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Found 570 results

  1. Godfrey, S.J., Weems, R.E., & Palmer, B. 2018 Turtle Shell Impression in a Coprolite from South Carolina, USA. Ichnos, (ahead-of-print publication) 8 pp. ABSTRACT Coprolites (fossilized feces) can preserve a wide range of biogenic components. A mold of a hatchling turtle partial shell (carapace) referable to Taphrosphys sulcatus is here identified within a coprolite from Clapp Creek in Kingstree, Williamsburg County, South Carolina, USA. The specimen is the first-known coprolite to preserve a vertebrate body impression. The small size of the turtle shell coupled with the fact that it shows signs of breakage indicates that the turtle was ingested and that the impression was made while the feces were still within the body of the predator. The detailed impression could only have survived the act of defecation if the section of bony carapace was voided concurrently and remained bonded with the feces until the latter lithified. Exceptionally, the surface texture of the scutes is preserved, including its finely pitted embryonic texture and a narrow perimeter of hatchling scute texture. The very small size of the shell represented by the impression makes it a suitable size for swallowing by any one of several large predators known from this locality. The coprolite was collected from a lag deposit containing a temporally mixed vertebrate assemblage (Cretaceous, Paleocene and Plio-Pleistocene). The genus Taphrosphys is known from both sides of the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary so, based on the size of the coprolite and the locally-known predators, the juvenile turtle could have been ingested by a mosasaur, a crocodylian, or a theropod dinosaur. Unlike mosasaurs and theropod dinosaurs, crocodylian stomachs have extremely high acid content that almost always dissolves bone. Therefore, the likely predator of this turtle was a mosasaur or a (non-avian or avian) theropod dinosaur. selected quotes: Until now, no coprolite was known to preserve a vertebrate body impression. Here a single coprolite (Calvert Marine Museum Vertebrate collection, CMM-V-4524, Fig. 1) from Clapp Creek in Kingstree, Williamsburg County, South Carolina, USA is documented to preserve a natural mold of a partial turtle shell (carapace and scutes) referable to Taphrosphys sulcatus (Bothremydidae, Testudines). This occurrence provides another example of how coprolites can preserve evidence of trophic interactions that cannot be known solely from the study of body fossils. Among the twelve turtle taxa known from the Paleocene in South Carolina (Hutchison and Weems, 1998), and the nine or ten taxa known from the Late Cretaceous (Weems, 2015), only Taphrosphys has all of these characteristics (Fig. 5). While Adocus is similar in that it also has an elongate first neural and first costals, it differs in that it had a square-shaped second neural (Meylan and Gaffney, 1989) quite unlike the hexagonal second neural seen in the CMM-V-4524 carapace impression. Based on this identification, the stratigraphic origin of this specimen can be restricted either to the Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene (Danian), because Taphrosphys has never been reported from the Williamsburg Formation (Thanetian, upper Paleocene). It is notable that “Taphrosphys leslianus,” now considered a junior synonym of T. sulcatus, has relatively wider vertebral scutes than are found in adult specimens. This suggests that, as T. sulcatus grew, its vertebral scutes became relatively narrower and its pleural scutes relatively wider. Carrying this trend back to hatchling size implies that hatchlings of T. sulcatus probably had very wide vertebral scutes as seen in CMM-V-4524 (Fig. 5). Identification of this specimen as T. sulcatus greatly expands our knowledge of the growth and developmental stages of this turtle from hatching to maturity. Based on the paleoenvironments in which specimens of T. sulcatus are found, this turtle probably was an inhabitant of both estuaries and shallow marine environments. Based on the hatchling or near-hatchling size of the specimen described here, it was probably living in an estuarine environment at the time it was eaten. In addition to a mosasaur, the predator may have been a theropod dinosaur (including avian theropods). The tyrannosauroids Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis (Carr, Williamson and Schwimmer, 2005) and Dryptosaurus aquilunguis (Carpenter et al., 1997) are among the known Late Cretaceous theropod dinosaurs from eastern North America that would have been large enough to produce coprolites of this size (Weishampel, 1990), so one of these animals could have been the predator if the coprolite is of Late Cretaceous age. If the coprolite is of Paleocene age, however, then it most likely was produced by a large bird. Although poorly known, there were a number of species of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene birds large enough to produce coprolites of this size, including a Paleocene pelagornithid (relevant literature summarized in Mayr, 2007). Bird predation is a major factor limiting turtle hatchling survival today (e.g., Janzen, Tucker and Paukstis, 2000), so it is likely that a similar pattern existed in the Late Cretaceous and early Paleocene. The small (i.e., young post-hatchling) size of the turtle shell and the fact that the shell shows signs of breakage both indicate that the turtle was ingested and that the shell impression was made while the feces were still within the body of the predator. The way in which the feces tapers immediately beyond the turtle shell impression (Fig. 1B) suggests that as the shell was voided, the cloacal aperture was stretched more than it might ordinarily have been. CMM-V-4524 is the first-known coprolite to preserve a largely complete body impression; though turtle vertebrae have been reported from Late Cretaceous shark coprolites (Anagnostakis, 2013, fig. 9J; Schwimmer, Weems and Sanders, 2015). This specimen also represents the first-known record of embryonic and early post-hatchling turtle scute texture preserved in the fossil record.
  2. Reptile or dinosaur from Ganzhou

    Any idea if this is a small dinosaur or reptile? It’s found in Ganzhou, China. I’m sorry these are all the photos I got from the fossil collector.
  3. Well, following up on my theropod ID topic... Really shocked...in under 8 hours, Tyrannosaurus rex expert Pete Larson gets back to me with this response regarding my fossil being T.rex or not...I guess after 20 buying mistakes, eventually good things do happen ...feels surreal... here’s his response to me: (last picture) Now officially one of my most prized possessions, and maybe the most for that matter..
  4. Deltadromeus agilis tooth

    Hello. I just recently acquired this tooth that is labeled as "Deltadromeus agilis." I've been doing some research on Deltadromeus and what I've determined is it's a very unknown dinosaur. The seller labeled it as a raptor tooth, but so far I've found deltadromeus to be considered a tyrannosaur, ceratosaur, coelosaur, or abelisaur. Which one of these is the most accurate ID of Deltadromeus? Any help would be great!
  5. Dinosaur Bone ID Help.

    I found this today in east central Montana. I believe it is a dinosaur bone. it has a hole on the one side that goes in about an inch. Thanks in advance for the help! Nic
  6. Theropod IDs

    This is a follow up from another previous topic I started regarding some a past purchases of mine. I thought would be helpful to me and others to post here. All feedback appreciated. I stopped by Trenton state museum recently and David Parris generously helped me out. We ID’d these fossils together. I purchased a fossil sold to me as an allosaurus pelvic bone. I wanted to take it to a professional to see where it could fit, so David seemed to be the right guy. The fossil is fragmented, so from just looking at it, it’s hard to see what it could be period. But if you take a closer look in comparison with another theropod, it becomes somewhat clear. In order to figure out if the fossil was theropod, we took it over to the famous fighting Dryptosaurus skeletons for comparison. He figured it would be a pretty good match because of the size similarIty. He said it’s probable that it could be allosaurus. This is a pic of David with the fossil vs Dryptosaurus
  7. Thanks to some help from @Troodon I now understand much more about Kem Kem and how little is understood there still regarding fossils and species of that area.. I tend to find that buying these fossils online becomes a difficult task because of how much eveeything is ID’d wrong. I’ve done pretty well with dodging the really bad junk stuff, like two different fossils being plastered together, fakes, etc. (At least I’m almost positive), but sometimes you buy things and of course it’s a different animal than l you expected.. I’m not sure if there is already a thread for this but anyway, this way others can benefit also... two questions: 1.) does anyone know any credible, honest, and knowledgable fossil dealers who deal moroccan fossils online, who from your experience is good to buy from? 2.) any good literature, or links online for learning more about dinosaurs and reptiles of Kem Kem?
  8. What is this

    Hi. I found this in Dorset UK the pictures dont show as much detail as you can see in person, looks like you can see scales and possibly fins. I can see the bones of the head and neck possibly backbone but not sure what exactly it is
  9. Is this egg genuine? Full shell?
  10. Large Dinosaur Bones?

    Just wondering if these two large bones are more likely to be dinosaur bones or something like crocodylomorphs bones. They are from the Kem Kem and the bigger one is 40cm long (15.75 inches), while the smaller bone is 34cm long (13.39 inches). Unfortunately these are the only pictures provided by the seller, so not sure if they can be id based on the pictures but thought it is worth asking about.
  11. Okay everyone got some more stuff for you.. As I said before Portugal was an awesome trip.
  12. Fossilized reptile skin???

    Please help identify Found in country of Georgia.
  13. What do you guys think about this Mosasaur tooth, with a emerging replacement tooth? Composite or not? I have bought many times from the reseller and no problems, he guarantees the authenticity, but with this tooth I doubt..
  14. I found this today in southeastern Montana at the bottom of a large hillside. I believe it is a dinosaur bone due to its porous nature help on ID would be appreciated.
  15. Kem Kem Beds fossil id

    Could anyone put a name on this bone from the Kem Kem beds? When i purchased it there was a lot of sediment stick on it and looks more like a strange looking stone, but what came out is a complete bone.
  16. Surprise in the mailbox :)

    Hey everyone. Little compensation after a unsuccessful and rainy school day My 31 Megaloolithus eggshell fragments have arrived! Very happy with this Dino egg bundle since I did not have any before and bought them all for nothing. Some of them have really stunning detail. A special thank you to everyone who helped IDing them as Megaloolithus . A nice addition to my Dino collection. (Also bought 2 trilobites from the same seller including an Ampyx I will soon be posting .!) Hope you like the post. Kind regards to everyone.
  17. Possible carnivore teeth fossils?

    I dug these two up in my backyard. Only 7 or 8 inches deep in the soil. I am wondering if they are teeth fossils since they seem similar in shape and were found in the same area. It would be great if someone with expertise could give me their opinion. Thanks!
  18. Possibly a spinosaurid ulna bone?

    I have been looking at this ulna bone from the kem kem, and wondering if a large isolated bone like this can be identified. It is about 26.5cm (10.4 inches) and looks like a chunk of one end in missing (which might make it harder to id). It seems to resemble this megaraptor ulna....
  19. Loved my trip to Portugal. I’ve never been to a place so geologically rich. I recommend all dinosaur lovers to make a trip there! Here are some pictures from my trip to the Museum in Lourihna/Dinosaur Park. If anyone has any questions about the pics or trip, ask away.
  20. Carcharodontosaurus or Abelisaurid?

    Hi guys, This tooth was sold as a small Carcharodontosaurus tooth but I tend to say it is an Abelisaurid. The tooth is 2 cm and from the Ifezouane formation. There is not an noticeable difference in serrations on the side. The serration ridge on one side is bowing. What do you think?
  21. Hello all, I've recently acquired what appears to be a dinosaur bone. I've been told it was found by a mineral excavator in an abandoned mine/cave in the Rhodope mountains Bulgaria. It's 30cmX20cmX20cm and weighs around 10kg. I'd be grateful for any possible insight. Many thanks!
  22. Dinosaur bone?

    Hey guys! Mom bought me a lot of fossils for my birthday. Everything else was straightforward but this one puzzled me a bit. It was listed as a triceratops rib head bone. The seller stated it was purchased at an estate sale unprepared. The sale he bought it from said it was found in South Dakota, formation not given. Seller says he prepped it himself after buying and left the bottom unprepared. Measures 12 in by 6 in. @Troodon said it doesn’t look like a rib. So if not a rib, what is it? And is it even from a dinosaur?
  23. Massive dinosaur bones?

    I found this fossil for sale online and it was found in Uruguay, I was wondering what creature this belonged because it might not even be a dinosaur.
  24. Is this a dinosaur egg or concretion? It is from Ganzhou, Jiangxi of China. If it is a dinosaur egg, does it have shell?
  25. Dinosaurs mapped in the UK

    Linked below is a map of dinosaurs discovered in the UK if anyone is interested. It is important to bear in mind that this is not every fossil. Not all fossils discovered are dinosaurs. And these discoveries are almost never full skeletons. They often get reclassified decades later once more data becomes available. I couldn't figure out how to embed the map in this post so posting a link to it instead. The link functionality on this forum created a completely different map showing different information non-dinosaur related. The search bar doesn't work either so ignore that. https://www.arcgis.com/apps/Minimalist/index.html?appid=60e54e6f6fa64da8a14a0c5129dd783a The map was created by mapping and analytics company Esri UK . Comments from an individual on this map (not 100% accurate): Sorry, but not a very accurate depiction of Welsh dinosaurs. You've missed off the lovely jaw bone found in 1898 at Stormy Down, and all mention of the footprints which include the most important Late Triassic trackways in Europe. Also, it's very misleading to include the Sphenodontid reptile Clevosaurus which is not anything to do with dinosaurs. Many, many grammatical errors throughout too! The interactive map is fairly poor and misleading. Then to finish, you tempt us with historic Welsh geologists but only mention Dorothea Bate when you could have included so many others. Finally - your list of where to collect dinosaur fossils in the UK includes a lot of places where the rocks are far too young, and you'll never find any dinosaurs, ever! Even your very first sentence is wrong. Dinosaurs died out 66 million years ago, not 65. I'm not just being picky, but if you're going to write something like this, you should try to get more of your facts right, plea Sorry, but not a very accurate depiction of Welsh dinosaurs. You've missed off the lovely jaw bone found in 1898 at Stormy Down, and all mention of the footprints which include the most important Late Triassic trackways in Europe. Also, it's very misleading to include the Sphenodontid reptile Clevosaurus which is not anything to do with dinosaurs. Many, many grammatical errors throughout too! The interactive map is fairly poor and misleading. Then to finish, you tempt us with historic Welsh geologists but only mention Dorothea Bate when you could have included so many others. Finally - your list of where to collect dinosaur fossils in the UK includes a lot of places where the rocks are far too young, and you'll never find any dinosaurs, ever! Even your very first sentence is wrong. Dinosaurs died out 66 million years ago, not 65. I'm not just being picky, but if you're going to write something like this, you should try to get more of your facts right, plea ************************************************************************** A nicer interactive map (but around the world) can be found here: https://paleobiodb.org/navigator/ PBDB Navigator allows users to explore the Paleobiology Database through space, time, and taxonomy. Some engineers have created an interactive map to navigate the overwhelming amount of data created by the Paleobiology Database, a massive collection of information about fossils and related research. The map essentially plots the location of every fossil ever found by scientists, from early mammals to dinosaurs. (Not sure how accurate and up to date it is but still useful). To search the map, you can click on different geologic eras, the strata that the organism was found in, or search the specific taxonomy you're looking for. The map shows the continents as they are today by default, but when you click on a different geological era they rearrange themselves, showing how dramatically tectonic plates have shift over millions of years. If you aren't looking for anything specific, just click around randomly and see what pops up. You can zoom in on any part of the world and see what kinds of fossils have been found there. ____ ___ .-~. /_"-._ `-._~-. / /_ "~o\ :Y \ \ / : \~x. ` ') ] Y / | Y< ~-.__j / ! _.--~T : l l< /.-~ / / ____.--~ . ` l /~\ \<|Y / / .-~~" /| . ',-~\ \L| / / / .^ \ Y~Y \.^>/l_ "--' / Y .-"( . l__ j_j l_/ /~_.-~ . Y l / \ ) ~~~." / `/"~ / \.__/l_ | \ _.-" ~-{__ l : l._Z~-.___.--~ | ~---~ / ~~"---\_ ' __[> l . _.^ ___ _>-y~ \ \ . .-~ .-~ ~>--" / \ ~---" / ./ _.-' "-.,_____.,_ _.--~\ _.-~ ~~ ( _} `. ~( ) \ /,`--'~\--'~\ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Dinosaurs in the UK Baryonyx Becklespinax Camptosaurus Cetiosauriscus Cetiosaurus Dacentrurus Eotyrannus Eustrepto-spondylus Hylaeosaurus Hypsilophodon Iguanodon Lexovisaurus Megalosaurus Metriacantho-saurus Neovenator Pantydraco Pelorosaurus Polacanthus Proceratosaurus Saltopus Sarcosaurus Scelidosaurus Thecodonto-saurus Valdosaurus I was bored so added pics of all dinosaurs from around the world below: Aardonyx Abelisaurus Achelousaurus Achillobator Acrocantho-saurus Aegyptosaurus Afrovenator Agilisaurus Alamosaurus Albertaceratops Albertosaurus Alectrosaurus Alioramus Allosaurus Alvarezsaurus Amargasaurus Ammosaurus Ampelosaurus Amygdalodon Anatotitan Anchiceratops Anchisaurus Ankylosaurus Anserimimus Antarctopelta Antarctosaurus Apatosaurus Aragosaurus Aralosaurus Archaeoceratops Archaeopteryx Archaeornitho-mimus Argentinosaurus Arrhinoceratops Atlascopco-saurus Aucasaurus Austrosaurus Avaceratops Avimimus Azendohsaurus Bactrosaurus Bagaceratops Bambiraptor Barapasaurus Barosaurus Baryonyx Becklespinax Beipiaosaurus Bellusaurus Borogovia Brachiosaurus Brachyceratops Brachylophosaurus Brachytrachelopan Bugenasaura Buitreraptor Camarasaurus Camptosaurus Carcharodonto-saurus Carnotaurus Caudipteryx Cedarpelta Centrosaurus Ceratosaurus Cetiosauriscus Cetiosaurus Chaoyangsaurus Chasmosaurus Chialingosaurus Chindesaurus Chinshakiango-saurus Chirostenotes Chubutisaurus Chungkingo-saurus Citipati Coelophysis Coelurus Coloradisaurus Compsognathus Conchoraptor Confuciusornis Corythosaurus Cryolophosaurus Dacentrurus Daspletosaurus Datousaurus Deinocheirus Deinonychus Deltadromeus Diceratops Dicraeosaurus Dilophosaurus Diplodocus Dracorex Dravidosaurus Dromaeosaurus Dromiceiomimus Dryosaurus Dryptosaurus Dubreuillosaurus Edmontonia Edmontosaurus Einiosaurus Elaphrosaurus Emausaurus Eolambia Eoraptor Eotyrannus Equijubus Erketu Erlikosaurus Euhelopus Euoplocephalus Europasaurus Euskelosaurus Eustrepto-spondylus Fukuiraptor Fukuisaurus Gallimimus Gargoyleosaurus Garudimimus Gasosaurus Gasparinisaura Gastonia Giganotosaurus Gilmoreosaurus Giraffatitan Gobisaurus Gorgosaurus Goyocephale Graciliceratops Gryposaurus Guaibasaurus Guanlong Hadrosaurus Hagryphus Haplocantho-saurus Harpymimus Herrerasaurus Hesperosaurus Heterodonto-saurus Homalocephale Huayangosaurus Hylaeosaurus Hypacrosaurus Hypselosaurus Hypsilophodon Iguanodon Indosuchus Ingenia Irritator Isisaurus Janenschia Jaxartosaurus Jingshanosaurus Jinzhousaurus Jobaria Juravenator Kentrosaurus Khaan Kotasaurus Kritosaurus Lamaceratops Lambeosaurus Lapparento-saurus Leaellynasaura Leptoceratops Lesothosaurus Lexovisaurus Liaoceratops Liaoxiornis Ligabuesaurus Liliensternus Lophorhothon Lophostropheus Lufengosaurus Lurdusaurus Lycorhinus Magyarosaurus Maiasaura Majungatholus Malawisaurus Mamenchisaurus Mapusaurus Marshosaurus Masiakasaurus Massospondylus Maxakalisaurus Megalosaurus Melanorosaurus Metriacantho-saurus Microceratops Micropachy-cephalosaurus Microraptor Minmi Monolopho-saurus Mononykus Mussaurus Muttaburra-saurus Nanotyrannus Nanshiungo-saurus Nemegtosaurus Neovenator Neuquenosaurus Nigersaurus Nipponosaurus Noasaurus Nodosaurus Nomingia Nothronychus Nqwebasaurus Omeisaurus Opisthocoeli-caudia Ornitholestes Ornithomimus Orodromeus Oryctodromeus Othnielia Ouranosaurus Oviraptor Pachycephalo-saurus Pachyrhino-saurus Panoplosaurus Pantydraco Paralititan Parasaurolophus Parksosaurus Patagosaurus Pelicanimimus Pelorosaurus Pentaceratops Piatnitzkysaurus Pinacosaurus Pisanosaurus Plateosaurus Platyceratops Pleurocoelus Podokesaurus Poekilopleuron Polacanthus Prenocephale Probactrosaurus Proceratosaurus Pro-compsognathus Prosaurolophus Prot-archaeopteryx Protoceratops Protohadros Psittacosaurus Quaesitosaurus Rebbachisaurus Rhabdodon Rhoetosaurus Rinchenia Riojasaurus Rugops Saichania Saltasaurus Saltopus Sarcosaurus Saurolophus Sauropelta Saurophaganax Saurornithoides Scelidosaurus Scutellosaurus Secernosaurus Segisaurus Segnosaurus Seismosaurus Shamosaurus Shanag Shantungo-saurus Shunosaurus Shuvuuia Silvisaurus Sinocalliopteryx Sinornithosaurus Sinosauropteryx Sinraptor Sinvenator Sonidosaurus Spinosaurus Staurikosaurus Stegoceras Stegosaurus Stenopelix Struthiomimus Struthiosaurus Stygimoloch Styracosaurus Suchomimus Supersaurus Syntarsus Talarurus Tanius Tarbosaurus Tarchia Telmatosaurus Tenontosaurus Thecodonto-saurus Therizinosaurus Thescelosaurus Torosaurus Torvosaurus Triceratops Troodon Tsagantegia Tsintaosaurus Tuojiangosaurus Tylocephale Tyrannosaurus Udanoceratops Unenlagia Urbacodon Utahraptor Valdosaurus Velociraptor Vulcanodon Wuerhosaurus Yandusaurus Yangchuano-saurus Yimenosaurus Yingshanosaurus Yinlong Yuanmousaurus Yunnanosaurus Zalmoxes Zephyrosaurus Zuniceratops