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Found 60 results

  1. Hi guys; I have recently been treated to a nice week down the Isle of Wight and having spent the first day down in Yaverland today I though I would share some of my finds. 1) these both appear to be Vertebra, I'm assuming they are dinosaur as I'm preatty sure I've read somewhere that crocodiles have concave and convex ends to their Vertebra but may be totally of base with that assumption.
  2. Hi, I'm about to purchase this Dyrosaurus fossil from a seller but just wanted to make sure it's not a cast or fake. He said a few of the teeth were reinserted after they came loose but that's about it. It's originally found in Morroco, and he's had it over a year in storage. It's about 5 feet across diagonally. Here's some more pics It looks real to me but I'm not an expert so I want to make sure first.
  3. I noticed the fossils of more 'modern' reptiles are not commonly shown/displayed (partly because I think they are fairly common in the U.S. and not viewed as too spectacular), so I thought we might do so here. I'd love to see your croc/alligator and turtle material, especially from various locations!
  4. From the album Holzmaden

    A damaged 1.5 cm long Steneosaurus tooth from the lower Jurassic of Holzmaden.
  5. Hi Me and my brother are hoping that we've found a dinosaur. It was found in Lower Jurassic marine deposits in the UK. The age of the deposits are Hettangian and we think it's from the Psiloceras Planorbis zone, which is almost at the base of the Jurassic. I've posted a thread on the UK Fossil Forum here: http://www.discussfossils.com/forum_posts.asp?TID=5455&title=lavernock-point-dinosaur The important picture so far is this one: It shows what I think is a line of tail verts, with some neurals broken of and some still buried under the matrix. At first I thought they might be plesiosaur phlanages but they were with some long bones that looked like land animal bones. I think the large flat bone that I have partly uncovered is the animal's pelvis. To give you an idea of scale, the verts are about an inch long. Land animals in this deposit are virtually unheard of. My hope is that it is a dinosaur, but a crocodile is another possibility. Again crocodiles from these deposits are unheard of, so that'd be great as well. If anyone has any thoughts then I'd really like to hear from them. I've spent most of the week on the internet researching this as I have virtually no knowledge of dinosaur anatomy. What I have found out is that if it is an animal, especially a dinosaur, then it is extremely rare. Thanks Nick
  6. Hi, I thought I'd share some of my best finds from my trip to Hamstead earlier today. Today was my first collecting trip there in almost a month due to the living hell most British 18 year olds have to endure, commonly called, A level exams. As my exams are starting to wind down and finish next week, along with my entire school career (I'm nearly free!) I thought I'd head up there and do some collecting to get back into the swing of things for the summer. We've had a long period of very hot, calm, and still weather here in southern England, and that coupled with the recent influx of eager tourists during the early June school holidays, has meant that on many parts of the Hamstead - Bouldnor coast decent finds other than turtle carapace and plastron fragments are pretty thin on the ground. Nevertheless I hit the beach at about 8am this morning and over the course of the morning/early afternoon found some fairly nice specimens, although the reduced productivity was quite noticeable. The best find of the day was a large section of Diplocynodon s.p jaw, seemingly from the left mandible, lying out on the Bembridge Marls on the foreshore (although it's most likely from the Lower Hamstead Mbr). Another really interesting and nice find was a fragment of mammal mandible, with a molar still in situ within it's alveolus. Unfortunately the tooth itself has been heavily worn so the crown is missing, although the roots can be seen within the mandible. Based off of the shape of the alveoli and the size it's likely its from an Anthracothere such as Elomeryx or Bothriodon although without the crown it'll be difficult to properly ID it. Other finds included a small section of mammal rib, a worn proximal end of a femur, various fish vertebrae from Amia s.p (Bowfin) and from unidentified teleosts, a worn crocodilian vertebral centrum, and about 50-60 small to medium sized fragments of turtle carapace (from Emys and Trionyx) and crocodilian scutes, including posterior marginal, marginal, and neural plates. I'll attach images below. Thanks, Theo 1. Large section of Diplocynodon s.p mandible. 2. A section of mammalian rib 3. Mammalian mandible fragment with molar roots in situ.
  7. Super excited! My fiancè ( @Ash) and I were recently able to add this specimen to our collection! A Pliocene crocodile tooth from Australia! Let me explain my/our excitement-though not too well prized over here in America (most gator and turtle material is rarely given a second glance), crocodile material from Australia is actually quite uncommon to rare and is always a trip maker if you find any. Let alone a tooth! This one is Pliocene-Pleistocene in age, but apart from that, identification is difficult due to the confusion of the taxonomic organixation of Aus crocs. Currently, there is one main crocodile species found in the region (fossilized, of course)-Pallimnarchus pollens. This croc is known to have very robust, conical, sometimes serrated teeth. There's also Crocodylus porosus, which also has robust, conical teeth (not serrated), albeit smaller. Finally, there's a more gracile form of P. pollens known as P. gracilis, which is discerned from P. pollens by ovoid/somewhat laterally compressed teeth (unknown if it had serrated teeth). Rare forms of ziphodont crocodiles (usually in the Quinkana genus) are also known from Australia, but are supremely rare in the region wherein this specimen was collected. I believe only 2 teeth are known to have been found from the Pleistocene in around 150 years or so of collecting? A few more are known from the Pliocene, but not many more. Pallimnarchus species are differentiated from ziphodont crocodiles by the variation in their alveoli and the enlargement of alveolus 4 in the dentary, amongst other features related to the skull (which is hardly ever found). So where does that leave us with this tooth? The current thought is that P. gracilis may not be a valid taxon. Furthermore, a lot of specimens were just arbitrarily thrown into the Pallimnarchus genus when paleontology was just picking up in Aus. So you have ziphodont forms in the Pallimnarchus genus and vice versa, as well as the validity of P. gracilis being questioned. Until this is all cleared up, the best we can say is that this tooth is either P. gracilis or what is being looked into as "something in between ziphodonts and Pallimnarchus". At this point, we could probably designate it as dinosaurian and it wouldn't be detrimental to the taxonomic organization of Aus crocs! It does look like one Anyways; hope you all enjoy! Edit: I should also add for clarification that ziphodont crocodiles from Aus also have laterally compressed and serrated teeth, which makes identification of this specimen even more difficult. It could be ziphodont, P. gracilis, or "something in between".
  8. I want to show three teeth from Holzmaden (Lower Jurassic). I prepped them today although the first one is an older find (but also from this year). The first one is a very small tooth (0.8cm) but well preserved. I am not sure with the determination ... maybe Ichthyosaurus ? The second one is bigger with a length of 1.2 cm. Shadefully its not well preserved and a part is missing Its a crocodile tooth (Steneosaurus): And the last one is the most beautifully tooth ! Its large with a length of 2.1 cm but very thin and i think also a crocodile tooth. It was very to prep this one and i think you can see my mistakes In the middle of the tooth i lost some material Otherwise it would be one of the best tooth in my collection ! Hope you enjoyed and thanks for viewing!
  9. From the album Holzmaden

    This Steneosaurus tooth from Holzmaden (lower jurassic) is one of my biggest teeth with a length of 2.1 cm.
  10. From the album Holzmaden

    A damaged 1.2 cm long Steneosaurus tooth from the lower Jurassic in Holzmaden.
  11. Dear Guys, I am young fossil explorer from Lithuania, Baltic States. There are some Jurassic and Cretaceous erratics in my area, where should be possible to find some reptile remains. I think this type of rock is very common in Devonian but when I showed one fragment to scientific doctor in Vilnius University he said that similar rocks can be found even to Cretaceous. The tooth is quite uncommon in the majority of bony fishes because of its appearance, I think. It is more characteristic to crocodiles or other reptiles. The length of the tooth is 8 mm. The turtle scutes in my opinion are too big to placoderms like Asterolepis or Bothriolepis, and they are also very thick. There are three fragments of them, the largest is 2,5 cm in length and 4 mm thickness, the second is 2,1 cm in length and 3 mm thickness, and the third- 1,6 cm in length and ~2,5 mm thickness. Please help me to confirm these ideas if you can. Best Regards, Domas
  12. Is the a croc tooth it the largest one I have found if it is. Thanks Justin
  13. Hi, I thought I'd share some of my best finds from yesterday's trip to Hamstead. It was definitely one of the best trips I've had in terms of the sheer number and variety of fossils I picked up. Tide was going out slowly so had to spend a lot of time climbing over and through the fallen trees that litter the beach from the landslides, but it was definitely worth it. As usual fragments of Emys carapace were by far the most common find along with loads of worn pieces of crocodile scute and fish vertebrae. I also found quite a few of the nicer pieces that come out of the Bouldnor formation including a diplocynodon tooth, mammal teeth and bones (which seem to be quite common at the moment), 3 diplocynodon vertebrae, a large section of diplocynodon mandible, and the largest fragment of Trionychid carapace/plastron I've ever found! The coast is always very productive but the strong winds and rain we had here for much of last week seem to have exposed/brought in lots of new material. I'll attach images of the highlights from the trip below (will have to do it in multiple posts because of size limits). (Below) The best Emys fragments of the day, a large plastron piece, a neural plate, and a peripheral piece.
  14. I posted recently asking for opinions on a partial Moroccan Dyrosaurus skull and jaws that I've had for a while, waiting for me to do something with it. The feedback I had encouraged me to start work on it, so I'm going to document my progress here. I seem to have most of the skull and upper jaws, though it is in a very fragmentary state. The bone pieces are very delicate and most are still covered in matrix. I plan to clean and consolidate all of the bones, and then mount them in 3D. Whether I will do this in the traditional way, or with the help of my 3D printer, I am as yet undecided. This summarises my position as of now: I have lots of bones, and don't know what they are. I have no idea what I'm doing. I have never done anything like this before. I'm sure a lot of people would tell me to leave it alone and give it to a professional to do, but firstly I don't have that kind of money and secondly I am keen to learn. If anybody has any tips at any point, those would be greatly appreciated. If you'd rather tell me something in confidence, please send me a message and I will keep the information to myself. Anything I discover on my own I will post here for the benefit of anybody else stupid enough to attempt this. I have cleaned a few of the bones so far, and after some initial hiccups, it's now going well. My method is to dab water onto the matrix, which quickly soaks it up. I continue until the matrix is sodden, at which point is usually comes away fairly easily using a dental pick and a scalpel. As I go, I consolidate the outside of the bones using small quantities of superglue to prevent breaks, and help maintain the basic stability if anything does break. When I'm finished, I have the option of using solvents to remove a bit of the excess glue, but whilst I'm working on it I want to know it's not going to fall to bits. Once I have removed the bulk of the matrix, I use a damp brush to remove any residual bits, and then a dry brush to remove small particles. Then I repeat as necessary. Here's my progress so far - a handful of cleaned and partially cleaned bones. My aim isn't to get them all pristine and white, just to remove the matrix to a point where all of the shapes and details can be seen. I don't mind a little bit of Moroccan sand here and there. Anyway, that's how far I've gotten. I will post occasional progress updates as I progress! I will also post better images in future - I am a professional photographer, so posting poor quality smartphone shots is inexcusable! Feedback or advice is most welcome.
  15. "The oldest crocodilian eggs known to science have been discovered in the cliffs of western Portugal." Article HERE. Research paper HERE. Enjoy.
  16. Found in a Miocene area. I am thinking the four on the left are all crocodile. I was thinking the one on the right is either a shark-toothed whale or dolphin,, but leaning to shark-toothed whale. Smaller ones are 13/16", 11/16", 13/16, & 13/16. Last tooth is 1 5/16. Thoughts?
  17. I obtained this partial crocodile skull and jaw some time ago, and haven't done anything with it yet. It's from Morocco, and was sold as sarcosuchus, though I imagine it's actually dyrosaurus. No idea whether it's just one specimen, or a mixture of bits. The teeth are glued on. Several of the pieces are also so fragile that they basically crumble when touched. Is there a method I should be using to stabilise them? I know very little about crocs, but I would love to get this to some kind of displayable state. I can digitally sculpt and 3D print missing pieces later, but my main problem at this stage is actually understanding what I have. Many of the bits are - and I assume will remain - unknown bone fragments, but many are large and identifiable - with the right references and knowledge (which I don't yet posses). Is there any advice that anyone could offer which isn't "put it in a box and forget about it"? I appreciate that I must sound like an idiot to people that know their stuff - my specialism is ammonites, which I can prep to a very high standard, but the only vertebrates you find around here are ichthyosaurs. I don't exactly need my hand held, but a few pointers would be very much appreciated!
  18. Both items are from Miocene period. Is the top item a crocodile tooth? It is 1 1/4" long and about 3/8" wide on the bottom. The bottom item is 3/4" long and about 3/8" wide on the bottom. Thanks in advance.
  19. I went back to Purse today with my wife, you just have to love it when you play at the river in February and only have to wear a sweatshirt. We didn't find anything spectacular but my wife did find a Otodus frag that would have been absolutely spectacular had it been whole. The total haul, some nice glass today too. Otodus frag...this would have been a beast if it was whole! Pretty cool looking sand tiger. Croc tooth...found this sitting high and dry as I was walking fast to get to where I wanted to search at. I see you! Although it was warm today, there were some neat icicles hanging down.
  20. Hi all, I've this nice vertebra fossil from the Hell Creek Formation in Harding County, South Dakota. I'm pretty sure it is a Crocodillian vert but not sure of the species or genus. Also, is it possible to tell which part of the body this belonged to? Any suggestions are welcome and much appreciated! Cheers, Jojo
  21. A nice Lee Creek croc tooth.
  22. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues . Articles with author names in RED are new additions since April 30, 2017. Superorder Crocodylomorpha - The Alligators, Crocodiles and Their Allies. Triassic Benton, M.J. and A.D. Walker (2002). Erpetosuchus, a crocodile-like basal archosaur from the Late Triassic of Elgin, Scotland. In: Archosaurian anatomy and palaeontology. Essays in memory of Alick D. Walker . Norman, D.B. and D.J. Gower (eds.), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 136. Busbey, A.B. and C. Gow (1984). A New Protosuchian Crocodile from the Upper Triassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. Palaeont.afr., 25. Clark, J.M., H.-D. Sues and D.S. Berman (2000). A New Specimen of Hesperosuchus agilis from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico and the Interrelationships of Basal Crocodylomorph Archosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(4). Colbert, E.H. (1952). A Pseudosuchian Reptile from Arizona.Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.99, Article 10. Crush, P.J. (1984). A Late Upper Triassic Sphenosuchid Crocodilian from Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Part 1. Gauthier, J.A., et al. (2011). The Bipedal Stem Crocodilian Poposaurus gracilis: Inferring Function in Fossils and Innovation in Archosaur Locomotion. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 50(1). Sues, H.-D., et al. (2003). A New Crocodylomorph from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(2). Jurassic Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - Africa/Middle East Hadri, M., et al. (2015). Crocodyliform footprints from "les couches rouges" of the Middle Jurassic of Msemrir, High Atlas, Morocco. Geogaceta, 58. Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Buffetaut, E. and R. Ingavat (1984). The Lower Jaw of Sunosuchus thailandicus, A Mesosuchian Crocodilian from the Jurassic of Thailand. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Part 1. Clark, J.M., et al. (2004). A Middle Jurassic 'sphenosuchian' from China and the origin of the crocodylian skull. Nature, Vol.430. Gao, Y. (2001). A new species of Hsisosuchus (Mesoeucrocodylia) from Dashanpu, Zigong Municipality, Sichuan Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.39, Number 3. Harris, J.D., et al. (2000). A new and unusual sphenosuchian (Archosauria: Crocodylomorpha) from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation, People's Republic of China. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 215(1). Peng, G.-Z. and C.-K. Shu (2005). A New Species of Hsisosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Zigong, Sichuan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43(4). Schellhorn, R., et al. (2009). Late Jurassic Sunosuchus (Crocodylomorpha, Neosuchia) from the Qigu Formation in the Junggar Basin (Xinjiang, China). Fossil Record, 12(1). Young, C.-C. (1961). On a New Crocodile from Chuhsien, E. Shantung. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 1961(1). Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Adams-Tresman, S.M. (1987). The Callovian (Middle Jurassic) Teleosaurid Marine Crocodiles from Central England. Palaeontology, Vol.30, Part 1. Cau, A. and F. Fanti (2011). The oldest known metriorhynchid crocodylian from the Middle Jurassic of North-eastern Italy: Neptunidraco ammoniticus gen. et sp.nov. Gondwana Research, 19. Grange, D.R. and M.J. Benton (1996). Kimmeridgian Metriorhynchid Crocodiles from England. Palaeontology, Vol.39, Part 2. Karl, H.-V., et al. (2008). First Remains of the Head of Steneosaurus (Crocodylomorpha: Teleosauridae) from the Late Jurassic of Oker (Lower Saxony, Germany). Studia Geologica Salmanticensia, 44(2). Karl, H.-V., et al. (2006). The Late Jurassic crocodiles of the Langenberg near Oker, Lower Saxony (Germany), and description of related materials (with remarks on the history of quarrying the "Langenberg Limestone" and "Obernkirchen Sandstone"). Clausthaler Geowissenschaften, 5. Kuzmin, I.T., et al. (2013). Goniopholidid Crocodylomorph from the Middle Jurassic Berezovsk Quarry Locality (Western Siberia, Russia). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, Vol.317, Number 4. Mook, C.C. (1942). Anglosuchus, a New Genus of Teleosauroid Crocodilians. American Museum Novitates, Number 1217. Russo, J., et al. (2014). Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunicaҫões Geológicas, 101, Especial 1. Schwarz, D., M. Raddatz and O. Wings (2017). Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen.nov., sp.nov., a new atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic Langenberg Quarry (Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany), and its relationships to Theriosuchus. 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Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52(2). Oligocene Moraes-Santos, H., J.B. Villanueva and P.M. Toledo (2011). New remains of a gavialoid crocodilian from the late Oligocene-early Miocene of the Pirabas Formation, Brazil. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163. Stein, M., S.J. Hand and M. Archer (2016). A New Crocodile Displaying Extreme Constriction of the Mandible, from the Late Oligocene of Riversleigh, Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1179041. Stein, M., M. Archer and S.J. Hand (2016). Dwarfism and feeding behaviours in Oligo-Miocene crocodiles from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, Australia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(1). Velez-Juarbe, J., C.A. Brochu, and H. Santos (2007). A gharial from the Oligocene of Puerto Rico: transoceanic dispersal in the history of a non-marine reptile. Proc.R.Soc.B, 274. Miocene Miocene - Africa/Middle East Llinas Agrasar, E. (2004). Crocodile remains from the Burdigalian (lower Miocene) of Gebel Zelten (Libya). Geodiversitas, 26(2). Tchernov, E. and J. Van Couvering (1978). New Crocodiles from the Early Miocene of Kenya. Palaeontology, Vol.21, Part 4. Miocene - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Blas, X.P.I. and R. Patnaik (2009). A Complete Crocodylian Egg from the Upper Miocene (Chinji Beds) of Pakistan and its Palaeobiographical Implications. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 6(1). Li, J.-l. and B. Wang (1987). A New Species of Alligator from Shanwang, Shandong. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 25(3). Tomida, S. (2013). A fossil scute of Crocodile from the Miocene Mizunami Group, central Japan. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, Number 39. Miocene - North America Barboza, M.M., et al. (2017). The age of the Oso Member, Capistrano Formation, and a review of fossil crocodylians from California. PaleoBios, 34. Liggett, G.A. (1997). The Beckerdite Local Biota (Early Hemphillian) and the First Tertiary Occurrence of a Crocodilian from Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol. 100, Numbers 3/4. Martin, J.E. (1984). A Crocodilian from the Miocene (Hemingfordian) Sheep Creek Formation in Northwestern Nebraska. Proc.S.D.Acad.Sci., Vol.63. Mook, C.C. (1923). A New Species of Alligator from the Snake Creek Beds. American Museum Novitates, Number 73. Whiting, E.T., D.W. Steadman and J. Krigbaum (2016). Paleoecology of Miocene crocodylians in Florida: Insights from stable isotope analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 451. Miocene - South America/Central America/Caribbean Aguilera, O.A., D. Riff, and J. Bocquentin-Villanueva (2006). A new giant Purussaurus (Crocodyliformes, Alligatoridae) from the Upper Miocene Urumaco Formation, Venezuela. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 4(3). Aureliano, T., et al. (2015). Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis. PLoS ONE, 10(2). Bona, P., D. Riff and Z. Brandoni de Gasparini (2013). Late Miocene crocodylians from northeast Argentina: new approaches about the austral components of the Neogene South American crocodylian fauna. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 103. Brochu, C.A. and G. Carbot-Chanona (2015). Biogeographic and Systematic Implications of a Caimanine from the Late Miocene of Southern Mexico. Journal of Herpetology, Vol.49, Number 1. Brochu, C.A. and O. Jimenez-Vazquez (2014). Enigmatic Crocodyliforms from the Early Miocene of Cuba. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(5). Hastings, A.K., et al. (2013). Systematics and Biogeography of Crocodylians from the Miocene of Panama. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(2). Laurito, C.A. and A.L. Valerio (2008). The First Record of Gavialosuchus americanus Sellards (1915) (Eusuchia: Crocodylidae: Tomistominae) for the Late Tertiary of Costa Rica and Central America. Revista Geologica de America Central, 39. Moraes-Santos, H., J.B. Villanueva and P.M. Toledo (2011). New remains of a gavialoid crocodilian from the late Oligocene-early Miocene of the Pirabas Formation, Brazil. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163. Moreno-Bernal, J.W. (2014). Fossil Crocodilians from the High Guajira Peninsula of Colombia, and the History of Neogene Crocodilian Diversity in Tropical South America. Masters Thesis - The University of Nebraska. Salas-Gismondi, R., et al. (2016). A New 13 Million Year Old Gavialoid Crocodylian from Proto-Amazon Mega-Wetlands Reveals Parallel Evolutionary Trends in Skull Shape Linked to Longirostry. PLoS ONE, 11(4). Salas-Gismondi, R., et al. (2015). A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands. Proc.R.Soc. B, 282. Salas-Gismondi, R., et al. (2007). Middle Miocene Crocodiles from the Fitzcarrald Arch, Amazonian Peru. In: 4th Eurpoean Meeting on the Palaeontology and Stratigraphy of Latin America. Diaz-Martinez, E. and I. Rabano (eds.). Walsh, S.A. and M. Suarez (2005). First post-Mesozoic record of Crocodyliformes from Chile. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(3). Pliocene Brochu, C.A. and G.W. Storrs (2012). A Giant Crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene of Kenya, the Phylogenetic Relationships of Neogene African Crocodylines, and the Antiquity of Crocodylus in Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32(3). Brochu, C.A., et al. (2010). A New Horned Crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid Site at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 5(2). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Mead, J.I., et al. (2006). Plio-Pleistocene Crocodylus (Crocodylia) from Southwestern Costa Rica. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 41(1). Mook, C.C. ((1946). A New Pliocene Alligator from Nebraska.American Museum Novitates, Number 1311. Willis, P.M.A. and R.E. Molnar (1997). A Review of the Plio-Pleistocene Crocodilian Genus Pallimnarchus. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 117. (Thanks to Oxytropidoceras for finding this one.) Pleistocene Delfino, M. and J. De Vos (2014). A giant crocodile in the Dubois Collection from the Pleistocene of Kali Gedeh (Java). Integrative Zoology, 9. Molnar, R.E. (1981). Pleistocene ziphodont crocodilians of Queensland. Records of the Australian Museum, 33(19). Molnar, R.E., T. Worthy and P.M.A. Willis (2002). An Extinct Pleistocene Endemic Mekosuchine Crocodylian from Fiji. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3). Mook, C.C. (1959). A New Pleistocene Crocodilian from Guatemala. American Museum Novitates, Number 1975. Mook, C.C. (1921). Description of a Skull of the Extinct Madagascar Crocodile, Crocodilus robustus Vaillant and Grandidier. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XLIV, Article IV. Morgan, G.S., R. Franz, and R.I. Crombie (1993). The Cuban Crocodile Crocodylus rhombifer, from Late Quaternary Fossil Deposits on Grand Cayman. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.29, Vols. 3-4. Richmond, N.D. (1963). Evidence Against the Existence of Crocodiles in Virginia and Maryland During the Pleistocene. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol.76. Sobbe, I.H., G.J. Price and R.A. Knezour (2013). A ziphodont crocodile from the late Pleistocene King Creek catchment, Darling Downs, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum | Nature, 56(2). General Crocodylomorpha General Crocodylomorpha - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Halliday, T.J.D., et al. (2015). A re-evaluation of goniopholidid crocodylomorph material from Central Asia: Biogeographic and phylogenetic implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(2). Shikama, T. Fossil Crocodilia from Tsochin, Southwestern Taiwan. Wang, Y.-y., C. Sullivan and J. Liu (2016). Taxonomic revision of Eoalligator (Crocodylia, Brevirostres) and the paleogeographic origins of the Chinese alligatoroids. PeerJ, 4:e2356. General Crocodylomorpha - Australia/New Zealand Willis, P.M.A. (1997). Review of fossil crocodilians from Australasia. Australian Zoologist, 30(3). General Crocodylomorpha - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Cabrera, L., et al. (1994). Crocodilian and Palaeobotanical Findings from the Tertiary Lignites of the As Pontes Basin (Galicia, Spain) (Crocodylia, Plantae). Courier Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 173. Delfino, M., et al. (2007). First European evidence for transcontinental dispersal of Crocodylus (late Neogene of southern Italy). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149. Kotsakis, T., M. Delfino and P. Piras (2004). Italian Cenozoic crocodilians: taxa, timing, and palaeobiogeographic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology, 210. General Crocodylomorpha - North America Auffenberg, W. (1967). Fossil Crocodilians of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 5. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing this one out!) Colbert, E.H. and C.C. Mook (1951). The Ancestral Crocodilian Protosuchus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.97, Article 3. Mook, C.C. (1925). A Revision of the Mesozoic Crocodilia of North America. A Preliminary Report. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LI, Article IX. (39MB, 134 pages) Mook, C.C. (1924). Further Notes on the Skull Characters of Gavialosuchus americana (Sellards). American Museum Novitates, Number 155. General Crocodylomorpha - South America/Central America/Caribbean Mook, C.C. (1921). Brachygnathosuchus braziliensis, a New Fossil Crocodilian from Brazil. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XLIV, Article VI. Riff, D., et al. (2010). 16. Neogene crocodile and turtle fauna in Northern South America. In: Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past. Hoorn, C. and E.P. Wesselingh (eds.), Blackwell Publishing. General Crocodylomorpha Brochu, C.A. (2003). Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Crocodylian History. Ann.Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 31. Brochu, C.A. (2000). Crocodylian Snouts in Space and Time: Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Adaptive Radiation. From the Symposium: Beyond Reconstruction. Using Phylogenies to Test Hypotheses About Vertebrate Evolution. Brochu, C.A. (1997). Morphology, Fossils, Divergence Timing, and the Phylogenetic Relationships of Gavialis. Syst.Biol., 46(3). De Andrade, M.B., R.J. Bertini and A.E.P. Pinheiro (2006). Observations on the Palate and Choanae Structures in Mesoeucrocodylia (Archosauria, Crocodylomorpha): Phylogenetic Implications. Revista bras.paleont., 9(3). Erickson, G.M., et al. (2012). Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation. PLoS ONE, 7(3). Irmis, R.B., S.J. Nesbitt and H.-D. Sues (2013). Early Crocodylomorpha. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 2013, Vol.379. Markwick, P.J. (1998). Fossil crocodilians as indicators of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climates: implications for using palaeontological data in reconstructing palaeoclimate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 137. 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  23. Hello, Found this tiny tooth of about 1 x 1 cm in marine Jurassic sediment in the Boulonnais. North of France. Could this be a marine crocodile tooth, such as machimosaurus? Regards, Niels
  24. From the album Holzmaden

    A very damaged and because of that small (0.5 cm long) Steneosaurus tooth from the quarry Kromer in Holzmaden, Lower Jurassic.