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Found 76 results

  1. My 3x Hell Creek Crocodile Teeth...

    Hey guys, first real post/question... I have a very small and modest collection, and the only thing that I have not truly been able to identify are my 3 Hell Creek Crocodilian Teeth... I know from investigation that there are 3 basic types of Crocodilia found in the formations there... Thoracosaurus neocesariensis - gavialoid crocodile Borealosuchus sternbergii - crocodile Brachychampsa montana - alligatoroid crocodile My teeth are definitely from the same species... I'm not sure if they are from mature of juvenile however... Judging by research I've done, I doubt they are Brachychampsa... I also don't think they have the correct look for Borealosuchus.... Are they Thoracosaurus??? Or is it some unknown Leidyosuchus? Any help would be well received.... Thanks!
  2. I noticed the fossils of more 'modern' reptiles are not commonly shown/displayed (partly because I think they are fairly common in the U.S. and not viewed as too spectacular), so I thought we might do so here. I'd love to see your croc/alligator and turtle material, especially from various locations!
  3. Handful of Otodus/Croc

    Here's a handful of Otudus, Crocodile, and Sand Tigers from a recent trip to Purse State Park
  4. So I decided to venture outside of my comfort zone of Calvert Cliffs and head over to the Potomac at Purse State park. Low tide was right around 5pm so i decided to head over around 1 and walk for a while. I figured that since I was going late in the day that I would have lots of company on the beach. Well I was wrong on on having company on the beach and on the amount of time I would need to preform a good search. I got to the parking lot and empty I quickly got on my gear and made the mile hike down to the beach. I was very happy to see that there were no footprints anywhere the water was low and super calm. I decided to head to the north first and was very happy to find 2 crocodile teeth because not many are found at my normal stomping grounds. I then decided to fill up a bag of shells for mom because she loves shells and there was an abundance at this beach. I then turned my attention to the south and was rewarded with a pristine otodus and a nice paraorthacodus clarkii a nice cretolamna and some other fantastic teeth my knowledge of the paleocene is not as it is on the miocene. Well i walked all the way to the point when i noticed the sun starting to disappear and realized i still had a 1/2 mile walk back to the trail and another mile back to my truck. I could have spent another 4 hours searching well i will know better for next time. I have also included my past couple of trips along the cliffs my best finds from over there were a couple of stunning ecphoras, a few megalodons, and a hadrodelphis that is my first all in all february has been treating me very well.
  5. Crocodilian skull

    I've been seeing a few of these fossils on an auction site. They are all saying that they are part of the skull, probably the top. Is this true?
  6. Crocodile tooth

    From the album Dinosaurs and Reptiles

  7. Crocodile tooth

    From the album Dinosaurs and Reptiles

  8. G'day all! After three years since my last visit to the UK, i finally returned in December 2017 for another massive collecting trip across England. This was my most ambitious tour of the UK's Mesozoic and Cenozoic vertebrate deposits thus far, with 20 days of collecting across ten different locations. These were (in chronological order from first visit): Abbey Wood in East London Beltinge in Kent Bouldnor on the Isle of Wight Compton Bay to Grange Chine on the Isle of Wight Lyme Regis to Charmouth in Dorset Aust Cliff in Gloucestershire Saltwick Bay in Yorkshire Kings dyke in Cambridgeshire Minster in Kent Tankerton in Kent. If you went collecting at any of these places in the last month, there's probably a 25.6975% chance you saw me looking very intimidating hunched over in my hooded rain jacket and muddy pants 14 of those collecting days were back-to-back, a new record for me, though it was very tiring! Having just come from the hot Australian summer, winter collecting in England was certainly a challenge at times and my fingers and toes froze to the point i could barely feel them on multiple occasions. Temperatures for many of the days reached 0 degrees celcius or below, with ice on the ground around me and even snow falling while i was trying to collect! I also went out during the middle of the night to collect using a head torch on some occasions (mainly at Bouldnor) due to the tidal conditions and bad weather which prevented collecting during the day. All in all i am certainly pleased with how the trip went, i was successful at all locations with the exception of Tankerton. For some of the locations (Aust Cliff, Kings dyke, Saltwick Bay) it was also my first and only visit, so i'm glad i still managed to do well with no prior experience at these sites and with such limited time at each. I have tried to write this trip report not only as a means of showing you guys my finds but also to provide an informative overview of some of the better locations for Mesozoic and Cenozoic vertebrates across England for others who might be planning similar trips. Anyway, here are the results! Pictures will be spread across the next 12 posts due to file size restrictions. Abbey Wood - East London (6/12/17, 30/12/17 and 31/12/17) Formation: Blackheath ('Lesnes Shell Bed') Deposit Age: 54.5 million years (Eocene) Fossil Diversity: Sharks, bony fish, chimaeroids, bivalves, gastropods, rare mammals, turtles and crocodiles This was one of only two inland locations i visited (the other being Kings dyke). As i have found, the majority of the UK's easily accessible fossil collecting locations are coastal! Abbey Wood is an excellent location just 45 minutes on the tube from central London. It is situated in a park called the Lesnes Abbey Woods and there is a small collecting area that is open to the public for shallow digging (see my first two pictures below). You definitely need a sifter, shovel and basin of water at this location to have any real success. Be warned though that once you combine the fine Blackheath sediments with water during sifting you get some pretty gnarly mud so expect to come away from this site looking like you've just been rolling around in the dirt. I'm sure i got some interesting looks from people on the tube going back to London it was all worth it though, as every single sift load produced at least one shark tooth across the three days i visited. Very impressive considering the number of obvious holes dotted around the ground from years worth of other collectors visiting. It should be noted though that the mammalian material from this location is of high scientific importance, and collecting here is allowed on the condition that any mammalian finds be brought to the attention of and handed in to specialists like Dr Jerry hooker at the Natural History Museum in London. I didn't find any such material on my trips unfortunately. Here is the designated collecting area. The statue at the front is of Coryphodon, one of the rare Eocene mammals that has been found at the site. The full haul of shark teeth from three days of sifting in the collecting area. Most are from Striatolamia and Sylvestrilamia. I gave up trying to count them once i got past 100 Some of the other fishy bits that often turn up during sifting, including guitar fish teeth on the far left and two dermal denticles (Hypolophodon sylvestris), one gar pike fish tooth in the middle (Lepisosteus suessionensis), one shark vertebra down the bottom and unidentified bony fish vertebrae on the right. I don't typically collect shells, but i picked these up for the sake of adding a bit more diversity to my Abbey Wood collection. These are bivalves and gastropods of various species. The molluscan diversity from this one location is actually quite impressive. Beltinge - Kent (7/12/17 and 29/12/17) Formation: Upnor ('Beltinge Fish Bed') Deposit Age: 56.5 million years old (Paleocene) Fossil Diversity: Sharks, chimaeroids, bony fish, rays, turtles, crocodiles, bivalves, wood This is my favourite shark tooth collecting location in the UK and probably my favourite that i have visited anywhere so far. The shoreline directly opposite the access point at the end of Reculver Drive in Beltinge is loaded with teeth and dare i say it's impossible to come here and walk away empty handed. The shore however is very flat so there is generally only about a two hour window of time that collecting can be carried out here, one hour either side of low tide. Conditions can also vary depending on how sanded over the shore is, whether the Beltinge Fish Bed itself is exposed and how low the tide drops. However even on a poor day you will still find teeth here, just not as many! I experienced this first hand as the first day i visited on December 7th the conditions were excellent. The tide dropped quite low, there wasn't too much sand covering the clay and the Beltinge Fish Bed was exposed. This allowed direct in-situ collecting of teeth from this rich layer and i ended up with something like 240 teeth from just a couple of hours of looking. The second visit i made on December 29 of the same month was almost the exact opposite. It's amazing how quickly these coastal locations can change! The shore was largely sanded over, the fish bed was covered and the tide didn't drop anywhere near as much. I was out about the same amount of time as the first but only managed 69 teeth (only ). Keep these things in mind if you are planning a visit. Luckily though i didn't just find shark teeth, i also managed to locate some of the other less common finds as you will see below! Here is the area of shoreline that produces teeth, photographed on December 7th. It was quite cold and rainy! Three teeth sitting next to each other as found. More as-found shark teeth. This one made me quite excited when i saw it. It's a large piece of chimaeroid fish jaw and mouthplate coming straight from the Beltinge Fish Bed itself (the darker, dull-green sandy clay in this picture). Beltinge is continued in the next post.
  9. Crocodile teeth?

    Five fossil teeth from the hell creek formation 5mm-15mm lenght. I was thinking crocodile? Does anyone knows what they are and if possible which species? These teeth were found in South Dakota.
  10. Dyrosaurus jaw

    From the album Dinosaurs and Reptiles

  11. Crocodile tooth (?)

    From the album Fossils from Switzerland

    A damaged 1.3 cm long tooth. Its the only tooth I have from the "Birmenstorf-Member" from Holderbank, which is not a shark tooth. I think that its a croc tooth but I am not sure.
  12. Kem Kem teeth ID

    Sorry for the pic quality, iPhone. First one, could it be a rooted Hamadasuchus rebouli tooth? A bit difficult to see but it does have a bulbous end. The middle one Rebbachisaurus garasbae or another sauropod? I’m sure the one on the right is R. garasbae. Spino? Croc? @Troodon @LordTrilobite
  13. Crocodile Skull Fossil

    This fossil is from Madagascar. Is it a crocodile or alligator skull?
  14. Tooth

    I found this image and I am not sure what it is, could the specialist out the there help me, my friend claims it's a spino but I am not sure.
  15. Croc tooth (?) ID

    Hi guys going through my deep box of Kem Kem bits is this. I guess it’s croc, maybe Elosuchus? @Jesuslover340 @LordTrilobite @Troodon
  16. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues . Articles with author names in RED are new additions since October 16, 2017. Superorder Crocodylomorpha - The Alligators, Crocodiles and Their Allies. Triassic Benton, M.J. and A.D. Walker (2002). Erpetosuchus, a crocodile-like basal archosaur from the Late Triassic of Elgin, Scotland. In: Archosaurian anatomy and palaeontology. Essays in memory of Alick D. Walker . Norman, D.B. and D.J. Gower (eds.), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 136. Busbey, A.B. and C. Gow (1984). A New Protosuchian Crocodile from the Upper Triassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. Palaeont.afr., 25. Clark, J.M., H.-D. Sues and D.S. Berman (2000). A New Specimen of Hesperosuchus agilis from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico and the Interrelationships of Basal Crocodylomorph Archosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(4). Colbert, E.H. (1952). A Pseudosuchian Reptile from Arizona.Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.99, Article 10. Crush, P.J. (1984). A Late Upper Triassic Sphenosuchid Crocodilian from Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Part 1. Gauthier, J.A., et al. (2011). The Bipedal Stem Crocodilian Poposaurus gracilis: Inferring Function in Fossils and Innovation in Archosaur Locomotion. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 50(1). Sues, H.-D., et al. (2003). A New Crocodylomorph from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(2). Jurassic Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - Africa/Middle East Hadri, M., et al. (2015). Crocodyliform footprints from "les couches rouges" of the Middle Jurassic of Msemrir, High Atlas, Morocco. Geogaceta, 58. Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Buffetaut, E. and R. Ingavat (1984). The Lower Jaw of Sunosuchus thailandicus, A Mesosuchian Crocodilian from the Jurassic of Thailand. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Part 1. Clark, J.M., et al. (2004). A Middle Jurassic 'sphenosuchian' from China and the origin of the crocodylian skull. Nature, Vol.430. Gao, Y. (2001). A new species of Hsisosuchus (Mesoeucrocodylia) from Dashanpu, Zigong Municipality, Sichuan Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.39, Number 3. Harris, J.D., et al. (2000). A new and unusual sphenosuchian (Archosauria: Crocodylomorpha) from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation, People's Republic of China. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 215(1). Peng, G.-Z. and C.-K. Shu (2005). A New Species of Hsisosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Zigong, Sichuan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43(4). Schellhorn, R., et al. (2009). Late Jurassic Sunosuchus (Crocodylomorpha, Neosuchia) from the Qigu Formation in the Junggar Basin (Xinjiang, China). Fossil Record, 12(1). Young, C.-C. (1961). On a New Crocodile from Chuhsien, E. Shantung. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 1961(1). Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Adams-Tresman, S.M. (1987). The Callovian (Middle Jurassic) Teleosaurid Marine Crocodiles from Central England. Palaeontology, Vol.30, Part 1. Cau, A. and F. Fanti (2011). The oldest known metriorhynchid crocodylian from the Middle Jurassic of North-eastern Italy: Neptunidraco ammoniticus gen. et sp.nov. Gondwana Research, 19. Grange, D.R. and M.J. Benton (1996). Kimmeridgian Metriorhynchid Crocodiles from England. Palaeontology, Vol.39, Part 2. Karl, H.-V., et al. (2008). First Remains of the Head of Steneosaurus (Crocodylomorpha: Teleosauridae) from the Late Jurassic of Oker (Lower Saxony, Germany). Studia Geologica Salmanticensia, 44(2). Karl, H.-V., et al. (2006). The Late Jurassic crocodiles of the Langenberg near Oker, Lower Saxony (Germany), and description of related materials (with remarks on the history of quarrying the "Langenberg Limestone" and "Obernkirchen Sandstone"). Clausthaler Geowissenschaften, 5. Kuzmin, I.T., et al. (2013). Goniopholidid Crocodylomorph from the Middle Jurassic Berezovsk Quarry Locality (Western Siberia, Russia). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, Vol.317, Number 4. Mook, C.C. (1942). Anglosuchus, a New Genus of Teleosauroid Crocodilians. American Museum Novitates, Number 1217. Russo, J., et al. (2014). Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunicaҫões Geológicas, 101, Especial 1. Schwarz, D., M. Raddatz and O. Wings (2017). Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen.nov., sp.nov., a new atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic Langenberg Quarry (Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany), and its relationships to Theriosuchus. PLoS ONE, 12(2). Schwarz-Wings, D., et al. (2011). A new partial skeleton of Alligatorellus (Crocodyliformes) associated with echinoids from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) lithographic limestone of Kelheim, S-Germany. Fossil Record, 14(2). Tennant, J.P. and P.D. Mannion (2014). Revision of the Late Jurassic crocodyliform Alligatorellus, and evidence for allopatric speciation driving high diversity in western European atoposaurids. PeerJ, 2:e599. Wilkinson, L.E., M.T. Young and M.J. Benton (2008). A New Metriorhynchid Crocodilian (Mesoeucrocodylia: Thalattosucha) from the Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) of Wiltshire, UK. Palaeontology, Vol.51, Part 6. Young, M.T., L. Steel and H. Middleton (2013). Evidence of the metriorhynchid crocodylomorph genus Geosaurus in the Lower Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Late Jurassic) of England. Historical Biology, 2013. Young, M.T., et al. (2012). The Cranial Osteology and Feeding Ecology of the Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph Genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Europe. PLoS ONE, 7(9). Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - North America Allen, E.R. (2012). Analysis of North American Goniopholidid Crocodyliforms in a Phylogenetic Context. Masters Thesis - The University of Iowa. Gohlich, U.B., et al. (2005). The systematic position of the Late Jurassic alleged dinosaur Macelognathus (Crocodylomorpha: Sphenosuchia). Can.J. Earth Sci., 42. Mook, C.C. (1942). Skull Characters of Amphicotylus lucasii Cope. American Museum Novitates, Number 1165. Mook, C.C. (1933). A Crocodilian Skeleton from the Morrison Formation at Canyon City, Colorado. American Museum Novitates, Number 671. Mook, C.C. (1933). Skull Characters of Teleorhinus browni Osborn. American Museum Novitates, Number 602. Tykoski, R.S., et al. (2002). Calsoyasuchus valliceps, A New Crocodyliform from the Early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3). Jurassic Crocodylomorphs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Fortier, D., D. Perea and C. Schultz (2011). Redescription and phylogenetic relationships of Meridiosaurus vallisparadisi, a pholidosaurid from the Late Jurassic of Uruguay. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163. Gasparini, Z., D. Pol and L.A. Spalletti (2006). An Unusual Marine Crocodyliform from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary of Patagonia. Science, Vol.311. Montefeltro, F.C., et al. (2013). A new neosuchian with Asian affinities from the Jurassic of northeastern Brazil. Naturwissenschaften, DOI 10.1007/s00114-013-1083-9. Pol, D., et al. (2013). A new fossil from the Jurassic of Patagonia reveals the early basicranial evolution and the origins of Crocodyliformes. Biol.Rev.(2013). General Jurassic Crocodylomorphs Clark, J.M. and H.-D. Sues (2002). Two new basal crocodylomorph archosaurs from the Lower Jurassic and the monophyly of the Sphenosuchia. 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Eocene Crocodylomorphs - North America Eberle, J.J., et al. (2014). First Record of Eocene Bony Fishes and Crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic. PLoS ONE, 9(5). Langston, W. (1975). Ziphodont Crocodiles: Pristichampsus vorax (Troxell), New Combination, From the Eocene of North America. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.33, Number 16. Mook, C.C. (1962). A New Species of Brachyuranochampsa (Crocodilia) from the Bridger Beds of Wyoming.American Museum Novitates, Number 2079. Mook, C.C. (1960). Diplocynodon Remains from the Bridger Beds of Wyoming. American Museum Novitates, Number 2007. Mook, C.C. (1921). Description of a Skull of a Bridger Crocodilian. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XLIV, Article XI. Mook, C.C. (1921). Allognathosuchus, A New Genus of Eocene Crocodilians. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XLIV, Article X. Mook, C.C. and L.R. Wilson (1959). A New Species of Fossil Crocodile of the Genus Leidyosuchus from the Green River Beds. American Museum Novitates, Number 1933. Stout, J.B. (2012). New Material of Borealosuchus from the Bridger Formation, With Notes on the Paleoecology of Wyoming's Eocene Crocodylians. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 9(5). Whiting, E.T. and A.K. Hastings (2015). First Fossil Alligator from the Late Eocene of Nebraska and the Late Paleogene Record of Alligators in the Great Plains. Journal of Herpetology, Vol.49, Number 4. Eocene Crocodylomorphs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Colbert, E.H. (1946). Sebecus, Representative of a Peculiar Suborder of Fossil Crocodilia from Patagonia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.87, Article 4. (19.8MB download) Molnar, R.E. (2010). A new reconstruction of the skull of Sebecus icaeorhinus (Crocodyliformes: Sebecosuchia) from the Eocene of Argentina. Brazilian Geographical Journal: Geosciences and Humanities research medium, Vol.1, Number 2. General Eocene Crocodylomorphs Mook, C.C. (1955). Two New Genera of Eocene Crocodilians. American Museum Novitates, Number 1727. Piras, P., et al. (2007). Phylogenetic position of the crocodylian Megadontosuchus arduini and tomistomine palaeobiogeography. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52(2). Oligocene Moraes-Santos, H., J.B. Villanueva and P.M. Toledo (2011). New remains of a gavialoid crocodilian from the late Oligocene-early Miocene of the Pirabas Formation, Brazil. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163. Stein, M., S.J. Hand and M. Archer (2016). A New Crocodile Displaying Extreme Constriction of the Mandible, from the Late Oligocene of Riversleigh, Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1179041. Stein, M., M. Archer and S.J. Hand (2016). Dwarfism and feeding behaviours in Oligo-Miocene crocodiles from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, Australia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(1). Velez-Juarbe, J., C.A. Brochu, and H. Santos (2007). A gharial from the Oligocene of Puerto Rico: transoceanic dispersal in the history of a non-marine reptile. Proc.R.Soc.B, 274. Miocene Miocene - Africa/Middle East Aoki, R. (1992). Fossil Crocodilians from the Late Tertiary Strata in the Sinda Basin, Eastern Zaire. African Study Monographs, Suppl.17. Llinas Agrasar, E. (2004). Crocodile remains from the Burdigalian (lower Miocene) of Gebel Zelten (Libya). Geodiversitas, 26(2). Tchernov, E. and J. Van Couvering (1978). New Crocodiles from the Early Miocene of Kenya. Palaeontology, Vol.21, Part 4. Miocene - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Blas, X.P.I. and R. Patnaik (2009). A Complete Crocodylian Egg from the Upper Miocene (Chinji Beds) of Pakistan and its Palaeobiographical Implications. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 6(1). Li, J.-l. and B. Wang (1987). A New Species of Alligator from Shanwang, Shandong. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 25(3). Tomida, S. (2013). A fossil scute of Crocodile from the Miocene Mizunami Group, central Japan. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, Number 39. Miocene - North America Barboza, M.M., et al. (2017). The age of the Oso Member, Capistrano Formation, and a review of fossil crocodylians from California. PaleoBios, 34. Liggett, G.A. (1997). The Beckerdite Local Biota (Early Hemphillian) and the First Tertiary Occurrence of a Crocodilian from Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol. 100, Numbers 3/4. Martin, J.E. (1984). A Crocodilian from the Miocene (Hemingfordian) Sheep Creek Formation in Northwestern Nebraska. Proc.S.D.Acad.Sci., Vol.63. Mook, C.C. (1923). A New Species of Alligator from the Snake Creek Beds. American Museum Novitates, Number 73. Snyder, D. (2007). Morphology and Systematics of Two Miocene Alligators from Florida, With a Discussion of Alligator Biogeography. J.Paleont., 81(5). Whiting, E.T., D.W. Steadman and J. Krigbaum (2016). Paleoecology of Miocene crocodylians in Florida: Insights from stable isotope analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 451. Whiting, E.T., D.W. Steadman and K.A. Vliet (2016). Cranial Polymorphism and Systematics of Miocene and Living Alligator in North America. Journal of Herpetology, Vol.50, Number 2. Miocene - South America/Central America/Caribbean Aguilera, O.A., D. Riff, and J. Bocquentin-Villanueva (2006). A new giant Purussaurus (Crocodyliformes, Alligatoridae) from the Upper Miocene Urumaco Formation, Venezuela. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 4(3). Aureliano, T., et al. (2015). Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis. PLoS ONE, 10(2). Bona, P., D. Riff and Z. Brandoni de Gasparini (2013). Late Miocene crocodylians from northeast Argentina: new approaches about the austral components of the Neogene South American crocodylian fauna. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 103. Brochu, C.A. and G. Carbot-Chanona (2015). Biogeographic and Systematic Implications of a Caimanine from the Late Miocene of Southern Mexico. Journal of Herpetology, Vol.49, Number 1. Brochu, C.A. and O. Jimenez-Vazquez (2014). Enigmatic Crocodyliforms from the Early Miocene of Cuba. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(5). Brochu, C.A. and A.D. Rincon (2004). A Gavialoid Crocodylian from the Lower Miocene of Venezuela. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 71. Hastings, A.K., et al. (2013). Systematics and Biogeography of Crocodylians from the Miocene of Panama. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(2). Laurito, C.A. and A.L. Valerio (2008). The First Record of Gavialosuchus americanus Sellards (1915) (Eusuchia: Crocodylidae: Tomistominae) for the Late Tertiary of Costa Rica and Central America. Revista Geologica de America Central, 39. Moraes-Santos, H., J.B. Villanueva and P.M. Toledo (2011). New remains of a gavialoid crocodilian from the late Oligocene-early Miocene of the Pirabas Formation, Brazil. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163. Moreno-Bernal, J.W. (2014). Fossil Crocodilians from the High Guajira Peninsula of Colombia, and the History of Neogene Crocodilian Diversity in Tropical South America. Masters Thesis - The University of Nebraska. Riff, D. and O.A. Aguilera (2008). The world's largest gharials Gryposuchus: description of G. croizati n.sp. (Crocodylia, Ghavialidae) from the Upper Miocene Urumaco Formation, Venezuela. Palaontologische Zeitschrift, Vol.82/2. Salas-Gismondi, R., et al. (2016). A New 13 Million Year Old Gavialoid Crocodylian from Proto-Amazon Mega-Wetlands Reveals Parallel Evolutionary Trends in Skull Shape Linked to Longirostry. PLoS ONE, 11(4). Salas-Gismondi, R., et al. (2015). A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands. Proc.R.Soc. B, 282. Salas-Gismondi, R., et al. (2007). Middle Miocene Crocodiles from the Fitzcarrald Arch, Amazonian Peru. In: 4th Eurpoean Meeting on the Palaeontology and Stratigraphy of Latin America. Diaz-Martinez, E. and I. Rabano (eds.). Walsh, S.A. and M. Suarez (2005). First post-Mesozoic record of Crocodyliformes from Chile. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(3). Pliocene Aoki, R. (1992). Fossil Crocodilians from the Late Tertiary Strata in the Sinda Basin, Eastern Zaire. African Study Monographs, Suppl.17. Brochu, C.A. and G.W. Storrs (2012). A Giant Crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene of Kenya, the Phylogenetic Relationships of Neogene African Crocodylines, and the Antiquity of Crocodylus in Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32(3). Brochu, C.A., et al. (2010). A New Horned Crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid Site at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 5(2). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Kobatake, N. and T. Kamei (1966). 61. The First Discovery of Fossil Crocodile from Central Honshu, Japan. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Vol.42, Number 3. Mead, J.I., et al. (2006). Plio-Pleistocene Crocodylus (Crocodylia) from Southwestern Costa Rica. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 41(1). Mook, C.C. ((1946). A New Pliocene Alligator from Nebraska.American Museum Novitates, Number 1311. Willis, P.M.A. and R.E. Molnar (1997). A Review of the Plio-Pleistocene Crocodilian Genus Pallimnarchus. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 117. (Thanks to Oxytropidoceras for finding this one.) Pleistocene Bickelman, C. and N. Klein (2009). The late Pleistocene horned crocodile Voay robustus (Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872) from Madagascar in the Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin. Fossil Record, 12(1). Brochu, C.A. (2006). A New Miniature Horned Crocodile from the Quaternary of Aldabra Atoll, Western Indian Ocean. Copeia, 2006(2). Delfino, M. and J. De Vos (2014). A giant crocodile in the Dubois Collection from the Pleistocene of Kali Gedeh (Java). Integrative Zoology, 9. Martin, J.E., et al. (2012). Gavialis from the Pleistocene of Thailand and Its Relevance for Drainage Connections from India to Java. PLoS ONE, 7(9). Molnar, R.E. (1981). Pleistocene ziphodont crocodilians of Queensland. Records of the Australian Museum, 33(19). Molnar, R.E., T. Worthy and P.M.A. Willis (2002). An Extinct Pleistocene Endemic Mekosuchine Crocodylian from Fiji. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3). Mook, C.C. (1959). A New Pleistocene Crocodilian from Guatemala. American Museum Novitates, Number 1975. Mook, C.C. (1921). Description of a Skull of the Extinct Madagascar Crocodile, Crocodilus robustus Vaillant and Grandidier. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XLIV, Article IV. Morgan, G.S. and N.A. Albury (2013). The Cuban Crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) from Late Quaternary Fossil Deposits in the Bahamas and Cayman Islands. Bulletin Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.52(3). Morgan, G.S., R. Franz, and R.I. Crombie (1993). The Cuban Crocodile Crocodylus rhombifer, from Late Quaternary Fossil Deposits on Grand Cayman. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.29, Vols. 3-4. Nojima, K. and J. Itoigawa (2017). Tomistominae gen. et sp.indet. (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) from the Lower Yage Formation (Middle Pleistocene) in Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, Number 43. Richmond, N.D. (1963). Evidence Against the Existence of Crocodiles in Virginia and Maryland During the Pleistocene. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol.76. Sobbe, I.H., G.J. Price and R.A. Knezour (2013). A ziphodont crocodile from the late Pleistocene King Creek catchment, Darling Downs, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum | Nature, 56(2). General Crocodylomorpha General Crocodylomorpha - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Halliday, T.J.D., et al. (2015). A re-evaluation of goniopholidid crocodylomorph material from Central Asia: Biogeographic and phylogenetic implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(2). Shikama, T. Fossil Crocodilia from Tsochin, Southwestern Taiwan. Wang, Y.-y., C. Sullivan and J. Liu (2016). Taxonomic revision of Eoalligator (Crocodylia, Brevirostres) and the paleogeographic origins of the Chinese alligatoroids. PeerJ, 4:e2356. General Crocodylomorpha - Australia/New Zealand Willis, P.M.A. (1997). Review of fossil crocodilians from Australasia. Australian Zoologist, 30(3). General Crocodylomorpha - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Cabrera, L., et al. (1994). Crocodilian and Palaeobotanical Findings from the Tertiary Lignites of the As Pontes Basin (Galicia, Spain) (Crocodylia, Plantae). Courier Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 173. Delfino, M., et al. (2007). First European evidence for transcontinental dispersal of Crocodylus (late Neogene of southern Italy). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149. Kotsakis, T., M. Delfino and P. Piras (2004). Italian Cenozoic crocodilians: taxa, timing, and palaeobiogeographic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology, 210. General Crocodylomorpha - North America Auffenberg, W. (1967). Fossil Crocodilians of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 5. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing this one out!) Colbert, E.H. and C.C. Mook (1951). The Ancestral Crocodilian Protosuchus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.97, Article 3. Klein, G.F. (2014). Teeth of Fossil Crocodilians. The Mosasaur, Vol.8 Mook, C.C. (1925). A Revision of the Mesozoic Crocodilia of North America. A Preliminary Report. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LI, Article IX. (39MB, 134 pages) Mook, C.C. (1924). Further Notes on the Skull Characters of Gavialosuchus americana (Sellards). American Museum Novitates, Number 155. Williston, S.W. (1906). American Amphicoelian Crocodiles. The Journal of Geology. General Crocodylomorpha - South America/Central America/Caribbean Mook, C.C. (1921). Brachygnathosuchus braziliensis, a New Fossil Crocodilian from Brazil. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XLIV, Article VI. Riff, D., et al. (2010). 16. Neogene crocodile and turtle fauna in Northern South America. In: Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past. Hoorn, C. and E.P. Wesselingh (eds.), Blackwell Publishing. General Crocodylomorpha Brochu, C.A. (2003). Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Crocodylian History. Ann.Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 31. Brochu, C.A. (2000). Crocodylian Snouts in Space and Time: Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Adaptive Radiation. From the Symposium: Beyond Reconstruction. Using Phylogenies to Test Hypotheses About Vertebrate Evolution. Brochu, C.A. (1997). Morphology, Fossils, Divergence Timing, and the Phylogenetic Relationships of Gavialis. Syst.Biol., 46(3). De Andrade, M.B., R.J. Bertini and A.E.P. Pinheiro (2006). Observations on the Palate and Choanae Structures in Mesoeucrocodylia (Archosauria, Crocodylomorpha): Phylogenetic Implications. Revista bras.paleont., 9(3). Erickson, G.M., et al. (2012). Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation. PLoS ONE, 7(3). Irmis, R.B., S.J. Nesbitt and H.-D. Sues (2013). Early Crocodylomorpha. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 2013, Vol.379. Markwick, P.J. (1998). Fossil crocodilians as indicators of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climates: implications for using palaeontological data in reconstructing palaeoclimate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 137. Martin, J.E., et al. (2014). Sea surface temperature contributes to marine crocodylomorph evolution. Nature Communications, 5:4658. Mook, C.C. (1921). Skull Characters of the Recent Crocodilia, with Notes on the Affinities of the Recent Genera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LXIV, Article XIII. Norell, M.A. and G.W. Storrs (1989). Catalogue and Review of the Type Fossil Crocodilians in the Yale Peabody Museum. Peabody Museum of Natural History Postilla, Number 203. Oaks, J.R. (2007). Phylogenetic Systematics, Biogeography, and Evolutionary Ecology of the True Crocodiles (Eusuchia: Crocodylidae: Crocodylus). Masters Thesis - Louisiana State University. Scheyer, T.M., et al. (2013). Crocodylian diversity peak and extinction in the late Cenozoic of the northern Neotropics. Nature Communications, 4:1907. Seymour, R.S., et al. (2004). Evidence for Endothermic Ancestors of Crocodiles at the Stem of Archosaur Evolution. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 77(6).
  17. New Unknowns

    I found this tooth yesterday on Potomac River. I thought at first that it was a crocodile tooth, but it isn't hollow & it isn't curved as most of the crocodile teeth that I see online tend to be. This photo is magnified 2x so you can see the detail. I have another unknown to add to this list later. It measures 1.25 inches long. I just realized I photographed it on the mm side of the ruler. Thanks for looking.
  18. Elosuchus Postorbital

    Left postorbital of a large crocodile. There are also small fragments of the frontal and squamosal attached to it.
  19. Gator Vs Crocodile Teeth ID

    I'm sure many of you are aware of the issue concerning discerning between a croc tooth and a gator tooth. So this is my attempt to answer it, now that I've attained a varied collection. First, I will start with the popular generalizations, then I will list each of my crocodile and gator teeth and assess each one. With said data, I will hopefully deduce the best method for discernment. Though this is not meant to be comprehensive, I hope it can be used as a general guideline for identifying crocodylian teeth. The answer is not as clear-cut as you might surmise... Generalizations: -Croc teeth are more curved; gator teeth are more straight (possibly as a result of eating more fish, whereas gators eat more turtles?). This is why you can see a croc's teeth when its mouth is closed (the teeth curve around the outside of the snout and jaw) and not a gator's. -Gators have two 'seams' (carinae) 180° from each other, whereas crocs either have multiples or none. -croc teeth are more conical and sharp; gator teeth are generally blunt. Observations: Pallimnarchus pollens (crocodile) from the Pleistocene of Australia (images 1-3): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp/pointy -curved -ovoid base Pallimnarchus pollens (crocodile) from the Pliocene of Australia (images 4-5): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp/pointy -slightly curved -conical base Goniopholis sp. (crocodile) from Torres Vedras, Jurassic of Portugal (image 6): -multiple striations -sharp/pointy -slightly curved -conical base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from northern Florida, Pleistocene (images 9-11): -two carinae 180° from each other -blunt (it may have been sharp at one point) -curved -conical base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from Marion Co., Florida, Pleistocene (images 12-15): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp/pointy -straight (not including the root) -ovoid base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from the Pleistocene of Florida (images 16-17): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp but rotund -straight -ovoid base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from the Pleistocene of Florida (image 18): -two carinae 180° from each other -sharp/pointy -slightly curved -conical base Alligator mississipiensis (gator) from Bone Valley, Florida, Late Miocene (images 7-8): -two carinae 180° from each other -blunt (from wear, but was likely never sharp/pointy due to the amount of force it was using [blunt teeth would have been better for such force distribution and would have minimized wear over sharp teeth]) -straight -conical base Edit note: I have changed the identification of this tooth to Alligator mississipiensis as a result of reading this paper and deducing that Alligator would be more plausible than Thecachampsa or a posterior Gavialosuchus: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B1HtUwlDORQ0UXZVRGJncGhwVGc/view Deinosuchus rugosus (alligatoroid/crocodylian) from the Ripley Fm., Bullock County, Alabama, Cretaceous (images 19-21): -two carinae with crenulations 180° from each other; some evidence of 'proto-seams' along the base -sharp but rotund -slightly curved -conical base Deinosuchus rugosus (alligatoroid/crocodylian) from the Ripley Fm., Bullock County, Alabama, Cretaceous (images 22-25): -two carinae with crenulations 180° from each other -sharp but rotund -straight -ovoid base Discussion: While croc teeth may generally be more slender and curved, this is not a sure-fire way to identify a crocodylian tooth as being crocodile. Crocodiles do have blunt/rotund, straight, 'stubby' teeth posteriorly (towards the back of their jaw) and these look just like an Alligator's (unfortunately, I don't have any images of the 'button-looking teeth of a crocodile, but image 16 is one of an Alligator 's). Likewise, young Alligators are known to have sharp, pointy, curved teeth (see image 18; I've seen some even more curved). Carinae/striations seem to vary for crocodiles, ranging from none (I have no such specimen to provide a photo of, unfortunately), to a consistent two, to multiple striations. I would say it's a safe bet to assume a tooth is crocodile if it has no carinae or multiple striations, as this is not seen with Alligators (which always have two carinae). In those cases where a tooth has two carinae, further deduction could be done based on the rate of rarity of each per the location, robustness, and curvature if it isn't small. It is also of note that per the paper above (kindly provided by @Plax), the ratio of height to diameter in Alligator mississipiensis teeth did not exceed 1.6. However, do bear in mind that teeth with two carinae that are small, slender, and curved could be either a crocodile or young gator, just as a robust, straight, 'button'-like tooth with two carinae could be either a posterior crocodile's or Alligator 's. Again, such deductions should be taken into account with the rarity of each per a locality. Most importantly, keep in mind that form determines function -blunt, robust teeth indicate a diet of hard-shelled prey; sharp, pointy teeth indicate a diet of slippery prey. Ask yourself if the form better indicates the lifestyle of a crocodile or Alligator found in your area (get to know your specific species!). Then take the above into account. You should be reasonably able to deduce whether you'll see the owner of your tooth later or in awhile To summarize: 1. If the tooth has no carinae or has multiple 'ridges'/seams (striations), it's crocodile. 2. If the tooth has exactly two carinae 180° apart, is small, sharp/pointy, slender, and curves, it could be a small crocodile tooth or young Alligator's. Use the above tips to help you deduce which it is (curvature, robustness, form, lifestyle, rarity of either per the locale, etc.). If it is rather robust and curves, it may likely be Alligator, given its predominance in localities such as Florida. If it is slender and curves and the locale is known for croc teeth over gator, it is likely crocodile and so on and so forth, for example. If you are within the U.S., measuring the height to diameter ratio could help rule out Alligator if it exceeds 1.6. 3. If the tooth has exactly two carinae 180° apart and is straight and rotund, it could either be an Alligator tooth or posterior crocodile's. Use the above tips to help you deduce which it is (curvature, robustness, form, lifestyle, rarity of either per the locale, etc.). Generally speaking, unless you live outside the U.S., posterior crocodile teeth will be more uncommon, especially small ones. If it is large, rotund, and straight (or only curves slightly if it isn't 'button'-like), it's probably gator unless a crocodile with a diet for hard-shelled prey is common in the area. You can also use the height to diameter ratio for this one as well. 4. If you can't tell from these deductions, it's probably a Crocogator or Allidile tooth
  20. Steneosaurus tooth

    From the album Holzmaden

    A damaged Steneosaurus tooth from Holzmaden (Lower Jurassic) with a length of 1 cm.
  21. you can't make an omelet

    Marz, 2014.HiBioolicrocodilian eggs and eggshell structures..pdf
  22. Hi all, I've this nice vertebra fossil from the Hell Creek Formation in Harding County, South Dakota. I'm pretty sure it is a Crocodillian vert but not sure of the species or genus. Also, is it possible to tell which part of the body this belonged to? Any suggestions are welcome and much appreciated! Cheers, Jojo
  23. Isle of Wight Fossils

    Hi guys; I have recently been treated to a nice week down the Isle of Wight and having spent the first day down in Yaverland today I though I would share some of my finds. 1) these both appear to be Vertebra, I'm assuming they are dinosaur as I'm preatty sure I've read somewhere that crocodiles have concave and convex ends to their Vertebra but may be totally of base with that assumption.
  24. Hi, I'm about to purchase this Dyrosaurus fossil from a seller but just wanted to make sure it's not a cast or fake. He said a few of the teeth were reinserted after they came loose but that's about it. It's originally found in Morroco, and he's had it over a year in storage. It's about 5 feet across diagonally. Here's some more pics It looks real to me but I'm not an expert so I want to make sure first.
  25. Steneosaurus tooth

    From the album Holzmaden

    A damaged 1.5 cm long Steneosaurus tooth from the lower Jurassic of Holzmaden.
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