thousandths shale and looking under the scope, I came across this organism, which appears to have interdigitating teeth?. At least most look interdigitating as opposed? Or , I just dunno. There is also a surrounding imprint on both sides. It was found in Stark shale Kansas City Missouri and is nearly 2mm long. I have two views, and can get the other split side, but this is the best images so far.....ANY thoughts, would be appreciated!....In my very limited (one month :)) experience looking at conodonts, this doesn't appear to be one, (S elements?) but, I've been wrong so many times on other fossils,, this would be a breakthrough:)…. Thanks for looking! Bone
  2. Conodont help

    Hi all! Hope everyone is healthy and Covid free! Been focused on conodonts now and need help with these two- found in Stark shale member between Bethany Falls limestone and Winterset, if I have that correct :), Stark shale for sure though. The first is a beautiful cone I cleaned the base of. There are no additional denticle structures at the base and it doesn't look fractured at the base either. It is just under 1mm in length. I could also be totally wrong and its a fish tooth .The second is also a Stark shale element, but I'm not going to guess what element-it doesn't resemble the few pictures I can find of conodont elements. It is about 500um in length. Any help as to which elements these are, and at least a genus would be fabulously appreciated!!!!! Bone
  3. scolecodont or conodont?

    Hi again! Over the weekend, I posted pictures of small fossils in a rock I found at Mimico Creek in Toronto, Ontario (Georgian Bay Formation, Upper Ordovician). I've created this new post just for the shiny black specimens that I found in the rock because a consensus wasn't reached regarding their identity. Each of the two specimens pictured below are 5mm long. My question is: are these items scolecodonts or conodonts? I was leaning towards scolecodonts but I wanted to see what others have to say... Thanks once again! Monica
  4. Filming Conodonts

    Hi! I recently acquired a bunch of microfossil samples for kids to play but did not expect them to be so small. We tried some microscopy but ended up applying a little trick that actually to helped to film them "in action", which was kind of cool. I do not know if this technique is a common knowledge or not but I decided to share. Perhaps, it will be of use to somebody. Here you go: Any suggestions for improvements? Thanks!
  5. Hi everyone I think I just found a new hobby With my latest fossil delivery I recieved quite a lot of microfossils & matrix vials as the world of microfossils was something that I have been long interested in. So a 2 weeks ago I finally ordered my first microfossils for which I reserved a special drawer in my archive cabinet. So here is a recapp of what I all got: 3 vials of permian material from Waurika, Oklahoma 1 vial of permian material from The red beds of Archer County, Texas 1 small vial of Conodont rich Mississippian material from the Chappel Limestone formation, Texas 1 small vial of Cretaceous Lower Gault Clay, East Wear bay, Folkestone, Kent, UK A micropalaeontology slide with Jurassic Blue Lias matrix rich in holothurian material. A thin section of an Ostracods filled Elimia snail from the Green River Formation in Wyoming A thin section from the Rhynie chert of Scotland which should contain preserved parts of the plant Aglaophyton major and perhaps even other species. I also got a lot of Bull Canyon micro fossil teeth and 2 cretaceous mammal teeth from Hell Creek In this topic you will be able to follow my path through this newly discovered hobby as I will post my finds and progress Currently I am only working with a clip-on cellphone microscope, but I do plan on getting a professional microscope in the next few months! (Tips are always welcome) So let's put on our Ant-Man suit and explore the microfossil realm So here are some of the first pictures I made of some of the microfossils Starting with the thin slices! Thin slice with Ostracon filled Elimia tenara snail from the Green River Formation, Wyoming Thin slice with Aglaophyton major from Rhynie Chert in Scotland
  6. Conodonts beside an unidentified item

    Can someone help me identify the item that is with these two conodonts? My guess is a fish scale. This is from the Stark Shale, Dennis Formation, Kansas City Group. The conodonts are 2mm or so and the specimen is 7mm. I am intrigued by the surface of the "shell" which is a bit crab-like (I'm not saying I think it is crab, but that the item's shell has that kind of texture). I've included pictures of both the item and its external mold on the other half of the split shale. Let me know what you think. Russ
  7. I think this one is a conodont (see tags for formation, location). Scale in mm. No conodonts were reported by Ehlers (1973) thorough study on these formations, so I am guessing if this is a conodont, it's a somewhat rare find.
  8. Belemnites? Conodont?

    Greetings again TTF! The Billings formation is just filled with stuff that I can't identify! This time, I have found some glossy, cylinder-shaped things in the Billings Shale. I know that conodont elements are known from some parts Ontario and Quebec, but I think that it might be a belemnite as well. They seen to be associated with crinoid stems, brachiopods, and one Pseudogygites Lantimarginatus pygidium. They are each roughly one centimetre long. They are in the centre of the first picture and the second picture.
  9. My Kansas City conodonts

    The past month or so I have had a chance to examine some shale from the Stark Shale, Dennis Formation, Kansas City Group. I have found many conodonts and I’ve enjoyed the challenge of taking pictures of them while they are still embedded in the shale. I think I have over 100 specimens now. Below I have posted some of my results. I have tried to identify the element position (P, S, or M) according to Purnell, Donoghue and Aldridge’s “Orientation and Anatomical Notation in Conoodonts,” Journal of Paleontology, 74(1), 2000, pp. 113-122, although I have not distinguished among the various S elements. In addition, I have attempted a bit of genus and species identification using Baesemann’s “Missouri (Upper Pennsylvanian) Conodonts of Northeastern Kansas,” Journal of Paleontology, 47(4), 689-710. I am just now beginning to experiment with dissolving the shale to extract the conodonts. I’ve had a some luck just using a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution from a local drug store. If I can figure this out, I should be able to get some pictures of extracted specimens. It has been fascinating and I’ve learned some interesting things. I have no training in biology or paleontology, and I am just a fossil hobbyist, so I expect that there are mistakes in my understanding of the terminology and in the ID of specific items. This is likely exacerbated by my superficial reading of the articles I mentioned above. So, feel free to correct me and I will be grateful. Just a few things about the pictures. The conodonts are in the 1-3 mm range. Second, the places where the conodont appears to be black are actually where the conodont is missing. Conodonts leave a detailed shiny mold if they are broken out or removed. Third, certain presentations are common others are less so. For example the P element seldom presents its dorsal view. Fourth, depth of field is a special problem for the P elements since they tend to bulge upward--and out of focus. I hope to continue to develop this post as my understanding grows and my specimens increase. I have numbered each picture by means of the comment above it. 1. S element
  10. Group of conodont fragments?

    As I have continued to examine the conodonts I'm finding in Stark Shale Member material (Kansas City Group, Pennsylvanian), I've found what appears to be a group of conodont fragments. What does this look like to you all? Russ
  11. Pennsylvanian conodont

    A couple of months ago I collected a small bucket of shale from the Stark Shale Member in the Dennis Formation of the Kansas City Group. My purpose was to find conodonts. Today, I had a chance to look at the shale and I found a conodont this afternoon--the first one I've ever found . I was able to extract this with a small needle in a pen vise. I took the pictures with a Celestron MicroCapture Pro. For any locals that are interested, this came from the Firemen's Memorial. Russ
  12. #04 Platform conodont

    From the album Conodonts

    Unidentified platform-type conodont North Evans Limestone Genesee Formation Upper Devonian
  13. #03 Partial conodont element

    From the album Conodonts

    Unidentified conodont piece North Evans Limestone Genesee Formation Upper Devonian
  14. 02 Partial conodont

    From the album Conodonts

    Unidentified conodont North Evans Limestone Genesee Formation Upper Devonian
  15. #01 Ozarkodina

    From the album Conodonts

    This is the first conodont I ever found. Ozarkodina sp. Upper Devonian North Evans Limestone Genesee Formation I originally posted it in the "My First Conodont!" thread.
  16. Pathological Conodont?!

    I have a few dozen conodonts that I'm in the process of photographing and mounting for storage. Among my collection, I have several Polygnathus linguiformis examples. Last night, I mounted two P. linguiformis on my "Conodonts II" storage card. This one caught my attention: That pale growth on the underside struck me as odd, especially compared to the other P. linguiformis that I handled last night: So I went to look at the P. linguiformis that I'd previously mounted. Here are 3 of the 4 for comparison: I also looked at the page in "Conodonts from the Genesee Formation in Western New York" that shows a number of P. linguiformis for further comparison. While several show liplike growths on the back, none are quite as pronounced as the first specimen I showed here. I'd be curious to see what other collectors think about this set. Do I have a pathology, or is this an element from a really old individual?
  17. My First Conodont!

    Back in early September, my husband and I went back to Penn-Dixie for another day of fossiling. I was particularly interested in collecting some North Evans limestone to search for microfossils, especially conodonts. Well, I'm not entirely sure that what I collected was North Evans (it might be Genundewa), but I've been slowly dissolving small pieces in vinegar ever since. I've seen lots of tiny weird things, probably foraminifera, with some possible echinoid spines for good measure. Tonight, I found what looks like a conodont to my admittedly inexperienced eye. Here are my 2 best photos (camera held up to microscope eyepiece): Is my identification correct? Does anyone have any further information on this particular piece? I'm excited!
  18. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since April 30, 2017. Class Conodonta Ordovician Conodonts Ordovician Conodonts - Africa/Middle East Lehnert, O., et al. (2016). Conodonts from the Lower Ordovician of Morocco - Contributions to age and faunal diversity of the Fezouata Lagerstatte and peri-Gondwana biogeography. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 460. Theron, J.N., R.B. Rickards, and R.J. Aldridge (1990). Bedding Plane Assemblages of Promissum pulchrum, A New Giant Ashgill Conodont from the Table Mountain Group, South Africa. Palaeontology, Vol.33, Part 3. Ordovician Conodonts - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Agematsu, S., et al. (2006). Ordovician conodonts from the Thong Pha Phum area, western Thailand. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 26. Tolmacheva, T.Ju., and M.A. Purnell (2002). Apparatus Composition, Growth, and Survivorship of the Lower Ordovician Conodont Paracordylodus gracilis Lindstrom, 1955. Palaeontology, Vol.45, Part 2. Wu, R.-C., et al. (2010). Lower and Middle Ordovician conodont diversity of the Yichang Region, Hubei Province, Central China. Bulletin of Geosciences, 85(4). Ordovician Conodonts - Australia/New Zealand Nicoll, R.S. (1992). Analysis of conodont apparatus organisation and and the genus Jumudontus (Conodonta), a coniform-pectiniform apparatus structure from the Early Ordovician. BMR Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, 13. Zhen, Y.Y. and R.S. Nicoll (2009). Biogeographic and Biostratigraphic Implications of the Serratognathus bilobatus Fauna (Conodonta) from the Emanuel Formation (Early Ordovician) of the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Australian Museum, Vol.61. Ordovician Conodonts - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Aldridge, R.J. (1982). A Fused Cluster of Coniform Conodont Elements from the Late Ordovician of Washington Land, Western North Greenland. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 2. Armstrong, H.A. (1997). Conodonts from the Ordovician Shinnel Formation, Southern Uplands, Scotland, Vol.40, Part 3. Dzik, J. (1983). Early Ordovician Conodonts from the Barrandian and Bohemian-Baltic Faunal Relationships. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 28(3-4). Dzik, J. (1978). Conodont Biostratigraphy and Paleogeographical Relations of the Ordovician Mojcza Limestone (Holy Cross Mts., Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 23(1). Ferretti, A. and C.R. Barnes (1997). Upper Ordovician Conodonts from the Kalkbank Limestone of Thuringia, Germany. Palaeontology, Vol.40, Part 1. Hints, O., V. Viira and J. Nõlvak (2012). Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) conodont biostratigraphy in NW Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 61(4). Männik, P. and V. Viira (2012). Ordovician conodont diversity in the northern Baltic. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 61(1). Mellgren, J.I.S., et al. (2012). Conodont dating of the Middle Ordovician breccia cap-rock limestone on Osmussaar Island, northwestern Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 61(3). Mergl, M. (2006). Paraconodont Westergaardodina in the Lower Ordovician of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic. Bulletin of Geosciences, 81(4). Sarmiento, G.N., et al. (2011). A Brief Summary of Ordovician Conodont Faunas from the Iberian Peninsula. In: Ordovician of the World. Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., I. Rábano and D. García-Bellido (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 14. Szaniowski, H. (1980). Conodonts from the Tremadocian Chalcedony Beds, Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 25(1). Tolmacheva, T.Ju. and D. Roberts (2007). New data on Upper Ordovician condonts from the Trondheim Region, Central Norwegian Caledonides. NGU-Bull., 447. Ordovician Conodonts - North America Bauer, J.A. (1987). Conodonts and Conodont Biostratigraphy of the McLish and Tulip Creek Formations (Middle Ordovician) of South-Central Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Bulletin 141. Evans, D.G. (1985). Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Montoya Group (Upper Ordovician) from the Mud Springs Mountains of South-Central New Mexico. Masters Thesis - Texas Tech University. Parsons, B.P. and D.L. Clark (1999). Conodonts and the Cambrian-Ordovician Boundary in Wisconsin. Geoscience Wisconsin, Vol.17. Pyle, L.J. and C.R. Barnes (2003). Conodonts from a Platform-To-Basin Transect, Lower Ordovician to Lower Silurian, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada. J. Paleont., 77(1). Webers, G.F. (1966). The Middle and Upper Ordovician Conodont Faunas of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological Survey, Special Publication Series, SP-4. General Ordovician Conodonts Lofgren, A.M. (1997). Reinterpretation of the Lower Ordovician Conodont Apparatus Paroistodus. Palaeontology, Vol.40, Part 4. Silurian Conodonts Aldridge, R.J. (1975). The Silurian Conodont Ozarkodina sagitta and its Value in Correlation. Palaeontology, Vol.18, Part 2. Bader, J.D. (2007). Telychian (Llandovery, Silurian) Conodonts from the Chimneyhill Subgroup, West Carney Hunton Field, North-Central Oklahoma. Masters Thesis - Texas Tech University. Carls, P., L. Slavík and J.I. Valenzuela-Ríos (2007). Revisions of conodont biostratigraphy across the Silurian-Devonian boundary. Bulletin of Geosciences, 82(2). Corriga, M.G. and C. Corradini (2009). Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian conodonts from the Monte Cocco II Section (Carnic Alps, Italy). Bulletin of Geosciences, 84(1). Corriga, M.G., C. Corradini and O.H. Walliser (2014). Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian conodonts from Tafilalt, southeastern Morocco. Bulletin of Geosciences, 89(1). Kleffner, M.A. (1987). Conodonts of the Estill Shale and Bisher Formation (Silurian, Southern Ohio): Biostratigraphy and Distribution. Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.87. Mannik, P. (1998). Evolution and Taxonomy of the Silurian Conodont Pterospathodus. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 5. Mannik, P. and R.J. Aldridge (1989). Evolution, Taxonomy and Relationships of the Silurian Conodont Pterospathodus. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 4. Mannik, P., C.G. Miller and V. Hairapetian (2015). A new early Silurian prioniodontid conodont with three P elements from Iran and associated species. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(3). Metzger, R.A. (2005). Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Scotch Grove and Laporte City Formations (Late Llandovery-Early Wenlock; Silurian) in Eastern Iowa. Bulletins of American Paleontology, Vol.369. Sanz-Lopez, J., I. Gil-Pena and R. Rodriguez-Canero (2002). Conodont content and stratigraphy of the Llessui Formation from the south central Pyrenees. In: Palaeozoic conodonts from northern Spain: Eighth International Conodont Symposium held in Europe. Garcia-Lopez, S. and F. Bastida (eds.), Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana, Serie Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 1. Sullivan, N.B., M.A. Kleffner and C.E. Brett (2014). Conodont biostratigraphy, paleoecology and taphonomy of the Second Creek Bed and Walcott Furnace Hematite (Clinton Group) in West Central New York State. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.17, Issue 1; 10A. Devonian Conodonts Devonian Conodonts - Africa/Middle East Capkinoglu, S. and I. Gedik (2000). Late Devonian Conodont Fauna of the Gumusali Formation, the Eastern Taurides, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.9. Devonian Conodonts - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Baranov, V.V., L. Slavík and R.B. Blodgett (2014). Early Devonian polygnathids of Northeast Asia and correlation of Pragian/Emsian strata of the marginal seas of Angarida. Bulletin of Geosciences, 89(3). Devonian Conodonts - Australia/New Zealand Long, J.A. (1987). Upper Devonian conodonts associated with a large placoderm fish skull from the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Rec.West. Aust. Mus., 13(4). Mawson, R. and J.A. Talent (2003). Conodont faunas from sequences on or marginal to the Anakie Inlier (Central Queensland, Australia) in relation to Devonian transgressions. Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol.78, Number 4. Savage, N.M. (1973). Lower Devonian Conodonts from New South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.16, Part 2. Telford, P.G. (1975). Lower and Middle Devonian Conodonts from the Broken River Embayment, North Queensland, Australia. Special Papers in Palaeontology, Number 15. Devonian Conodonts - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Berkyová, S. (2009). Lower-Middle Devonian (upper Emsian-Eifelian, serotinus-kockelianus zones) conodont faunas from the Prague Basin, the Czech Republic. Bulletin of Geosciences, 84(4). Corradini, C. and M.G. Corriga (2012). A Přídolí-Lochkovian conodont zonation in Sardinia and the Carnic Alps: implications for a global zonation scheme. Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(4). Kirschgasser, W.T. (1970). Conodonts from Near the Middle/Upper Devonian Boundary in North Cornwall. Palaeontology, Vol.13, Part 3. Pisarzowska, A., M. Sobstel and G. Racki (2006). Conodont-based event stratigraphy of the Early-Middle Frasnian transition on the South Polish carbonate shelf. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(4). Devonian Conodonts - North America Ethington, R.L. Devonian Conodonts in Arizona. New Mexico Geological Society, Thirteenth Field Conference. Huber, T.P. (1986). Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Bakken and Lower Lodgepole Formations (Devonian and Mississippian), Williston Basin, North Dakota. Masters Thesis - University of North Dakota. Huddle, J.W. and J.E. Repetski (1981). Conodonts from the Genesee Formation in Western New York. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1032-B. (Thanks to Mediospirifer for locating this one!) Klapper, G. (1966). Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Conodont Zones in Montana, Wyoming and South Dakota. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 3. Meyer, B.D. (2002). Conodont Biostratigraphy of Devonian Strata of West Texas and Eastern New Mexico and the Apparatus of Early Devonian Icriodus Species. Ph.D. Dissertation - Texas Tech University. Pyle, L.J., et al. (2003). Conodont biostratigraphy of the Lower to Middle Devonian Deserters Formation (new), Road River Group, northeastern British Columbia. Can.J. Earth Sci., 40. Ritter, S.M. (1991). Conodont-based Revision of Upper Devonian - Lower Pennsylvanian Stratigraphy in the Lake Mead Region of Northwestern Arizona and Southeastern Nevada. Brigham Young University Geology Studies, Vol.37. Roopnarine, P.D., M.A. Murphy and N. Beuning (2004). Microevolutionary Dynamics of the Early Devonian Conodont Wurmiella from the Great Basin of Nevada. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 2. Sparling, D.R. (1988). Middle Devonian Stratigraphy and Conodont Biostratigraphy, North-Central Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.88, Issue 1. Vodrážková, S., G. Klapper and M.A. Murphy (2011). Early Middle Devonian conodont faunas (Eifelian, costatus-kockelianus zones) from the Roberts Mountains and adjacent areas in central Nevada. Bulletin of Geosciences, 86(4). General Devonian Conodonts Slavík, L. (2011). Lanea carlsi conodont apparatus reconstruction and its significance for subdivision of the Lochkovian. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(2). Carboniferous Conodonts Carboniferous Conodonts - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Metcalfe, I. (1980). Upper Carboniferous Conodont Faunas of the Panching Limestone, Pahang, West Malaysia. Palaeontology, Vol.23, Part 2. Carboniferous Conodonts - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Austin, R.L. and F.H.T. Rhodes (1969). A Conodont Assemblage from the Carboniferous of the Avon Gorge, Bristol. Palaeontology, Vol.12, Part 3. Buggisch, W., et al. (1992). A Middle Carboniferous Conodont Fauna from Blomstrandhalvoya (NW-Spitsbergen): Implications on the Age of Post-Devonian Karstification and the Svalbardian Deformation. Polarforschung, 62(2/3). Butler, M. (1973). Lower Carboniferous Conodont Faunas from the Eastern Mendips, England. Palaeontology, Vol.16, Part 3. Higgins, A.C. and W.J. Varker (1982). Lower Carboniferous Conodont Faunas from Ravenstonedale, Cumbria. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 1. Higgins, A.C. and J. Bouckaert (1968). Conodont Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of the Namurian of Belgium. Service Géologique de Belgique, Mémoire Number 10. Matthews, S.C. (1969). A Lower Carboniferous Conodont Fauna from East Cornwall. Palaeontology, Vol.12, Part 2. Matthews, S.C. (1969). Two Conodont Faunas from the Lower Carboniferous of Chudleigh, South Devon. Palaeontology, Vol.12, Part 2. Matthew, S.C. and D. Naylor (1973). Lower Carboniferous Conodont Faunas from South-West Ireland. Palaeontology, Vol.16, Part 2. Purnell, M.A., P.H. Von Bitter, and E. Groessens (2002). Taphrognathus carinatus (Higgins & Varker) (Conodonta, Vertebrata) from the Lower Carboniferous of Belgium, and international correlation using taphrognathids. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 21. Sanz-Lopez, J., S. Blanco-Ferrera and S. Garcia-Lopez (2004). Taxonomy and Evolutionary Significance of Some Gnathodus Species (Conodonts) from the Mississippian of the Northern Iberian Peninsula. Revista Espanola de Micropaleontologia, 36(2). Varker, W.J. (1967). Conodonts of the Genus Apatognathus Branson and Mehl from the Yoredale Series of the North of England. Palaeontology, Vol.10, Part 1. von Bitter, P.H. and R.L. Austin (1984). The Dinantian Taphrognathus transatlanticus Conodont Range Zone of Great Britain and Atlantic Canada. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Number 1. Carboniferous Conodonts - North America Barrick, J.E., et al. (2004). Pennsylvanian Conodont Zonation for Midcontinent North America. Revista Espanola de Micropaleontologia, 36(2). Collinson, C., et al. (1972). Pennsylvanian Conodont Assmblages from La Salle County, Northern Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, Guidebook Series 10. Keairns, C.E. (2002). Application of Conodonts in Resolving Pennsylvanian-Permian Stratigraphic Problems in North-Central Texas, New Mexico, Colorado and Kansas. Ph.D. Dissertation - Texas Tech University. Proctor, D.D. (1991). Conodont Fauna of the Dimple Limestone (Late Morrowan-Early Atokan, Early Pennsylvanian) in the Marathon Basin, Texas. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Tech University. Stauffer, C.R. and H.J. Plummer (1932). Texas Pennsylvanian Conodonts and Their Stratigraphic Relations. In: Contributions to Geology, 1932. The University of Texas Bulletin, Number 3201. (Note: download includes the entire bulletin. The article on Pennsylvanian Conodonts is on pages 16-27 of the pdf file.) von Bitter, P.H. and R.L. Austin (1984). The Dinantian Taphrognathus transatlanticus Conodont Range Zone of Great Britain and Atlantic Canada. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Number 1. Carboniferous Conodonts - South America/Central America/Caribbean Nascimento, S. and V.B. Lemos (2010). First occurrence of Ellisonia, Gondolella and Ubinates (Conodonts) in Itaituba Formation, Pennsylvanian of Amazonas Basin, Brazil. Gaea, 6(2). Scomazzon, A.K. and V.B. Lemos (2005). Diplognathodus Occurrence in the Itaituba Formation, Amazonas Basin, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 8(3). General Carboniferous Conodonts Heckel, P.H., et al. (2008). Choice of conodont Idiognathodus simulator (sensu stricto) as the event marker for the base of the global Gzhelian Stage (Upper Pennsylvanian Series, Carboniferous System). Episodes, Vol.31, Number 3. Permian Conodonts Kozur, H. (1995). Permian Conodont Zonation and its Importance for the Permian Stratigraphic Standard Scale. In: Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Helfried Mostler. Geol.Palaont.Mitt. Innsbruck, 20. Nicoll, R.S., I. Metcalfe and W. Cheng-Yuan (2002). New species of the conodont Genus Hindeodus and the conodont biostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary interval. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20. Yadong, S. and L. Xulong (2008). Guadalupian (Middle Permian) Conodont Faunas at Shangsi Section, Northeast Sichuan Province. Journal of China University of Geosciences, Vol.19, Number 5. Triassic Conodonts Hornung, T. (2006). Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Lercheck/Konigsleiten Section Near Berchesgaden (Late Ladinian-Hallstatt Limestones). Geo.Alp, Vol.3. Koike, T. (1992). Morphological Variation in Spathian Conodonts Spathoicriodus collinsoni (Solien) from the Taho Limestone, Japan. In: Centenary of Japanese Micropaleontology, Ishizaki, K. and T. Saito (eds.), Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo. Koike, T., et al. (1991). Triassic conodonts from exotic blocks of limestone in northern Kuzuu, the Ashio mountains. Sci.Repts. Yokohama Natl.Univ., Sec.II, Number 38. Mazza, M., M. Rigo and A. Nicora (2011). A new Metapolygnathus platform conodont species and its implications for Upper Carnian global correlations. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(1). Metcalfe, I., et al. (1979). Triassic Conodonts from Sumatra. Palaeontology, Vol.22, Part 3. Palasencia, P., et al. (2015). Taxonomy and evolution of the Triassic conodont Pseudofurnishius. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(2). Sansom, I.J. (2000). Late Triassic (Rhaetian) conodonts and ichthyoliths from Chile. Geol.Mag., 137(2). Swift, A. (1989). First Records of Conodonts from the Late Triassic of Britain. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 2. Thang, B.D. (1989). Lower Triassic Conodonts from North Vietnam. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 34(4). General Conodonts General Conodonts - North America Bauer, J.A. (2010). Conodonts and Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Joins and Oil Creek Formations, Arbuckle Mountains, South-central Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Bulletin 150. Bond, R.H. (1947). Ohio Shale Conodonts. Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.XLVII, Issue 1. Burton, R.C. (1959). Conodonts from the Kincaid Formation of the Illinois Basin. Masters Thesis - Texas Technical College. Elias, M.K. (1966). Late Paleozoic Conodonts from the Ouachita and Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Guide Book XVI. General Conodonts Aldridge, R.J. and P.C.J. Donoghue (1998). 2. Conodonts: A Sister Group to Hagfishes? In: The Biology of Hagfishes. Jørgensen, J.M., et al. (eds.), Chapman & Hall, London. Aldridge, R.J. and M.A. Purnell (1996). The conodont controversies. Tree, Vol.11, Number 11. Baesemann, J. and M. Purnell (2000). Ubinates, A New Name for the Genus Aethotaxis Baesemann, 1973 (Vertebrata, Conodonta) Preoccumpied by Aethotaxis Dewitt, 1962 (Vertebrata, Osteichthyes). J. Paleont., 74(3). Collinson, C. (1963). Collection and Preparation of Conodonts Through Mass Production Techniques. Illinois State Geological Survey, Circular 343. Donoghue, P.C.J. (1998). Growth and patterning in the conodont skeleton. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond.B, 353. Donoghue, P.C.J. and M.A. Purnell (1999). Mammal-like occlusion in conodonts. Paleobiology, 25(1). Donoghue, P.C.J. and M.A. Purnell (1999). Growth, function and the conodont fossil record. Geology, Vol.27, Number 3. Donoghue, P.C.J., P.L. Forey and R.J. Aldridge (2000). Conodont affinity and chordate phylogeny. Biol.Rev., 75. Donoghue, P.C.J., M.A. Purnell, and R.J. Aldridge (1998). Conodont anatomy, chordate phylogeny and vertebrate classification. Lethaia, Vol.31. Donoghue, P.C.J., et al. (2008). The Interrelationships of 'Complex' Conodonts (Vertebrata). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 6(2). Dzik, J. (1991). Evolution of oral apparatuses in the conodont chordates. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 36(3). Epstein, A.G., J.B. Epstein and L.D. Harris (1977). Conodont Color Alteration - an Index to Organic Metamorphism. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 995. Murdock, D.J.E., I.J. Sansom and P.C.J. Donoghue (2013). Cutting the first 'teeth': a new approach to functional analysis of conodont elements. Proc.R.Soc. B, 280. Nemliher, J. and T. Kallaste (2012). Conodont bioapatite resembles vertebrate enamel by XRD properties. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 61(3). Purnell, M.A. and P.C.J. Donoghue (1998). Skeletal Architecture, Homology, and Taphonomy of Ozarkodinid Conodonts. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 1. Purnell, M.A. and P.C.J. Donoghue (1997). Architecture and functional morphology of the skeletal apparatus of ozarkodinid conodonts. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 352. Purnell, M.A., P.C.J. Donoghue and R.J. Aldridge (2000). Orientation and Anatomical Notation in Conodonts. J.Paleont., 74(1). Szaniowski, H. (2009). The earliest known venomous animals recognized among conodonts. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54(4). Sweet, W.C. and P.C.J. Donoghue (2001). Conodonts: Past, Present, Future. J. Paleont., 75(6). Turner, S., et al. (2010). False teeth: conodont-vertebrate phylogenetic relationships revisited. Geodiversitas, 32(4). von Bitter, P.H. and M.A. Purnell (2005). An Experimental Investigation of Post-Depositional Taphonomic Bias in Conodonts. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 73.