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Found 185 results

  1. Hey guys, Hello, I discovered this bone in a fossil box about a year ago and bought it for only $ 1.5 because it made me look special somehow. But I do not know to which animal he could belong. For me, however, he resembles a finger bone of a pterosaur. Can you help me maybe? The bone is hollow and 42mm (1,7") in size. Kind regards from Germany!
  2. Howdy folks I'm still building my collection of Hell Creek fossils. This time I'm attempting to add three new specimens, that of Anzu Wyliei, Dakotaraptor, and a Troodon. I would be very grateful to get your opinion on the following fossils. The raptor teeth are labeled as "Dromeosaur Tooth" from Hell Creek I want to know if any of them look like Dakotaraptor teeth to you. As for the other two I simply want your opinion on whether or not they are genuine fossils. Thank you Anzu claw measures approx. 15/16″ long Raptor Teeth 1 2 3 Toodon measures approx. 1/8″ Thanks again
  3. I’m in Toronto this weekend with my fiancé to have an engagement party with her Canadian side of the family. I’ve been to the ROM once but now that I’m on the forum I figured I would give a 2019 update on what’s here!! I’ll add photos throughout the day. This place is amazing
  4. Starting as a shark tooth collector a long time ago, last year I became interested in dinosaur fossils and decided to start collecting them. Despite dinosaur material, especially from rare locations, being usually very expensive for a college student, over this year I managed to get some interesting specimens through numerous trades, sales and purchases, some of which I want to organize in this topic. So, let's begin with Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian). All of my material from this time comes from Cloverly formation in Montana and Wyoming. Tenontosaurus tilleti - a large basal ornithopod, I have tooth and a vertebra with ?bite marks And a rare Nodosaurid tooth - Sauropelta is the only one described, although there could potentially be more than one species Cenomanian stage (early Late Cretaceous) is not that well represented in North American dinosaur fossil record, I have a hadrosaur and dromaeosaurid teeth from Woodbine formation, Texas A very significant portion of dinosaur fossils from North America comes from Campanian deposits of various stages. Let's begin with Judith river formation in Montana. Got some nice theropods - Tyrannosauridae indet. (potentially present Daspletosaurus and Gorgosaurus cannot be differentiated based on teeth) on the left and Saurornitholestes sp. on the right. And a nice Ceratopsian tooth (again, cannot be identified to the genus level, too many of them present) There is another formation in Montana of a similar age - Two Medicine formation. Recently got some nice material from there I can show here. First, a maxillary tooth from a hadrosaur Gryposaurus latidens - easily identifiable by the presence of denticles near the crown apex. Unidentified hadrosaur tooth with a complete root
  5. Advanced Dinosaur Egg Guide

    The Advanced Dinosaur Egg Guide Please share this with those who have egg questions. When possible, technical terms were avoided or defined. Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, but it is always important to do your own research. This guide is merely a snapshot of information taken from many scientific publications. I am not an expert on eggs, rather I just love sharing what little I have learned over the years, what science has learned over the years. For an overview on how to spot a fossilized dinosaur egg and the sizes of eggs, see the basic guide: Somewhat outdated yet still a good overview of dinosaur reproduction and eggs, with a focus on Mongolia: What is so special about eggs? The amniotic egg is one of the most significant evolutionary adaptations as it allowed vertebrate life to permanently exist on land. Long before the dinosaurs and their modern descendants including the chicken, the egg came first. In fact, the better question to ask is “Which came first? The lizard or the egg?” Before the amniotic egg, amphibians and some fish were the only vertebrates able to even venture on land and only for rather short periods of time. A great deal of information has come from studying eggs. What we have learned is summarized as: From University of California Museum of Paleontology Egg Anatomy: Using the best known modern avian dinosaur, the chicken--scientifically Gallus gallus, let us go over the different parts of an egg: “(A) The generalized anatomy of an egg. (B) The chicken eggshell comprises three crystalline layers, including the mammillary layer, prismatic layer, and external layer. The cuticle layer overlying the calcareous eggshell is further divided to two layers, including a HAp inner layer and a proteinaceous outer layer. The shell membrane, namely membrane testacea, is also characterized by two layers. (C) SEM image of the cuticle on the surface of the Gallus eggshell, showing a patchy and cracked pattern. (D) SEM image of the radial section of the Gallus eggshell. The white arrow indicates the cuticle layer that lies on the calcitic eggshell.” From Yang et al. 2018 Fig. 1 Those were technical terms, so how about we simplify. The chicken egg has three distinct shell layers mainly made of calcite, then a soft membrane on the inside of that. What is known as egg whites are the albumen which surrounds the yellow yolk located near the center. The embryo develops within the albumen and is fed with nutrients stored in the yolk. The surface of eggshell is full of openings, tiny pores, and these allow for gas to pass through the shell. A developing embryo needs to breathe just like any animal. Additional information: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell1.php How to spot a fake egg: First, the best way to avoid fake eggs is to go and collect them yourself. Always make sure to follow the laws and have permission to collect. In the United States, typically a good way to follow the law is through collection on private land with expressed permission from the landowner. Views of paleontologists do range on private ownership of fossils with many not condoning or endorsing. I personally have little issue with it since amateur collectors have made countless important finds while prospecting for their personal collection. If you are going to buy, do everything possible to ensure the egg or any fossil was legally collected. Often with fake eggs everything seems too perfect. Eggs are delicate and easily crushed or damaged so if there are no signs of any damage or natural alterations be very wary. If the surface has ridges, check to see those ridges continue across a crack or break of the shell. Many fake eggs are mosaics made up of real eggshell fragments assembled together in an egg shape. These mosaics tend to not have the eggshell match on opposite sides of a crack. If you would like more information beyond what is provided or have an unanswered question, feel free to start a thread. If after reading, you want to purchase an egg then please ask the seller for the best pictures they can provide of that egg with something to show scale such as a ruler and start a thread. There are many on the forum who are happy help determine if an egg is in fact real. Just please, whether collecting or buying, make sure you know the laws and follow them. A few good threads on real vs fake eggs: http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/69391-examples-of-commonly-faked-dino-eggs/ http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/83533-red-flag-on-hadrosaur-egg/ http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/71462-beware-of-hadrosaur-eggs/ http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/79465-this-is-how-realistic-a-fakereplica-oviraptor-egg-looks/ How are eggshell and eggs classified? Many people try to name an egg to a specific dinosaur, usually incorrectly. With embryonic remains, however, an egg can be scientifically linked to a particular dinosaur (explained in the next section). Another accepted way for eggs to be linked is through a pregnant female, there are examples of females which died while carry eggs internally. Adults on top of a clutch can be used however only with caution. Eggs are given their own naming scheme just as animals have theirs. In normal taxonomy, we have species, genus, and family whereas eggs have an oospecies, oogenus, and oofamily. The term used for egg taxonomy is parataxonomy. Parataxonomy is used in place of traditional taxonomy when an actual animal or plant cannot be linked, for example--from a lack of data. In the case of Troodon formosus, its eggs are the oofamily Prismatoolithidae, oogenus Prismatoolithus, and oospecies levis. Parataxonomy is the same system used for trace fossils, such as footprints which are normally not linked to the dinosaur who made them. What is inside a fossilized egg? Is there a yolk? What about bones? Very rarely are embryonic bones found, typically eggs have been filled in with sediments. These then lithify (become rock) and so the inside of nearly all fossil eggs is rock that is similar, if not identical, to the surrounding rock. Eggshell is brittle by its nature and so often cracks, these cracks allow whatever sediments are surrounding to fill in the egg and, depending on how recent it was laid to said crack, allow the amniotic sac and other fluids to drain out. Here is a CT scan of some eggs I am working on. You can see how the surrounding rock is very similar to the inside of the eggs. In addition to looking for embryonic material, the scan gives us information on the infill, the true shape of the eggs, and reveals anything which could otherwise not be seen within them. Sometimes insects can be found near an egg, for example. Embryonic bones from the oviraptor Citipati, this embryo is curled within the egg. From Wikimedia Commons Importance of Embryonic bones: https://youtu.be/cubdagTiRHE?t=48 Embryonic remains are vital for an actual animal ID, so any chance of them being present must be investigated. If you have any tiny bones which can be seen inside an egg or directly near it, I would strongly encourage you to take the specimen to your nearest paleontology related museum or university. If it does have embryonic remains in or near, then the specimen is invaluable to science. The presence of those tiny remains allows for the next question to be asked. Do we know who laid this egg? Which particular dinosaur? Most likely no, there are some wonderful exceptions though. Several ootaxa (eggshell type) are known to the dinosaur genus or family they were laid by. Here are some examples of eggs and eggshell which were linked scientifically to a particular dinosaur from embryonic remains. Dinosaur or family and its known egg type, oogenus or oofamily. This list is not comprehensive as new discoveries and revisions are made every year. Allosaurus sp. known to Preprismatoolithus coloradensis. (This is debated) Beibeilong (Oviraptor) known to Elongatoolithidae. Citipati (Oviraptor) known to Elongatoolithidae. (See the picture above) Gobipipus (Avian) known to Gobioolithus minor. Heyuannia (Oviraptor) known to Elongatoolithidae. Hypacrosaurus (Hadrosaur) known to Spheroolithus oosp. Lourinhanosaurus (Theropod) known to cf. Preprismatoolithus. Maiasaura (Hadrosaur) known to Spheroolithus oosp. Oviraptorid known to Elongatoolithidae. Therizinosauroid (med to large theropod) known to Dendroolithidae. Titanosaur (Sauropod) known to Megaloolithus patagonicus. Troodon (small Theropod) known to Prismatoolithus levis. Generally, be wary of any claim that an egg was laid by a certain dinosaur! Additional information: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell3.php What groups of dinosaurs do we have eggs for? The vast majority of eggs are from non-avian theropods. This group includes dromaeosaurs (like Velociraptor), allosaurs, and tyrannosaurs. We also have eggs from Mesozoic aves (birds), hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs) and sauropods (long-necks). It is worth noting when we say that the majority of eggs are therapod we mean it. Around 61% of the eggs found globally are therapod and between 41-64% are maniraptorans (birds and their closest non-avian dinosaur relatives). For the others the numbers are much smaller: 7% are sauropods, 13% are ornithischians (hadrosaurs and relatives) with 19% still unknown and that is no yolk. Here is an example of a clutch from an oviraptor, elongated eggs are typical of many theropods: Pic from The Zuhl Museum On the non-dinosaur side of things, we also have eggs from turtles, crocodiles, lizards, and pterosaurs (flying reptiles). There are several groups of dinosaurs who have no egg representation in the fossil record yet. Despite many people trying to find them, there are still no ceratopsian (horned dinosaur) eggs. There are no ankylosaur (armored dinosaur) or stegosaur (spiked/plated dinosaur) eggs as of yet either. This could simply be due to bias in the fossil record but there also could be other factors. Perhaps, it is a case like the ichthyosaur (marine reptile), which gave live birth, unlike most reptiles that lay eggs. Most of us are familiar with the platypus in the mammalian world, which lay eggs despite being a mammal. Maybe some dinosaurs did not actually lay eggs. Now that would be an eggciting discovery! Below one can see how similar clutches are for two very different types of hadrosaurs. The above is a rather typical egg clutch for a hadrosaur with spherical shaped eggs. Some of these eggs had embryonic remains which allowed them to be identified to a dinosaur. In this case they were narrowed down to within the lambeosaurinae subfamily but sadly could not be narrowed further. Pic from Museum of the Rockies Clutch of another hadrosaur, the good mother Maiasaura. Again, the eggs are spherical and embryonic remains allowed the eggs to be linked with Maiasaura. Pic from Museum of the Rockies The great identification mistake: Now that it is abundantly clear the only way to link a dinosaur and an egg is with embryonic bone. Why is that? Surely there must be other ways to ID who an egg is from. Well, let me share the story of poor Oviraptor, who was wrongly accused of stealing eggs. When the first Oviraptor was discovered, the skeleton was not alone. Underneath it was a clutch of eggs. At the time there were no embryonic remains in these eggs, so it was assumed that the strange looking animal was, in fact, stealing the eggs from Protoceratops, hence the name oviraptor meaning “egg thief.” Later, not far from the original site, another nest was found, this time with an almost perfectly preserved embryo. The embryo was clearly of that of an Oviraptor to be eggs-act. So, with both discoveries, paleontologists determined that Oviraptor was actually a brooding dinosaur much like birds today. This story is an eggcellent example of science improving upon itself and the need to be careful with assumptions. Paleontology is an ever-changing field, which constantly works to improve our understanding of the prior natural world. A common incorrect identification nowadays is that of “Tarbosaurus eggs.” Tarbosaurus is very similar to Tyrannosaurus rex, however, it lived in Asia. Among the largest of eggs ever found, were two measuring 11 cm (4.3 in) wide and an amazing 60 cm (24 in) long. The elongated shape meant they were probably from a large theropod and so were thought to be from Tarbosaurus. Scientifically these eggs are the oogenus macroelongatoolithus. Based on detailed analysis, these eggs most likely are from a large oviraptor and not Tarbosaurus. Alright, so then how are eggs differentiated and how without embryonic bones would an egg likely be from an oviraptor? How are eggs distinguished from each other? We went over how to link a dinosaur to an egg, what about one egg to another or finding differences between eggs? Well, there are a few different ways, one is the surface of eggshell. Many eggs have different textures but surface texture can be eroded or altered so cannot be used alone. Thickness and porosity of eggshell can be measured and provide solid data points for comparisons. Two of the best techniques for examining eggshell are with the use of SEM and thin sections. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a very powerful microscope, which can view objects in eggstreme detail. Petrographic thin sections are tiny slices of a rock so thin that light can actually pass through it. Both SEM and thin sections allow for the tiny details of eggshell to be visible, meaning unique traits, variations, and similarities can all be seen. Below are two types of eggshell, how many differences can you spot? A thin section of hadrosaur eggshell, there is only a single continuous layer. Pic from University of Calgary A thin section of oviraptor eggshell, there are two distinct layers with the arrow showing the point where both meet. Pic from University of Calgary On thick eggshell, the cross-section view can often show many details otherwise too small to see. Below is Faveoolithus eggshell, which is large enough to show the internal structure of the shell itself. Pic from Montana State University, taken by P. Germano Naming: Dinosaur eggs, much like actual dinosaurs, are named following a convention with information in the name, and normally an honor to an individual or location where it was discovered. As already covered, naming uses a system of parataxonomy and with eggs, this is called ootaxonomy. Using the method covered above, similarities and differences of eggshell can be identified. Based on these similarities and differences, eggs can be grouped. Some of these groups are associated with a type of dinosaur. As already covered, from embryonic remains or other methods an animal can be linked and associated to its eggs. Sometimes eggs can be grouped based on similarities yet there are no ways to associate them with a dinosaur, so these are listed as unknown. An egg group being associated to a type of dinosaur does not mean all eggs within the group are exclusive to that single type of dinosaur. Some eggs were named prior to the naming convention being established or do not fit any of the known groups, as such these have a truly unique name. That said, most eggs fit one of the following: Name- dinosaurs associated Sphero- Hadrosaurs Ovalo- Unknown Faveo- Unknown (Could be sauropods) Megalo- Titanosaurs Dictyo- theropods Dendro- Therizinosaurs Elongato- Oviraptors Prismato- Troodontids Egg and dinosaur associations, from top to bottom, Elongato- with Oviraptors, Sphero- with Hadrosaurs, Prismato- with Troodontids, Dictyo- and similar eggs from unknown theropods. Pic from the Royal Tyrrell Museum What time periods do we have eggs from? Nearly every egg from the Mesozoic is from within the Late Cretaceous. One study found of 238 eggs examined, 225 were from the Late Cretaceous, 10 from the Early Cretaceous, 2 from during the Late Jurassic and a single egg from the early Jurassic. Since then more eggs have been found, yet the trend holds. A likely explanation for such massive bias would be the Late Cretaceous is more recent so eggs from then are more likely to be preserved and undergo less alteration. Did an egg hatch? The hatching question is a difficult one to answer scientifically with most egg specimens, of course, a nearly complete egg is likely unhatched. Much of the strength in eggs comes from their shape and this means once there is an opening in the shell that strength is lost. There are many ways for an egg to break, one of which is the baby breaking out, but many of the broken eggs we find may have yielded no baby. The term unhatched and failed are often used interchangeably but the term failed is preferred as “unhatched” which implies the egg was fertilized and had a real chance. It is possible and likely probable that no fertilization was the cause for many eggs to not hatch. An overview of the different ways an egg can be filled. From Mueller-Towe et al. (2002) Nest? For as rare as eggs are, finding an egg clutch within a sedimentary structure is many times rarer. There have been several sedimentary structures found around egg clutches, which were interpreted as nests. One of the most interesting of these is a “U” shaped structure which looks similar to a horseshoe, see the picture below. In the center of this “U” shaped structure was a clutch of Troodon eggs. It is possible many nests were constructed like modern bird nests, with sticks, straw, leaves and other such material. This material in nest building, unfortunately, means they would most likely not preserve. Possible nest structure for Troodon, tape measure equals 1m (39in) and the white plaster jacket is covering a clutch of Troodon eggs. Modified from Varricchio et al. 1997 How can we tell what happened to an egg and the nest? By studying modern nests, it was found eggshell fragments tend not to travel very far while remaining in large concentrations. This means when a large grouping of eggshell fragments are found, it is unlikely they have moved much. Modern eggshell fragments can be found in ratios of concave up vs concave down based on what happened to the nest. For example, if a nest had a predator come and eat eggs, the eggshell would be concave up vs down in a ratio of about 70:30, sometimes 65:35. Obviously, if the eggshell fragments are moved then ratios will not work, but again, where high concentrations of eggshell are found, there was little to no movement. The ratio technique is still in the early stages of being applied to nest from the Mesozoic so in time there may be more information. The Emu eggshell above is concave-up. Pic by P. Germano The Emu eggshell below is concave down. Pic by P. Germano In both pictures, different layers of the eggshell can be seen and such layering indicates the eggshell is from a theropod, in this particular case, an avian. Where in the world are dinosaur eggs found? Eggs are extremely rare and there are only a select number of places where they have been found so far. Eggshell fragments, on the other hand, are actually rather common and can be found in many formations. One main reason eggshell is relatively abundant compared to complete eggs is that a single egg when broken can become dozens of fragments. Geographically eggs so far were found in Argentina, Canada, China, Columbia, France, Great Britain, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Peru, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, the United States, and Uruguay. Within Canada, eggs are exclusively found in Alberta. Within the USA, eggs have been found in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. The vast majority of eggs are found in Asia. Additional information: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell4.php Did dinosaurs care for their young? It seems that many dinosaurs did in fact care for their young. Evidence for this has been found on multiple continents. There is still debate over the type and amount of care the parents may have provided. There are two major variations in care being debated, and these come down to whether the offspring were altricial or precocial. See the list of terms near the end of this guide for definitions. One possibility is that a group of adults would use cooperative breeding to care for a clutch, this is basically the village raising a child approach. With theropods, in particular Oviraptor, the presence of adults on eggs does support incubation and possibly even brooding. Hatchlings have been found within a nest and could have died there for many reasons, brood reduction and siblicide are both entirely possible. Given the diversity of dinosaurs, it is likely different dinosaurs provided varying levels of care for their young. Modern example showing a female crocodile providing care: Modern example of a spoonbill bird raising young: Some dinosaurs such as the sauropod titanosaurs, likely did not care for their young but rather used the same strategy as sea turtles. A large group of females would lay hundreds of eggs at once to overwhelm the predators and just by sheer numbers allowing some of the babies to live to adulthood. Are there any diseases or mutations of eggshells? Yes, we have paleopathologies found in eggshell. Paleo meaning ancient and pathology being the study of diseases, so paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases. One of the more common is where two or more layers of eggshell overlap in a way where the pores no longer pass through the entire shell, this reduces the amount of oxygen an embryo can receive. Too many of the pores being misaligned can be fatal. What color were eggs? One of the most recent breakthroughs in egg research is an ability to determine colors present within fossilized eggshell. Interestingly, from the eggs so far examined there seem to be many colors and patterns. With this being rather new to the field, not many eggs have been tested plus there is likely some error and bias. Even so, there are remarkable results. Some eggs were simple, just white. Some were speckled. Many were dull earthy colors, while others were green and blue. Given their close relationship, it is logical to assume dinosaur eggs could show any variations of what we see from either crocs or birds. Modern crocodiles have white eggs whereas modern bird eggs range in color and pattern. Interestingly, even within the same bird species there is a range in color, so it is entirely possible dinosaur eggs from the same species also vary in color. Three modern chicken eggs showing variation in colors and size. From Wikimedia Commons What is working with eggs like? Fieldwork: The basic process of removing eggs from the ground is very similar to that of removing fossilized bones. The approximate size of an egg is figured out and then the area around it is trenched until a plateau is formed. Next, a plaster jacket is made encasing the plateau. The bottom of this is removed until the whole thing can be “popped.” After which it is flipped and then is ready to be brought back to the museum. An egg at a new nesting site just after I uncovered it. Pic from the Two Medicine Dinosaur Center Jacketing an egg at Egg Mountain in Montana. Pics by D. O’Farrell. To find small fragments of eggshell and embryonic bones, removed rock is often sifted. Since they are so small—and also a rock surrounded by rocks—many times until sifted, the tiny bones or eggshell are not visible. Sifting for eggshell, here I am showing Paleontologist Barbie an example eggshell fragment. Pic from Coffeewithhallelujah After viewing the example fragment, my esteemed colleague Paleontologist Barbie was able to find an eggshell fragment. Can you find the piece of eggshell below? Pic from Coffeewithhallelujah Preparing and reconstructing an egg: Eggs tend to be more tedious and require more patience than normal prep work. Eggs are not that difficult to prepare, however, to an even greater extent than bones, they are very unforgiving. Reassembling a fossil bone after a mistake is not necessarily easy, however it is normally possible. The same often cannot be said for fossilized eggs. If you ever want to try and reconstruct a dino egg, just save the last chicken egg after cracking it and then try to reassemble. Remember, chickens are dinosaurs and their eggs make a decent modern analog to a classic theropod egg. Eggs in context- The Two Medicine Formation: To bring us all the way back to the beginning, what is the importance of studying eggs? Why bother? The primary geologic formation I have spent the last seven years working in is the Two Medicine and in terms of eggs, it is the most significant location in North America. One newly discovered nest I am fortunate enough to have an ongoing role in excavating and scientifically describing. From eggs and embryonic remains, the ecosystem of the Two Medicine is relatively well known compared to nearly every other formation. In terms of paleoecology, nesting sites show where adults felt safe and secure with enough food, water, and other resources. Within this formation was true evidence for parental care, particularly care in the form of nurture similar to birds. Behavior is nearly impossible to deduce from the limited fossil record, yet the care for young is strongly supported thanks to discoveries in the Two Med. Three dinosaurs from the formation have been linked to their eggs, Hypacrosaurus, Maiasaura, and Troodon. It may not seem impressive but three dinosaurs with embryonic remains is a truly remarkable find and incredibly rare. Even now, after over forty years of study, the Two Med continues to surprise with new nesting sites. Read about how the Two Medicine and Maiasaura was discovered: Additional information: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell_case1.php https://www.nps.gov/articles/mesozoic-egg-mountain-dawson-2014.htm https://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/mt_geoheritage/sites/augusta_choteau/paleontology.html http://www.georgialifetraces.com/2014/07/15/tracing-the-two-medicine/ http://www.georgialifetraces.com/2014/08/04/fossil-visions-in-the-two-medicine/ Hear me talk about my research on eggs and Troodon: Dinosaurs as living animals: Eggs allow us to see these animals as just that, animals. There is a reason many feel sad when seeing a baby dinosaur still in its egg, yet the same sadness tends to not be shown for adults. Why? The poor baby was deprived of an actual life and it is easy to relate. When covering a natural disaster, one goal of reporting is to humanize the story. In a similar way, when reporting on dinosaurs, it is important to try and do the same. Eggs allow us to come far closer to dinosaurs as true animals than I feel we ever will through bones alone. Eggs and reproduction give a window into the lives of these wonderful animals. When trying to describe what separates something living from an inanimate object, the ability to reproduce is used as a major criterion, therefore making it one of the most important aspects of dinosaurs to study in detail. Some Relevant Terms: These typically are used for modern birds and the classic theropods. Altricial: A developmental classification where at hatching, the offspring are relatively immobile, lack feathers or down, have closed eyes and are completely dependent on their parents for survival. Altricial birds include herons, hawks, woodpeckers, owls, and most passerine songbirds. Brood (n): The offspring of an animal which are hatched or cared for at one time. Brood (v): To sit on and keep warm. Brooding: To sit on and keep offspring warm when they cannot maintain their own body temperatures. Brood reduction: A reproductive strategy where the female lays more eggs than can be cared for and raised. The smallest and weakest of the brood typically starve or are killed by siblings. Clutch: Total number of eggs laid by a female in one nest attempt, often 3 or more. Conspecific: Of the same species. Cooperative breeding: Breeding system where non-parental adults assist other breeding pairs (usually their own parents) to rear offspring, instead of dispersing from the nest or breeding themselves. Incubation: The process by which parents keep eggs at the proper temperature to ensure normal embryonic development until hatching. In most cases, birds sit on eggs and transfer their body heat through a patch of skin known as the brood patch. In many species, only the female incubates; in other species, both males and females incubate. Less common is where only the male incubates. Precocial: Offspring are capable of a high degree of independent activity immediately after hatching. Precocial young typically can move about, have their eyes open and will be covered in down at hatching. They are generally able to walk away from the nest as soon as they have dried off. Siblicide: The death of a young animal usually as a result of fighting with siblings over food, common in years when food is in short supply. Further reading and information: https://www.amnh.org/our-research/paleontology/about-the-division/more/fossil-identification/dinosaur-eggs-fossil-identification http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/index.php http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell_hirsch.php http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell5.php https://feederwatch.org/blog/raptors-make-good-neighbors-hummingbirds/ Images: University of California Museum of Paleontology: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ Yang et al. 2018: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5144 Montana State University: http://www.montana.edu/ Two Medicine Dinosaur Center: http://www.tmdinosaurcenter.org/ Royal Tyrrell Museum: http://tyrrellmuseum.com/ Museum of the Rockies: https://museumoftherockies.org/ The Zuhl Museum: https://zuhlmuseum.nmsu.edu/ Dr. Tony Martin: http://www.georgialifetraces.com/ Mueller-Towe et al. 2002: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260391508_Hatching_and_infilling_of_dinosaur_eggs_as_revealed_by_computed_tomography University of Calgary Hadrosaur eggshell: https://www.ucalgary.ca/drg/imagesort/00S000500 Oviraptor eggshell: https://www.ucalgary.ca/drg/imagesort/00S001300 Varricchio et al. 1997: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232793785_Nest_and_egg_clutches_of_the_dinosaur_Troodon_formosus_and_the_evolution_of_avian_reproductive_traits Coffeewithhallelujah: http://coffeewithhallelujah.blogspot.com/2015/07/paleontologist-barbie-at-two-medicine.html Wikimedia Commons Citipati: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citipati Chicken eggs: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_as_food List of open access egg related papers: Thanks to the late Joe Gallo for this wonderful list. Disclaimer: For legal purposes, it should be noted links to an institution does not constitute endorsement by the respective institution and pictures are used here for educational purposes only. All rights belong to their respective owners. From the 2018 SVP meeting, my poster, which was a presentation on new dinosaur eggs. Pic from the Two Medicine Dinosaur Center Many thanks to J. Cozart and L. Murphy for writing some sections as well as edits. Thanks to D. Lawver, Ph.D. for reviewing the information presented. I especially would like to thank @Fossildude19 for assisting me and additionally thank these members for input and suggestions: @Troodon . @Seguidora-de-Isis . @HamptonsDoc . @-Andy- Eric P.
  6. Another New Tooth

    Another tooth added to the collection, a 4.2 inch rooted Carcharodontosaurus tooth and a smaller one. It has some really nice colours to it! Just wanted to say as well I'm really enjoying this forum and already I've met some awesome people
  7. Likely some have already seen this, a nice little video on coprolites, what we can learn from them and their significance. Being a post from me, the video of course covers the Two Medicine Formation, I know at least @GeschWhat will enjoy. https://www.facebook.com/scifrimacroscope/videos/986351528231150/
  8. Fossil Research in Limbo

    Dinosaurs, fossils and the experts who study them have all waited for an end to the shutdown. the Washington Post By Brian Switek, January 25, 2019 https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/dinosaurs-fossils-and-the-experts-who-study-them-have-all-waited-for-an-end-to-the-shutdown/2019/01/25/4dfddf80-20e4-11e9-8b59-0a28f2191131_story.html A publication of mine, which has been accepted and is in editing for publication and the planning for a conference volume, for which I have been invited to prepare a short paper all came to a grinding halt beacuse of this gridlock. That said, I am quite lucky because at least I am not a federal employee. One person, whom I know, changed jobs from a federal to state position in mid-December 0f 2018. I now have to apologize for suggesting that he was crazy to do so. Yours, Paul H.
  9. Sorry for the long wait for this post. I said I was going to do a write up for it in the days following my return, then once again in October and then after I had finished my trip report from my 2016 trip to Maryland's Potomac River back in December, but alas I never got to it. But now I'm finally sitting down to write about my experience from my week spent fossil hunting in Wyoming's badlands. I flew out of Boston in the morning of July 13th and landed in Denver by around mid-day. My parents got the rental car and we were on our way to eastern Wyoming. It was dinner time when we pulled into Laramie and we went to a Mexican Restaurant which had great food but gargantuan portions, we made our way back to the Comfort Inn we were staying at and soon got a grasp of how low quality it was. Sockets coming out of walls, old hairs on the bed, the scent of cigarette smoke permeating throughout the room, not quite as comfortable as advertised. The next day we left the motel in haste and went to the University of Wyoming's geologic museum, which had a number of great displays of fossils of which many were found within the state. Here are few shots of what we saw.
  10. Kolkata Dinosaur Museum, Calcutta, India

    India’s invaluable dinosaur fossils lie neglected and forgotten in this Kolkata museum, Scroll Magazine , India https://scroll.in/magazine/903796/indias-invaluable-dinosaur-fossils-lie-neglected-and-forgotten-in-this-kolkata-museum https://scroll.in/topic/55864/museums-of-india Yours, Paul H.
  11. Tucson show questions

    I am thinking of attending a Tucson fossil show this year. Could someone please share recommendations as to which days/which shows would be the best to attend? (I can be there for 2 days max) My primary interests are reptiles, dinosaurs and sharks.
  12. Unidentified bone from Kem Kem

    Hey guys, I have bought this bone of the Kem Kem Formation in the internet. But I´m not sure about the identfication. The bone was sell as "Dromaeosaur bone"... The bone is 113mm (4,5 ") in lenght. I hope, that you can hleb me with the ID. Kind regards
  13. Another snow storm has swept through here so how about we take a trip to Southern Utah in mid-June. I will be straightforward with you, I didn’t get many fossils from this trip but if you would like to hear my tale of woe read on! Let’s start out with the stratigraphy column. You’ll notice most of it is red. If you’ve read some of my other trip reports you’ll probably know what that means, no fossils to report from this area. My structural geologist buddies had a blast, though, so beware a lot structural and sedimentary geology ahead. I’ll save talking about the Wahweap Formation for the end.
  14. Wilson, Paul, Williams, M. A. (Mark A.), Warnett, Jason M., Attridge, Alex, Ketchum, H., Hay, J. and Smith, M. P. (2017) Utilizing X-Ray Computed Tomography for heritage conservation : the case of megalosaurus bucklandii. In: I2MTC 2017 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Torino, Italy, 22-25 May 2017 (In Press) https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82960130.pdf http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/88534/ Yours, Paul H.
  15. Durango Colorado?

    Hey, I'm going to Durango next summer and I was wondering if I could find any fossils there, and if so, how can I find them.
  16. From the album Cretaceous

    Reptile Bone Fragment (possible Hadrosaur) Upper Cretaceous Wenonah Formation Mattawan Group Ramanessin Brook Holmdel, New Jersey
  17. Dinosaurs from this week

    Hey All, A couple Dinosaurs from this week. @Bobby Rico motivated me to get back into watercolors/ painting again and unfortunately the results are not what I would like. The watercolor Aucasaurus sports multiple mistakes and errors, one being the lack of realism in the overall painting. The predators mottled coloring also caused problems as I strove for a dappled sort of camouflage. Its obviously time to get back to painting. The other dinosaur, Torvorsaurus, was drawn in pencil as a perspective exercise. While the piece lacks detail, the movement in the Torvosaurus creates a sense of excitement that adds to the overall drawing. The jaw in mid-roar was extremely difficult but it seems to have turned out well. I liked it better then the watercolor because of the watercolor's overall shoddiness. Thanks for looking Watercolor Perspective sketch
  18. On Sunday I took a trip to the Natural History Museum in London. I queued up before it opened at 10am and even before then there was a long queue. I have not visited this museum since I was a child and spent an entire day there (10am to 4.30pm - a long time). I was surprised as it is a lot bigger than I remembered and there was so much to see. This place has the most wonderful things and is an incredible place to learn. The museum showcases a Baryonyx, Sophie the Stegosaurus (the world's most complete Stegosaurus) and more! The moving Trex and Deinonychus are also really realistic in the way they move. If you like your dinosaur teeth, the Megalosaurus and Daspletosaurus teeth are out of this world! There is something for everyone in this museum and I would highly recommend that you visit here if you have not already! A lot of the dinosaur specimens are casts taken from other museums but they are still cool to look at. I had taken the photos on my SLR and due to the size of the photos I had to reduce the quality of them to be able to post on the forum which is unfortunate but it's the only way otherwise the photos would take a really long time to load. There are more non-dinosaur related photos that I will be posting at some point later on but may take me some time to pick out. Enjoy the photos from this section of the museum! Blue Zone Dinosaurs (has a mix of some photos of crocs too)
  19. Fight Over Dinosaur Fossils Comes Down to "What is a Mineral?"

    This is an interesting legal battle about whether surface rights or mineral rights determines fossil ownership. Fight over dinosaur fossils comes down to what’s a mineral By Amy Beth Hanson, AP, Washington Post, November 16, 2018 https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/fight-over-dinosaur-fossils-comes-down-to-whats-a-mineral/2018/11/16/6025a23a-e9e7-11e8-8449-1ff263609a31_story.html The article states: "Ownership of two fossilized dinosaur skeletons found on a Montana ranch in 2006 are the subject of a legal battle over whether they are part of a property’s surface rights or mineral rights. The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals issued a split decision saying fossils are minerals under mineral rights laws." Yours, Paul H.
  20. Dr. Junchang Lü (1965 - October 8, 2018)

    Dr. Junchang Lü (1965 - October 8, 2018) Some very sad news for today. It's with a heavy heart that I note the passing of Dr. Junchang Lü (Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, People's Republic of China) at the age of 53. For more information, go see: Death of a Fossil Hunter. Junchang Lü was is one of the most important dinosaur researchers of the past half century By Richard Conniff, National Geographic, October 17, 2018 https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/death-of-a-fossil-hunter/ 53岁恐龙专家、中国地质科学院地质研究所研究员吕君昌逝世 https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_2517034 Condolences, Paul H.
  21. Paleochris68's collection

    Hello ! I present you my very small collection. I started it last summer, so I do not have many pieces yet, but I prefer pretty pieces. I do not have the chance to search on the field, so I buy my fossils. We have: Keichousaurus Hui, I really like his broken tail Russian trilobite, Asaphus punctatus (I have not been able to label it yet). Restoration verified with violet lamp, less than 10% Spinosaurus tooth, correct quality, only glued but with pieces of the same tooth Last Acquisition: caudal vertebra spinosaurus I am going to buy other teeth of theropauds (carcharodontosaurs) in the next few months and I am mainly interested in dinosaurs fossils. The choice is unfortunately limited for the cheap parts (less than 1000 dollars) See you soon !
  22. Hey guys, I´m from Germany and have bought this little tooth from the Hell Creek Formation in Montana. The seller described the tooth as "Dromaeosaur tooth", which belongs possible to Dakotaraptor or Acherorator. I´m not sure about the identification of this tooth and hope, that you can help me. The tooth is 1,27cm (= 1/2") in lenght. Thank you in advance and kind regards!
  23. Thescelosaurus premax?

    Hi all! I feel like it's been too long since I last posted something of my own rather than commenting. Below is a picture of a tiny tooth which I initially believed to be crocodilian. I found it when surveying a promising anthill at a microsite in the Lance formation of eastern Wyoming. I was not disappointed! I ended up finding some very nice and very tiny fossils; a vertebra and a tooth both potentially myledaphus, a crocodile tooth (borealosuchus or other) and Richardoestesia tooth with almost invisible serrations! Nearby I found two tiny edmontosaurus teeth and a few partial croc scutes. I affectionately refer to this site by several names; 'The Whale Rocks" (as the harder gray capstones appear reminiscent of our cetacean friends), the sand box (due to the 'floor' of the surrounding area being covered in sand) or the 'Micro-Micro Site' as everything i've ever found there has been shrunken in size from your typical channel deposit. I want to know what you think of this piece which I now believe is one of the premaxillary teeth of the small herbivorous dinosaur Thescelosaurus and I other forum members agree with my analysis. (The tooth itself is only about 4 mm)
  24. Hey guys, Hello I am from Germany. That's why I apologize for my bad English. This tooth (top right in the picture) I have recently screaked from the US. The tooth comes from the Hell Creek Formation (Wyoming). It was sold as a "Raptor" tooth. He is about 7mm (0,28") long. I´m not sure, to which dinosaur the tooth belongs, thats why I asked my question in this forum. I hope, that you can help me! Thank you in advance and kind regards!
  25. Some Dinosaurs Had Colored and Speckled Eggs

    Birds Got Their Colorful, Speckled Eggs From Dinosaurs Nell Greenfieldboyce, All Things Considered, October 31, 2018 https://www.npr.org/2018/10/31/662515369/birds-got-their-colorful-speckled-eggs-from-dinosaurs Dinosaurs put all colored birds' eggs in one basket, evolutionarily speaking, Yale University, October 31, 2018 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181031141548.htm Jasmina Wiemann, Tzu-Ruei Yang & Mark A. Norell Dinosaur egg colour had a single evolutionary origin Nature (October 31, 2018) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0646-5 Yours, Paul H.
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