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Found 17 results

  1. Shark Dorsal Spine? ( Missouri )

    Hello and good evening! I have passed this fossil a few times and it resides in a large limestone slab. I believe it could be a spine due to presence of Chondrichthyan teeth in the area and how it appears to come to a point. For reference the teeth I have found include teeth from Petalodontiformes, Eugenodontida, and other Chondrichthyans. I will note I have found some petrified wood in the area, but none in a limestone matrix so it could be a Calamite. Location: Missouri Time period: Pennsylvanian Formation: Muncie creek shale member
  2. Deltodus sp. Tooth

    From the album Chondrichthians

    One of my favorite specimen! Correct id by Jackson g
  3. Hamiltonichthys Tooth

    From the album Chondrichthians

    Often these teeth are not widely reported and this specimen is 7mm in size
  4. Caseodus Tooth

    From the album Chondrichthians

    I believe this to be a Caseodus tooth but if this is the wrong, possible id's are welcomed!
  5. Concretion 13: Campodus tooth

    From the album Muncie Creek Shale Nodules

    This is the most detailed side of the concretion that contains the Campodus tooth
  6. Concretion 13: Campodus tooth

    From the album Muncie Creek Shale Nodules

    One of a few teeth I have from Eugeneodontida
  7. From the album Muncie Creek Shale Nodules

    One of my larger concretions, I find this one very interesting and plan to dig out the rest of it once I learn how to prep fossils from concretions!
  8. Concretion 3: Braincase/Skull

    From the album Muncie Creek Shale Nodules

    Currently being donated and Identified. Will update on this specimen if this is a new species and its identification.
  9. Concretion 3: Braincase/Skull

    From the album Muncie Creek Shale Nodules

    Currently being donated and Identified. Will update on this specimen if this is a new species and its identification.
  10. From the album Muncie Creek Shale Nodules

    This concretion came out in multiple parts and I was able to salvage the tip. I will restore this specimen and prep it in the future!
  11. Location is in Missouri The area is dated to the Pennsylvanian Formation: Muncie Creek Shale Found this very small tooth like structure and was wondering if anyone could confirm if it is a tooth or not. Normally I can identify teeth if they are large enough, but this specimen is very small. I have found teeth before in these concretions but much larger such as a possible Symmorium or Glikmanius along with a tooth from a member of Eugeneodontida. Here are some images I edited that might make some details more clearer:
  12. Location is in Missouri The area is dated to the Pennsylvanian Formation: Muncie Creek Shale I was cracking Open some Concretions I found and this Came out of one! Unfortunately not in One piece. I was fortunate to find almost all of the pieces, including the tip, but do not know what adhesive to use Never the less I would like to know what species this is from! I have found various prehistoric fish parts from the rock Pile this has come from, Such as teeth from Eugeneodontida and Cartilage. The tip
  13. Location is in Missouri The area is dated to the Pennsylvanian most likely Raytown, Wyandotte Limestone Formation I usually collect a few limestone concretions from a rock pile I go to and a few pieces of what appears to be bone popped out! Unfortunately when it did crack some of the pieces went flying and were unrecoverable While I do not know if it can be identified, I can hope it can somewhat be recognized. In the area I have found fossilized Cartilage through my Concretion cracking adventures and have found teeth from specimen of Eugeneodontida in the area. I also have come across the usual Brachiopods, Crinoid stems, Bryozoans, Rugose corals and petrified wood in the area. I believe this is some sort of fish bone, as to what it was? I have no clue. Below is the left side of the concretion
  14. I am really excited about a project we have been working on. We decided to switch our shark displays from the ones based on Geological era to a taxonomic display style. We had been considering this since we made a similar switch with our dinosaurs. It has made those programs flow more easily and i think allowed the kids to get a better understanding of the animals. We originally set our displays up as they were because we simply did not have enough material to do taxonomic displays. There were a few orders of sharks for which we had only one or two fossils and one extinct order for which we had zero fossils. Doing the displays along a timeline allowed us to cover up the holes in the collection. We have made a lot of improvements to our shark collection in the last year and were strongly considering changing things. A conversation with @siteseer really sealed the deal. Jess nudged me over the ledge lol So work has begun on this project and I am loving it but it is a lot of work. Each order of shark, extant and extinct, will eventually have it's own display. Within the the display, each family or in some cases genus, will be set up by temporal range. I think these displays will not only allow more efficient presentations but will also show temporal range and distribution as best we can. Step 1 was identifying which orders, families, and genera we need to add to the collection in order to round out what we already had. Some orders needed little attention but there were some that needed a bit of a boost. Heterodontiformes was an example of one that needed to a boost. We had Jurassic teeth (Paracestracion and Heterodontus) but little else. Having the Jurassic teeth is awesome because it shows how far back they go in the fossils record but that would be an underwhelming display visually and not give the kids a great sense of the sharks. We had to find fossils to place them at various points in their temporal range and widen their distribution to the best of our ability. Pristiophoriformes was another that we needed to upgrade as we only had one small rostal tooth. We had a good variety of material for most extinct orders but wanted a Carboniferous Xencanthid tooth to better tell the whole story of the Eel sharks as all of ours were Permian. We picked through micro fossils to add Devonian Ctenacanthiformes teeth to expand the temporal range and add diversity in the form of Phoebodus. Step 2 is on going and is probably the hardest part, acquiring the fossils we need. It is quite easy to find some of the things we needed. Others have been extremely difficult and a few are pretty much impossible. We are unlikely to knock Hemiscyllium or Oxynotus off the list. It proved very difficult, but not impossible, to locate a Cenozoic Chiloscyllium tooth. We had Cretaceous teeth but nothing beyond that and Bamboo Sharks are one that we do talk about quite a bit. After a lengthy search, we finally tracked one down and it was quite inexpensive. Cost is always a factor for us so early on we understood we were not going to be adding some collector type teeth like a 2" Chilean White Shark or the transitional White Shark teeth. We focused instead in smaller teeth and anything that added a new shark, contributed to showing distribution or temporal range. For us a STH Scyliorhinus is a significant fossils because it adds to both distribution and temporal range of a shark we talk about. I am very proud of some of the inexpensive teeth we have found including a Chilean Angelshark, a Miocene Mitsukurina, the Paleocene Chiloscyllium, and a Heterodontus fin spine from STH. We have also been greatly aided in our quest by a couple of donations, including one from @Troodon that included very important Eocene Orectolobiformes teeth and a super Megachasma from Chile. I want to credit @siteseer too though I am not sure what he is sending but I know it help tremendously lol Step 3 was figuring out how many display cases we would need and what sizes we would need. We knew that in addition to the displays by order, some sharks would get their own displays. For example, we have a lot of Lamniformes that we cover during our presentations but Goblin Sharks get special attention because kids really love them so they would get a separate display. The displays will not be of uniform size as some orders will be better represented. There will be more Carcharhiniformes than other orders for example. Size of the shark and size of the fossils also contribute to the need for a variation in display size. Step 4 is dismantling the old displays and putting together the new ones. This is on going and will not be finished until mid March probably. We need new labels which is taking a bit of time as there is a lot of shark fossils going into these displays. Step 5 will be displays of shark relatives. I think we will have one small one that will feature the three Stethacanthids we have, one small display for the two Eugenodontids and then another larger one to house the Batoids. We do cover shark relatives and they are quite popular with the students so these are important to the programs too. Kids love these wierdo creatues lol One of the really cool parts of this project is it allows me to think as an educator but also very much as a collector. I am an educator first and these fossils are for educational purposes but I consider myself a collector of shark fossils too. Doing this does allow me to add things that have educational value but also cross things off the personal list of sharks I want in the collection, like Megachasma and Mitsukurina. I can also view the collection and see areas where we can improve the quality of teeth at some point down the road. White Sharks and Cow sharks in particular will get an upgrade at some point. We can hunt for some of the rare Squaliformes teeth. Maybe we will track down a Ctenacanthus fin spine. Our goal is not just to tell the story of sharks but to show the story of sharks through the fossils. The people who invite us to present our fossils not only get to handle Megalodon teeth but they get close up examinations of a 300 million year old egg case, a Hybodus fin spine, shark vertebra and can compare the difference between Sawshark rostal teeth and Sawfish rostal teeth in their hands. I am quite proud of the hands-on education we give people and I think this project improves the overall impact. This project has also given us far more scientific knowledge and a far better understanding of shark classification. The learning has been invaluable really. Carter and I are both very passionate about sharks as we are with all of our programs but sharks have a special place. When he was a little guy, we would watch shark documentaries and this is an extension of that father son time for us. We knew this would require spending more money and take some time to do but we know it will be worth it. This will be a shark education program that will educate elementary students, museum patrons, college students and senior citizens. That is pretty darn cool I think. We also want to thank all of the forum members who contributed shark fossils and knowledge over the last year. This, like our other programs, would not be possible without the support, encouragement and generosity of TFF members. I apologize for the length of this post lol I have been really busy and have not been able to take the time to post about this and am pretty excited hence the rambling nature. I will post some pictures as we go through this and complete these. Pic 1 one of the boxes of shark fossils currently laying around our house lol It is a small box but there is quite a lot stored in there, just waiting for their permanent home.
  15. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 9, 2018. Class Chondrichthyes - The Cartilaginous Fishes Subclass Holocephali Superorder Holocephalimorpha Order Chimaeriformes - Ratfish and Ghost Sharks Suborder Chimaeroidea Family Callorhinchidae Averianov, A.O. (1997). A Rare Find of a Vomerine Toothplate of an Elephant Fish (Holocephali, Callorhinchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Russia. Paleontological Journal, Vol.31, Number 1. Case, G.R. (1991). A New Species of Chimaeroid Fish from the Upper Paleocene (Thanetian) of Maryland, U.S.A. Palaeovertebrata, Montpellier, 21(1-2). Case, G.R. and D.R. Schwimmer (1992). Occurrence of the Chimaeroid Ischyodus bifurcatus Case in the Cusseta Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Campanian) of Western Georgia and Its Distribution. J.Paleont., 66(2). Cicimurri, D.J. and J.A. Ebersole (2015). Paleocene chimaeroid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali) from the eastern United States, including two new species of Callorhinchus. Paleobios, 32. Cicimurri, D.J., D.C. Parris and M.J. Everhart (2008). Partial Dentition of a Chimaeroid Fish (Chondrichthyes, Holocephali) from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk of Kansas, USA. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(1). Duffin, C.J. and J.P.H. Reynders (1995). A fossil Chimaeroid from the Gronsveld Member (Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous) of northeast Belgium. Belgian Geological Survey, Professional Paper 278. (21.5MB download) Hoganson, J.W. and J.M. Erickson (2005). A New Species of Ischyodus (Chondrichtyes: Holocephali: Callorhinchidae) from Upper Maastrichtian Shallow Marine Facies of the Fox Hills and Hell Creek Formations, Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA. Palaeontology, Vol.48, Part 4. Hoganson, J.W., J.M. Erickson and M.J. Everhart (2015). Ischyodus rayhaasi (Chimaeroidei; Callorhynchidae) from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation of northeastern Colorado, USA. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.118, Numbers 1-2. Kriwet, J. and S. Klug (2011). An Embryonic Mandibular Tooth Plate and Associated Remains of a Late Jurassic Chimaeroid (Holocephali, Chimaeriformes) from the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(5). Kriwet, J. and A. Gazdzicki (2003). New Eocene Antarctic chimaeroid fish (Holocephali, Chimaeriformes). Polish Polar Research, Vol.24, Number 1. Otero, R.A., et al. (2012). A new species of chimaeriform (Chondrichthyes, Holocephali) from the uppermost Cretaceous of the López de Bertodano Formation , Isla Marambio (Seymour Island), Antarctica. Antarctic Science, Published on-line. Popov, E.V. (2003). A New Genus of Elephant Fishes (Holocephali: Callorhinchidae) from the Upper Callovian of the Volga Region near Saratov, Russia. Paleontological Journal, Vol.37, Number 5. Popov, Y.V. and A.A. Yarkov (2001). A New Giant Species of Edaphodon (Holocephali: Edaphodontidae) from the Beryozovaya Beds (Lower Paleocene) of the Volgograd Volga Region. Paleontological Journal, Vol.35, Number 2. Takeuchi, G.T. and R.W. Huddleston (2006). A Miocene Chimaeroid Fin Spine from Kern County, California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, Vol.105|Issue 2, Article 4. Ward, D.J. and K.J. McNamara (1977). Associated Dentition of the Chimaeroid Fish Brachymylus altidens from the Oxford Clay. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 3. Family Chimaeridae Averianov, A. and E. Popov (1995). A New Species of Chimaeroid Fish from the Upper Cretaceous of the Saratov Region, Russia. Palaeontology, Vol.38, Part 3. Duffin, C.J. (2001). A Chimaerid (Holocephali, Chimaeriformes) Vomerine Toothplate from the Upper Cretaceous of Belgium. Palaeontology, Vol.44, Part 6. Laurito-Mora, C.A. (2008). Additional Fish Record from the Uscari Formation, Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene of Costa Rica: A Chimaeroid Tooth Plate (Pisces, Chondrichthyes, Holocephali). Revista Geologica de America Central, 38. Stahl, B.J. and S. Chatterjee (1999). A Late Cretaceous Chimaerid (Chondrichthyes, Holocephali) from Seymour Island, Antarctica. Palaeontology, Vol.42, Part 6. Family Echinochimaeridae Lund, R. (1988). 14. A Mississippian Holocephali (Chondrichthyes) and the Evolution of the Holocephali. In: Teeth Revisited: Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium on Dental Morphology, Paris 1986. Russell, D.E., J.-P. Santoro and D. Sigogneau-Russell (eds.), Mem.Mus.natn.Hist.nat., Paris (serie C), 53. Family incertae sedis Ward, D.J. and C.J. Duffin (1989). Mesozoic Chimaeroids 1. A new chimaeroid from the Early Jurassic of Gloucestershire, England. Mesozoic Res., 2(2). Family Rhinochimaeridae Averianov, A.O. (2001). Systematics of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Chimaeroid Fish of the Genus Elasmodus (Chondrichthyes, Holocephali). Paleontological Journal, Vol.35, Number 3. Suborder Myriacanthoidei Duffin, C.J. (1984). A new myriacanthid holocephalan from the Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) of Belgium. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 82. Duffin, C.J. and J. Milan (2017). A new myriacanthid holocephalian from the Early Jurassic of Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.65. Duffin, C.J. and D. Delsate (1995). New record of the Early Jurassic myriacanthid holocephalan Myriacanthus paradoxus AGASSIZ , 1836 from Belgium. Belgian Geological Survey, Professional Paper 278. General Chimaeriformes Bartholomai, A. (2008). Lower Cretaceous Chimaeroids (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali) from the Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 52(2). Brown, R.W. (1946). Fossil Egg Capsules of Chimaeroid Fishes. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.20, Number 3. Cicimurri, D.J. and J.A. Ebersole (2014). Late Cretaceous chimaeroids (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali) from Alabama, USA. PaleoBios, 31(2). Hussakof, L. (1912). The Cretaceous Chimaeroids of North America. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XXXI, Article XIX. Lund, R. and E.D. Grogan (1997). Relationships of the Chimaeriformes and the basal radiation of the Chondrichthyes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 7. Patterson, C. (1992). Interpretation of the toothplates of chimaeroid fishes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 206. Patterson, C. (1965). Phylogeny of the Chimaeroids. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Vol.249, Issue 757. (Thanks to doushantuo for pointing me to this one!) Popov, E.V. (2008). A revision of the chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali, Chimaeroidei) from the British Cretaceous. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Popov, E.V. and M. Michalski (2014). Late Albian chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali, Chimaeroidei) from Annopol, Poland. Cretaceous Research, 47. Ward, D.J. and L. Grande (1991). Chimaeroid fish remains from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Science, 3(3). Order Chondrenchelyformes Finarelli, J.A. and M.I. Coates (2014). Chondrenchelys problematica (Traquair, 1888) redescribed: a Lower Carboniferous eel-like holocephalan from Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 105. Grogan, E.D. and R. Lund (2011). Superfoetative viviparity in a Carboniferous chondrichthyan and reproduction in early gnathostomes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 161. Grogan, E.D. and R. Lund (1997). Soft Tissue Pigments of the Upper Mississippian Condrenchelyid, Harpagofututor volsellorhinus (Chondrichtyes, Holocephali) from the Bear Gulch Limestone, Montana, USA. J.Paleont., 71(2). Order Cochliodontiformes Ginter, M. and A. Piechota (2004). The first Devonian holocephalian tooth from Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49(3). Order Copodontiformes Derras, L., et al. (2008). The oldest holocephalan (Chondrichthyes) from the Middle Devonian of the Boulonnais (Pas-de-Calais, France). C.R. Palevol, 7. Superorder Paraselachimorpha Order Debeeriformes Grogan, E.D. and R. Lund (2000). Debeerius ellefseni (Fam.Nov., Gen.Nov., Sp.Nov.), an Autodiastylic Chondrichthyan from the Mississippian Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana (USA), the Relationships of the Chondrichthyes, and Comments on Gnathostome Evolution. Journal of Morphology, 243. Order Eugenodontiformes Family Eugenodontidae Superfamily Caseodontoidea Family Caseodontidae Zangerl, R. (1966). A New Shark of the Family Edestidae, Ornithoprion hertwigi from the Pennslvanian Mecca and Logan Quarry Shales of Indiana. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.16, Number 1. Superfamily Edestoidea Family Edestidae Eastman, C.R. (1905). The Literature of Edestus. The American Naturalist, Vol.XXXIX, Number 462. Hay, O.P. (1912). On an Important Specimen of Edestus; With Description of a New Species, Edestus mirus. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol.42, Number 1884. Hay, O.P. (1909). On the Nature of Edestus and Related Genera, With Descriptions of One New Genus and Three New Species. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol.37, Number 1699. Itano, W.M. (2018). A tooth whorl of Edestus heinrichi (Condrichthyes, Eugenodontiformes) displaying progressive macrowear. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.121, Numbers 1-2. Itano, W.M. (2015). An abraded tooth of Edestus (Chonidrichthyes, Eugenodontiformes): Evidence for a unique form of predation. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.118, Numbers 1-2. Itano, W.M. (2014). Edestus, The Strangest Shark? First Report from New Mexico, North American Paleobiogeography, and a New Hypothesis on Its Mode of Predation. The Mountain Geologist, Vol.51, Number 3. Itano, W.M. (2014). How did Edestus feed? New evidence from tooth wear. In: Prehistoric Predators. Program of the 20th Annual Tate Conference, Casper College, Casper, Wyoming. (Preprint) Itano, W.M. (2014). A Tale of Two Holotypes: Redisovery of the Type Specimen of Edestus minor. The Geological Curator, 10(1). Itano, W.M. (2013). Abnormal Serration Rows on a Tooth of the Pennsylvanian Chondrichthyan Edestus. In: The Carboniferous-Permian Transition. Lucas, S.G., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 60. Taylor, K. and T. Adamec (1977). Tooth Histology and Ultrastructure of a Paleozoic Shark, Edestus heinrichii. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.33, Number 24. Zangerl, R. and C. Jeremiah (2004). Notes on the Tooth "Saw Blades" of Edestus, a Late Paleozoic Chondrichthyan. The Mosasaur, Vol.7. Family Helicoprionidae Chorn, J. (1978). Part 1. Helicoprion (Elasmobranchii, Edestidae) from the Bone Spring Formation (Lower Permian) of West Texas. In: Fossil Fish Studies, The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 89. Eastman, C.R. (1900). Karpinsky's Genus Helicoprion. A Review. The American Naturalist, Vol.XXXIV, Number 403. Lebedev, O.A. (2009). A new specimen of Helicoprion Karpinsky, 1899 from Kazakhstanian Cisurals and a new reconstruction of its tooth whorl position and function. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 90 (Suppl.1) Liu, G. and Q. Wang (1994). New Material of Sinohelicoprion from Changxing, Zhejiang Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 32(4). Nassichuk, W.W. (1971). Helicoprion and Physonemus, Permian Vertebrates from the Assistance Formation, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Canada, 192.Ramsay, J.G., et al. (2014). Eating with a Saw for a Jaw: Functional Morphology of the Jaws and Tooth-Whorl in Helicoprion davisii. Journal of Morphology, 00. Tapanila, A. and J. Pruitt (2013). Unraveling Species Concepts for the Helicoprion Tooth Whorl. Journal of Paleontology, 87(6). Tapanila, A., et al. (2013). Jaws for a spiral-toothed whorl: CT images reveal novel adaptation and phylogeny in fossil Helicoprion. Biol. Lett. 2013, 9. General Eugenodontiformes Mutter, R.J. and A.G. Neuman (2008). New eugeneodontid sharks from the Lower Triassic Sulphur Mountain Formation of Western Canada. In: Fishes and the Break-up of Pangaea. Cavin, L., A. Longbottom and M. Richter (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 295. Mutter, R.J. and A.G. Neuman (2008). Jaw and dentition in an Early Triassic, 3-dimensionally preserved eugeneodontid skull (Chondrichthyes). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Richter, M. (2007). First Record of Eugeneodontiformes (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) from the Paraná Basin, Late Permian of Brazil. Paleontologia: Cenários de Vida. Order Iniopterygiformes Grogan, E.D. and R. Lund (2009). Two new iniopterygians (Chondrichthyes) from the Mississippian (Serpukhovian) Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana with evidence of a new form of chondrichthyan neurocranium. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 90 (Suppl.1). Pradel, A. (2010). Skull and brain anatomy of Late Carboniferous Sibyrhynchidae (Chondrichthyes, Iniopterygia) from Kansas and Oklahoma (USA). Geodiversitas, 32(4). Pradel, A., et al. (2009). Skull and brain of a 300-million-year-old chimaeroid fish revealed by synchrotron holotomography. PNAS, Vol.106, Number 13. Stahl, B.J. (1980). Non-Autostylic Pennsylvanian Iniopterygian Fishes. Palaeontology, Vol.23, Part 2. Zangerl, R. (1997). Cervifurca nasuta n. gen. et sp., an Interesting Member of the Iniopterygidae (Subterbranchialia, Chondricthyes) from the Pennsylvanian of Indiana, USA. Fieldiana Geology, New Series Number 35. Zangerl, R. and G.R. Case (1973). Iniopterygia, a New Order of Chondrichthyan Fishes from the Pennsylvanian of North America. Fieldiana Geology Memoirs, Vol. 6. Order Petalodontiformes Dalla Vecchia, F.M. (2000). A new petalodont tooth (Chondrichthyes, Petalodontiformes) from the Lower Permian of the Carnic Alps (Friuli, NE Italy). Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 39(2). Dalla Vecchia, F.M. (1988). First Record of a Petalodont (Petalodus ohioensis Safford, 1853) from the Alps. Gortania, 9(87). Duffin, C.J. and D.J. Ward (2017). A new janassid petalodont chondrichthyan from the Early Carboniferous of Derbyshire, UK. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 128. Golshani, F. and P. Janvier (1974). Tooth Fragment of a Petalodontid Fish (Elasmobranchii, Bradyodonti) from the Permian of Central Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, Report Number 31. Grogan, E.D., R. Lund and M. Fath (2014). A New Petalodont Chondrichthyan from the Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana, USA, with Reassessment of Netsepoye hawkesi and Comments on Morphology of Holomorphic Petalodonts. Paleontological Journal, Vol.48, Number 9. Hansen, M.C. (1980). New Occurrences of the Petalodontiform Chondrichthyan Megactenopetalus in the Pennsylvanian of Oklahoma and Kansas. Oklahoma Geology Notes, Vol.40, Number 5. (Note: download is of the entire journal. The article on Megactenopetalus is on pages 9-13 of the pdf file.) Liu, H.-T. and H.-H. Hsieh (1965). The Discovery of Bradyodont from Yangsin Series, the Lower Permian of Liangshan, Shensi. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.9, Number 3. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2011). Petalodont Chondrichthyan Teeth from the Pennsylvanian-Permian Horquilla Formation, Big Hatchet Mountains, New Mexico. In: Fossil Record 3. Sullivan, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 53. Lund, R. (1983). On a Dentition of Polyrhizodus (Chondrichthyes, Petalodontiformes) from the Namurian Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 3(1). Lund, R. (1977). A New Petalodont (Chondrichthyes, Bradyodonti) from the Upper Mississippian of Montana. Annals of Carnegie Museum, Vol.46, Article 10. Lund, R., E.D. Grogan and M. Fath (2014). On the Relationships of the Petalodontiformes (Chondrichthyes). Paleontological Journal, Vol.48, Number 9. Miller, H.W. (1957). Petalodus jewetti, a New Species of Fossil Bradyodont Fish from Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.60, Number 1. Ramovs, A. (1997). Two new petalodont teeth (Chondrichthyes, Upper Carboniferous) from the Karavanke Mountains, Slovenia. Geologija, 40. Zangerl, R., H.F. Winter and M.C. Hansen (1993). Comparative Microscopic Dental Anatomy in the Petalodontida (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii). Fieldiana Geology, New Series Number 26. (Thanks to xonenine for spotting this one.) Order Psammodontiformes Lebedev, O.A. (2008). Systematics and dental system reconstruction of the durophagous chondrichthyan Lagarodus Jaekel, 1898. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. General Holocephali Lund, R. (1977). New Information on the Evolution of the Bradyodont Chondrichthyes. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.33, Number 28. Chondrichthyes (Subclass Uncertain) Ivanov, A., M. Nestell and G. Nestell (2012). New jalodontid chondrichthyans from the Middle Permian of West Texas, USA. Historical Biology, Vol.24, Number 4. Ivanov, A., T. Marss and A. Kleesman (2011). A new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp.nov. from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 60(1). Long, J.A., et al. (2015). First Shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo Formation, Western Australia Sheds New Light on the Development of Tessellated Calcified Cartilage. PLoS ONE, 10(5). Märss, T., A. Kleesment and M. Niit (2008). Karksilepis parva gen. et sp.nov. (Chondrichthyes) from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(4). Mutter, R.J. and A.G. Neuman (2006). An enigmatic chondrichthyan with Paleozoic affinities from the Lower Triassic of western Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(2). Žigaitė, Ž. and V. Karatajūtė-Talimaa (2008). New genus of Chondrichthyans from the Silurian-Devonian boundary deposits of Tuva (Russia). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Order Mongolepidida Andreev, P., et al. (2016). The systematics of the Mongolepidida (Chondrichthyes) and the Ordovician origins of the clade. PeerJ, 4:e1850. Order Polymerolepdiformes Hanke, G.F., M.V.H. Wilson and F.J. Saurette (2013). Partial articulated specimen of the Early Devonian putative chondrichthyan Polymerolepis whitei Karatajute-Talimaa, 1968, with an anal fin spine. Geodiversitas, 35(3).