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Found 65 results

  1. I noticed the fossils of more 'modern' reptiles are not commonly shown/displayed (partly because I think they are fairly common in the U.S. and not viewed as too spectacular), so I thought we might do so here. I'd love to see your croc/alligator and turtle material, especially from various locations!
  2. Croc tooth (?) ID

    Hi guys going through my deep box of Kem Kem bits is this. I guess it’s croc, maybe Elosuchus? @Jesuslover340 @LordTrilobite @Troodon
  3. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues . Articles with author names in RED are new additions since October 16, 2017. Superorder Crocodylomorpha - The Alligators, Crocodiles and Their Allies. Triassic Benton, M.J. and A.D. Walker (2002). Erpetosuchus, a crocodile-like basal archosaur from the Late Triassic of Elgin, Scotland. In: Archosaurian anatomy and palaeontology. Essays in memory of Alick D. Walker . Norman, D.B. and D.J. Gower (eds.), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 136. Busbey, A.B. and C. Gow (1984). A New Protosuchian Crocodile from the Upper Triassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. Palaeont.afr., 25. Clark, J.M., H.-D. Sues and D.S. Berman (2000). A New Specimen of Hesperosuchus agilis from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico and the Interrelationships of Basal Crocodylomorph Archosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(4). Colbert, E.H. (1952). A Pseudosuchian Reptile from Arizona.Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.99, Article 10. Crush, P.J. (1984). A Late Upper Triassic Sphenosuchid Crocodilian from Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Part 1. Gauthier, J.A., et al. (2011). The Bipedal Stem Crocodilian Poposaurus gracilis: Inferring Function in Fossils and Innovation in Archosaur Locomotion. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 50(1). Sues, H.-D., et al. (2003). A New Crocodylomorph from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(2). Jurassic Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - Africa/Middle East Hadri, M., et al. (2015). Crocodyliform footprints from "les couches rouges" of the Middle Jurassic of Msemrir, High Atlas, Morocco. Geogaceta, 58. Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Buffetaut, E. and R. Ingavat (1984). The Lower Jaw of Sunosuchus thailandicus, A Mesosuchian Crocodilian from the Jurassic of Thailand. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Part 1. Clark, J.M., et al. (2004). A Middle Jurassic 'sphenosuchian' from China and the origin of the crocodylian skull. Nature, Vol.430. Gao, Y. (2001). A new species of Hsisosuchus (Mesoeucrocodylia) from Dashanpu, Zigong Municipality, Sichuan Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.39, Number 3. Harris, J.D., et al. (2000). A new and unusual sphenosuchian (Archosauria: Crocodylomorpha) from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation, People's Republic of China. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 215(1). Peng, G.-Z. and C.-K. Shu (2005). A New Species of Hsisosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Zigong, Sichuan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43(4). Schellhorn, R., et al. (2009). Late Jurassic Sunosuchus (Crocodylomorpha, Neosuchia) from the Qigu Formation in the Junggar Basin (Xinjiang, China). Fossil Record, 12(1). Young, C.-C. (1961). On a New Crocodile from Chuhsien, E. Shantung. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 1961(1). Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Adams-Tresman, S.M. (1987). The Callovian (Middle Jurassic) Teleosaurid Marine Crocodiles from Central England. Palaeontology, Vol.30, Part 1. Cau, A. and F. Fanti (2011). The oldest known metriorhynchid crocodylian from the Middle Jurassic of North-eastern Italy: Neptunidraco ammoniticus gen. et sp.nov. Gondwana Research, 19. Grange, D.R. and M.J. Benton (1996). Kimmeridgian Metriorhynchid Crocodiles from England. Palaeontology, Vol.39, Part 2. Karl, H.-V., et al. (2008). First Remains of the Head of Steneosaurus (Crocodylomorpha: Teleosauridae) from the Late Jurassic of Oker (Lower Saxony, Germany). Studia Geologica Salmanticensia, 44(2). Karl, H.-V., et al. (2006). The Late Jurassic crocodiles of the Langenberg near Oker, Lower Saxony (Germany), and description of related materials (with remarks on the history of quarrying the "Langenberg Limestone" and "Obernkirchen Sandstone"). Clausthaler Geowissenschaften, 5. Kuzmin, I.T., et al. (2013). Goniopholidid Crocodylomorph from the Middle Jurassic Berezovsk Quarry Locality (Western Siberia, Russia). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, Vol.317, Number 4. Mook, C.C. (1942). Anglosuchus, a New Genus of Teleosauroid Crocodilians. American Museum Novitates, Number 1217. Russo, J., et al. (2014). Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunicaҫões Geológicas, 101, Especial 1. Schwarz, D., M. Raddatz and O. Wings (2017). Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen.nov., sp.nov., a new atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic Langenberg Quarry (Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany), and its relationships to Theriosuchus. PLoS ONE, 12(2). Schwarz-Wings, D., et al. (2011). A new partial skeleton of Alligatorellus (Crocodyliformes) associated with echinoids from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) lithographic limestone of Kelheim, S-Germany. Fossil Record, 14(2). Tennant, J.P. and P.D. Mannion (2014). Revision of the Late Jurassic crocodyliform Alligatorellus, and evidence for allopatric speciation driving high diversity in western European atoposaurids. PeerJ, 2:e599. Wilkinson, L.E., M.T. Young and M.J. Benton (2008). A New Metriorhynchid Crocodilian (Mesoeucrocodylia: Thalattosucha) from the Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) of Wiltshire, UK. Palaeontology, Vol.51, Part 6. Young, M.T., L. Steel and H. Middleton (2013). Evidence of the metriorhynchid crocodylomorph genus Geosaurus in the Lower Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Late Jurassic) of England. Historical Biology, 2013. Young, M.T., et al. (2012). The Cranial Osteology and Feeding Ecology of the Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph Genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Europe. PLoS ONE, 7(9). Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - North America Allen, E.R. (2012). Analysis of North American Goniopholidid Crocodyliforms in a Phylogenetic Context. Masters Thesis - The University of Iowa. Gohlich, U.B., et al. (2005). The systematic position of the Late Jurassic alleged dinosaur Macelognathus (Crocodylomorpha: Sphenosuchia). Can.J. Earth Sci., 42. Mook, C.C. (1942). Skull Characters of Amphicotylus lucasii Cope. American Museum Novitates, Number 1165. Mook, C.C. (1933). A Crocodilian Skeleton from the Morrison Formation at Canyon City, Colorado. American Museum Novitates, Number 671. Mook, C.C. (1933). Skull Characters of Teleorhinus browni Osborn. American Museum Novitates, Number 602. Tykoski, R.S., et al. (2002). Calsoyasuchus valliceps, A New Crocodyliform from the Early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3). Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Fortier, D., D. Perea and C. Schultz (2011). Redescription and phylogenetic relationships of Meridiosaurus vallisparadisi, a pholidosaurid from the Late Jurassic of Uruguay. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163. Gasparini, Z., D. Pol and L.A. Spalletti (2006). An Unusual Marine Crocodyliform from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary of Patagonia. Science, Vol.311. Montefeltro, F.C., et al. (2013). A new neosuchian with Asian affinities from the Jurassic of northeastern Brazil. Naturwissenschaften, DOI 10.1007/s00114-013-1083-9. Pol, D., et al. (2013). A new fossil from the Jurassic of Patagonia reveals the early basicranial evolution and the origins of Crocodyliformes. Biol.Rev.(2013). General Jurassic Crocodylomorphs Clark, J.M. and H.-D. Sues (2002). Two new basal crocodylomorph archosaurs from the Lower Jurassic and the monophyly of the Sphenosuchia. In: Archosaurian anatomy and palaeontology. Essays in memory of Alick D. Walker. Norman, D.B. and D.J. Gower (eds.), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 136. Tennant, J.P., P.D. Mannion and P. Upchurch (2016). Environmental drivers of crocodyliform extinction across the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition. Proc.R.Soc. B, 283. Cretaceous Cretaceous Crocodylomorphs - Africa/Middle East Buffetaut, E. and P. Taquet (1977). The Giant Crocodilian Sarcosuchus in the Early Cretaceous of Brazil and Niger. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1. Buscalioni, A.D., et al. (2004). Late Cretaceous neosuchian crocodiles from the Sultanate of Oman. Cretaceous Research, 25. de Lapparent de Broin, F. (2002). Elosuchus, a new genus of crocodile from the Lower Cretaceous of the North of Africa. C.R. Palevol, 1(5). Hill, R.V., et al. (2008). Dyrosaurid (Crocodyliformes: Mesoeucrocodylia) Fossils from the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene of Mali: Implications for the Phylogeny and Survivorship across the K/T Boundary. American Museum Novitates, Number 3631. Holliday, C.M. and N.M. Gardner (2012). A New Eusuchian Crocodyliform with Novel Cranial Integument and Its Significance for the Origin and Evolution of Crocodylia. PLoS ONE, 7(1). Krause, D.W. and N.J. Kley (eds.)(2010). Simosuchus clarki (Crocodyliformes, Notosuchia) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol.30, Supplement to Number 5. (89 pages, 46MB download) O'Connor, P.M., et al. (2010). The evolution of mammal-like crocodyliforms in the Cretaceous Period of Gondwana. Nature, Vol.466. (Thanks to jpc for pointing this one out!) Sereno, P.C. and H.C.E. Larsson (2009). Cretaceous Crocodyliforms from the Sahara. ZooKeys, 28. Sereno, P.C., et al. (2003). A New Notosuchian from the Early Cretaceous of Niger. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(2). Sereno, P.C., et al. (2001) The Giant Crocodyliform Sarcosuchus from the Cretaceous of Africa.Science, Vol.294. Sertich, J.J. and P.M. O'Connor (2014). A New Crocodyliform from the Middle Cretaceous Galula Formation, Southwestern Tanzania. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(3). Young, M.T., et al. (2016). Revision of the enigmatic crocodyliform Elosuchus felixi de Lapparent de Boin, 2002 from the Lower-Upper Cretaceous boundary of Niger: potential evidence for an early of the clade Dyrosauridae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Cretaceous Crocodylomorphs - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Lauprasert, K., et al. (2011). Atoposaurid crocodyliforms from the Khorat Group of Thailand: first record of Theriosuchus from Southeast Asia. Palaontol Z,83. Martin, J.E., et al. (2013). A Large Pholidosaurid in the Phu Kradung Formation of North-Eastern Thailand. Palaeontology, 57(4). Mook, C.C. (1924). A New Crocodilian from Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 117. Osmolska, H., S. Hua and E. Buffetaut (1997). Gobiosuchus kielanae (Protosuchia) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia: anatomy and relationships. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 42(2). Pol, D. and M.A. Norell (2004). A New Gobiosuchid Crocodyliform Taxon from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 3458. Pol, D. and M.A. Norell (2004). A New Crocodyliform from Zos Canyon, Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 3445. Pol, D., A.H. Turner and M.A. Norell (2009). Morphology of the Late Cretaceous Crocodylomorph Shamosuchus djadochtaensis and a Discussion of Neosuchian Phylogeny as Related to the Origin of Eusuchia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 324. (103 pages, 42 MB download) Pol, D., et al. (2004). Basal crocodyliforms from the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group (Xinjiang, China), and the phylogenetic position of Edentosuchus. Cretaceous Research, 25. Prasad, G.V.R. and F. de Lapparent de Broin (2002). Late Cretaceous crocodile remains from Naskal (India): comparisons and biogeographic affinities. Annales de Paleontologie, 88. Rana, R.S. and K.K. Sati (2000). Late Cretaceous - Palaeocene Crocodilians from the Deccan Trap-Associated Sedimentary Sequences of Peninsular India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.45. Sun, A.-L. (1958). A New Species of Paralligator from Sungarian Plain. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 2(4). Wilson, J.A., M.S. Malkani and P.D. Gingerich (2001). New Crocodyliform (Reptilia, Mesoeucrocodylia) from the Upper Cretaceous Pab Formation of Vitakri, Balochistan, Pakistan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.30, Number 12. Wu, X.-C., Z.-W. Cheng and A.P. Russell (2001). Cranial anatomy of a new crocodyliform (Archosauria: Crocodylomorpha) from the Lower Cretaceous of Song-Liao Plain, northeastern China. Can.J. Earth Sci., 38. Yun, C.-S., J.-D. Lim and S.-Y. Yang (2004). The first crocodyliform (Archosauria: Crocodylomorpha) from the Early Cretaceous of Korea. Current Science, Vol.86, Number 9. Cretaceous Crocodylomorphs - Australia/New Zealand Salisbury, S.W., et al. (2006). The origin of modern crocodyliforms: new evidence from the Cretaceous of Australia. Proc. R. Soc. B. Cretaceous Crocodylomorphs - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Blanco, A., et al. (2015). A new species of Allodaposuchus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Spain: phylogenetic and paleobiological implications. PeerJ, 3:e1171. Buscalioni, A.D. and J.L. Sanz (1990). The small crocodile Bernissartia fagesii from the Lower Cretaceous of Galve (Teruel, Spain). Bulletin De L'Institut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles De Belgique, Sciences De La Terre, 60. Buscalioni, A.D., et al. (2001). A Revision of the Crocodyliform Allodaposuchus precedens from the Upper Cretaceous of the Hadeg Basin, Romania. Its Relevence in the Phylogeny of Eusuchia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21(1). Buscalioni, A.D., et al. (1986). An Eusuchian Crocodile from the Upper Cretaceous of Spain (Vilamitjana, Province of Lerida). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 6(3). Buscalioni, A.D., et al. (1984). An Immature Specimen of the Crocodilian Bernissartia from the Lower Cretaceous of Galve (Province of Teruel, Spain). Palaeontology, Vol.27, Part 4. Clark, J.M. and M.A. Norell (1992). The Early Cretaceous Crocodylomorph Hylaeochampsa vectiana from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. American Museum Novitates, Number 3032. Company, J., et al. (2005). A New Species of Doratodon (Crocodyliformes: Ziphosuchia) from the Late Cretaceous of Spain. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25(2). de Andrade, M.B., et al. (2011). A new Berriasian species of Goniopholis (Mesoeucrocodylia, Neosuchia) from England, and a review of the genus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163. Efimov, M.B. and S.B. Leschinskii (1998). The first finding of a fossil crocodile skull in Siberia. Paleontologiya i Stratigraiya, 3. Hua, S., et al. (2007). Oceanosuchus boecensis n.gen. n.sp., a marine pholidosaurid (Crocodylia, Mesosuchia) from the Lower Cenomanian of Normandy (western France). Bull.Soc.geol.Fr., 178(6). Joffe, J. (1967). The 'Dwarf' Crocodiles of the Purbeck Formation, Dorset: A Reappraisal. Palaeonotolgy, Vol.10, Part 4. Narvaez, I., et al. (2015). New Crocodyliforms from Southwestern Europe and Definition of a Diverse Clade of European Late Cretaceous Basal Eusuchians. PLoS ONE, 10(11). Puértolas-Pascual, E., R. Rabal-Garcés, and J.I. Canudo (2015). Exceptional crocodylomorph biodiversity of "La Cantalera" site (lower Barremian; Lower Cretaceous) in Teruel, Spain. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.2.28A. Puértolas-Pascual, E., J.I. Canudo and P. Cruzado-Caballero (2011). A New Crocodylian from the Late Maastrichtian of Spain: Implications for the Initial Radiation of Crocodyloids. PLoS ONE, 6(6). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Salisbury, S.W. (2002). Crocodilians from the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian) Purbeck Limestone Group of Dorset, Southern England. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 68. Sweetman, S.C., U. Pedreira-Segade and S.U. Vidovic (2015). A new bernissartiid crocodyliform from the Lower Cretaceous Wessex Formation (Wealden Group, Barremian) of the Isle of Wight, southern England. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(2). Cretaceous Crocodylomorphs - North America Adams, T.L. (2013). A New Neosuchian Crocodyliform from the Lower Cretaceous (Late Aptian) Twin Mountains Formation of North-Central Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(1). Adams, T.L., et al. (2011). First Occurrence of the Long-Snouted Crocodyliform Terminonaris (Pholidosauridae) from the Woodbine Formation (Cenomanian) of Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(3). Bennett, G.E. (2012). Community structure and paleoecology of crocodyliforms from the upper Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), eastern Montana, based on shed teeth. Jeffersoniana, Number 28. Brochu, C.A. (2004). A New Late Cretaceous Gavialoid Crocodylian from Eastern North America and the Phylogenetic Relationships of Thoracosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(3). Colbert, E.H. and R.T. Bird (1954). A Gigantic Crocodile from the Upper Cretaceous Beds of Texas. American Museum Novitates, Number 1688. Farke, A.A., et al. (2014). Leidyosuchus (Crocodylia: Alligatoroidea) from the Upper Cretaceous Kairparowits Formation (Late Campanian) of Utah, USA. PaleoBios, 30(3). Gilmore, C.W. (1911). A New Fossil Alligator from the Hell Creek Beds of Montana. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol.41, Number 1860. Lucas, S.G. (1992). Cretaceous - Eocene Crocodilians from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 43rd Field Conference, San Juan Basin IV. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2006). The Giant Crocodylian Deinosuchus from the Upper Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. In: Late Cretaceous Vertebrates from the Western Interior. Lucas, S.G. and Sullivan, R.M. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 35. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2006). Late Cretaceous Crocodylians from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. In: Late Cretaceous vertebrates from the Western Interior. Lucas, S.G. and R.M.Sullivan (eds.) New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 35. Mook, C.C. (1942). A New Crocodilian from the Belly River Beds. American Museum Novitates, Number 1202. Mook, C.C. (1941). A New Crocodilian from the Lance Formation. American Museum Novitates, Number 1128. Norell, M.A., J.M. Clark and J.H. Hutchison (1994). The Late Cretaceous Alligatoroid Brachychampsa montana (Crocodylia): New Materials and Putative Relationships. American Museum Novitates, Number 3116. Noto, C.R., D.J. Main and S.K. Drumheller (2012). 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A giant crocodile in the Dubois Collection from the Pleistocene of Kali Gedeh (Java). Integrative Zoology, 9. Martin, J.E., et al. (2012). Gavialis from the Pleistocene of Thailand and Its Relevance for Drainage Connections from India to Java. PLoS ONE, 7(9). Molnar, R.E. (1981). Pleistocene ziphodont crocodilians of Queensland. Records of the Australian Museum, 33(19). Molnar, R.E., T. Worthy and P.M.A. Willis (2002). An Extinct Pleistocene Endemic Mekosuchine Crocodylian from Fiji. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3). Mook, C.C. (1959). A New Pleistocene Crocodilian from Guatemala. American Museum Novitates, Number 1975. Mook, C.C. (1921). Description of a Skull of the Extinct Madagascar Crocodile, Crocodilus robustus Vaillant and Grandidier. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XLIV, Article IV. Morgan, G.S. and N.A. Albury (2013). The Cuban Crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) from Late Quaternary Fossil Deposits in the Bahamas and Cayman Islands. Bulletin Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.52(3). Morgan, G.S., R. Franz, and R.I. Crombie (1993). The Cuban Crocodile Crocodylus rhombifer, from Late Quaternary Fossil Deposits on Grand Cayman. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.29, Vols. 3-4. Nojima, K. and J. Itoigawa (2017). Tomistominae gen. et sp.indet. (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) from the Lower Yage Formation (Middle Pleistocene) in Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, Number 43. Richmond, N.D. (1963). Evidence Against the Existence of Crocodiles in Virginia and Maryland During the Pleistocene. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol.76. Sobbe, I.H., G.J. Price and R.A. Knezour (2013). A ziphodont crocodile from the late Pleistocene King Creek catchment, Darling Downs, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum | Nature, 56(2). General Crocodylomorpha General Crocodylomorpha - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Halliday, T.J.D., et al. (2015). A re-evaluation of goniopholidid crocodylomorph material from Central Asia: Biogeographic and phylogenetic implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(2). Shikama, T. Fossil Crocodilia from Tsochin, Southwestern Taiwan. Wang, Y.-y., C. Sullivan and J. Liu (2016). Taxonomic revision of Eoalligator (Crocodylia, Brevirostres) and the paleogeographic origins of the Chinese alligatoroids. PeerJ, 4:e2356. General Crocodylomorpha - Australia/New Zealand Willis, P.M.A. (1997). Review of fossil crocodilians from Australasia. Australian Zoologist, 30(3). General Crocodylomorpha - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Cabrera, L., et al. (1994). Crocodilian and Palaeobotanical Findings from the Tertiary Lignites of the As Pontes Basin (Galicia, Spain) (Crocodylia, Plantae). Courier Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 173. Delfino, M., et al. (2007). First European evidence for transcontinental dispersal of Crocodylus (late Neogene of southern Italy). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149. Kotsakis, T., M. Delfino and P. Piras (2004). Italian Cenozoic crocodilians: taxa, timing, and palaeobiogeographic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology, 210. General Crocodylomorpha - North America Auffenberg, W. (1967). Fossil Crocodilians of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 5. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing this one out!) Colbert, E.H. and C.C. Mook (1951). The Ancestral Crocodilian Protosuchus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.97, Article 3. Mook, C.C. (1925). A Revision of the Mesozoic Crocodilia of North America. A Preliminary Report. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LI, Article IX. (39MB, 134 pages) Mook, C.C. (1924). Further Notes on the Skull Characters of Gavialosuchus americana (Sellards). American Museum Novitates, Number 155. General Crocodylomorpha - South America/Central America/Caribbean Mook, C.C. (1921). Brachygnathosuchus braziliensis, a New Fossil Crocodilian from Brazil. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XLIV, Article VI. Riff, D., et al. (2010). 16. Neogene crocodile and turtle fauna in Northern South America. In: Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past. Hoorn, C. and E.P. Wesselingh (eds.), Blackwell Publishing. General Crocodylomorpha Brochu, C.A. (2003). Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Crocodylian History. Ann.Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 31. Brochu, C.A. (2000). Crocodylian Snouts in Space and Time: Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Adaptive Radiation. From the Symposium: Beyond Reconstruction. Using Phylogenies to Test Hypotheses About Vertebrate Evolution. Brochu, C.A. (1997). Morphology, Fossils, Divergence Timing, and the Phylogenetic Relationships of Gavialis. Syst.Biol., 46(3). De Andrade, M.B., R.J. Bertini and A.E.P. Pinheiro (2006). Observations on the Palate and Choanae Structures in Mesoeucrocodylia (Archosauria, Crocodylomorpha): Phylogenetic Implications. Revista bras.paleont., 9(3). Erickson, G.M., et al. (2012). Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation. PLoS ONE, 7(3). Irmis, R.B., S.J. Nesbitt and H.-D. Sues (2013). Early Crocodylomorpha. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 2013, Vol.379. Markwick, P.J. (1998). Fossil crocodilians as indicators of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climates: implications for using palaeontological data in reconstructing palaeoclimate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 137. Martin, J.E., et al. (2014). Sea surface temperature contributes to marine crocodylomorph evolution. Nature Communications, 5:4658. Mook, C.C. (1921). Skull Characters of the Recent Crocodilia, with Notes on the Affinities of the Recent Genera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LXIV, Article XIII. Norell, M.A. and G.W. Storrs (1989). Catalogue and Review of the Type Fossil Crocodilians in the Yale Peabody Museum. Peabody Museum of Natural History Postilla, Number 203. Oaks, J.R. (2007). Phylogenetic Systematics, Biogeography, and Evolutionary Ecology of the True Crocodiles (Eusuchia: Crocodylidae: Crocodylus). Masters Thesis - Louisiana State University. Scheyer, T.M., et al. (2013). Crocodylian diversity peak and extinction in the late Cenozoic of the northern Neotropics. Nature Communications, 4:1907. Seymour, R.S., et al. (2004). Evidence for Endothermic Ancestors of Crocodiles at the Stem of Archosaur Evolution. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 77(6).
  4. New Unknowns

    I found this tooth yesterday on Potomac River. I thought at first that it was a crocodile tooth, but it isn't hollow & it isn't curved as most of the crocodile teeth that I see online tend to be. This photo is magnified 2x so you can see the detail. I have another unknown to add to this list later. It measures 1.25 inches long. I just realized I photographed it on the mm side of the ruler. Thanks for looking.
  5. Elosuchus Postorbital

    Left postorbital of a large crocodile. There are also small fragments of the frontal and squamosal attached to it.
  6. Gator Vs Crocodile Teeth ID

    I'm sure many of you are aware of the issue concerning discerning between a croc tooth and a gator tooth. So this is my attempt to answer it, now that I've attained a varied collection. First, I will start with the popular generalizations, then I will list each of my crocodile and gator teeth and assess each one. With said data, I will hopefully deduce the best method for discernment. Though this is not meant to be comprehensive, I hope it can be used as a general guideline for identifying crocodylian teeth. The answer is not as clear-cut as you might surmise... Generalizations: -Croc teeth are more curved; gator teeth are more straight (possibly as a result of eating more fish, whereas gators eat more turtles?). This is why you can see a croc's teeth when its mouth is closed (the teeth curve around the outside of the snout and jaw) and not a gator's. -Gators have two 'seams' (carinae) 180° from each other, whereas crocs either have multiples or none. -croc teeth are more conical and sharp; gator teeth are generally blunt. Observations: Pallimnarchus pollens (crocodile) from the Pleistocene of Australia (images 1-3): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp/pointy -curved -ovoid base Pallimnarchus pollens (crocodile) from the Pliocene of Australia (images 4-5): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp/pointy -slightly curved -conical base Goniopholis sp. (crocodile) from Torres Vedras, Jurassic of Portugal (image 6): -multiple striations -sharp/pointy -slightly curved -conical base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from northern Florida, Pleistocene (images 9-11): -two carinae 180° from each other -blunt (it may have been sharp at one point) -curved -conical base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from Marion Co., Florida, Pleistocene (images 12-15): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp/pointy -straight (not including the root) -ovoid base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from the Pleistocene of Florida (images 16-17): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp but rotund -straight -ovoid base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from the Pleistocene of Florida (image 18): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp/pointy -slightly curved -conical base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from Bone Valley, Florida, Late Miocene (images 7-8): -two carinae 180° from each other -blunt (from wear, but was likely never sharp/pointy due to the amount of force it was using [blunt teeth would have been better for such force distribution and would have minimized wear over sharp teeth]) -straight -conical base Edit note: I have changed the identification of this tooth to Alligator mississipiensis as a result of reading this paper and deducing that Alligator would be more plausible than Thecachampsa or a posterior Gavialosuchus: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B1HtUwlDORQ0UXZVRGJncGhwVGc/view Deinosuchus rugosus (alligatoroid/crocodylian) from the Ripley Fm., Bullock County, Alabama, Cretaceous (images 19-21): -two carinae with crenulations 180° from each other; some evidence of 'proto-seams' along the base -sharp but rotund -slightly curved -conical base Deinosuchus rugosus (alligatoroid/crocodylian) from the Ripley Fm., Bullock County, Alabama, Cretaceous (images 22-25): -two carinae with crenulations 180° from each other -sharp but rotund -straight -ovoid base Discussion: While croc teeth may generally be more slender and curved, this is not a sure-fire way to identify a crocodylian tooth as being crocodile. Crocodiles do have blunt/rotund, straight, 'stubby' teeth posteriorly (towards the back of their jaw) and these look just like an Alligator's (unfortunately, I don't have any images of the 'button-looking teeth of a crocodile, but image 16 is one of an Alligator 's). Likewise, young Alligators are known to have sharp, pointy, curved teeth (see image 18; I've seen some even more curved). Carinae/striations seem to vary for crocodiles, ranging from none (I have no such specimen to provide a photo of, unfortunately), to a consistent two, to multiple striations. I would say it's a safe bet to assume a tooth is crocodile if it has no carinae or multiple striations, as this is not seen with Alligators (which always have two carinae). In those cases where a tooth has two carinae, further deduction could be done based on the rate of rarity of each per the location, robustness, and curvature if it isn't small. It is also of note that per the paper above (kindly provided by @Plax), the ratio of height to diameter in Alligator mississipiensis teeth did not exceed 1.6. However, do bear in mind that teeth with two carinae that are small, slender, and curved could be either a crocodile or young gator, just as a robust, straight, 'button'-like tooth with two carinae could be either a posterior crocodile's or Alligator 's. Again, such deductions should be taken into account with the rarity of each per a locality. Most importantly, keep in mind that form determines function -blunt, robust teeth indicate a diet of hard-shelled prey; sharp, pointy teeth indicate a diet of slippery prey. Ask yourself if the form better indicates the lifestyle of a crocodile or Alligator found in your area (get to know your specific species!). Then take the above into account. You should be reasonably able to deduce whether you'll see the owner of your tooth later or in awhile To summarize: 1. If the tooth has no carinae or has multiple 'ridges'/seams (striations), it's crocodile. 2. If the tooth has exactly two carinae 180° apart, is small, sharp/pointy, slender, and curves, it could be a small crocodile tooth or young Alligator's. Use the above tips to help you deduce which it is (curvature, robustness, form, lifestyle, rarity of either per the locale, etc.). If it is rather robust and curves, it may likely be Alligator, given its predominance in localities such as Florida. If it is slender and curves and the locale is known for croc teeth over gator, it is likely crocodile and so on and so forth, for example. If you are within the U.S., measuring the height to diameter ratio could help rule out Alligator if it exceeds 1.6. 3. If the tooth has exactly two carinae 180° apart and is straight and rotund, it could either be an Alligator tooth or posterior crocodile's. Use the above tips to help you deduce which it is (curvature, robustness, form, lifestyle, rarity of either per the locale, etc.). Generally speaking, unless you live outside the U.S., posterior crocodile teeth will be more uncommon, especially small ones. If it is large, rotund, and straight (or only curves slightly if it isn't 'button'-like), it's probably gator unless a crocodile with a diet for hard-shelled prey is common in the area. You can also use the height to diameter ratio for this one as well. 4. If you can't tell from these deductions, it's probably a Crocogator or Allidile tooth
  7. Steneosaurus tooth

    From the album Holzmaden

    A damaged Steneosaurus tooth from Holzmaden (Lower Jurassic) with a length of 1 cm.
  8. you can't make an omelet

    Marz, 2014.HiBioolicrocodilian eggs and eggshell structures..pdf
  9. Hi all, I've this nice vertebra fossil from the Hell Creek Formation in Harding County, South Dakota. I'm pretty sure it is a Crocodillian vert but not sure of the species or genus. Also, is it possible to tell which part of the body this belonged to? Any suggestions are welcome and much appreciated! Cheers, Jojo
  10. Isle of Wight Fossils

    Hi guys; I have recently been treated to a nice week down the Isle of Wight and having spent the first day down in Yaverland today I though I would share some of my finds. 1) these both appear to be Vertebra, I'm assuming they are dinosaur as I'm preatty sure I've read somewhere that crocodiles have concave and convex ends to their Vertebra but may be totally of base with that assumption.
  11. Hi, I'm about to purchase this Dyrosaurus fossil from a seller but just wanted to make sure it's not a cast or fake. He said a few of the teeth were reinserted after they came loose but that's about it. It's originally found in Morroco, and he's had it over a year in storage. It's about 5 feet across diagonally. Here's some more pics It looks real to me but I'm not an expert so I want to make sure first.
  12. Steneosaurus tooth

    From the album Holzmaden

    A damaged 1.5 cm long Steneosaurus tooth from the lower Jurassic of Holzmaden.
  13. Have We Found A Lower Jurassic Dinosaur?

    Hi Me and my brother are hoping that we've found a dinosaur. It was found in Lower Jurassic marine deposits in the UK. The age of the deposits are Hettangian and we think it's from the Psiloceras Planorbis zone, which is almost at the base of the Jurassic. I've posted a thread on the UK Fossil Forum here: http://www.discussfossils.com/forum_posts.asp?TID=5455&title=lavernock-point-dinosaur The important picture so far is this one: It shows what I think is a line of tail verts, with some neurals broken of and some still buried under the matrix. At first I thought they might be plesiosaur phlanages but they were with some long bones that looked like land animal bones. I think the large flat bone that I have partly uncovered is the animal's pelvis. To give you an idea of scale, the verts are about an inch long. Land animals in this deposit are virtually unheard of. My hope is that it is a dinosaur, but a crocodile is another possibility. Again crocodiles from these deposits are unheard of, so that'd be great as well. If anyone has any thoughts then I'd really like to hear from them. I've spent most of the week on the internet researching this as I have virtually no knowledge of dinosaur anatomy. What I have found out is that if it is an animal, especially a dinosaur, then it is extremely rare. Thanks Nick
  14. Hi, I thought I'd share some of my best finds from my trip to Hamstead earlier today. Today was my first collecting trip there in almost a month due to the living hell most British 18 year olds have to endure, commonly called, A level exams. As my exams are starting to wind down and finish next week, along with my entire school career (I'm nearly free!) I thought I'd head up there and do some collecting to get back into the swing of things for the summer. We've had a long period of very hot, calm, and still weather here in southern England, and that coupled with the recent influx of eager tourists during the early June school holidays, has meant that on many parts of the Hamstead - Bouldnor coast decent finds other than turtle carapace and plastron fragments are pretty thin on the ground. Nevertheless I hit the beach at about 8am this morning and over the course of the morning/early afternoon found some fairly nice specimens, although the reduced productivity was quite noticeable. The best find of the day was a large section of Diplocynodon s.p jaw, seemingly from the left mandible, lying out on the Bembridge Marls on the foreshore (although it's most likely from the Lower Hamstead Mbr). Another really interesting and nice find was a fragment of mammal mandible, with a molar still in situ within it's alveolus. Unfortunately the tooth itself has been heavily worn so the crown is missing, although the roots can be seen within the mandible. Based off of the shape of the alveoli and the size it's likely its from an Anthracothere such as Elomeryx or Bothriodon although without the crown it'll be difficult to properly ID it. Other finds included a small section of mammal rib, a worn proximal end of a femur, various fish vertebrae from Amia s.p (Bowfin) and from unidentified teleosts, a worn crocodilian vertebral centrum, and about 50-60 small to medium sized fragments of turtle carapace (from Emys and Trionyx) and crocodilian scutes, including posterior marginal, marginal, and neural plates. I'll attach images below. Thanks, Theo 1. Large section of Diplocynodon s.p mandible. 2. A section of mammalian rib 3. Mammalian mandible fragment with molar roots in situ.
  15. Exciting Aussie Fossil!

    Super excited! My fiancè ( @Ash) and I were recently able to add this specimen to our collection! A Pliocene crocodile tooth from Australia! Let me explain my/our excitement-though not too well prized over here in America (most gator and turtle material is rarely given a second glance), crocodile material from Australia is actually quite uncommon to rare and is always a trip maker if you find any. Let alone a tooth! This one is Pliocene-Pleistocene in age, but apart from that, identification is difficult due to the confusion of the taxonomic organixation of Aus crocs. Currently, there is one main crocodile species found in the region (fossilized, of course)-Pallimnarchus pollens. This croc is known to have very robust, conical, sometimes serrated teeth. There's also Crocodylus porosus, which also has robust, conical teeth (not serrated), albeit smaller. Finally, there's a more gracile form of P. pollens known as P. gracilis, which is discerned from P. pollens by ovoid/somewhat laterally compressed teeth (unknown if it had serrated teeth). Rare forms of ziphodont crocodiles (usually in the Quinkana genus) are also known from Australia, but are supremely rare in the region wherein this specimen was collected. I believe only 2 teeth are known to have been found from the Pleistocene in around 150 years or so of collecting? A few more are known from the Pliocene, but not many more. Pallimnarchus species are differentiated from ziphodont crocodiles by the variation in their alveoli and the enlargement of alveolus 4 in the dentary, amongst other features related to the skull (which is hardly ever found). So where does that leave us with this tooth? The current thought is that P. gracilis may not be a valid taxon. Furthermore, a lot of specimens were just arbitrarily thrown into the Pallimnarchus genus when paleontology was just picking up in Aus. So you have ziphodont forms in the Pallimnarchus genus and vice versa, as well as the validity of P. gracilis being questioned. Until this is all cleared up, the best we can say is that this tooth is either P. gracilis or what is being looked into as "something in between ziphodonts and Pallimnarchus". At this point, we could probably designate it as dinosaurian and it wouldn't be detrimental to the taxonomic organization of Aus crocs! It does look like one Anyways; hope you all enjoy! Edit: I should also add for clarification that ziphodont crocodiles from Aus also have laterally compressed and serrated teeth, which makes identification of this specimen even more difficult. It could be ziphodont, P. gracilis, or "something in between".
  16. Three new teeth from Holzmaden

    I want to show three teeth from Holzmaden (Lower Jurassic). I prepped them today although the first one is an older find (but also from this year). The first one is a very small tooth (0.8cm) but well preserved. I am not sure with the determination ... maybe Ichthyosaurus ? The second one is bigger with a length of 1.2 cm. Shadefully its not well preserved and a part is missing Its a crocodile tooth (Steneosaurus): And the last one is the most beautifully tooth ! Its large with a length of 2.1 cm but very thin and i think also a crocodile tooth. It was very to prep this one and i think you can see my mistakes In the middle of the tooth i lost some material Otherwise it would be one of the best tooth in my collection ! Hope you enjoyed and thanks for viewing!
  17. Steneosaurus tooth

    From the album Holzmaden

    This Steneosaurus tooth from Holzmaden (lower jurassic) is one of my biggest teeth with a length of 2.1 cm.
  18. Steneosaurus tooth

    From the album Holzmaden

    A damaged 1.2 cm long Steneosaurus tooth from the lower Jurassic in Holzmaden.
  19. Crocodile and turtle fragments from Jurassic of Lithuania

    Dear Guys, I am young fossil explorer from Lithuania, Baltic States. There are some Jurassic and Cretaceous erratics in my area, where should be possible to find some reptile remains. I think this type of rock is very common in Devonian but when I showed one fragment to scientific doctor in Vilnius University he said that similar rocks can be found even to Cretaceous. The tooth is quite uncommon in the majority of bony fishes because of its appearance, I think. It is more characteristic to crocodiles or other reptiles. The length of the tooth is 8 mm. The turtle scutes in my opinion are too big to placoderms like Asterolepis or Bothriolepis, and they are also very thick. There are three fragments of them, the largest is 2,5 cm in length and 4 mm thickness, the second is 2,1 cm in length and 3 mm thickness, and the third- 1,6 cm in length and ~2,5 mm thickness. Please help me to confirm these ideas if you can. Best Regards, Domas
  20. Possible croc tooth?

    Is the a croc tooth it the largest one I have found if it is. Thanks Justin
  21. Hamstead Trip

    Hi, I thought I'd share some of my best finds from yesterday's trip to Hamstead. It was definitely one of the best trips I've had in terms of the sheer number and variety of fossils I picked up. Tide was going out slowly so had to spend a lot of time climbing over and through the fallen trees that litter the beach from the landslides, but it was definitely worth it. As usual fragments of Emys carapace were by far the most common find along with loads of worn pieces of crocodile scute and fish vertebrae. I also found quite a few of the nicer pieces that come out of the Bouldnor formation including a diplocynodon tooth, mammal teeth and bones (which seem to be quite common at the moment), 3 diplocynodon vertebrae, a large section of diplocynodon mandible, and the largest fragment of Trionychid carapace/plastron I've ever found! The coast is always very productive but the strong winds and rain we had here for much of last week seem to have exposed/brought in lots of new material. I'll attach images of the highlights from the trip below (will have to do it in multiple posts because of size limits). (Below) The best Emys fragments of the day, a large plastron piece, a neural plate, and a peripheral piece.
  22. I posted recently asking for opinions on a partial Moroccan Dyrosaurus skull and jaws that I've had for a while, waiting for me to do something with it. The feedback I had encouraged me to start work on it, so I'm going to document my progress here. I seem to have most of the skull and upper jaws, though it is in a very fragmentary state. The bone pieces are very delicate and most are still covered in matrix. I plan to clean and consolidate all of the bones, and then mount them in 3D. Whether I will do this in the traditional way, or with the help of my 3D printer, I am as yet undecided. This summarises my position as of now: I have lots of bones, and don't know what they are. I have no idea what I'm doing. I have never done anything like this before. I'm sure a lot of people would tell me to leave it alone and give it to a professional to do, but firstly I don't have that kind of money and secondly I am keen to learn. If anybody has any tips at any point, those would be greatly appreciated. If you'd rather tell me something in confidence, please send me a message and I will keep the information to myself. Anything I discover on my own I will post here for the benefit of anybody else stupid enough to attempt this. I have cleaned a few of the bones so far, and after some initial hiccups, it's now going well. My method is to dab water onto the matrix, which quickly soaks it up. I continue until the matrix is sodden, at which point is usually comes away fairly easily using a dental pick and a scalpel. As I go, I consolidate the outside of the bones using small quantities of superglue to prevent breaks, and help maintain the basic stability if anything does break. When I'm finished, I have the option of using solvents to remove a bit of the excess glue, but whilst I'm working on it I want to know it's not going to fall to bits. Once I have removed the bulk of the matrix, I use a damp brush to remove any residual bits, and then a dry brush to remove small particles. Then I repeat as necessary. Here's my progress so far - a handful of cleaned and partially cleaned bones. My aim isn't to get them all pristine and white, just to remove the matrix to a point where all of the shapes and details can be seen. I don't mind a little bit of Moroccan sand here and there. Anyway, that's how far I've gotten. I will post occasional progress updates as I progress! I will also post better images in future - I am a professional photographer, so posting poor quality smartphone shots is inexcusable! Feedback or advice is most welcome.
  23. Oldest Croc Eggs Discovered in Portugal

    "The oldest crocodilian eggs known to science have been discovered in the cliffs of western Portugal." Article HERE. Research paper HERE. Enjoy.
  24. Possible Crocodile and Whale

    Found in a Miocene area. I am thinking the four on the left are all crocodile. I was thinking the one on the right is either a shark-toothed whale or dolphin,, but leaning to shark-toothed whale. Smaller ones are 13/16", 11/16", 13/16, & 13/16. Last tooth is 1 5/16. Thoughts?
  25. I obtained this partial crocodile skull and jaw some time ago, and haven't done anything with it yet. It's from Morocco, and was sold as sarcosuchus, though I imagine it's actually dyrosaurus. No idea whether it's just one specimen, or a mixture of bits. The teeth are glued on. Several of the pieces are also so fragile that they basically crumble when touched. Is there a method I should be using to stabilise them? I know very little about crocs, but I would love to get this to some kind of displayable state. I can digitally sculpt and 3D print missing pieces later, but my main problem at this stage is actually understanding what I have. Many of the bits are - and I assume will remain - unknown bone fragments, but many are large and identifiable - with the right references and knowledge (which I don't yet posses). Is there any advice that anyone could offer which isn't "put it in a box and forget about it"? I appreciate that I must sound like an idiot to people that know their stuff - my specialism is ammonites, which I can prep to a very high standard, but the only vertebrates you find around here are ichthyosaurs. I don't exactly need my hand held, but a few pointers would be very much appreciated!