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Found 7 results

  1. Help request! I am putting together a tool for judging rock age based on very crude, whole-rock, hand-sample observations of fossil faunas/floras -- the types of observations a child or beginner could successfully make. I view this as a complement to the very fine, species-level identifications commonly employed as index fossils for individual stages, biozones, etc. Attached is what I've got so far, but I can clearly use help with corals, mollusks, plants, vertebrates, ichnofossils, and the post-Paleozoic In the attached file, vibrant orange indicates times in earth history to commonly observe the item of interest; paler orange indicates times in earth history to less commonly observe the item of interest. White indicates very little to no practical probability of observing the item of interest. Please keep in mind that the listed indicators are things like “conspicuous horn corals,” purposefully declining to address rare encounters with groups of low preservation potential, low recognizability, etc. Got additions/amendments, especially for the groups mentioned above? Toss them in the comments below! Thank you..... https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1tVm_u6v573V4NACrdebb_1OsBEAz60dS1m4pCTckgyA
  2. the paleolimnology of a Holocene lake

    here THE SUBFOSSIL ALGAL FLORA OF THE LAKE BOLLING SØ AND ITS LIMNOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION BY E. FJERDINGSTAD København 1954 Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologisk Skrifter,Bind 7,n.6/1954 large!!!!: 37 MB I need/would appreciate help in tagging AT LEAST PeatBurns! ampersand etc.. For anyone focusing on The Bolling* interstadial,this might(should?) be interesting *diacritic omitted
  3. Some other picture of Fossil Diatoms take with biological microscope, magnification 400X - 650X
  4. Fossil Diatoms Can Cause Mega-slides

    Tiny fossils, huge landslides: Are diatoms the key to Earth's biggest slides? Geological Society of America, February 12, 2018 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180212133446.htm https://phys.org/news/2018-02-tiny-fossils-huge-diatoms-key.html "The biggest landslides on Earth aren't on land, but on the seafloor. These mega-slides can move thousands of cubic kilometers of material, and sometimes trigger tsunamis. Yet, remarkably, they occur on nearly flat slopes of less than three degrees." Morelia Urlaub, Jacob Geersen, Sebastian Krastel, Tilmann Schwenk. Diatom ooze: Crucial for the generation of submarine mega-slides? Geology, 2018; DOI: 10.1130/G39892.1 https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/527938/diatom-ooze-crucial-for-the-generation-of?redirectedFrom=fulltext https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/geology/early-publication Yours, Paul H.
  5. Some Centric Fossil Diatoms

    Diatoms are monocellular organisms which contain chlorophyll, and manufacture their own food in the same manner as plants, through the process of photosynthesis. They are one of the major producers of the Earth's oxygen. Their long geological history makes them very useful in the correlation of sedimentary rocks, and they are of equal value in reconstructing paleoenvironments. They are remarkably common everywhere there is any water at all! I have studied fossil marine diatoms for many years, as they are my primary interest in the microfossil world. Many of them are quite beautiful, and they are a favorite subject with many persons who enjoy photomicrography. My primary interest is in diatom taxonomy and evolution, not photography, so I'm afraid my images don't really do them justice. Centric diatoms exhibit radial symmetry, from circular to triangular, and all points between. Oval shapes are not uncommon. The oldest specimens of essentially modern diatom types are from the Cretaceous, and one of the very best localities is the Moreno Shale, which crops out in the Panoche Hills of California. Many diatomists have worked on this flora, and it is fairly well understood. Here we see two of the common taxa from this source. (The bar across the top of the Azpeitiopsis is a sponge spicule, not part of the diatom!) Diatom frustules are composed of secreted silica -- hence they are brittle, but can be virtually indestructible by chemical or diagenetic change in the right sort of environment. (One exception is a highly alkaline environment, which corrodes and ultimately dissolves biogenetic silica.) Other siliceous microfossils include some types of sponge spicules, silicoflagellates (another blog entry coming up perhaps), radiolarians, and ebrideans. At least one family of the foraminifera uses siliceous cement to form their tests. Diatom floras changed radically across the KT boundary, but they are still abundant in the Paleocene. Arguably the world's most famous locality for fossil diatoms is the region around Oamaru, New Zealand, and all collectors have many specimens from there. The age is Late Eocene - Early Oligocene. Somewhat earlier are the many great localities in Russia. Here is a Paleocene specimen from Simbirsk, Ulyanovskaya, Russia. Note that it deviates from pure centric form in that it is slightly ovoid. My own specialty is the diatoms of the Miocene. The United States is blessed with superb Miocene localities on both coasts, many well-known to members of this forum, because most of them can also produce superb shark teeth. The earliest known Miocene flora in the US comes from sites in Maryland: near Dunkirk, Nottingham, and other lesser known localities along the Patuxent River. All of these sites began to be explored in the mid-19th Century, because the diatoms are so perfectly preserved, to say nothing of abundant! These sites are in the lowest part of the Calvert Formation; indeed, there is an unconformity above them that lasted for a considerable period of time, and the diatom flora exhibits considerable changes across it. This part of the Miocene section belongs to the Burdigalian Stage, and age-equivalent diatoms are found also in bore holes and artesian wells at Atlantic City, New Jersey. An index fossil for the East Coast Burdigalian is the following taxon: This species of Actinoptychus evolved relatively quickly, and became extinct at the end of the Burdigalian. It is remarkably beautiful under the microscope, especially in color images, as fine structures in the silica serve as diffraction gratings. I regret that I have no color image in my photo library: I need to make a few! The Calvert Cliffs are rich in fossil diatoms, also, from the later, Middle Miocene. The above is but one example of the many marvelous specimens that can be found in the Calvert. If you're walking the beach for shark teeth, and have access to a microscope such as that used in microbiology or pathology labs, or even the type used in high school biology labs, grab a sample of the sediment. Soak it in water until it disaggregates into mud, let it settle until the water is just a bit cloudy, and put a drop on a microscope slide with a coverslip. A magnification of 100X should reveal diatom frustules (or fragments thereof) among the remaining, unsettled particles of silt. Diatomists all have their own protocols to get such specimens almost perfectly clean, and permanent slides made with a mountant of high refractive index can be utterly gorgeous. I am currently working most intensely on samples from the somewhat later Choptank Formation, that outcrops at Richmond, Virginia. This is another locality that produces excellent specimens: This is one of the most enduring taxa in the geological record, appearing from the early Paleogene right up until the present day, and it can be very abundant. A common triangular form. There are many genera of triangular centric diatoms. And other radial shapes are possible, too: So far as I am aware, this unique specimen is the earliest known example of this taxon, which is still found today in tropical waters. The breakage in the top "arm" is unfortunate, but what can I say: the specimen is, thus far, unique. One might expect modern contamination of the sample, were it not for the fact that the Richmond localities occur far from the contemporary ocean coast -- they are not "watered" by modern waves! That's it -- the 3.95 MB limit..............................
  6. Antarctic Pliocene Diatom Mystery Solved?

    Antarctic mystery solved? Ocean fossils found in mountains are cause for concern over future sea levels, scientists say, Northern Illinois University , September 21, 2016 http://newsroom.niu.edu/2016/09/20/antarctic-mystery-solved-scientists-say-ocean-fossils-found-in-mountains-are-cause-for-concern-over-future-sea-levels/ https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160921103712.htm Scientists may have just solved a riddle about Antarctica - and the answer isn't comforting, Worcester Telegram, ‎Sept. 21, 2016‎ http://www.telegram.com/news/20160921/scientists-may-have-just-solved-riddle-about-antarctica---and-answer-isnt-comforting Scientists may have solved a key riddle about Antarctica — and you’re not going to like the answer, Chris Mooney, Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/09/20/scientists-may-have-just-solved-a-riddle-about-antarctica-and-youre-not-going-to-like-the-answer/?utm_term=.aa8075574315 The paper is: Scherer, R. P., R. M. DeConto, D. Pollard, R. B. Alley, 2016, Windblown Pliocene diatoms and East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat. Nature Communications, 2016; 7: 12957 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12957 http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12957 Yours, Paul H.
  7. The Stuart R. Stidolph Diatom Atlas is now officially online as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report no. 2012-1163 by S. R. Stidolph, F. A. S. Sterrenburg, K. E. L. Smith, and A. Kraberg at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1163/ . There are 1,002 diatom pictures, which can be downloaded for free as PDF files from http://pubs.usgs.gov...ges/plates.html . Although these are not fossil diatoms, they are still fascinating to look at. Best wishes, Paul H.
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