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Found 20 results

  1. Greetings, all! I am currently writing a thesis involving fossils from the Burlington Limestone near its type section along the Illinois/Iowa border. To demonstrate the diversity of the crinoidal remains from the limestone (over 400 species have been described from the Burlington alone!), I am looking for photographs of articulated crinoids. Do any of you have any that you would like to let me include in my thesis? If possible, I would like high-res images of crinoids identified to genus or species with a scale bar/ruler present in the image as well as the collection/locality info. I can't guarantee that I will use every image posted, but if I use your image, then I will acknowledge you in my acknowledgements and give you credit for the image. Thank you for your time & assistance! -Elasmohunter
  2. echinoderm ossicle

    Different views of a single element, 3 mm at its biggest dimension. I find a lot of echinoids as well as bourgueticrinid and starfish ossicles in the sediment. What's your opinion? Calyx fragment? Lower Campanian, marine, southern Poland.
  3. The Ordovician of Oland

    phosphthesi about 36 MB ******************** Phosphatized echinoderm remains from the upper lower Ordovician strata of northern Oland,Sweden preservation,taxonomy and evolution Magnus Svensson Examens arbete i Geologi vid Lunds Universitete n 105/1999 ******************** diacritics omitted("Oeland") Could the bee have any more knees? Nope. characterization:Monograph/thesis. 54 pages excluding bibliography
  4. what??

    This one raised my eyebrows some Reich_mesozoiophiocystt_al-2018-Palassechinodermology.pdf Mike Reich,Tanja R.Stegeman,Imelda M.Hausmann,Vanessa J.Roden,Alexander Nutzel: The youngest ophiocistoid: a first Paleozoic-type echinoderm group representative from the Mesozoic Palaeontology,v.61,iss.6/2018 size:3,122 Mb,approximately edit(23-11)spelling mistake in the citation
  5. crinoids or cyclocystoids

    Silurian (?) erratic boulder from Poland. Echinoderm ossicles. Cyclocystoids or crinoids (eucalyptocrinitid crown & arms?). Please help
  6. crinoid from gravel

    Southern Poland. Found in parking lot gravel, so age unknown, although Late Jurassic or Late Cretaceous to Paleocene likely. I quess it's an isocrinid - could anything more be added to that?
  7. Maastrichtian asteroids

    Recommended,and then some Gapalbed13.pdf As usual with this journal, excellent paleobiological information & documentation. There has been a post regarding Moroccan an asteroid accumulation possibly being fake,but at the moment I can't find it.
  8. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 11, 2018. Phylum Echinodermata Class Ophiuroidea - Brittle Stars Ophiuroidea - Africa/Middle East Reid, M. (2017). Taphonomy, palaeoecology and taxonomy of an ophiuroid-stylophoran obrution deposit from the Lower Devonian Bokkeveld Group, South Africa. Masters Dissertation - University of Capetown. (149 pages) Rilett, M.H.P. (1971). Two new fossil Ophiuroid species from the Bokkeveld Series, near Ceres, Cape Province. Ann. Natal Mus., Vol.21(1). Ophiuroidea - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Ishida, Y. and Y. Kurita (1998). Ophiura sarsii sarsii (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the Late Pliocene Hachioji Formation in Niigata Prefecture, Central Japan. Paleontological Research, Vol.2, Number 2. Ishida, Y., K. Nagasawa and H. Tokairin (1999). Ophiura sarsii sarsii (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene formations of Yamagata Prefecture, northern Japan. Earth Science, Vol.53. Ishida, Y., et al. (2010). Paleoenvironments of fossil ophiuroids in Plio-Pleistocene Hijikata Formation in Shizuoka Prefecture, Central Japan. In: Echinoderms: Durham. Harris, et al. (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Ophiuroidea - Australia/New Zealand Skwarko, S.K. (1963). A New Upper Cretaceous Ophiuroid from Australia.Palaeontology, Vol.6, Part 3. Ophiuroidea - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Ewin, T.A.M. and B. Thuy (2017). Brittle stars from the British Oxford Clay: unexpected ophiuroid diversity on Jurassic sublittoral mud bottoms. Journal of Paleontology, 91(4). Ewin, T.A.M. and B. Thuy (2015). Two New British Ophiuroid Localities, Preliminary Observations and Determinations. In: Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology. Zamora, S. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 19. Glass, A. and M. Poschmann (2006). A New Species of Brittlestar (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) from the Hunsruck Slate (Lower Emsian, Lower Devonian) of Germany. Palaeontology, Vol.49, Part 5. Hotckhiss, F.H.C. and A. Glass (2012). Observations on Onychaster Meek & Worthen, 1868 (Ophiuroidea: Onychasteridae) (Famennian-Visean age). Zoosymposia, 7. Hotckhiss, F.H.C., R.J. Prokop and V. Petr (2007). Isolated Ossicles of the Family Eospondylidae Spencer et Wright, 1966, in the Lower Devonian of Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Correction of the Systematic Position of Eospondylid Brittlestars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Oegophiurida). Acta Musei Naturalis Pragae, Series B-Historia Naturalis, Vol.63, Number 1. Hotchkiss, F.H.C., et al. (1999). Isolated vertebrae of brittlestars of the Family Klasmuridae Spencer, 1925 (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in the Devonian of Bohemia (Czech Republic). Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 44/3-4. Hotchkiss, F.H.C., et al. (1999). Isolated skeletal ossicles of a new brittlestar of the Family Cheiropterasteridae Spencer, 1934 (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in the Lower Devonian of Bohemia (Czech Republic). Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 44/1-2. Hunter, A.W., et al. (2007). A mixed ophiuroid-stylophoran assemblage (Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician (Llandeilian) of western Brittany, France. In: Palaeozoic Reefs and Bioaccumulations: Climatic and Evolutionary Controls. Alvaro, J.J., et al. (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications 275. Jagt, J.W.M. (1986). Note on the Occurrence of ?Amphiura senonensis Valette, 1915 (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) in Early Palaeocene (Danian) Deposits of the Belgian Province of Limburg. Teded.Werkgr.Tert.Kwart.Geol., 23(3). Jaselli, L. (2015). The Lower Jurassic (Early Sinemurian) ophiuroid Palaeocoma milleri in the palaeontological collection of the Museo di Storia Naturale "Antonio Steppani" (Italy). Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 54(3). Jaselli, L. (2014). The First Occurrence of Ophiuroids (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) in the Early Triassic of Lombardy (Northern Italy). Atti Soc.Tosc.Sci.Nat.Mem., Serie A, 121. Kroh, A. (2004). First fossil record of the family Euryalidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the Middle Miocene of the Central Mediterranean. In: Echinoderms. Heinzeller and Nebelsick (eds.). Kroh, A. and J.W.M. Jagt (2006). Notes on North Sea Basin Cainozoic echinoderms, Part 3. Pliocene gorgonocephalid ophiuroids from borehole IJsselmuiden-1 (Overijssel, The Netherlands). Cainozoic Research, 4(1-2). Numberger-Thuy, L.D. and B. Thuy (2015). Pliocene Deep-Sea Ophiuroids from the Mediterranean With Western Atlantic Affinities. In: Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology. Zamora, S. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 19. Rasmussen, H.W. (1951). Cretaceous Ophiuroidea from Germany, Sweden, Spain and New Jersey. Medd. fra Dansk Geol.Forening. Kobenhaven, Vol.12. Salamon, M.A. and A. Boczarowski (2003). The first record of Aspiduriella (Ophiuroidea) in the Upper Muschelkalk of Poland. Geological Quarterly, 47(3). Stohr, S., J.W.M. Jagt and A.A. Klompmaker (2011). Ophiura paucilepis, a new species of brittlestar (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the Pliocene of the southern North Sea Basin. Swiss J.Paleontol., 130. Storc,R. and J. Zitt (2008). Late Turonian ophiuroids (Echinodermata) from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic. Bulletin of Geosciences, 83(2). Thuy, B. and H. Schulz (2013). The oldest representative of a modern deep-sea ophiacanthid brittle-star clade from Jurassic shallow-water coral reef sediments. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Thuy, B. and C.A. Meyer (2012). The pitfalls of extrapolating modern depth ranges to fossil assemblages: new insights from Middle Jurassic brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from Switzerland. Swiss J.Paleontol. Thuy, B., M. Kutscher and B.J. Plachno (2015). A new brittle star from the early Carboniferous of Poland and its implications on Paleozoic modern-type opiuroid systematics. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(4). Ophiuroidea - North America Bjork, P.R., P.S. Goldberg and R.V. Kesling (1968). New Ophiuroid from Chester Series (Mississippian) of Illinois. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.42, Number 1. Clark, E.G., et al. (2017). Water vascular system architecture in an Ordovician ophiuroid. Biol.Lett., 13: 2017.0635. Glass, A. (2006). Pyritized tube feet in a protasterid ophiuroid from the Upper Ordovician of Kentucky, U.S.A.. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(1). Kesling, R.V. (1982). Acinetaster konieckii, a New Brittle-Star from the Middle Devonian Arkona Shale. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.26, Number 5. Kesling, R.V. (1972). Strataster devonicus, a New Brittle-Star With Unusual Preservation from the Middle Devonian Silica Formation of Ohio. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.24, Number 2. Kesling, R.V. (1971). Antiquaster magrumi, A New Unusual Brittle-Star from the Middle Devonian Silica Formation of Northwestern Ohio. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.23, Number 10. Kesling, R.V. (1970). Drepanaster wrighti, A New Species of Brittle-Star from the Middle Devonian Arkona Shale of Ontario.Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.23, Number 4. Kesling, R.V. (1969). A New Brittle-Star from the Middle Devonian Arkona Shale of Ontario. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.23, Number 2. Kesling, R.V. and D. Le Vasseur (1971). Strataster ohioensis, A New Early Mississippian Brittle-Star, and the Paleoecology of its Community. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.23, Number 20. Rasmussen, H.W. (1951). Cretaceous Ophiuroidea from Germany, Sweden, Spain and New Jersey. Medd. fra Dansk Geol.Forening. Kobenhaven, Vol.12. Ophiuroidea - South America/Central America/Caribbean Caviglia, S.E., S. Martínez and C.J. Del Río (2007). A new Early Miocene species of Ophiocrossota (Ophiuroidea) from Southern Patagonia, Argentina. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., Vol.245/2. Martínez, S. and C.J. Del Río (2008). A new, first fossil species of Ophioderma Muller and Troschel, 1842 (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) (Late Miocene, Argentina). Zootaxa, 1841. Martínez, S., C.J. Del Río and D.E. Pérez (2009). A brittle star bed from the Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Lethaia. General Ophiuroidea Aronson, R.B. (1987). Predation on fossil and Recent ophiuroids. Paleobiology, 13(2). Bjork, P.R, P.S. Goldberg and R.V. Kesling (1968). Mouth Frame of the Ophiuroid Onychaster. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.22, Number 4. Chen, Z.Q. and K.J. McNamara (2006). End-Permian extinction and subsequent recovery of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 236. Fell, H.B. (1960). Synoptic Keys to the Genera of Ophiuroidea. Zoology Publications from Victoria University of Wellington, Number 26. Hotchkiss, F.H.C. and A. Glass (2012). Observations on Onychaster Meek & Worthen, 1868 (Ophiuroidea: Onychasteridae) (Fammenian - Visean age). Zoosymposia, 7. O'Hara, T.D., et al. (2014). Phylogenomic Resolution of the Class Ophiuroidea Unlocks a Global Microfossil Record. Current Biology, 24. Twitchett, R.J., et al. (2005). Early Triassic Ophiuroids: Their Paleoecology, Taphonomy and Distribution. PALAIOS, Vol.20.
  9. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 11, 2018. Phylum Echinodermata Class Asteroidea - Starfish Asteroidea - Africa/Middle East Blake, D.B., L. Angiolini and A. Tintori (2014). Omanaster imbricatus (Echinodermata, Asteroidea), A New Genus and Species from the Sakmarian (Lower Permian) Saiwan Formation of Oman, Arabian Peninsula. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.120, Number 3. Gale, A. and L. Villier (2013). Mass Mortality of an Asteriid Starfish (Forcipulatida, Asteroidea, Echinodermata) from the Late Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Morocco. Palaeontology, Vol.56, Part 3. Ghaderi, A. and L. Villier (2013). First record of the Late Cretaceous starfish Metopaster parkinsoni (Forbes, 1848) in Iran. Annales de Paleontologie, 99. Asteroidea - Antarctica Williams, M., et al. (2006). Late Miocene Asterozoans (Echinodermata) in the James Ross Island Volcanic Group. Antarctic Science, 18(1). Asteroidea - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Kato, M. and T. Oji (2013). A new species of Doraster (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from the lower Miocene of central Japan: implications for its enigmatic paleobiogeography. Paleontological Research, Vol.17, Number 4. Srivastava, D.K., et al. (2010). Record of Advenaster Hess, 1955 (Asteroidea) from the Bathonian Patcham Formation of Kala Jhar in Habo Dome, Kachchh Basin, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.55(1). Asteroidea - Australia/New Zealand Eagle, M.K. (1999). A new Early Miocene Pseudarchaster (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, Vol.42. Fell, H.B. (1954). New Zealand Fossil Asterozoa 3. Odontaster priscus sp.nov. from the Jurassic. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Vol.82, Part 3. Kesling, R.V. (1969). Three Permian Starfish from Western Australia and Their Bearing on Revision of the Asteroidea. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.22, Number 25. Asteroidea - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Blake, D.B. (2009). Re-evaluation of the Devonian family Helianthasteridae Gregory, 1899 (Asteroidea: Echinodermata). Palaontol. Z., 83. Blake, D.B. (1996). Redescription and Interpretation of the Asteroid Species Tropidaster pectinatus from the Jurassic of England. Palaeontology, Vol.39, Part 1. Blake, D.B. (1993). A New Asteroid Genus from the Jurassic of England and its Functional Significance. Palaeontology, Vol.36, Part 1. Blake, D.B. and S. Rozhnov (2007). Aspects of life mode among Ordovician asteroids: Implications of new specimens from Baltica. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52(3). Blake, D.B. and J.W.M. Jagt (2005). New latest Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene asteroids (Echinodermata) from The Netherlands and Denmark and their palaeobiological significance. Bulletin De L'Institut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles De Belgique, 75. Blake, D.B., A. Tintori and T. Kolar-Jurkovsek (2017). New Triassic Asteroidea (Echinodermata) Specimens and Their Evolutionary Significance. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.123(2). Blake, D.B., A. Tintori and H. Hagdorn (2000). A New, Early Crown-Group Asteroid (Echinodermata) from the Norian (Triassic) of Northern Italy. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.106, Number 2. Botting, J.P., et al. (2011). A new species of Siluraster (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from the Late Ordovician of North Wales. Geological Journal, 46. Gale, A.S. (2010). Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from the Oxfordian (Late Jurassic) of Savigna, Department du Jura, France. Swiss J.Paleontol. Hansen, T., D.L. Bruton, and S.L. Jakobsen (2005). Starfish from the Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway. Norwegian Journal of Geology, Vol.85, 3. Herringshaw, L.G., M.P. Smith and A.T. Thomas (2007). Evolutionary and ecological significance of Lepidaster grayi, the earliest multiradiate starfish. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 150. Herringshaw, L.G., A.T. Thomas and M.P. Smith (2007). Starfish Diversity in the Wenlock of England. Palaeontology, Vol.50, Part 5. Jagt, J.W.M. (1991). Early Miocene Luidiid Asteroids (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from Winterswijk-Miste (The Netherlands). Contr.Tert.Quatern.Geol., 28(1). Jagt, J.W.M. and V. Codrea (2010). A goniasterid starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) preserved in a mid-Miocene rhyolitic ignimbrite, northwest Romania. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 2. Jagt, J.W.M., R.H.B. Fraaije and B.W.M. van Bakel (2009). A Late Miocene astropectinid (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) and associated ichnofossils from Liessel, province of Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 88-2. Neumann, C. (2000). Evidence of predation on Cretaceous sea stars from north-west Germany. Lethaia, Vol.33. Neumann, C. and J.W.M. Jagt (2011). Pentasteria? splendida, a new Early Cretaceous astropectinid starfish from northern Germany. Swiss J.Palaeontol., 130. Niebuhr, B. and E. Seibertz (2018). Comptoniaster michaelisi nom.nov. (Asteroidea, Goniasteridae): Revision of a starfish species from the lower Upper Cretaceous of central Europe previously described as Pentagonaster semilunatus and Asterias schulzii. Cretaceous Research, 87. Repetto, G. and E. Bicchi (2013). Fossil starfishes (Echinodermata, Asteriidae) and paleontological analysis of the Pliocene of Cherasco, Piedmont region (NW Italy). Biodiversity Journal, 4(2). Sutton, M.D., et al. (2005). A starfish with three-dimensionally preserved soft parts from the Silurian of England. Proc.R.Soc.B, 272. Tinn, O. and L. Ainsaar (2014). Asterozoan pedicellariae and ossicles revealed from the Middle Ordovician of Baltica. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(2). Villier, L. (2010). Asteroids from Barremian calciturbidites of the Serre de Bleyton (Drôme, SE France). Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, Series A, 112. Villier, L. (2008). Sea star ossicles from the Callovian black clays of the Lukow area, eastern Poland. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., Vol.247/2.0. Villier, L., S. Charbonnier and B. Riou (2009). Sea Stars from the Middle Jurassic Lagerstätte of La Voulte-Sur-Rhone (Ardeche, France). J.Paleont., 83(3). Villier, L., M. Kutscher and C.L. Mah (2004). Systematics and palaeoecology of middle Toarcian Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from the "Seuil du Poitou", Western France. Geobios, 37. Villier, L., et al. (2004). A preliminary phylogeny of the Pterasteridae (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) and the first fossil record: Late Cretaceous of Germany and Belgium. Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 78(2). Zitt, J. (2005). Geinitzaster gen.n. (Asteroidea, Echinodermata) from Upper Cenomanian strata of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Geologica Carpathica, 56, 4. Asteroidea - North America Blake, D.B. (2017). Two new Carboniferous Asteroidea (Echinodermata) of the family Urasterellidae. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 284/1. Blake, D.B. (2010). Comptoniaster adamsi nov.sp. (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the middle Cretaceous of Texas and its phylogenetic position. Geobios, 43. Blake, D.B. (2002). Compsaster formosus WORTHEN & MILLER (Asteroidea; Echinodermata): A Carboniferous homeomorph of the post-Paleozoic Asteriidae. Palaontol. Z., 76(2) Blake, D.B. and R.W. Portell (2011). Kionaster petersonae, n.gen. and sp. (Asteroidea), the first fossil occurrence of the Asterodiscididae, from the Miocene of Florida. Swiss J. Palaeontol., 130. Blake, D.B. and R.W. Portell (2009). Implications for the Study of Fossil Asteroidea (Echinodermata) of New Genera and Species from the Eocene of Florida. J.Paleont., 83(4). Blake, D.B. and T.E. Guensburg (2005). Implications of a New Early Ordovician Asteroid (Echinodermata) for the Phylogeny of Asterozoans. J.Paleont., 79(2). Blake, D.B. and T.E. Guensburg (1994). Predation by the Ordovician asteroid Promopalaeaster on a pelecypod. Lethaia, Vol.27. Blake, D.B. and J.-P. Zonneveld (2004). Carniaster orchardi New Genus and Species (Echinodermata: Asteroidea), the First Triassic Asteroid from the Western Hemisphere. J.Paleont., 78(4). Blake, D.B. and B.S. Kues (2002). Homeomorphy in the Asteroidea (Echinodermata); A New Late Cretaceous Genus and Species from Colorado. J.Paleont., 76(6). Blake, D.B., W.K. Halligan and N.L. Larson (2018). A new species of the asteroid genus Betelgeusia (Echinodermata) from methane seep settings, Late Cretaceous of South Dakota. Journal of Paleontology. Blake, D.B., et al. (2007). A New, Phylogenetically Significant Early Ordovician Asteroid (Echinodermata). J.Paleont., 81(6). Gunderson, J.A. Asteroid Fossils from the Upper Jurassic of South-Central Montana. MBMG Open-File Report 660. Kesling, R.V. (1982). Arkonaster, A New Multi-Armed Starfish from the Middle Devonian Arkona Shale of Ontario. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.26, Number 6. Kesling, R.V. (1971). Michiganaster inexpectatus, a New Many-Armed Starfish from the Middle Devonian Rogers City Limestone of Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.23, Number 16. Kesling, R.V. (1969). Silicaster, A New Genus of Devonian Starfish. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.22, Number 19. Kesling, R.V. (1967). Neopalaeaster enigmaticus, New Starfish from Upper Mississippian Paint Creek Formation in Illinois. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XXI, Number 3. Kesling, R.V. and H.L. Strimple (1966). Calliasterella americana, A New Starfish from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois.Journal of Paleontology, Vol.40, Number 5. Kesling, R.V. and J.D. Wright (1965). Two New Middle Devonian Species of the Starfish Devonaster from Southwestern Ontario.Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XX, Number 2. Schuchert, C. (1915). Revision of Paleozoic Stelleroidea with Special Reference to North American Asteroidea. Smithsonian Institution, Bulletin 88. (400 pages, 61.1 MB download) Williams, S.R. (1914). A Starfish Found in the Whitewater Division of the Richmond on Blue Creek, Adams County, Ohio. The Ohio Naturalist, Vol.XIV, Number 3. Asteroidea - South America/Central America/Caribbean Fernández, D.E., et al. (2014). An Early Cretaceous astropectinid (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from Patagonia (Argentina): A new species and the oldest record of the family for the Southern Hemisphere. Andean Geology, 41(1). Jagt, J.W.M., et al. (2013). A starfish bed in the Middle Miocene Grand Bay Formation of Carriacou, The Grenadines (West Indies). Geol.Mag., 151(3). General Asteroidea Blake, D.B. (2000). The Class Asteroidea (Echinodermata): Fossils and the Base of the Crown Group. Amer.Zool., 40. Blake, D.B. and F.H.C. Hotchkiss (2004). Recognition of the Asteroid (Echinodermata) Crown Group: Implications of the Ventral Skeleton. J.Paleont., 78(2). Gale, A.S. (2011). The Phylogeny of Post-Palaeozoic Asteroidea (Echinodermata, Neoasteroidea). The Palaeontological Society, London, Special Papers in Palaeontology Number 85. (119 pages) Herringshaw, L.G., M.P. Smith and A.T. Thomas (2007). Evolutionary and ecological significance of Lepidaster grayi, the earliest multiradiate starfish. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 150. Mah, C. (2005). The phylogeny of Iconaster and Glyphodiscus (Echinodermata, Asteroidea, Valvatida, Goniasteridae) with descriptions of four new species. Zoosystema, 27(1).
  10. asteroids

    I have 3 specimens of Recent asteroids as a comparative material to my fossils. Is there a place on the internet where I could have them identified? I suspect they are oreasterids: Pentaceraster and possibly two species of Protoreaster, but I'm not sure if really and what species.
  11. Echinodermata from Morocco ID help

    Hello guys, can someone help determining the genus and species of this Protasteridae from Kaid Rami, please? 4,2 cm maximum diameter, part and counterpart. Thanks in advance, Miguel
  12. ancient urchin

    Yes,L.& E. http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/65304-archaeocidaris-teeth-and-other-bits-uk/#comment-683845 http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/41735-another-quiz/#comment-455460
  13. К сожалению , я не говорю по английски, но я не плохая фотография, так что позвольте мне сказать , мои фото .. На фото полного цикла от процесса экстракции до готового образца морских лилий Neotaxocrinus. Искренне, Александр Unfortunately, I do not speak English, but I'm not a bad photograph, so let me say my photos .. On the photo of the complete cycle from the extraction process to the finished sample of Neotaxocrinus sea lilies. Sincerely, Alexander
  14. no,i said MILIARY

    I am posting this because I think it is a necessary adjunct to Andy Smith's work Mo Milias.pdf figure:
  15. Hello! I'm new to the forum and fossil hunting. I've actually come to it by way of hiking. I've been hiking for years and grown curious about my finds. Most I've come across are easily identifiable, but these two have proven more challenging. A geologist friend suggested that they are a type of echinodermata. But since the first has six rays I thought it might possibly be evactinopora radiata. However, the examples of evactinopora radiata I have seen online are significantly smaller than this example. I know I should have photographed a coin or something next to them to give them scale, but I didn't do that with my early finds. The first fossil, with six rays, was about six inches across at the widest point. The second, with five rays, is about four inches across. I found them next to each other embedded in the rock north of Barcelona at the following coordinates: 42° 08'08.20" N, 2° 14'22.17" E I don't know if it is of any help, but I added the third photo as an example of other fossils I found in the area. Any help is appreciated!
  16. Any help what kind of this crinoid? thanks
  17. Sea star from Finland

    Hello again from Finland! I need your expertise again This big Sea star fossil was found a couple of years ago from an energy peat stock in inner Finland. It originated from a Finnish mire (drained to a peat bog). The pics are poor, but can you identify what species this is? How old can it be? Thank you very much! - Kara
  18. echinoderm or something else?

    Around 1967 Jefferies launched his preliminary ideas on "calcichordates". Many echinoderm specialists are not convinced by his ideas. But: his interpretation of functional morphology makes sense,and his plate nomenclature has been taken onboard by at least some non-adherents of his theory. Although NOT commonly found,in some parts they can be a significant part of the paleofauna. Time to meet a fascinating group of animals! NB:LARGE download,and validity of the link expires soon http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/282/990/205.full.pdf
  19. Death assemblage of rare Oligocene crinoids, Isocrinus, ---ALSO, I'm pointing at an unidentified starfish; there is also a second in the center of this image
  20. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since July 10, 2018. Phylum Echinodermata Subphylum Blastozoa Class Blastoidea - Blastoids Bodenbender, B.E. (1995). Morphological, Crystallographic, and Stratigraphic Data in Cladistic Analyses of Blastoid Phylogeny. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.29, Number 9. Bodenbender, B.E. and D.C. Fisher (2001). Stratocladistic Analysis of Blastoid Phylogeny. J.Paleont., 75(2). Broadhead, T.W. (1984). Macurdablastus, A Middle Ordovician Blastoid from the Southern Appalachians. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 110. Etheridge, R. and P.H. Carpenter (1886). Catalogue of the Blastoidea in the Geological Department of the British Museum (Natural History). Taylor and Francis, London. Etheridge, R. and P.H. Carpenter (1882). XXV. On certain Points in the Morphology of the Blastoidea, with Descriptions of some new Genera and Species. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History [Fifth Series], Number 52. Fay, R.O. (1961). Blastoid Studies. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 27, Echinodermata 3. (26.89MB) Golden, J. and M.H. Niteki (1971). Catalog of Type and Referred Specimens of Crinozoa (Blastoidea) in Field Museum of Natural History.Fieldiana Geology, Vol.23, Number 4. Haas, O. (1945). Remarks on Some Chester Pentremites. American Museum Novitates, Number 1289. Joysey, K.A. and A. Breimer (1963). The Anatomical Structure and Systematic Position of Pentablastus (Blastoidea) from the Carboniferous of Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.6, Part 3. Macurda, D.B. (1983). Systematics of the Fessiculate Blastoidea. Papers on Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Number 22. (304 pages, 32 MB) Macurda, D.B. (1979). The Ontogeny and Taxonomy of the Mississippian Blastoid Genus Schizoblastus. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.25, Number 3. Macurda, D.B. (1977). Two Carboniferous Blastoids from Scotland. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1. Macurda, D.B. (1973). The Stereomic Microstructure of the Blastoid Endoskeleton. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.24, Number 8. Macurda, D.B. (1966). The Devonian Blastoid Belocrinus from France. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 2. Macurda, D.B. (1964). A New Spiraculate Blastoid, Pyramiblastus, from the Mississippian Hampton Formation of Iowa. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XIX, Number 8. Sprinkle, J. and J.A. Waters (2013). New Ridged, Conical, Fessiculate Blastoid from the Permian of Timor. J.Paleontol., 87(6). Waters, J.A., et al. (2015). Advancing Phylogenic Inference in the Blastoidea (Echinodermata): Virtual 3D Reconstructions of the Internal Anatomy. In: Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology. Zamora, S. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 19. Class Diploporita Frest, T.J., H.L. Strimple and C.R.C. Paul (2011). The North American Holocystites Fauna (Echinodermata: Blastozoa: Diploporita): Paleobiology and Systematics. Bulletins of American Paleontology, Number 380. Makhlouf, Y., et al. (2017). The diploporite blastozoan Lepidocalix pulcher from the Middle Ordovician of northern Algeria: Taxonomic revision and palaeoecological implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(2). Sheffield, S.L. (2017). The Homology and Phylogeny of the Diploporita (Blastozoa: Echinodermata). Ph.D. Dissertation - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (184 pages) Class Eocrinoidea Allaire, N., et al. (2017). Morphological disparity and systematic revision of the eocrinoid genus Rhopalocystis (Echinodermata, Blastozoa) from the Lower Ordovician of the central Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Journal of Paleontology. Clausen, S. (2004). New Early Cambrian eocrinoids from the Iberian Chains (NE Spain) and their role in nonreefal benthic communities. Eclogae geol.Helv., 97. Nardin, E., E. Almazan-Vasquez and B.E. Buitron-Sanchez (2009). First report of Gogia (Eocrinoidea, Echinodermata) from the Early-Middle Cambrian of Sonora (Mexico), with biostratigraphical and palaeoecological comments. Geobios, 42. Parsley, R.L. and Y. Zhao (2006). Long Stalked Eocrinoids in the Basal Middle Cambrian Kaili Biota, Taijiang County, Guizhou Province, China. J.Paleont., 80(6). Rozhnov, S.V. (1994). Comparative morphology of Rhipidocystis Jaekel, 1900 and Cryptocrinites von Buch, 1840 (Eocrinoidea; Ordovician). In: Echinoderms through Time. Feral and Roux (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam. Zamora, S., S. Darroch and I.A. Rahman (2013). Taphonomy and ontogeny of early pelmatozoan echinoderms: A case study of a mass-mortality assemblage of Gogia from the Cambrian of North America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 377. Class incertae sedis Noailles, F., B. Lefebvre and L. Kašička (2014). A probable case of heterochrony in the solutan Dendrocystites (Echinodermata: Blastozoa) of the Prague Basin (Czech Republic) and a revision of the family Dendrocystitidae Bassler, 1938. Bulletin of Geosciences, 89(3). Class Parablastoidea Paul, C.R.C. and J.C.W. Cope (1982). A Parablastoid from the Arenig of South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 3. Rozhnov, S.V. (2013). A New Genus of Parablastoidea (Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician of Ladoga Glint on the Volkhov River (Ladoga Region). Paleontological Journal, Vol.47, Number 2. Sprinkle, J. and C.D. Sumrall (2008). New Parablastoids from the Western United States. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Number 16. Class Rhombifera Nardin, E. and J. Bohaty (2013). A new pleurocystitid blastozoan from the Middle Devonian of the Eifel (Germany) and its phylogenetic importance. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Sumrall, C.D. and J. Sprinkle (1998). Early ontogeny of the glyptocystid rhombiferan Lepadocystis moorei. In: Echinoderm Research 1998. Carnevali, C. and Bonasoro (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam. General Blastozoa Donovan, S.K. and C.R.C. Paul (1985). Coronate Echinoderms from the Lower Palaeozoic of Britain. Palaeontology, Vol.28, Part 3. Foerste, A.F. (1920). Racine and Cedarville Cystids and Blastoids With Notes on Other Echinoderms. The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.XXI, Number 2. Foote, M. (1992). Paleozoic record of morphological diversity in blastozoan echinoderms. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci., USA, Vol.89. Nardin, E., et al. (2010). Reappraisal of ambulacral branching patterns in blastozoans. In: Echinoderms: Durham. Harris, et al. (eds.), Taylor&Francis Group, London. Sumrall, C.D., et al. (2009). An Enigmatic Blastozoan Echinoderm Fauna from Central Kentucky. J.Paleont., 83(5). Subphylum Crinozoa (Except Class Crinoidea) Class Cystoidea Ehlers, G.M. and J.B. Leighly (1922). Lipsanocystis traversiensis, a New Cystid from the Devonian of Michigan. Papers from the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, Vol.II. Foerste, A.F. (1920). Racine and Cedarville Cystids and Blastoids With Notes on Other Echinoderms. The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.XXI, Number 2. Henderson, R.A. and J.H. Shergold (1971). Cyclocystoides from Early Middle Cambrian Rocks of Northwestern Queensland, Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 4. Hussey, R.C. (1928). Cystoids from the Trenton Rocks of Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - University of Michigan, Vol.III, Number 4. Kesling, R.V. (1963). Morphology and Relationships of Cyclocystoides. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVIII, Number 9. Kesling, R.V. (1963). Key for Classification of Cystoids. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVIII, Number 6. Kesling, R.V. (1962). Morphology and Taxonomy of the Cystoid Cheirocrinus anatiformis (Hall). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XIII, Number 1. Kesling, R.V. (1962). An Interpretation of Rhombifera bohemica Barrande, 1867, An Unusual Hydrophoridian Cystoid. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVII, Number 13. Kesling, R.V. (1961). Notes on Jaekelocystis hartleyi and Pseudocrinites gordoni, Two Rhombiferan Cystoids Described by Charles Schuchert in 1903. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVI, Number 3. Kesling, R.V. (1961). A New Glyptocystites from Middle Ordovician Strata in Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVI, Number 2. Kesling, R.V. and L.W. Mintz (1961). Notes on Lepadocystis moorei (Meek) An Upper Ordovician Callocystid Cystoid. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVII, Number 4. Mergl, M. and R.J. Prokop (2006). Lower Ordovician cystoids (Rhombifera, Diploporita) from the Prague Basin (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 81(1). Paul, C.R.C. (1972). Morphology and Function of Exothecal Pore-Structures in Cystoids. Palaeontology, Vol.15, Part 1. Paul, C.R.C. (1968). Morphology and Function of Dichoporite Pore-Structures in Cystoids. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 5. Paul, C.R.C. (1968). Macrocystella Callaway, the Earliest Glyptocystitid Cystoid. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 4. Paul, C.R.C. (1967). Hallicystis attenuata, A New Callocystitid Cystoid from the Racine Dolomite of Wisconsin.Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XXI, Number 11. Paul, C.R.C. (1967). A Redescription of the Cystoid Lipsanocystis transversensis Ehlers and Leighley (Rhombifera: Callocystitidae). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XXI, Number 9. Stumm, E.C. (1955). Three New Species of the Cystid Genus Lipsanocystis from the Middle Devonian Traverse Group of Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XII, Number 6. Thomka, J.R., et al. (2016). Taphonomy of 'cystoids' (Echinodermata: Diploporita) from the Napoleon quarry of southeastern Indiana, USA: The Lower Silurian Massie Formation as an atypical Lagerstätte. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443. Class Edrioasteroidea Edrioasteroidea - Africa/Middle East Guensburg, T.E. and S.V. Rozhnov (2014). A Unique Edrioasteroid from the Upper Middle Cambrian of Iran, Its Phylogenetic Implications and Paleoecology. Paleontological Journal, Vol.48, Number 4. Sumrall, C.D. and S. Zamora (2011). Ordovician edrioasteroids from Morocco: faunal exchanges across the Rheic Ocean. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.9, Issue 3. Edrioasteroidea - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Zhao, Y.-L., et al. (2010). Kailidiscus, A New Plesiomorphic Edrioasteroid from the Basal Middle Cambrian Kaili Biota of Guizhou Province, China. J.Paleont., 84(4). Zhu, X.-J., S. Zamora and B. Lefebvre (2014). Morphology and palaeoecology of a new edrioblastoid from the Furongian of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Edrioasteroidea - Australia/New Zealand Holloway, D.J. and P.A. Jell (1983). Silurian and Devonian Edrioasteroids from Australia. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.57, Number 5. Jell, P.A. (2014). A Tremadocian asterozoan from Tasmania and a late Llandovery edrioasteroid from Victoria. Alcheringa, 38. Webby, B.D. (1968). Astrocystites distans Sp.Nov., An Edrioblastoid from the Ordovician of Eastern Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 4. Edrioasteroidea - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Sumrall, C.D. (2009). First Definite Record of Permian Edrioasteroids: Neoisorophusella maslennikovi N.Sp. from the Kungurian of Northeast Russia. J.Paleont., 83(6). Zamora, S. (2013). Morphology and Phylogenetic Interpretation of a New Cambrian Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) from Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.56, Part 2. Zamora, S. and A.B. Smith (2010). The oldest isorophid edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) and the evolution of attachment strategies in Cambrian edrioasteroids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(3). Zamora, S., et al. (2007). A Middle Cambrian edrioasteroid from the Murero biota (NE Spain) With Australian Affinities. Annales de Paleontologie, 93. Edrioasteroidea - North America Bassler, R.S. (1936). New Species of American Edrioasteroidea. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.95, Number 6. Bell, B.M., H.L. Strimple and C.O. Levorson (1976). Edrioasteroids (Echinodermata) of the Maquoketa Formation of Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, Vol.83, Number 1, Article 6. Guensburg, T.E. and J. Sprinkle (1994). Revised Phylogeny and Functional Interpretation of the Edrioasteroidea Based on New Taxa from the Early and Middle Ordovician of Western Utah. Fieldiana Geology, New Series Number 29. Kammer, T.W., E.C. Tissue and M.A. Wilson (1987). Neoisorophusella, a New Edrioasteroid Genus from the Upper Mississippian of the Eastern United States. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.61, Number 5. Kesling, R.V. (1967). Edrioasteroid with Unique Shape from Mississippian Strata of Alberta. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.41, Number 1. Kesling, R.V. and L.W. Mintz (1960). Internal Structures in Two Edrioasteroid Species, Isorophus cincinnatiensis (Roemer) and Carneyella pilea (Hall). Contributions of the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XV, Number 14. Kesling, R.V. and G.M. Ehlers (1958). The Edrioasteroid Lepidodiscus squamosus (Meek & Worthen) AND Timeschytes, A New Genus of Hemicystitid Edrioasteroid from the Middle Devonian Four Mile Dam Limestone of Michigan. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.32, Number 5. Meyer, D.L. (1990). Population Paleoecology and Comparative Taphonomy of Two Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) Pavements: Upper Ordovician of Kentucky and Ohio. Historical Biology, Vol.4. Shroat-Lewis, R.A., et al. (2014). A Paleoecologic Comparison of Two Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) Encrusted Pavements from the Upper Ordovician Corryville Formation of Florence, Kentucky and the Miamitown Shale of Sharonville, Ohio, U.S.A. Palaios, Vol.29. Shroat-Lewis, R.A., et al. (2011). Paleoecologic Assessment of an Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata)-Encrusted Hardground from the Upper Ordovician (Maysvillian) Bellevue Member, Maysville, Kentucky. Palaios, Vol.26. Sprinkle, J. (1985). New Edrioasteroid from the Middle Cambrian of Western Utah. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 116. Sprinkle, J. and C.D. Sumrall (2015). New edrioasterine and astrocystitid (Echinodermata: Edrioasteroidea) from the Ninemile Shale (Lower Ordovician), central Nevada. Journal of Paleontology, 89(02). Sumrall, C.D. (2010). The Systematics of a New Upper Ordovician Edrioasteroid Pavement from Northern Kentucky. J.Paleont., 84(5). Sumrall, C.D. (2001). Paleoecology and Taphonomy of Two New Edrioasteroids from a Mississippian Hardground in Kentucky. J.Paleont., 75(1) Sumrall, C.D. (2000). The Biological Implications of an Edrioasteroid Attached to a Pleurocystidid Rhombiferan. J.Paleont., 74(1). Sumrall, C.D. (1996). Late Paleozoic Edrioasteroids (Echinodermata) from the North American Midcontinent. J.Paleont., 70(6). Sumrall, C.D. (1992). Spiraclavis nacoensis, A New Species of Clavate Agelacrinitid Edrioasteroid from Central Arizona. J.Paleont., 66(1). Sumrall, C.D. and J. Sprinkle (2015). Unusual ambulacral branching pattern in a new Ordovician giant edrioasteroid, Bizzaroglobus. J.Paleont., 89(2). Sumrall, C.D. and R.L. Parsley (2003). Morphology and Biomechanical Implications of Isolated Discocystinid Plates (Edrioasteroidea, Echinodermata) from the Carboniferous of North America. Palaeontology, Vol.46, Part 1. Sumrall, C.D. and A.L. Bowsher (1996). Giganticlavus, A New Genus of Pennsylvanian Edrioasteroid from North America. J.Paleont., 70(6). Sumrall, C.D., C.E. Brett and M.L. McKinney (2009). A New Agelacrinitid Edrioasteroid Attached to a Large Hardground Clast from the McKenzie Member of the Mifflintown Member (Silurian) of Pennsylvania. J.Paleont., 83(5). Sumrall, C.D., J. Sprinkle and R.M. Bonem (2006). An Edrioasteroid-Dominated Echinoderm Assemblage from a Lower Pennsylvanian Marine Conglomerate in Oklahoma. J.Paleont., 80(2). Edrioasteroidea - South America/Central America/Caribbean Sumrall, C.D., et al. (2013). The first report of South American edrioasteroids and the paleoecology and ontogeny of rhenopyrgid echinoderms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(4). General Edrioasteroidea Bassler, R.S. (1935). The Classification of the Edtioasteroidea. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.93, Number 8. Kesling, R.V. (1960). Hydropores in Edrioasteroids. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XV, Number 8. Lewis, R.A. (2011). The Paleoecology and Biogeography of Ordovician Edrioasteroids. Ph.D. Dissertation - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (187 pages) Oswald, K.J. (2005). Investigation of Discocystinid Edrioasteroid Feeding Strategies. Honors Thesis Project - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Sumrall, C.D., J. Garbisch and J.P. Pope (2000). The Systematics of Postibullinid Edrioasteroids. J.Paleontol., 74(1). Zamora, S., C.D. Sumrall and D. Vizcaino (2013). Morphology and ontogeny of the Cambrian edrioasteroid echinoderm Cambraster cannati from western Gondwana. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Subphylum Echinozoa (Except Echinoidea) Class Helicoplacoidea Dornbos, S.Q. and D.J. Bottjer (2001). Taphonomy and Environmental Distribution of Helicoplacoid Echinoderms. PALAIOS, Vol.16. Dornbos, S.Q. and D.J. Bottjer (2000). Evolutionary paleoecology of the earliest echinoderms: Helicoplacoids and the Cambrian substrate revolution. Geology, Vol.28, Number 9. Wilbur, B.C. (2005). A Revision of Helicoplacoids and Other Early Cambrian Echinoderms of North America. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Texas at Austin. Class Holothuroidea - Sea Cucumbers Applegate, S.P., et al. (2009). Two Lower Cretaceous (Albian) fossil holothurians (Echinodermata) from Tepexi de Rodriguez, Puebla, Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 122(1). Henderson, A.S., A.D. Talwar and M.B. Hart (1992). Some Holothurian Sclerites from The Corallian Group of North Dorset. Proceedings of the Ussher Society, 8. Kalita, K.D., S.K. Kulshrestha and N. Sahni (2002). Fossil Holothurian Sclerite Assemblage from the Callovian-Oxfordian Rocks of Jaisalmer, Western Rajasthan, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.47. Kerr, A.M. and J. Kim (2001). Phylogeny of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) inferred from morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 133. Reich, M. (2017). First report of sea cucumbers Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the latest Cretaceous of Bavaria, Germany. Zitteliana, 89. Reich, M. (2015). Different Pathways in Early Evolution of the Holothurian Calcareous Ring? In: Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology. Zamora, S. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 19. Reich, M. (2013). How many species of fossil holothurians are there? In: Echinoderms in a Changing World. Johnson (ed.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. (2012). On Mesozoic laetmogonid sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Elasipodida)*. Zoosymposia, 7. Reich, M. (2004). Holothurians from the Late Cretaceous 'Fish shales' of Lebanon. In: Echinoderms - Munchen. Heinzeller, T. & J.H. Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. (2004). Aspidochirote holothurians (Echinodermata) from the Middle Triassic of southern Germany. In: Echinoderms - Munchen. Heinzeller, T. & J.H. Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. (2001). Ordovician holothurians from the Baltic Sea area. In: Echinoderms 2000. Barker, M. (ed.), A.A. Balkema Publishers. Reich, M. and F. Wiese (2010). Apodid sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the Upper Turonian of the Isle of Wolin, NW Poland. Cretaceous Research, 31. Reich, M. and M. Kutscher (2001). Ophiocistoids and holothurians from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. In: Echinoderms 2000. Barker (ed.), Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse. Walkiewicz, A. (1977). Holothurian sclerites from the Korytnica Clays (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.27, Number 2. Zawidzka, K. (1971). Triassic Holothurian Sclerites from Tatra Mountains. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XVI, Number 4. Class Ophiocistioidea Prokop, R.J. and V. Petr (2002). Survey of echinoderms and a new ophiocistoid Branzoviella talpa gen. et sp.nov. (Echinodermata, Ophiocistioidea) in the Lower Devonian, Lochkov Formation of the Barrandian area, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, Vol.77, Number 3 Reich, M. and R. Haude (2004). Ophiocistioidea (fossil Echinodermata): an overview. in: Echinoderms: Munchen. Heinzeller and Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. and M. Kutscher (2001). Ophiocistoids and holothurians from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. In: Echinoderms 2000. Barker (ed.), Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse. Subphylum Homalozoa Class Ctenocystoidea Rahman, I.A. and S. Clausen (2009). Re-evaluating the Palaeobiology and Affinities of the Ctenocystoidea (Echinodermata). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 7(4). Class Homostelea Fatka, O. and V. Kordule (2001). Asturicystis havliceki sp. nov. (Echinodermata, Homostelea) from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia (Barrandian Area, Czech Republic). Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 46/3-4. Class Stylophora (may be Polyphyletic) Clausen, S. and A.B. Smith (2005). Palaeoanatomy and biological affinities of a Cambrian deuterostome (Stylophora). Nature (Letters). Hunter, A.W., et al. (2007). A mixed ophiuroid-stylophoran assemblage (Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician (Llandeilian) of western Brittany, France. In: Palaeozoic Reefs and Bioaccumulations: Climatic and Evolutionary Controls. Alvaro, J.J., et al. (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications 275. Lee, S.-B., B. Lefebvre and D.K. Choi (2005). Latest Cambrian Cornutes (Echinodermata: Stylophora) from the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea. J.Paleont., 79(1). Lee, S.-B., B. Lefebvre and D.K. Choi (2004). Morphometric analysis of Tremadocian (earliest Ordovician) kirkocystid mitrates (Echinodermata, Stylophora) from the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea. Geobios, 37. Lefebvre, B. (2001). A Critical Comment on 'Ankyroids' (Echinodermata, Stylophora). Geobios, 34(6). Lefebvre, B. (2000). A New Mitrate (Echinodermata, Stylophora) from the Tremadoc of Shropshire (England) and the Origin of the Mitrocystidida. J.Paleont, 74(5). Lefebvre, B. and J.P. Botting (2007). First report of the mitrate Peltocystis cornuta Thoral (Echinodermata, Stylophora) in the Lower Ordovician of central Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Annales de Paleontologie, 93. Lefebvre, B. and P.R. Racheboef (2007). First Report of Mitrate Stylophorans (Echinodermata) in the Lower Devonian of Bolivia. In: 4th European Meeting on the Palaeontology and Stratigraphy of Latin America. Diaz-Martinez, E. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, Number 8. Parsley, R.L. and J.C. Gutierrez-Marco (2005). Stylophorans in middle Arenig shallow water siliciclastics: Vizcainocarpus from the Imfout Syncline in Morocco's western Meseta. Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol.80, Number 3. Reid, M. (2017). Taphonomy, palaeoecology and taxonomy of an ophiuroid-stylophoran obrution deposit from the Lower Devonian Bokkeveld Group, South Africa. Masters Dissertation - University of Capetown. (149 pages) Ruta, M. (1998). An Abnormal Specimen of the Silurian Anomalocystitid Mitrate Placocystites forbesianus. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 1. General Echinodermata General Echinodermata - Africa/Middle East Kristan-Tollmann, E. (1991). Echinoderms from the Middle Triassic Sina Formation (Aghdarband Group) in NE Iran. In: The Triassic of Aghdarband (AqDarband), NE-Iran, and its Pre-Triassic Frame. Ruttner, A.W. (ed.), Abh. Geol. B.-A., Vol.38. Lefebvre, B., M. Ghobadipour and E. Nardin (2005). Ordovician echinoderms from the Tabas and Damghan regions, Iran: palaeobiogeographical implications. Bull.Soc.geol.Fr., Vol.176, Number 3. General Echinodermata - Antarctica Blake, D.B. and R.B. Aronson (1998). Eocene Stelleroids (Echinodermata) at Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. J.Paleont., 72(2). Taylor, B.J. (1966). Taxonomy and Morphology of Echinodermata from the Aptian of Alexander Island. Br.Antarct.Surv.Bull., Number 8. General Echinodermata - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Shu, D.-G., et al. (2002). Ancestral echinoderms from the Chengjiang deposits of China. Nature, Vol.430. General Echinodermata - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Forbes, E. (1852). Monograph of the Echinodermata of the British Tertiaries. The Palaeontographical Society. Lewis, D.N., et al. (2007). A field guide to the Silurian Echinodermata of the British Isles: Part 1 - Eleutherozoa and Rhombifera. Scripta Geol., 134. Parsley, R.L. and R.J. Prokop (2004). Functional morphology and paleoecology of some sessile Middle Cambrian echinoderms from the Barrandian region of Bohemia. Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol.79, Number 3. Prokop, R.J. and V. Petr (1999). Echinoderms in the Bohemian Ordovician. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 44/1-2. Reich, M., L. Viller and M. Kutscher (2004). The echinoderms of the Rugen White Chalk (Maastrichtian, Germany). In: Echinoderms - Munchen. Heinzeller, T. & J.H. Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Zamora, S. and A.B. Smith (2008). A new Middle Cambrian stem-group echinoderm from Spain: Palaeobiological implications of a highly asymmetric cinctan. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53(2). Zamora, S., J. Javier Alvaro and D. Vizcaino (2009). Pelmatozoan echinoderms from the Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the Iberian Chains (NE Spain): early diversification of anchoring strategies. Swiss J. Geosci., 102. General Echinodermata - North America Clark, W.B. and M.W. Twitchell (1915). The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Echinodermata of the United States. Monographs of the United States Geological Survey, Vol.LIV. (468 pages, 33.9 MB download) Ettensohn, F.R., et al. (2003). Carboniferous echinoderm zonation in the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA. In: Proceedings of the XVth International Congress on Carboniferous and Permian Stratigraphy, Utrecht, the Netherlands (Wong, Th.E., ed.). Kier, P.M. (1952). Echinoderms of the Middle Devonian Silica Formation of Ohio. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.X, Number 4. Schuchert, C. (1915). Revision of the Paleozoic Stelleroidea, with Special Reference to North American Asteroidea. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum, Bulletin 88. Schumacher, G.A. and W.I. Ausich (1983). New Upper Ordovician Echinoderm Site: Bull Fork Formation, Caesar Creek Reservoir (Warren County, Ohio). Ohio J. Sci., 83(1). Thomas, A.O. Echinoderms of the Iowa Devonian. Ubaghs, G. and R.A. Robison (1988). Homalozoan Echinoderms of the Wheeler Formation (Middle Cambrian) of Western Utah. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 120. Weaver, P.G., et al. (2006). Additional Echinoderms from the PCS (Lee Creek) Phosphate Mine, Near Aurora, Beaufort County, North Carolina. Southeastern Geology, Vo.44, Number 2. General Echinodermata - South America/Central America/Caribbean Kutscher, M., et al. (2004). Echinoderms from the Miocene of Chile. In: Echinoderms: Munchen. Heinzeller & Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. General Echinodermata Dornbos, S.Q. (2006). Evolutionary palaeoecology of early epifaunal echinoderms: Response to increasing bioturbation levels during the Cambrian radiation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 237. Radwanska, U. and A. Radwanski (2005). Myzostomid and copepod infestation of Jurassic echinoderms: A general approach, some new occurrences, and/or reinterpretation of previous reports. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.55, Number 2. Smith, A.B. (2004). Deuterostome phylogeny and the interpretation of problematic fossil echinoderms. In: Echinoderms. Heinzeller and Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Smith, A.B. (1988). Patterns of Diversification and Extinction in Early Palaeozoic Echinoderms. Palaeontology, Vol.31, Part 3. Smith, A.B. (1984). Classification of the Echinodermata. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Part 3. Smith, A.B. and J.J. Savill (2001). Bromidechinus, a new Ordovician echinozoan (Echinodermata), and its bearing on the early history of echinoids. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 92. Zamora, S. and A.B. Smith (2011). 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