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Found 8 results

  1. McMahon, S., Bosak, T., Grotzinger, J.P., Milliken, R.E., Summons, R.E., Daye, M., Newman, S.A., Fraeman, A., Williford, K.H. and Briggs, D.E.G., 2018. A field guide to finding fossils on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 1020-1040 https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2017JE005478 McMahon, S., The chemistry of fossilization on Earth and Mars. http://www.portlandpresspublishing.com/sites/default/files/biochemist/Biochemist Space issue Dec 2018/BioDEC18_chemistry of fossilization pg 28.pdf Yours, Paul H.
  2. Non-fossils

    Are any of those mammoth "fossils" around actually fossils? Wouldn't they still be natural bone? I know that the remains found in colder northern area, the remains are still original dead tissue, because they're regularly found with soft tissue and hair, but they're found other places too, along with all other animals from the more recent periods, where freezing isn't a factor, but Is there even enough time for fossilization to occur for those animals? Is there a general point in, or period of time, after which it's just not old enough for fossilization to occur? I know any such point, or period, would vary depending on the regions environmental conditions, but I would imagine there are places where there is such a point before which geologically, remains are fossilized, and after which remains are still actual bone.
  3. Below is an interesting paper that I came across. Iurino, D.A., Bellucci, L., Schreve, D. and Sardella, R., 2014. Exceptional soft tissue fossilization of a Pleistocene vulture (Gyps fulvus): new evidence for emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic flow deposits. Quaternary Science Reviews, 96, pp. 180-187. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379114001553 The abstract states: “Here we report an exceptional case of soft tissue fossilization of a Late Pleistocene Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) in the pyroclastic sequence of the Alban Hills volcanic region (SE Rome, Italy).” CT scans of the natural cast revealed extraordinary detail in the natural cast of the head, including everted tongue, beak, feather insertions and the nictitating membrane of the eye. The PDF file of this paper can be found at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262431624_Exceptional_soft_tissue_fossilization_of_a_Pleistocene_vulture_Gyps_fulvus_New_evidence_for_emplacement_temperatures_of_pyroclastic_flow_deposits https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266734626_EXCEPTIONAL_SOFT_TISSUE_FOSSILIZATION_OF_A_LATE_PLEISTOCENE_VULTURE_GYPS_FULVUS_FROM_ALBAN_HILLS_VOLCANIC_REGION_ITALY https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Dawid_Iurino https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Luca_Bellucci3 Yours, Paul H.
  4. Fossil Hunting on Mars

    Looking For Fossils On The Surface Of Mars Brian Koberlein, Forbes, May 28, 2018 https://www.forbes.com/sites/briankoberlein/2018/05/29/looking-for-fossils-on-the-surface-of-mars/ McMahon, S., Bosak, T., Grotzinger, J.P., Milliken, R.E., Summons, R.E., Daye, M., Newman, S.A., Fraeman, A., Williford, K.H. and Briggs, D.E.G., 2018. A Field Guide to Finding Fossils on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. First published: 02 May 2018 https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JE005478 https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2017JE005478 PDF file at: https://authors.library.caltech.edu/86220/1/McMahon_et_al-2017-Journal_of_Geophysical_Research%3A_Planets.pdf https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324904704_A_Field_Guide_to_Finding_Fossils_on_Mars Yours, Paul H.
  5. Someone on a facebook thread brought up something I'm not familiar with. Yeah...add it to the list. LOL If I understood it right they said some Cretaceous Period bone and wood has been found that has not undergone any physical change. The material was on the North Slope in Alaska so I wondered if it had anything to do with deposition in permafrost. They said it is not that uncommon but I don't recall coming across this in any textbooks or descriptions of preservation methods. Does anyone know of any other places where this has occurred or how it would be possible for anything organic to last that long without any alteration? This is someone who has published papers on paleontology so I would like to assume it's right. If so I need to include it in my fossil talks for kids because preservation methods is a big part of the talks and I like to get it right. Is this so common there aren't any descriptions or discussion of it?
  6. carbon dating

    I have a question about carbon dating. Seems like it is useful for about 10x T1/2 of C14 During fossilization, I assume there is exchange or replacement of molecules as "bone turns to stone"which might include carbon (in carbonates). How does one account for carbon exchange when looking at isotope degradation?
  7. Fruitbat's PDF Library - Taphonomy

    These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 27, 2017 Taphonomy - Fossilization and Fossil Formation Taphonomy - Africa/Middle East El Albani, A., et al. (2014). The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy and Biodiversity. PLoS ONE, 9(6). Taphonomy - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Anderson, E.P., J.D. Schiffbauer and S. Xiao (2011). Taphonomic study of Ediacaran organic-walled fossils confirms the importance of clay minerals and pyrite in Burgess Shale-type preservation. Geology, Vol.39, Number 7. Cai, Y., et al. (2012). Preservational modes in the Ediacaran Gaojiashan Lagerstätte: Pyritization, aluminosilicification, and carbonaceous compression. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 326-328. (Author's personal copy) Forchielli, A., et al. (2014). Taphonomic traits of clay-hosted early Cambrian Burgess Shale-type fossil Lagerstätten in South China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 398. Mukherjee, D. and S. Ray (2012). Taphonomy of an Upper Triassic vertebrate bonebed: A new rhynchosaur (Reptilia; Archosauromorpha) accumulation from India. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 333-334. Taphonomy - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Beardmore, S.R. and H. Furrer (2016). Evidence of a preservational gradient in the skeletal taphonomy of Ichthyopterygia (Reptilia) from Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443. Domingo, M.S., et al. (2017). Taphonomy of mammalian fossil bones from the debris-flow deposits of Somosaugas-North (Middle Miocene, Madrid Basin, Spain). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 465. Kowal-Linka, M. (2015). Analysis of marrow cavity fillings as a tool to recognise diverse taphonomic histories of fossil reptile bones: Implications for the genesis of the Lower Muschelkalk marine bone-bearing bed (Middle Triassic, Zyglin, S Poland). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 436. Weitschat, W., et al. (2002). Taphocoenosis of an extraordinary arthropod community in Baltic amber. Mitt.Geol.-Palaont.Inst.Univ. Hamburg, Vol.86. Yesares-Garcia, J. and J. Aguirre (2004). Quantitative taphonomic analysis and taphofacies in lower Pliocene temperate carbonate-slicicilastic mixed platform deposits (Almeria-Nijar basin, SE Spain). Palaeogeoraphy, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207. Taphonomy - North America Allen, J.P. and R.A. Gastaldo (2006). Sedimentology and taphonomy of the Early to Middle Devonian plant-bearing beds of the Trout Valley Formation, Maine. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 399. Caron, J.-B. and D.A. Jackson (2006). Taphonomy of the Greater Phyllopod Bed Community, Burgess Shale. Palaios, Vol.21. Demko, T.M. (1995). Taphonomy of Fossil Plants in the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Arizona. Getty, P.R. and A.M. Bush (2011). Sand pseudomorphs of dinosaur bones: Implications for (non-) preservation of tetrapod skeletal material in the Hartford Basin, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 302. (Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out!) Haynes, G. (2016). Taphonomy of the Inglewood mammoth (Mammuthus columbi)(Maryland, USA): Green-bone fracturing of fossil bones. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press) Hunda, B.R., N.C. Hughes and K.W. Flessa (2006). Trilobite Taphonomy and Temporal Resolution in the Mt. Orab Shale Bed (Upper Ordovician, Ohio, U.S.A.). Palaios, Vol.21. Irmis, R.B. and D.K. Elliott (2006). Taphonomy of a Middle Pennsylvanian Marine Vertebrate Assemblage and an Actualistic Model for Marine Abrasion of Teeth. Palaios, Vol.21. Kimmig, J.K.F. and B.R. Pratt (2016). Taphonomy of the middle Cambrian (Drumian) Ravens Throat River Lagerstätte, Rockslide Formation, Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Lethaia, Vol.49. LaGarry, H.E. (2004). Taphonomic Evidence of Bone Processing from the Oligocene of Northwestern Nebraska. School of Natural Resources, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Professional Paper Number 2. Leonard, E. (2013). The Taphonomy and Depositional Environment of Jurassic Lacustrine Fish Deposits, Westfield Beds, East Berlin Formation, Hartford Basin. Bachelor's (Honors) Thesis - Wesleyan University. Lucas, S.G. et al. (2010). Taphonomy of the Lamy amphibian quarry: A Late Triassic bonebed in New Mexico, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298. Peterson, J.E., et al. (2017). New data towards the development of a comprehensive taphonomic framework for the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Central Utah. PeerJ, 5: e3368. (Thanks to Oxytropidoceras for pointing this one out!) Petrovich, R. (2001). Mechanisms of Fossilization of the Soft-Bodied and Lightly Armored Faunas of the Burgess Shale and of Some Other Classical Localities. American Journal of Science, Vol.301. Rick, T.C., J.M. Erlandson and R.L. Vellanoweth (2006). Taphonomy and Site Formation on California's Channel Islands. Geoarchaeology, Vol.21, Number 6. Sander, P.M. (1987). Taphonomy of the Lower Permian Geraldine Bonebed in Archer County, Texas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 61. Young, H.R., R. Li and M.Kuroda (2012). Silicification in Mississippian Lodgepole Formation, Northeastern Flank of Williston Basin, Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.23, Number 1. Taphonomy - South America/Central America/Caribbean Bertoni-Machado, C. and M. Holz (2006). Biogenic Fossil Concentration in Fluvial Settings: An Example of a Cynodont Taphocoenosis from the Middle Triassic of Southern Brazil. Revista.bras.paleont., 9(3). Corona, A., et al. (2012). Taphonomy, sedimentology and chronology of a fossiliferous outcrop from the continental Pleistocene of Uruguay. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.29, Number 2. Menendez, L., et al. (2011). Taphonomy, Chronostratigraphy and Paleoceanographic Implications at Turbidite of Early Paleogene (Vertientes Formation, Cuba). Revista Geologica de America Central, 45. General Taphonomy Allison, P.H. and D.J. Bottjer (2011). Chapter 1. Taphonomy: Bias and Process Through Time. In: Taphonomy: Process and Bias Through Time. Allison, P.A. and D.J. Bottjer (eds.), Topics in Geobiology, 32. Andrews, P. (1995). Experiments in Taphonomy. Journal of Archaeological Science, 22. Behrensmeyer, A.K. (1978). Taphonomic and geologic information from bone weathering. Paleobiology, 4(2). Best, M.M.R. and S.M. Kidwell (2000). Bivalve taphonomy in tropical mixed siliciclastic-carbonate settings. II. Effect of bivalve life habits and shell types. Paleobiolgy, 26(1). Brand, L.R., M. Hussey and J. Taylor (2003). Decay and Disarticulation of Small Vertebrates in Controlled Experiments. Journal of Taphonomy, Vol.1, Issue 2. Butler, A.D., et al. (2015). Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization. Proc.R.Soc.B, 282. Carpenter, K. How to Make a Fossil: Part 1 - Fossilizing Bone. The Journal of Paleontological Science, JPS.C.07.0001. Elder, R.L. and G.R. Smith (1988). Fish Taphonomy and Environmental Inference in Paleolimnology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 62. Eren, M.I., et al. (2011). Flaked Stone Taphonomy: a Controlled Experimental Study of the Effects of Sediment Consolidation on Flake Edge Morphology. Journal of Taphonomy, Vol.9, Issue 3. Fernandez-Lopez, S.R. (2006). Taphonomic Alteration and Evolutionary Taphonomy. Journal of Taphonomy, Vol.4, Issue 3. Francillon-Viellot, H., et al. (1990). Chapter 20. Microstructure and Mineralization of Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues. In: Skeletal Biomineralization: Patterns, Processes and Evolutionary Trends. Vol.1 Carter, J.G. (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. (Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out!) Gaines, R.R. and M.L. Droser (2005). New Approaches to Understanding the Mechanics of Burgess Shale-type Deposits: From the Micron Scale to the Global Picture. The Sedimentary Record, Vol.3, Number 2. Gaines, R.R., et al. (2012). Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation. PNAS, Vol.109, Number 14. Greenwood, D.R. (1991). Chapter 7. The Taphonomy of Plant Macrofossils. Jensen, S., M.L. Droser and J.G. Gehling (2005) Trace fossil preservation and the early evolution of animals. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 220. Locatelli, E.R. (2014). The Exceptional Preservation of Plant Fossils: A Review of Taphonomic Pathways and Biases in the Fossil Record. In: Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization. Laflamme, M., J.D. Schiffbauer and S.A.F. Darroch (eds.), The Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.20. Lyman, R.L. (2010). What Taphonomy Is, What it Isn't, and Why Taphonomists Should Care about the Difference. Journal of Taphonomy, Vol.8, Issue 1. McCoy, V.E. and D.S. Brandt (2009). Scorpion taphonomy: criteria for distinguishing fossil scorpion molts and carcasses. The Journal of Arachnology, 37. Nudds, J. and P. Selden (2008). Fossils explained 56. Fossil-Lagerstätten. Geology Today, Vol.24, Number 4. Orr, P.J., et al. (2016). "Stick 'n' peel": Explaining unusual patterns of disarticulation and loss of completeness in fossil vertebrates. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 457. Palmqvist, P. and A. Arribas (2001). Taphonomic decoding of the paleobiological information locked in a lower Pleistocene assemblage of large mammals. Palaeobiology, 27(3). Pewkliang, B., A. Pring and J. Brugger (2008). The Formation of Precious Opal: Clues from the Opalization of Bone. The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol.46. Pewkliang, B., A. Pring and J. Brugger (2004). Opalisation of Fossil Bone and Wood: Clues to the Formation of Precious Opal. In: Regolith 2004. Roach, I.C. (ed.), CRC LEME. Schiffbauer, J.D. and M. Laflamme (2012). Lagerstätten Through Time: A Collection of Exceptional Preservational Pathways from the Terminal Neoproterozoic Through Today. Palaios, Vol.27. Schiffbauer, J.D., et al. (2014). A unifying model for Neoproterozoic-Palaeozoic exceptional fossil preservation through pyritization and carbonaceous compression. Nature Communications, 5:5754. Seilacher, A., W.-E. Reif and F. Westphal (1985). Sedimentological, ecological and temporal patterns of fossil Lagerstätten. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 311. (Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out!) Spicer, R.A. (1991). Chapter 3. Plant Taphonomic Processes. In: Taphonomy: Releasing the Data Locked in the Fossil Record. Allison, P.A. and D.E.G. Briggs (eds.), Plenum Press, New York. Wilson, M.V.H. (1988). Paleoscene #9. Taphonomic Processes: Information Loss and Information Gain. Geoscience Canada, Vol.15, Number 2.
  8. I have a very general question regarding the amount of time it takes for an equus tooth to fully fossilize. I found some perfect, fossilized horse teeth in the Alafia River in an area where there was almost no other fossil material, save VERY well-worn fragments of dugong and turtle. It was suggested to me that the teeth could be from colonial era horses. I have read that in mineral-rich water, fossilization can occur rapidly, even in less than 100 years but do Florida rivers have that kind of mineral content or did I read some bogus material? I would appreciate any input.
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