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Good evening to everyone, I am really very new to fossils and petrified items so I am at a loss as to what I may have and I need your help. My grandfather left me this piece when he passed away a few months ago and it was marked "Petrified Mushroom". I have included some photos for your review and if you have any questions please let me know. The mushroom, for lack of a better word, is about 22" long by 14" deep by about 3/8" in height. It weighs just about 74 grams and has a spot in the middle that looks like wood, it looks like it was cut or removed from a piece of wood maybe a tree. Any help anyone could provide would be extremely appreciated. If this is the wrong forum to ask about my item I deeply apologize, just let me know and I will remove the post right away. Thank you again and I hope everyone has a great week.
These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at email@example.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since April 26, 2017. Kingdom Fungi Fossil Fungi - Antarctica Garcia Massini, J.L. (2007). A Possible Endoparasitic Chytridiomycete Fungus from the Permian of Antarctica. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.10, Issue 3. Harper, C.J., et al. (2016). Structurally preserved fungi from Antarctica: diversity and interactions in late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic polar forest ecosystems. Antarctic Science, 23(3). Harper, C.J., et al. (2015). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a voltzialian conifer from the Triassic of Antarctica. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. Krings, M., et al. (2012). Fossil fungi with suggested affinities to the Endogonaceae from the Middle Triassic of Antarctica. Mycologia, 104(4). Osborn, J.M., T.N. Taylor and J.F. White (1989). Palaeofibulus Gen.Nov., A Clamp-Bearing Fungus from the Triassic of Antarctica. Mycologia, 81(4). Schwendemann, A.B., et al. (2009). Combresomyces cornifer from the Triassic of Antarctica: Evolutionary stasis in the Peronosporomycetes. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 154. Fossil Fungi - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Kar, R.K., B.D. Mandaokar and R.Kar (2005). Mycorrhizal fossil fungi from the Miocene sediments of Mizoram, Northeast India. Current Science, Vol.89, Number 2. Kumaran, K.P.N., M. Shindikar and R.B. Limaye (2004). Fossil record of marine manglicolous fungi from Malvan (Konkan) west coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 33(3). Poinar, G.O., D. da Silva Alfredo and I.G. Baseia (2014). A Gasteroid Fungus, Palaeogaster micromorpha Gen.& Sp. Nov. (Boletales) in Cretaceous Myanmar Amber. J.Bot.Res.Inst. Texas, 8(1). Sung, G.-H., G.O. Poinar and J.W. Spatafora (2008). The oldest fossil evidence of animal parasitism by fungi supports a Cretaceous diversification of fungal-arthropod symbioses. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, xxx. Fossil Fungi - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Dotzler, N., et al. (2011). Sphenophyllum (Sphenophyllales) leaves colonized by fungi from the Upper Pennsylvanian Grand-Croix cherts of central France. Zitteliana, A51. Hūbers, M., et al. (2011). An Early Carboniferous leaf-colonizing fungus. N.Jb.Geol.Paläont.Abh., 261/1. Krings, M. and T.N. Taylor (2015). Mantled fungal reproductive units in land plant tissue from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert. Bulletin of Geosciences, 90(1). Krings, M. and T.N. Taylor (2014). Deciphering interfungal relationships in the 410-million-yr-old Rhynie chert: an intricate interaction between two mycelial fungi. Symbiosis, 64(2). Krings, M. and T.N. Taylor (2014). A mantled fungal reproductive unit from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert that demonstrates Carboniferous "sporocarp" morphology and development. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., 273/2. Krings, M., and T.N. Taylor (2012). Microfossils with possible affinities to the zygomycetous fungi in a Carboniferous cordaitalean ovule. Zitelliana, A52. Krings, M., T.N. Taylor and J.F. White (2011). Fungal sporocarps from the Carboniferous: An unusual specimen of Traquairia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 168. Krings, M., et al. (2015). Deciphering interfungal relationships in the 410-million-yr-old Rhynie chert: Sporocarp formation in glomeromycotan spores. Geobios, 48. Krings, M., et al. (2014). A record of a fungal "sporocarp" from the Lower Devonian Rhynie Chert. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94(2). Krings, M., et al. (2011). Fungal remains in cordaite (Cordaitales) leaves from the Upper Pennsylvanian of central France. Bulletin of Geosciences, 86(4). Krings, M., et al. (2010). Microfungi from the upper Visean (Mississippian) of central France: Structure and development of the sporocarp Mycocarpon cinctum nov.sp. Zitteliana, A50. Schmidt, A.R., H. Dörfelt and V. Perrichot (2008). Palaeoanellus dimorphus Gen. et Sp.Nov. (Deuteromycotina): A Cretaceous Predatory Fungus. American Journal of Botany, 95(10). Schmidt, A.R., H. Dörfelt and V. Perrichot (2007). Carnivorous Fungi from Cretaceous Amber. Science, Vol.318. Smith, P.H. (1980). Trichothyriaceous Fungi from the Early Tertiary of Southern England. Palaeontology, Vol.23, Part 1. Strullu-Derrien, C., et al. (2011). Evidence of parasitic Oomycetes (Peronospormycetes) infecting the stem cortex of the Carboniferous seed fern Lyginopteris oldhamia. Proc.R.Soc. B, 278. Fossil Fungi - North America Anderson, R.S., et al. (1984). Fossil remains of the mycorrhizal fungal Glomus fasciculatum complex in postglacial lake sediments from Maine. Can.J.Bot., 62. Daghlian, C.P. (1978). A New Melioloid Fungus From the Early Eocene of Texas. Palaeontology, Vol.21, Part 1. Dilcher, D.L. (1965). Epiphyllous Fungi from Eocene Deposits in Western Tennessee, U.S.A. Palaeontographica, Vol.116, B. LePage, B.A., et al. (1997). Fossil Ectomycorrhizae from the Middle Eocene. American Journal of Botany, 84(3). Peterson, K.J., B. Waggoner and J.W. Hagadorn (2003). A Fungal Analog for Newfoundland Ediacaran Fossils? Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Redecker, D., R. Kodner and L.E. Graham (2000). Glomalean Fungi from the Ordovician. Science, Vol.289. Smith, S.Y., R.S. Currah and R.A. Stockey (2004). Cretaceous and Eocene poroid hymenophores from Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Mycologia, 96(1). Fossil Fungi - South America/Central America/Caribbean Hibbett, D.S., M.J. Donoghue and P.B. Tomlinson (1997). Is Phellinites diguistoi the Oldest Homobasidiomycete? American Journal of Botany, 84(8). General Fossil Fungi Boyce, C.K., et al. (2007). Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus. Geology, Vol.35, Number 5. Cai, C., et al. (2017). Mycophagous rove beetles highlight diverse mushrooms in the Cretaceous. Nature Communications, 18:14894. (Thanks to doushantuo for locating this one!) Casadevall, A. (2005). Fungal virulence, vertebrate endothermy, and dinosaur extinction: is there a connection? Fungal Genetics and Biology, 42. Cookson, I.C. (1947). Fossil Fungi from Tertiary Deposits in the Southern Hemisphere - Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 72. Hibbett, D.S., D. Grimalidi and M.J. Donoghue (1997). Fossil Mushrooms from Miocene and Cretaceous Ambers and the Evolution of Homobasidiomycetes. American Journal of Botany, 84(8). Hibbett, D.S., et al. (1997). Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. U.S.A., Vol.94. Jansonius, J. and R.M. Kalgutkar (2000). Redescription of Some Fossil Fungal Spores. Palynology, 24. Kalgutkar, R.M. and L. Sigler (1995). Some fossil fungal form-taxa from the Maastrichtian and Palaeogene ages. Mycol.Res., 99(5). Kar, R.K., N. Sharma and R. Kar (2004). Occurrence of fossil fungi in dinosaur dung and its implications on food habit. Current Science, Vol.87, Number 8. Krings, M., T.N. Taylor and N. Dotzler (2013). Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi. Persoonia, Issue 30. (Review Article) Krings, M., T.N. Taylor and N. Dotzler (2012). Chapter 1. Fungal Endophytes as a Driving Force in Land Plant Evolution: Evidence from the Fossil Record. In: Biocomplexity of Plant-Fungal Interactions. Southworth, D. (ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Krings, M., T.N. Taylor and N. Dotzler (2011). The fossil record of the Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota). Mycologia, 103(3). Krings, M., et al. (2011). Oldest fossil basidiomycete clamp connections. Mycoscience, 52. Poinar, G.O. (2016). Fossil Fleshy Fungi ("Mushrooms") in Amber. Fungal Genomics & Biology, 6:2. Redecker, D. (2002). New views on fungal evolution based on DNA markers and the fossil record. Research in Microbiology, 153. Taylor, J.W. and M.L. Berbee (2006). Dating divergences in the Fungal Tree of Life: review and new analyses. Mycologia, 98(6). Taylor, T.N., M. Krings and E.L. Taylor (2005). Chapter 10. Fungal diversity in the fossil record. In: The Mycota VII, Part B - Systematics and Evolution. McLaughlin, D.J. and J.W. Spatafora (eds.), Springer-Verlag. Yang, E., et al. (2012). Origin and evolution of carnivorism in the Ascomycota (fungi). PNAS, Vol.109, Number 27.