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Found 32 results

  1. Hunting Rare Fossils of the Ediacaran

    Wendel, J. (2017), Hunting rare fossils of the Ediacaran, Eos, 98, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017EO086601. Published on 13 November 2017. https://eos.org/features/hunting-rare-fossils-of-the-ediacaran https://eos.org/current-issues “The search for fossil imprints and casts of squishy organisms takes time, perseverance, and sometimes a sprinkle of luck.” Smith, E.F., Nelson, L.L., Tweedt, S.M., Zeng, H. and Workman, J.B., 2017, July. A cosmopolitan late Ediacaran biotic assemblage: new fossils from Nevada and Namibia support a global biostratigraphic link. In Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Vol. 284, No. 1858, p. 20170934). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318379716_A_cosmopolitan_late_Ediacaran_biotic_assemblage_new_fossils_from_Nevada_and_Namibia_support_a_global_biostratigraphic_link https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Emily_Smith52 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1858/20170934 A related paper is: E.F. Smith L.L. Nelson M.A. Strange A.E. Eyster S.M. Rowland D.P. Schrag F.A. Macdonald, 2016, The end of the Ediacaran: Two new exceptionally preserved body fossil assemblages from Mount Dunfee, Nevada, USA Geology 44 (11):911-914. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1130/G38157.1 https://static1.squarespace.com/static/53cedb86e4b0710434ee1ff4/t/57fee4eef5e231fadeb000ee/1476322543557/Smith_2016_Geology_Dunfee.pdf https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/geology/article/44/11/911/195087/the-end-of-the-ediacaran-two-new-exceptionally Yours, Paul H.
  2. Ediacaran Fauna -- or Flub?

    Hi all, well this is the second drawing Ive ever made in my life other than stick figures. I consider my last post a total failure (trilobite) so Im trying another subject material. Since the last post, Ive watched a few hours of You tube videos on how to do basic drawings, and hopefully that made a difference. This one took me on and off - about two days to do. So what do you think - Fauna or Flub?
  3. Adam's Cambrian

    A rangeomorph holdfast trace fossil from the Ediacara formation, Rawnsley quartzite of the Flinders Range, South Australia. This specimen is Medusina mawsoni, so called because it was until recently thought to be a jellyfish, but is now believed to be the attachment point of a fractal rangeomorph as Charniodiscus is the point of anchorage for Charnia sp. This one may have been the holdfast point for some species of Rangea. The diameter of the outer circle is 1.5 cm and the fossil is estimated to be 555 million years old.
  4. Rangeomorph Holdfast

    Until recently classified as a jellyfish, Medusina mawsoni is now considered to be the trace where a holdfast where a rangeomorph such as Rangea was connected to the substrate as in Charniodiscus being the base of Charnia. This specimen is thus about 555 million years old and is from the Rawnsley Quartzite.
  5. fossil holdfast

    From the album Adam's Cambrian

    This is a rangeomorph holdfast from the Ediacaran of the Flinder's Range in Australia. It is labeled as Medusinites mawsoni, as it was believed to have belonged to a jellyfish, but this is now not considered to be true, and is likely similar to Charniodiscus in being the holdfast for a member of the Vendobionta, probably a fractal rangeomorph like Charnia. This is therefore Precambrian in age, somewhere between 550 to 560 million years old or so.
  6. Dickinsonia was an animal

    Been some good invertebrate articles out there lately..... https://phys.org/news/2017-09-mysterious-ancient-creature-animal.html
  7. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since September 21, 2017. Kingdom incertae sedis Clade Rangeomorpha Bamforth, E.L. (2008). Multibranched Rangeomorphs from the Ediacaran Mistaken Point Assemblage, Newfoundland, Canada. Masters Thesis - Queen's University. (133 pages) Brasier, M.D., J.B. Antcliffe and A.G. Liu (2012). The Architecture of Ediacaran Fronds. Palaeontology, Vol.55, Part 5. Brasier, M.D., et al. (2013). Explaining the exceptional preservation of Ediacaran rangeomorphs from Spaniard's Bay, Newfoundland: A hydraulic model. Precambrian Research, 231. Dzik, J. (2002). Possible Ctenophoran Affinities of the Precambrian "Sea-Pen" Rangea. Journal of Morphology, 252. Flude, L.I. (2009). Ediacaran Rangeomorphs in the Mistaken Point Biota, Newfoundland. Masters Thesis - Queen's University. Grazhdankin, D. and A. Seilacher (2005). A re-examination of the Nama-type Vendian organism Rangea schneiderhoehni. Geol.Mag., 142(4). Hoyal Cuthill, J.F. and S.C. Morris (2014). Fractal branching organizations of Ediacaran rangeomorph fronds reveal a lost Proterozoic body plan. PNAS, Vol.111, Number 36. Laflamme, M. (2007). Ediacaran Fronds from the Mistaken Point Assemblage, Newfoundland. Ph.D. Thesis - Queen's University. (27.7MB download) Laflamme, M. and G.M. Narbonne (2008). Competition in a Precambrian world: palaeoecology of Ediacaran fronds. Geology Today, Vol.24, Number 5. Laflamme, M. and G.M. Narbonne (2008). Ediacaran Fronds. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258. Liu, A.G., J.J. Matthews and D. McIlroy (2015). The Beothukis/Culmofrons Problem and Its Bearing On Ediacaran Macrofossil Taxonomy: Evidence from an Exceptional New Fossil Locality. Palaeontology, 2015. Liu, A.G., et al. (2013). Exploring an Ediacaran 'nursery': growth, ecology and evolution in a rangeomorph palaeocommunity. Geology Today, Vol.29, Number 1. Liu, A.G., et al. (2012). A new assemblage of juvenile Ediacaran fronds from the Drook Formation, Newfoundland. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol.169. Sperling, E.A., K.J. Peterson and M. Laflamme (2011). Rangeomorphs, Thectardis (Porifera?) and dissolved organic carbon in the Ediacaran oceans. Geobiology, 9. Vickers-Rich, P., et al. (2013). Reconstructing Rangea: New Discoveries from the Ediacaran of Southern Namibia. Journal of Paleontology, 87(1). Phylum Petalonamae Ivantsov. A. Yu. (2016). Reconstruction of Charniodiscus yorgensis (Macrobiota from the Vendian of the White Sea). Paleontological Journal, Vol.50, Number 1. Ivantsov. A. Yu. and D.V. Grazhdankin (1997). A New Representative of the Petalonamae from the Upper Vendian of from the Arkhangelsk Region. Paleontological Journa., Vol.31, Number 1. Laflamme, M., et al. (2007). Morphology and taphonomy of an Ediacaran frond: Charnia from the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland. In: The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota. Vickers-Rich, P. and P. Komarower (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 286.
  8. Half-a-billion-year-old fossils shed light animal evolution on earth, University of Manchester, September 11, 2017 http://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/half-a-billion-year-old-fossils-shed-new-light-on-animal-evolution/ https://phys.org/news/2017-09-half-a-billion-year-old-fossils-animal-evolution-earth.html https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/09/170911122628.htm Tha paper is: Parry, L. A., P. C. Boggiani, D. J. Condon, and others, 2017, Ichnological evidence for meiofaunal bilaterians from the terminal Ediacaran and earliest Cambrian of Brazil Nature Ecology & Evolution. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0301-9 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319109419_Ichnological_evidence_for_meiofaunal_bilaterians_from_the_terminal_Ediacaran_and_earliest_Cambrian_of_Brazil https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0301-9 Lidya G. Tarhan, 2017, Meiofauna mute the Cambrian Explosion News and Views, Nature Ecology & Evolution https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0324-2 Yours, Paul H.
  9. Kimberella quadrata Wade, 1972

    From the album Invertebrates

    Kimberella quadrata Wade, 1972 Ediacarian Onega Island Arkhangelsk White sea region Russia Dorsal view according Micha L. Rieser (copyright holder, Wikipedia) a: striae b: crenellated zone c: proximal ridge d: distal ridge e: anterior knoll f: lobe g: medial depressionor or midline ridge
  10. Dickinsonia costata Sprigg, 1947

    From the album Invertebrates

    Dickinsonia costata Sprigg, 1947 Ediacaran White Sea region, Zimnie Gory Arkhangelsk Russia
  11. From the album Invertebrates

    Cyclomedusa davidi Sprigg, 1947 together with Nemiana simplex Palij, 1976 Upper Ediacaran Mohylev formation Yampil beds Bernashivka Ukraine Diameter ~ 9cm / 4"
  12. A Family of Explorers in Search of Some of Earth’s Oldest Fossils by Emily Hughes, National Geographic, June 28, 2017 http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2017/06/28/a-family-of-explorers-in-search-of-some-of-earths-oldest-fossils/ Dr. Mary Droser, University of California, Riverside http://earthscience.ucr.edu/droser.html Mary Droser studies ediacara fossils, August 2 2013 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-08-02/mary-droser-studies-ediacara-fossils/4862498 Yours, Paul H.
  13. Shedding light on Earth's first animals. Complex and highly regulated development of Dickinsonia, one of the oldest fossil animals, broadens our understanding of early evolution https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170517154731.htm https://ucrtoday.ucr.edu/47122 Scott D. Evans, Mary L. Droser, James G. Gehling. Highly regulated growth and development of the Ediacara macrofossil Dickinsonia costata. Plos One, 2017 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176874 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176874 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176874&type=printable Yours, Paul H.
  14. Life in the Precambrian may have been much livelier than previously thought Vanderbilt University, May 19, 2017 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170519084411.htm https://news.vanderbilt.edu/2017/05/18/life-precambrian-livelier/ "The strange creatures that lived in the Garden of the Ediacaran more than 540 million years ago, before animals came on the scene, may have been much more dynamic than experts have thought." The paper is: Darroch, S., A. F., I. A. Rahman, B. Gibson, R. A. Racicot, and M. Laflamme, 2017, Inference of facultative mobility in the enigmatic Ediacaran organism Parvancorina. Biology Letters, 2017; 13 (5): 20170033 DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2017.0033 http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/13/5/20170033 Yours, Paul H.
  15. deep time taphonomy

    Kenbut Reasonably short review article Excellent! Once more, a sort of "quick & Dirty "
  16. Conotubus--my new latest favorite fossil. It's an Ediacaran (latest Neoproterozoic--AKA, Precambrian) tubular critter of unestablished zoological affinity (educated guesses include an annelid--specifically some kind of tube worm--or possibly a sea anemone-like animal). And it's been recovered from only two localities on Earth: southern Shaanxi Province, South China; and at one lone site in Nevada. Conotubus shows superficial similarity to the well known Ediacaran tube-type specimen Cloudina, but lacks a mineralized skeleton. Conotubus apparently secreted a tubular home enclosure composed of chitinous material. Image from HERE. Above, two views of the same pyritized (replaced at least partially by pyrite--an iron disulfide, of course, commonly called "fool's gold") Conotubus from the upper Precambrian Esmeralda Member of the upper Precambrian-lower Cambrian Deep Spring Formation, Nevada, where Conotubus occurs several feet below the first appearance of the ichnofossil Trepichnus pedum, which presently helps define (along with geochemical evidence-- a sudden, dramatic negative excursion of a specific carbon isotope) the worldwide base of the Cambrian Period, the transition from Ediacaran times to the earliest moments of the Paleozoic Era. Photograph is a Google Image grab, by the way. Image from HERE. Examples of pyritized Conotubus hemiannulatus from the Ediacaran, late Neoproterozoic Gaojiashan Lagerstätte of southern Shaanxi Province, South China. Photograph is a Google Image grab, by the way.
  17. Spriggina chosen as South Australia’s fossil emblem Jade Gailberger, Environment reporter, Courier Mail February 14, 2017 http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/national/spriggina-chosen-as-south-australias-fossil-emblem/news-story/b15c8d115af55caef859e16568e37282 Flinders Ranges fossils documented as part of World Heritage listing bid, Nicola Gage Australian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-02-12/flinders-ranges-world-heritage-listing-bid/8262494 Trace fossils: the ancient history of SA’s outback In Daily, Australia, Alice Gorman, February 8, 2016 http://indaily.com.au/news/science-and-tech/2017/02/08/trace-fossils-the-ancient-history-of-sas-outback/ Yours, Paul H.
  18. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since January 25, 2017. General Papers in Paleontology Archaean Eon Allwood, A.C., et al. (2009). Controls on development and diversity of Early Archaean stromatolites. PNAS, Vol.106, Number 24. Altermann, W. and J. Kazmierczak (2003). Archaean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth. Research in Microbiology, 154. Awramik, S.M. (1992). The oldest records of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research, 33. Brasier, M., et al. (2006). A fresh look at the fossil evidence for early Archaean cellular life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 361. Brasier, M., et al. (2004). Earth's Oldest (~3.5 Ga) Fossils and the 'Early Eden Hypothesis': Questioning the Evidence. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 34. Brocks, J.J., et al. (1999). Archaean Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes. Science, Vol.285. Knauth, L.P. (2005). Temperature and salinity history of the Precambrian ocean: implications for the course of microbial evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 219. Moorbath, S. (2005). Oldest rocks, earliest life, heaviest impacts, and the Hadean-Archaean transition. Applied Geochemistry, 30. Sankaran, A.V. (2002). The controversy over early-Archaean microfossils. Current Science, Vol.83, Number 1. Schopf, J.W. (2006). Fossil evidence of Archaean life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 361. Schopf, J.W. (1993). Microfossils of the Early Archaean Apex Chert: New Evidence of the Antiquity of Life. Science, Vol.260. Schopf, J.W., et al. (2007). Evidence of Archaean life: Stromatolites and microfossils. Precambrian Research, 158. Sharma, M. and Y. Shukla (2009). The evolution and distribution of life in the Precambrian eon - Global perspective and the Indian record. J.Biosci., 34. Stueken, E.E., D.C. Catling and R. Buick (2012). Contributions to late Archaean sulphur cycling by life on land. Nature Geoscience, published on-line. Waldbauer, J.R., D.K. Newman and R.E. Summons (2011). Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular record of Archaean life. PNAS, Vol.108, Number 33. Proterozoic Eon Ediacaran Period Barroso, F.R.G., et al. (2014). First Ediacaran Fauna Occurrence in Northeastern Brazil (Jairabas Basin, ?Ediacaran-Cambrian): Preliminary Results and Regional Correlation. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 86(3). Bottjer, D.J. (2002). 2. Enigmatic Ediacara Fossils: Ancestors or Aliens? In: Exceptional Fossil Preservation. Bottjer, D.J., et al. (eds.), Columbia University Press, New York. Clapham, M.E., G.M. Narbonne and J.G. Gehling (2003). Paleoecology of the oldest known animal communities: Ediacaran assemblages at Mistaken Point, Newfoundland. Paleobiology, 29(4). Droser, M.L. and J.G. Gehling (2015). The advent of animals: The view from the Ediacaran. PNAS, Vol.112, Number 16. Droser, M.L., J.G. Gehling, and S.R. Jensen (2006). Assemblage palaeoecology of the Ediacara biota: The unabridged edition?. Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 232. Dzik, J. The Verdun Syndrome: Simultaneous Origin of Protective Armor and Infaunal Shelters at the Precambrian-Cambrian Transition. Dzik, J. (2003). Anatomical Information Content in the Ediacaran Fossils and Their Possible Zoological Affinities. Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Gehling, J. (2015). First Fossil Animals - Ediacara Fauna of South Australia. Flinders Ranges Treasures. Glaessner, M.F. and M. Wade (1966). The Late Precambrian Fossils from Ediacara, South Australia. 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  19. I acquired my first Ediacaran fossil recently, a little slab of Intrites punctatus from the Burway Formation in Shropshire, England. I've found scant information about these organisms, though. From what little I've seen, these appear to be impressions in the rock with such impressions being all that have ever been found from the species. What is the latest knowledge on them? Definite taxonomy? Has anything other than discoid impressions been found? The Ediacaran can be so murky.
  20. Ediacaran-Ordovician of East Laurentia: S.W. Ford Memorial Volume New York State Museum Bulletin. no. 510 (2007) The University of the State of New York, Albany New York. http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/staff-publications/ediacaranordovician-east-laurentia-sw-ford-memorial-volume http://exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov/publications/bulletin/510-16505.pdf Yours, Paul H.
  21. Latest Ediacaran Wormworld Fauna

    Schiffbauer, J. D., J. W. Huntley, G. R. O’Neil, S. A.F. Darroch, M. Laflamme, and Y. Cai, 2016, The Latest Ediacaran Wormworld Fauna: Setting the Ecological Stage for the Cambrian Explosion. GSA Today. V. 26, no. 11, pp. 4-11. http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/26/11/pdf/i1052-5173-26-11-4.pdf http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/26/11/article/i1052-5173-26-11-4.htm http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/26/11/ Schiffbauer, J. D., 2016, The age of tubes: A window into biological transition at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Geology. v. 44 no. 11 p. 975-976 http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/44/11/975.full Yours, Paul H.
  22. A new theory about the ancient fossils at Mistaken Point MUN professors take different approach to classifying Organisms, The Canadian Press Oct 17, 2016 http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/new-theory-on-mistaken-point-fossils-1.3807960 Yours, Paul H.
  23. Cementing a theory about the sea creatures of the Ediacara Biota by Jim Shelton, Yale University, October 6, 2016 http://news.yale.edu/2016/10/06/cementing-theory-about-sea-creatures-ediacara-biota Ancient ocean quirk left us these bizarre fossils By Jim Shelton, Fossils, Yale University, October 11, 2016 http://www.futurity.org/fossils-oceans-1268312-2/ Tarhan, L. G., A. V. S. Hood, M. L. Droser, J. G. Gehling, and D. E.G. Briggs, 2016, Exceptional preservation of soft-bodied Ediacara Biota promoted by silica-rich oceans Geology, G38542.1, first published on October 3, 2016, doi:10.1130/G38542.1 http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2016/10/03/G38542.1.abstract https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2016AM/webprogram/Paper286584.html GSA Data Repository 2016325 ftp://rock.geosociety.org/pub/reposit/2016/2016325.pdf Also, there is: Joel, L. 2015, How Did Fragile Early Microbes Become Fossils? Eos, August 12, 2016 https://eapsweb.mit.edu/news/2016/how-did-fragile-early-microbes-become-fossils Yours, Paul H.
  24. Quotation Wikipedia: "Nemiana simplex has given taxonomists great trouble due to its simple nature. When the species was first discovered it was placed in incertae sedis, however since then, a combination of well-preserved specimens and new techniques that have allowed scientists to examine the creature's body structure, have given the creature anatomical links to jellyfish and was subsequently placed in with the other extinct coelenterates." Nemania simplex is one of the most commonly found Ediacaran organisms. Lit.: Palij, V. M., 1976. Remains of soft-bodied and trace fossils from deposits of Upper Precambrian and Lower Cambrian (in Russian). Paleontology and Stratigraphy of Upper Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic of the South-West of Eastern-European Platform. Naukova dumka, Kiev: 63-76.
  25. During the last years, some presumed fossil stuff from the Kuibis quartzite from the ediacaran Nama fauna of South Africa became available (via several different fossil dealers). It looks always the same and is termed as "medusoid", "Skinnera" or "possibly Albumarid", mostly with question marks which point to the uncertain ID of these specimens. They seem to be quite common since they are not very rare on the market and not very expensive, compared to ediacaran fossils that are assigned to metazoa with a greater degree of certainty. To me, they seem to be the second common ediacaran fossils on the market (after ukrainian Nemiana simplex) and thus a clarification of their identity would be of general interest. That's why I discuss this here in length. They are impressions of globular structures, sometimes surrounded by some smaller ones. They may look like bubbles, but as some of the following pictures show, they are actually globular and not hemispherical as would be the case if they were really bubbles on a surface. The Kuibis quartzite is nearly 550.000.000 years old. They are cyclic sediments from shallow intertidal to subtidal settings (shallow-water settings). The quartzite specimens are probably from the upper part of the Kuibis Supergroup and thus from near-shore marine environments, a little more distant from terrestrial settings than the lower parts. However, though ediacaran fossils are of high interest, I found no informations about these "fossils". Even the wellknown textbook "The rise of animals" vom FEDONKIN et al. (2007) doesn't mention them, in spite of a large chapter about the Nama fauna of Southern Africa, including informations about the Kuibis Supergroup and a short fossil list about the fossils in the upper member (Ernietta, Namalia, Orthogonium, Pteridinium, Rangea), from which the specimens I show here probably come (as indicated by a picture with Rangea schneiderhoehni which seems to come from the same facies). So far, I could resolve all problems with ediacaran fossils and pseudo-fossils with the help of this textbook - except for this. Maybe that's why the textbook is about metaozoa, and the globular fossils here are not considered as metazoa? I show two different specimens. Both specimens yield only impressions (negatives); if they look like positives, it's a welcome optical illusion so there is no need to make silicone casts from them. The largest globular structures are about 9 mm in diameter. The quartzites are laminated. The third picture shows a view from an inclined angle, which demonstrates that the laminations run undisturbed through the globular structures. Thus, the globular structures are positioned within laminated sandstones, but didn't alter the laminations around them. The fourth picture shows the edge of the first specimen. There is also a globular structures with undisturbed (black) laminations at its border on the right. The black layers between the laminations seem to become a bit wider and vesicular when they get in contact with the globular structures. I interprete the thin black layers as microbial mats. (The big dark spot is text marker stain - probably a number had been overwritten). Picture Kuibis 1-h shows two very tiny structures in front of the larger holes; the tiny ones look multilobulate, the larger ones more regularily spherical. Picture Kuibis 2b shows the edge of the second specimen. There are also laminations with very thin black layers, which are suggestive of microbial mats that grew until the next sedimention cycle covered them with sand. It is clear to me that it is impossible to identify the true nature of these specimens - if they are fossils at all. I'm not sure whether they are metazoa (in fact, I doubt this very much) - they could also be large protists (as had bee suggested to occur in the ediacaran age) or colonies formed by unicellular organisms. What I'm looking for: do they have a taxonomic name? If one has such a name, one can follow the current or future discussions about the nature of these specimens. But I haven't found any mention or name for these structures in the literature or internet so far, besides the IDs that are given by the dealers, usually with question marks (Skinnera, Albumarid?), but I think that these names don't match actually. They are also different from Nemiana because of size, different position to one another (Nemiana covers bedding planes in dense populations, sometimes generating a one-layer honeycomb pattern, while the globular structures of the Kuibis are distributed more randomly across the sediments, with local clustering, but not strictly within a bedding plane; they run throughout several bedding planes = laminations; and whereas the top of the Nemiana specimens is flattened and compressed, the globular structures from Kuibis show no signs of compression). One may also consider the possibility that they are no fossils at all. However, the back stain in the reddish quartzites accounts for organic matter, at least at or upon the wall of the globular structures. The black stain of the globular structures is comparable to the small black layers of the laminations which seem to indicate microbial mats. So, if the globular structures themselves were no fossils, they must have been covered by a microbial mat or organic matter of another origin. It is difficult to image that bubbles of gas or something like that might have been preserved in such a globular form, with regard to the pressure and compactation from the layers of sediments upon them. So I think it is difficult to explain them as inorganic globular structures which became dissolved later and left these dark holes in the quartzite. But maybe someones knows more about that? Thanks! araucaria1959
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