Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'gastrolith'.

More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
    Tags should be keywords or key phrases. e.g. carcharodon, pliocene, cypresshead formation, florida.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


  • Fossil Discussion
    • General Fossil Discussion
    • Fossil Hunting Trips
    • Fossil ID
    • Is It Real? How to Recognize Fossil Fabrications
    • Partners in Paleontology - Member Contributions to Science
    • Questions & Answers
    • Fossil of the Month
    • Member Collections
    • A Trip to the Museum
    • Paleo Re-creations
    • Collecting Gear
    • Fossil Preparation
    • Member Fossil Trades Bulletin Board
    • Member-to-Member Fossil Sales
    • Fossil News
  • Gallery
  • Fossil Sites
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Australia - New Zealand
    • Canada
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • South America
    • United States
  • Fossil Media
    • Members Websites
    • Fossils On The Web
    • Fossil Photography
    • Fossil Literature
    • Documents


  • Anson's Blog
  • Mudding Around
  • Nicholas' Blog
  • dinosaur50's Blog
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • Seldom's Blog
  • tracer's tidbits
  • Sacredsin's Blog
  • fossilfacetheprospector's Blog
  • jax world
  • echinoman's Blog
  • Ammonoidea
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • Adventures with a Paddle
  • Caveat emptor
  • -------
  • Fig Rocks' Blog
  • placoderms
  • mosasaurs
  • ozzyrules244's Blog
  • Sir Knightia's Blog
  • Terry Dactyll's Blog
  • shakinchevy2008's Blog
  • MaHa's Blog
  • Stratio's Blog
  • Phoenixflood's Blog
  • Brett Breakin' Rocks' Blog
  • Seattleguy's Blog
  • jkfoam's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Lindsey's Blog
  • marksfossils' Blog
  • ibanda89's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Back of Beyond
  • St. Johns River Shark Teeth/Florida
  • Ameenah's Blog
  • gordon's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • Pennsylvania Perspectives
  • michigantim's Blog
  • michigantim's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • GPeach129's Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • Olenellus' Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • maybe a nest fossil?
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • bear-dog's Blog
  • javidal's Blog
  • Digging America
  • John Sun's Blog
  • John Sun's Blog
  • Ravsiden's Blog
  • Jurassic park
  • The Hunt for Fossils
  • The Fury's Grand Blog
  • julie's ??
  • Hunt'n 'odonts!
  • falcondob's Blog
  • Monkeyfuss' Blog
  • cyndy's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • nola's Blog
  • mercyrcfans88's Blog
  • Emily's PRI Adventure
  • trilobite guy's Blog
  • xenacanthus' Blog
  • barnes' Blog
  • myfossiltrips.blogspot.com
  • HeritageFossils' Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Emily's MotE Adventure
  • farfarawy's Blog
  • Microfossil Mania!
  • A Novice Geologist
  • Southern Comfort
  • Eli's Blog
  • andreas' Blog
  • Recent Collecting Trips
  • retired blog
  • Stocksdale's Blog
  • andreas' Blog test
  • fossilman7's Blog
  • Books I have enjoyed
  • Piranha Blog
  • xonenine's blog
  • xonenine's Blog
  • Fossil collecting and SAFETY
  • Detrius
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Kehbe's Kwips
  • RomanK's Blog
  • Prehistoric Planet Trilogy
  • mikeymig's Blog
  • Western NY Explorer's Blog
  • Regg Cato's Blog
  • VisionXray23's Blog
  • Carcharodontosaurus' Blog
  • What is the largest dragonfly fossil? What are the top contenders?
  • Hihimanu Hale
  • Test Blog
  • jsnrice's blog
  • Lise MacFadden's Poetry Blog
  • BluffCountryFossils Adventure Blog
  • meadow's Blog
  • Makeing The Unlikley Happen
  • KansasFossilHunter's Blog
  • DarrenElliot's Blog
  • jesus' Blog
  • A Mesozoic Mosaic
  • Dinosaur comic
  • Zookeeperfossils
  • Cameronballislife31's Blog
  • My Blog
  • TomKoss' Blog
  • A guide to calcanea and astragali
  • Group Blog Test
  • Paleo Rantings of a Blockhead
  • Dead Dino is Art
  • The Amber Blog
  • TyrannosaurusRex's Facts
  • PaleoWilliam's Blog
  • The Paleo-Tourist
  • The Community Post
  • Lyndon D Agate Johnson's Blog
  • BRobinson7's Blog
  • Eastern NC Trip Reports
  • Toofuntahh's Blog
  • Pterodactyl's Blog
  • A Beginner's Foray into Fossiling
  • Micropaleontology blog
  • Pondering on Dinosaurs
  • Fossil Preparation Blog
  • On Dinosaurs and Media
  • cheney416's fossil story
  • jpc
  • Red-Headed Red-Neck Rock-Hound w/ My Trusty HellHound Cerberus
  • Red Headed
  • Paleo-Profiles
  • Walt's Blog
  • Between A Rock And A Hard Place
  • Rudist digging at "Point 25", St. Bartholomä, Styria, Austria (Campanian, Gosau-group)
  • Prognathodon saturator 101


  • Calendar


  • Annelids
  • Arthropods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
    • Trilobites
    • Other Arthropods
  • Brachiopods
  • Cnidarians (Corals, Jellyfish, Conulariids )
    • Corals
    • Jellyfish, Conulariids, etc.
  • Echinoderms
    • Crinoids & Blastoids
    • Echinoids
    • Other Echinoderms
    • Starfish and Brittlestars
  • Forams
  • Graptolites
  • Molluscs
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods (Ammonites, Belemnites, Nautiloids)
    • Gastropods
    • Other Molluscs
  • Sponges
  • Bryozoans
  • Other Invertebrates
  • Ichnofossils
  • Plants
  • Chordata
    • Amphibians & Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Dinosaurs
    • Fishes
    • Mammals
    • Sharks & Rays
    • Other Chordates
  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 10 results

  1. Gastrolith plus ?

    This is a gastrolith that has a mesh like fossil within it. Any Ideas of what the mesh/comb could be?
  2. Gastrolith question

    Amateur alert: i am NOT a professional paleontologist; I am a semi retired therapist who happens to be a paleontology hobbyist. I've seen several things advertised as gastroliths, and the prices seem easily doable. But HOW in the world is a rock determined to be a gastrolith, and not just a smoothish-rock that's a bit worn? A rock that has been inside a prehistoric animal (not just dinosaurs, I'm guessing?) is WILDLY cool, but a smoothed and tumbled rock is not.
  3. Didn't do the lick test on this one

    I found this odd little pebble in the Lance fm. in Wyoming over the summer and have yet to post on the forum so I thought I'd do so tonight. Anywhere else I probably wouldn't have kept it, but since I found it in a dinosaur bearing formation I was thinking it had the potential to be a gastrolith as it's completely smooth and rounded along with being a different color than most of the surrounding sediment I found it in, possibly hinting at transportation from its origin. I'd like to know your thoughts as I think it would be really cool to have found a dinosaur gastrolith. It's also not a piece of rabbit or deer scatt as it's not squishable (trust me I've accidentally picked them up before out there).
  4. gastrolith 1.jpg

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Gastrolith Utah Jurassic Period (199.6 to 145.5 million years ago) A gastrolith, also called a stomach stone or gizzard stones, is a rock held inside a gastrointestinal tract. Gastroliths in some species are retained in the muscular gizzard and used to grind food in animals lacking suitable grinding teeth. In other species the rocks are ingested and pass through the digestive system and are frequently replaced. The grain size depends upon the size of the animal and the gastrolith's role in digestion. Other species use gastroliths as ballast. Particles ranging in size from sand to cobbles have been documented. Some extinct animals such as sauropod dinosaurs appear to have used stones to grind tough plant matter. A rare example of this is the Early Cretaceous theropod Caudipteryx zoui from northeastern China, which was discovered with a series of small stones, interpreted as gastroliths, in the area of its skeleton that would have corresponded with its abdominal region. Aquatic animals, such as plesiosaurs, may have used them as ballast, to help balance themselves or to decrease their buoyancy, as crocodiles do.
  5. gastrolith 1.jpg

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Gastrolith Utah Jurassic Period (199.6 to 145.5 million years ago) A gastrolith, also called a stomach stone or gizzard stones, is a rock held inside a gastrointestinal tract. Gastroliths in some species are retained in the muscular gizzard and used to grind food in animals lacking suitable grinding teeth. In other species the rocks are ingested and pass through the digestive system and are frequently replaced. The grain size depends upon the size of the animal and the gastrolith's role in digestion. Other species use gastroliths as ballast. Particles ranging in size from sand to cobbles have been documented. Some extinct animals such as sauropod dinosaurs appear to have used stones to grind tough plant matter. A rare example of this is the Early Cretaceous theropod Caudipteryx zoui from northeastern China, which was discovered with a series of small stones, interpreted as gastroliths, in the area of its skeleton that would have corresponded with its abdominal region. Aquatic animals, such as plesiosaurs, may have used them as ballast, to help balance themselves or to decrease their buoyancy, as crocodiles do.
  6. Hi all, I am interested in getting a gastrolith from the Cloverly Formation. It measures 2.2" by 1.2" As I understand though, the "typical" gastrolith comes from the Morrison Formation. Are Cloverly Formation ones common? I've read the various gastrolith threads here. This stone seem to fit the criteria of having certain smooth edges, and unevenly rough sections as well (the smoothness comes from rubbing against the dinosaurs stomach along with acid, rather than being evenly worn by water). Still, I would like your thoughts on this. Does it look like a genuine gastrolith? Thank you.
  7. First of all, hello to all of you on the Fossil forum- My name is Erik. newbie here, first post. Secondly, I'm exceptionally curious as to what organism in the fossil record has the first confirmed gastrolith (non-exolith) presence. I found and read through Fruitbat's research, and he had some very interesting articles about gastroliths, some of which I've seen, some of which I have not. I feel that Gastroliths are incredibly important to Archosaur evolution because they fulfill much the same role that differentiated teeth for thorough mastication do in mammals. Of course, proving that a differentiated tooth came from a synapsid is much, much easier than proving a gastrolith found outside of any skeletal remains (an exolith) came from an Archosaur. I'm sure many of you know most of this already... any information you can provide would be appreciated.
  8. Gastrolith question

    How to discern a gastrolith from a worn pebble? Thanks John
  9. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 1, 2018. Eggs (Oolithids) and Nesting Sites Eggs and Nesting Sites - Precambrian Yin, L., et al. (2007). Doushantuo embryos preserved inside diapause egg cysts. Nature, Vol.446. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Cambrian Lin, J.-P., et al. (2006). Silicified egg clusters from a Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposit, Guizhou, south China. Geology, Vol.34, Number 12. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Ordovician Hegna, T.A., M.J. Martin and S.A.F. Darroch (2017). Pyritized and in situ trilobite eggs from the Ordovician of New York (Lorraine Group): implications for trilobite reproductive biology. Geology, Vol.45, Number 3. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Permian Abu Hamad, A., et al. (2016). First Permian Occurrence of the Shark Egg Capsule Morphotype Palaeoryxis Brongniart, 1828. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1112290. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Triassic Böttcher, R. (2010). Description of the shark egg capsule Palaeoxyris friessi n.sp. from the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) of SW Germany and discussion of all known egg capsules from the Triassic of the Germanic Basin. Palaeodiversity, 3. Fischer, J., B.J. Axsmith and S.R. Ash (2010). First unequivocal record of the hybodont shark egg capsule Palaeoxyris in the Mesozoic of North America. N.Jb.Geol.Paläont.Abh., Vol.255/3. Fischer, J., S. Voigt and M. Buchwitz (2007). First elasmobranch egg capsules from freshwater lake deposits of the Madygen Formation (Middle to Late Triassic, Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). Freiberger Forschungshefte, C254, psf (15). Kitching, J.W. (1979). Preliminary Report on a Clutch of Six Dinosaurian Eggs from the Upper Triassic Elliot Formation, Northern Orange Free State. Palaeont.afr., 22. McLean, G. (2014). A Comparative Study of the Australian Fossil Shark Egg-Case Palaeoxyris duni, with Comments on Affinities and Structure. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 136. Pott, C., et al. (2008). Fossil Insect Eggs and Ovipositional Damage on Bennettitalian Leaf Cuticles from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Austria. J.Paleont., 82(4). Eggs and Nesting Sites - Jurassic Araujo, R., et al. (2013). Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Scientific Reports, 3:1924. Garcia, G., et al. (2006). Earliest Laurasian sauropod eggshells. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(1). Joyce, W.G. and D.K. Zelenitsky (2002). Turtle egg pseudomorphs from the Late Jurassic of Schamhaupten, Germany. Archaeopteryx, 20. Mateus, I., et al. (1998). Upper Jurassic Theropod Dinosaur embryos from Lourinhã (Portugal). Memórias da Academia Ciências de Lisboa, Vol.37. Popa, M.E. and A. Zaharia (2011). Early Jurassic Ovipositories on Bennettitalean Leaves from Romania. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, Vol.7. Reisz, R.R., et al. (2012). Oldest known dinosaurian nesting site and reproductive biology of the Early Jurassic sauropodomorph Massospondylus. PNAS, Early Edition. Ribeiro, V., et al. (2014). Two new theropod egg sites from the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. Historical Biology, Vol.26, Number 2. Russo, J., et al. (2017). Two new ootaxa from the late Jurassic : The oldest record of crocodylomorph eggs from the Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. PLoS ONE, 12(3). (Thanks to Fossildude19 for finding this one!) Russo, J., et al. (2014). Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunicaҫões Geológicas, 101, Especial 1. Zaton, M. and A.A. Mironenko (2015). Exceptionally Preserved Late Jurassic Gastropod Egg Capsules. Palaios, Vol.30. Zaton, M., G. Niedzwiedzki and G. Pienkowski (2009). Gastropod Egg Capsules Preserved on Bivalve Shells from the Lower Jurassic (Hettangian) of Poland. Palaios, Vol.24. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Cretaceous Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - Africa/Middle East Garcia, G., et al. (2003). First Record of Dinosaur Eggshells and Teeth from the North-West African Maastrichtian (Morocco). Palaeovertebrata, Montpelier, 32(2-4). Gottfried, M.D., et al. (2004). Dinosaur Eggshell from the Red Sandstone Group of Tanzania. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(2). Krassilov, V., et al. (2007). Insect eggs sets on angiosperm leaves from the Lower Cretaceous of Negev, Israel. Cretaceous Research, 28. Lawver, D.R., A.H. Rasoamiaramanana and I. Werneberg (2015). An Occurrence of Fossil Eggs from the Mesozoic of Madagascar and a Detailed Observation of Eggshell Microstructure. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e973030. Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Bajpai, S., S. Srinivasan and A. Sahni (1997). Fossil Turtle Eggshells from Infratrappean Beds of Duddukuru, Anhdra Pradesh. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.49. Buffetaut, E., et al. (2005). Minute theropod eggs and embryo from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand and the dinosaur-bird transition. Naturwissenschaften, 00, Short Communications. D*ng, Z.-M. and P.J. Currie (1996). On the discovery of an oviraptorid skeleton on a nest of eggs at Bayan Mandahu, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. Can.J.Earth Sci., 33. Fernandez, V., et al. (2015). Evidence of Egg Diversity in Squamate Evolutiion from Cretaceous Anguimorph Embryos. PLoS ONE, 10(7). Huh, M., et al. (2014). First record of a complete giant theropod egg clutch from Upper Cretaceous deposits, South Korea. Historical Biology, Vol.26, Number 2. Ji, Q., et al. (2004). Pterosaur egg with a leathery shell. Nature (Brief Communications), Vol.432. Johnston, P.A., D.A. Eberth and P.K. Anderson (1996). Alleged vertebrate eggs from Upper Cretaceous redbeds, Gobi Desert, are fossil insect (Coleoptera) pupal chambers: Fictovichnus new ichnogenus. Can.J. Earth Sci., 33. (Thanks to doushantuo for finding this one!) Khosla, A. (2001). Diagenetic Alterations of Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Eggshell Fragments of India. Gaia, Number 16. Khosla, A. and A. Sahni (1995). Parataxonomic Classification of Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Eggshells from India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.40. Kim, J.Y., et al. (2011). Dinosaur Eggs from the Cretaceous Goseong Formation of Tongyeong City, Southern Coast of Korea. J.Paleont.Soc. Korea, Vol.27, Number 1. Lawver, D.R., et al. (2016). An Avian Egg from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian). Liangtoutang Formation of Zhejiang Province, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1100631. Liu, J.-Y., et al. (2013). A parataxonomic revision of spheroolithid eggs from the Upper Cretaceous Quantou Formation in Changtu, Liaoning. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 51(4). Mikhailov, K.E. (2000). 28. Eggs and eggshells of dinosaurs and birds from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. In: The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia. Benton, M.J., et al. (eds.), Cambridge University Press. Mikhailov, K.E. (1996). New Genera of Fossil Eggs from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Paleontological Journal, Vol.30, Number 2. Mohabey, D.M. (1998). Systematics of Indian Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur and Chelonian Eggshells. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18(2). Norell, M.A., J.M. Clark and L.M. Chiappe (2001). An Embryonic Oviraptorid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 3315. Paik, I.S., H.J. kim. and M. Huh (2012). Dinosaur egg deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup, Korea: Diversity and paleobiological implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, unpublished manuscript. Prasad, G.V.R., et al. (2015). Testudoid and crocodiloid eggshells from the Upper Cretaceous Deccan Intertrappean Beds of Central India. C.R. Palevol, 14. Sabath, K. (1991). Upper Cretaceous Amniotic Eggs from the Gobi Desert. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.36, Number 2. Sahni, A. (2015). Dinosaur Nesting Sites of India: A Review. Science and Culture, Vol.81, Numbers 5-6. Srivastava, A.K. and R.S. Mankar (2015). Megaloolithus Dinosaur Nest from the Lameta Formation of Salbardi Area, Districts Amravati, Maharashtra, and Betul, Madhya Pradesh. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.85. Srivastava, R., et al. (2015). Crocodilian Nest in a Late Cretaceous Sauropod Hatchery from the Type Lameta Ghat Locality, Jabalpur, India. PLoS ONE, 10(12). Varricchio, D.J. and D.E. Barta (2015). Revisiting Sabath's "Larger Avian Eggs" from the Gobi Cretaceous. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1). Vianey-Liaud, M., S.L. Jain and A. Sahni (1987). Dinosaur Eggshells (Saurischia) from the Late Cretaceous Intertrappean and Lameta Formations (Deccan, India). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 7(4). Wang, Q., et al. (2013). New forms of dictyoolithids from the Tiantai Basin, Zhejiang Province of China and a parataxonomic revision of the dictyoolithids. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 51(1). Wang, Q., et al. (2013). New turtle egg fossil from the Upper Cretaceous of the Laiyang Basin, Shandong Province, China. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 85(1). Wang, Q., et al. (2012). A new oofamily of dinosaur egg from the Upper Cretaceous Tiantai Basin, Zhejiang Province, and its mechanism of eggshell formation. Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol.57, Numbers 28-29. Wang, Q., et al. (2011). New Ootypes of Dinosaur Eggs from the Late Cretaceous in Tiantai Basin, Zhejiang Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 49(4). Wang, Q., et al. (2010). A New Oogenus of Elongatoolithidae from the Upper Cretaceous Chichengshan Formation of Tiantai Basin, Zhejiang Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(2). Wang, X.-l., et al. (2017). Egg accumulation with 3D embryos provides insight into the life history of a pterosaur. Science, 358. Wang, X.-l., et al. (2012). Dinosaur Egg Faunas of the Upper Cretaceous Terrestrial Red Beds of China and Their Stratigraphical Significance. Journal of Stratigraphy, Vol.36, Number 2. Zhang, S.-K. (2010). A Parataxonomic Revision of the Cretaceous Faveoloolithid Eggs of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(3). Zhang, S.K. and Q. Wang (2010). A New Oospecies of Ovaloolithids from Turpan Basin in Xinjiang, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(1). Zhao, H. and Z.-K. Zhou (1999). A New Form of Elongatoolithid Dinosaur Eggs from the Lower Cretaceous Shahai Formation of Heishan, Liaoning Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 37(4). Zhou, H. and Z.-K. Zhou (1998). Dinosaur Eggs from Xichuan Basin, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 36(4). Zhou, Z. and Z.-C. Li (1988). A New Structural Type of Dinosaur Eggs from Anlu County, Hubei Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica,26(2). Zou, S.-L., Q. Wang and X.-L. Wang (2013). A new oospecies of parafaveoolithids from the Pingxiang Basin, Jiangxi Province, of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 51(2). Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Botfalvai, G., et al. (2017). Taphonomical and palaeoecological investigation of the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Tustea vertebrate assemblage (Romania, Hateg Basin) - insights into a unique dinosaur nesting locality. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 268. Codrea, V., et al. (2002). Dinosaur egg nests, mammals and other vertebrates from a new Maastrichtian site of the Hateg Basin (Romania). C.R. Palevol, 1. Grellet-Tinner, G., et al. (2012). First Record of Reproductive Adaptation to "Island Effect" of a Dwarf Cretaceous Romanian Titanosaur, with Embryonic Integument In Ovo. PLoS One, 7(3). Grigorescu, D. (2016). The 'Tustea puzzle' revisited: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Megaloolithus eggs associated with Telmatosaurus hatchlings in the Hateg Basin. Historical Biology. Grigorescu, D. and Z. Csiki (2008). A New Site with Megaloolithid Egg Remains in the Maastrichtian of the Haṭeg Basin. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, v.6. Kohring, R. (1991). Lizard Egg Shells from the Lower Cretaceous of Cuenca Province, Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.34, Part 1. López-Martínez, N. (2000). Eggshell Sites from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Transition in South-Central Pyrenees (Spain). First International Symposium on Dinosaur Eggs and Babies, Extended Abstracts. López-Martínez, N. and E. Vicens (2012). A New Peculiar Dinosaur Egg, Sankofa pyrenaica Oogen.Nov. Oosp.Nov. from the Upper Cretaceous Coastal Deposits of the Aren Formation, South-Central Pyrenees, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.55, Part 2. Moreno-Azanza, M., J.I. Canudo and J.M. Gasca (2014). Spheroolithid eggshells in the Lower Cretaceous of Europe. Implications for eggshell evolution in ornithischian dinosaurs. Cretaceous Research, 51. Moreno-Azanza, M., J.I. Canudo and J.M. Gasca (2014). Unusual theropod eggshells from the Early Cretaceous Blessa Formation of the Iberian Range, Spain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Moreno-Azanza, M., et al. (2014). A re-evaluation of aff. Megaloolithidae eggshell fragments from the uppermost Cretaceous of the Pyrenees and implications for crocodylomorph eggshell structure. Historical Biology, Vol.26, Number 2. Sellés, A.G. (2012). Oological Record of Dinosaurs in South Central Pyrenees (SW Europe): Parataxonomy, Diversity and Biostratigraphical Implications. Ph.D. Thesis - Universitat de Barcelona. Sellés, A.G. and B. Vila (2015). Re-evaluation of the age of some dinosaur localities from the southern Pyrenees by means of megaloolithid oospecies. Journal of Iberian Geology, 41(1). Sellés, A.G., et al. (2013). Dinosaur Eggs in the Upper Cretaceous of the Coll de Nargo area, Lleida Province, south-central Pyrenees, Spain: Oodiversity, biostratigraphy and their implications. Cretaceous Research, 40. Skutschas, P.P., et al. (2017). The first dinosaur egg from the Lower Cretaceous of Western Siberia, Russia. Historical Biology, 2017. Zaton, M.and A.A. Mironenko (2015). Gastropod egg capsules preserved on an Early Cretaceous ammonite from Daghestan, Russia. Cretaceous Research, 55. Zaton, M., A.A. Mironenko and K. Banasik (2017). Gastropod egg capsules from the Lower Cretaceous of Russia preserved by calcitation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 466. Zaton, M., P.D. Taylor and J.W.M. Jagt (2013). Late Cretaceous gastropod egg capsules from the Netherlands preserved by bioimmuration. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(2). Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - North America Horner, J.R. (1999). Egg Clutches and Embryos of Two Hadrosaurian Dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19(4). Lawver, D.R, and F.D. Jackson (2016). An accumulation of turtle eggs with embryos from the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) Judith River Formation of Montana. Cretaceous Research, accepted manuscript. Varricchio, D.J. and F.D. Jackson (2004). A Phylogenetic Assessment of Prismatic Dinosaur Eggs from the Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(4). Varricchio, D.J., J.R. Horner and F.D. Jackson (2002). Embryos and Eggs for the Cretaceous Theropod Dinosaur Troodon formosus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3). Zelenitsky, D.K. and F. Therrien (2008). Unique Maniraptoran Egg Clutch from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana Reveals Theropod Nesting Behaviour. Palaeontology, Vol.51, Part 6. Zelenitsky, D.K., et al. (2008). First fossil gravid turtle provides insight into the evolution of reproductive traits in turtles. Biol. Lett., 4. Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites - South America/Central America/Caribblean Chiappe, L.M., et al. (2004). Argentinian unhatched pterosaur fossil. Nature (Brief Communications), Vol.432. Fernández, M.S., et al. (2013). A Large Accumulation of Avian Eggs from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina) Reveals a Novel Nesting Strategy in Mesozoic Birds. PLoS ONE, 8(4). Grellet-Tinner, G. and H. Zaher (2007). Taxonomic Identification of the Megaloolothid Egg and Eggshells from the Cretaceous Bauru Basin (Minas Gerais, Brazil): Comparison With the Auca Mahuevo (Argentina) Titanosaurid Eggs. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologica, Vol.47(7). Grellet-Tinner, G., L.M. Chappe and R. Coria (2004). Eggs of titanosaurid saurpods from the Upper Cretaceous of Auca Mahuevo (Argentina). Can.J. Earth Sci., 41. Grellet-Tinner, G., et al. (2014). The first pterosaur 3-D egg: Implications for Pterodaustro guinazui nesting strategies, an Albian filter feeder pterosaur from central Argentina. Geoscience Frontiers, 5. Hechenleitner, E.M., et al. (2016). A New Upper Cretaceous Titanosaur Nesting Site from La Rioja (NW Argentina), With Implications for Titanosaur Nesting Strategies. Palaeontology. Hechenleitner, E.M., et al. (2016). Micro-CT scan reveals an unexpected high-volume and interconnected pore network in a Cretaceous Sanagasta dinosaur eggshell. J.R.Soc. Interface, 13:20160008. Jackson, F.D. (2007). Titanosaur Reproductive Biology: Comparison of the Auca Mahuevo Titanosaur Nesting Locality (Argentina), to the Pinyes Megaloolithus Nesting Locality (Spain). Ph.D. Dissertation - Montana State University. (179 pages) Marsola, J.C. de A.,. et al. (2016). Palaeoenvironmental characterization of a crocodilian nesting site from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil and the evolution of crocodyliform nesting strategies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 457. Marsola, J.C. de A., et al. (2014). The first Pan-Podocnemididae turtle egg from the Presidente Prudente Formation (Late Cretaceous, Bauru Group), Brazil. Zootaxa, 3872(2). Marsola, J.C. de A., et al. (2014). The first fossil avian egg from Brazil. Alcheringa, 38, xxx-xxx. Oliveira, C.E.M., et al. (2011). Crocodylomorph Eggs and Eggshells from the Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group), Upper Cretaceous of Brazil. Palaeontology, Vol.54, Part 2. Salgado, L., et al. (2007). Upper Cretaceous dinosaur nesting sites of Rio N*gro (Salitral Ojo de Agua and Salinas de Trapalco-Salitral de Santa Rosa), northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research, 28. Schweitzer, M.H., et al. (2002). Late Cretaceous Avian Eggs With Embryos From Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(1). General Cretaceous Eggs and Nesting Sites Balanoff, A.M., et al. (2008). Digital preparation of a probable neoceratopsian preserved within an egg, with comments on microstructural anatomy of ornithischian egg shells. Naturwissenschaften, 95. Jackson, F.D. and J.G. Schmitt (2008). Recognition of vertebrate egg abnormalities in the Upper Cretaceous fossil record. Cretaceous Research, 29. Panades I Blas, X. (2005). Diversity versus variability in Megaloolithid dinosaur eggshells. PalArch, 2, 1. Sander, P.M., et al. (2008). Upper Cretaceous titanosaur nesting sites and their implications for sauropod dinosaur reproductive biology. Palaeontographica Abt. A, 284. Wiemann, J., et al. (2017). Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs. PeerJ, 5:e3706. Zelenitsky, D.K. and F. Therrien (2008). Phylogenetic Analysis of Reproductive Traits of Maniraptoran Theropods and Its Implications for Egg Parataxonomy. Palaeontology, Vol.51, Part 4. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Paleocene Angst, D., et al. (2015). Diet and climatic context of giant birds inferred from δ13Cc and δ18Oc values of Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene eggshells from southern France. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 435. Donaire, M. and N. López-Martínez (2009). Porosity of Late Paleocene Ornitholithus eggshells (Tremp Fm., south-central Pyrenees, Spain): Paleoclimatic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 279. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Eocene Hastings, A.K. and M. Hellmund (2015). Rare In Situ Preservation of Adult Crocodylian With Eggs from the Middle Eocene of Geiseltal, Germany. Palaios, Vol.30. Kiel, S., J. Peckmann and K. Simon (2013). Catshark egg capsules from a Late Eocene deep-water methane-seep deposit in western Washington State, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(1). Sellick, J.T.C. (1994). Phasmida (Stick Insect) Eggs from the Eocene of Oregon. Palaeontology, Vol.37, Part 4. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Miocene Bibi, F., et al. (2006). New Fossil Ratite (Aves: Paleognathae) Eggshell Discoveries from the Late Miocene Baynunah Formation of the United Arab Emirates, Arabian Peninsula. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.9, Issue 1. Blas, X.P.I. and R. Patnaik (2009). A Complete Crocodylian Egg from the Upper Miocene (Chinji Beds) of Pakistan and its Palaeobiographical Implications. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 6(1). Grellet-Tinner, G., et al. (2012). The First Occurrence in the Fossil Record of an Aquatic Avian Twig-Nest with Phoenicopteriformes Eggs: Evolutionary Implications. PLoS ONE, 7(10). Eggs and Nesting Sites - Pliocene Harrison, T. (2005). Fossil bird eggs from the Pliocene of Laetoli, Tanzania: Their taxonomic and paleoecological relationships. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 41. Kuhn, B.F., et al. (2015). Identification of fossilized eggshells from the Taung hominin locality, Taung, Northwest Province, South Africa. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.11A. Mueller-Töwe, I.J., et al. (2011). First chelonian eggs and carapace fragments from the Pliocene of Rhodes, Greece. N.Jb.Geol.Palaönt.Abh., 262/3. Eggs and Nesting Sites - Pleistocene Bennike, O. (1998). Fossil egg sacs of Diaptomus (Crustaceae: Copepoda) in Late Quaternary lake sediments. Journal of Paleolimnology, 79. Bradbury, W.C. (1919). Some Notes on the Egg of Aepyornis maximus. The Condor, Vol.XXI, Number 3. Grellet-Tinner, G., N.A. Spooner and T.H. Worthy (2016). Is the "Genyornis" egg of a mihirung or another extinct bird from the Australian dreamtime? Quaternary Science Reviews, 133. Lawver, D.R. and F.D. Jackson (2016). A Fossil Egg Clutch from the Stem Turtle Meiolania platyceps: Implications for the Evolution of Turtle Reproductive Biology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1223685. Mlíkovský, J. (2003). Eggs of extinct aepyornithids (Aves: Aepyornithidae) of Madagascar: size and taxonomic identity. Sylvia, 39. Wetmore, A. (1939). A Pleistocene Egg from Nevada. Condor, Vol.XLI, Number 3. General Eggs and Nesting Sites Angst, D., et al. (2014). Fossil avian eggs from the Palaeogene of southern France: new size estimates and a possible taxonomic identification of the egg-layer. Geol.Mag. Brown, R.W. (1946). Fossil Egg Capsules of Chimaeroid Fishes. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.20, Number 3. Deeming, D.C. and M. Ruta (2014). Egg shape changes at the theropod-bird transition, and a morphometric study of amniote eggs. R.Soc.open sci., 1. dyke, G.J. and G.W. Kaiser (2010). Cracking a Developmental Constraint: Egg Size and Bird Evolution. Records of the Australian Museum, Vol.62. Hayward, J.L., et al. (2000). Eggshell Taphonomy at Modern Gull Colonies and a Dinosaur Clutch Site. Palaios, Vol.15. Horner, J.R. (2000). Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting. Anna.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci. 2000, 28. Horner, J.R. (1984). The Nesting Behavior of Dinosaurs. Scientific American, Vol.250, Number 4. Lawver, D.R., A.H. Rasoamiaramanana and I. Werneburg (2015). An Occurrence of Fossil Eggs from the Mesozoic of Madagascar and a Detailed Observation of Eggshell Microstructure. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e973030. Long, A., R.B. Hendershott and P.S. Martin (1983). Radiocarbon Dating of Fossil Eggshell. Radiocarbon, Vol.25, Number 2. Mikhailov, K.E. (1997). Fossil and recent eggshell in amniotic vertebrates: Fine structure, comparative morphology and classification. Special Papers in Palaeontology, Number 56. Mikhailov, K.E. (1991). Classification of Fossil Eggshells of Amniotic Vertebrates. Palaeontologica, Vol.36, Number 2. Mikhailov, K.E., E.S. Bray and K.F. Hirsch (1996). Parataxonomy of Fossil Egg Remains (Veterovata): Principles and Applications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16(4). Senut, B. and M. Pickford (1995). Fossil Eggs and Cenozoic Continental Biostratigraphy of Namibia. Paleont.afr., 32. Tanaka, R., D.K. Zelenitsky and F. Therrien (2015). Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs. PLoS ONE, 10(11). Vianey-Liaud, M., A. Khosla and G. Garcia (2003). Relationships Between European and Indian Dinosaur Eggs and Eggshells of the Oofamily Megaloolithidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(3). Vila, W., et al. (2010). 3-D Modelling of Megaloolithid Clutches: Insights about Nest Construction and Dinosaur Behaviour. PLoS ONE, 5(5). Wang, Q., X. Wang and Z. Zhao (2010). Recent Progress in the Study of Dinosaur Eggs in China. Dinosaurs, Vol.24, Number 2. Wiemann, J., et al. (2015). The blue-green eggs of dinosaurs: How fossil metabolites provide insights into the evolution of bird reproduction. PeerJ PrePrints. Zhao, Z. (1979). Progress in the Research of Dinosaur Eggs. In: Mesozoic and Cenozoic Red Beds of South China. Science Press. Gastroliths Gastroliths - Triassic Long, C., et al. (2006). Gastroliths in the Triassic Ichthyosaur Panjiangsaurus from China. J.Paleont., 80(3). Weems, R.E., M.J. Culp and O. Wings (2007). Evidence for Prosauropod Dinosaur Gastroliths in the Bull Run Formation (Upper Triassic, Norian) of Virginia. Ichnos, 14:3. Gastroliths - Jurassic Grinvalds, K. (1982). Gastroliths of the Morrison(?) Formation, Sanpete Valley, Utah. Senior Thesis - The Ohio State University. Wings, O. (2015). The rarity of gastroliths in sauropod dinosaurs - a case study in the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, western USA. Foss.Rec., 18. Gastroliths - Cretaceous Cerda, I.A. (2008). Gastroliths in an ornithopod dinosaur. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53(2). Cicimurri, D.J. and M.J. Everhart (2007). An Elasmosaur With Stomach Contents and Gastroliths from the Pierre Shale (Late Cretaceous) of Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 104(3-4). Everhart, M. (2005). Probable plesiosaur gastroliths from the basal Kiowa Shale (Early Cretaceous) of Kiowa County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.108, Numbers 3/4. O'Gorman, J.P., et al. (2014). Gastroliths associated with an Aristonectes specimen (Plesiosauria, Elasmosauridae), Lopez de Bertodano Formation (upper Maastrichtian) Seymour Island (Is. Marambio), Antarctic Peninsula. Cretaceous Research, 50. O'Gorman, J.P., et al. (2013). First record of gastroliths associated with elasmosaur remains from La Colonia Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian), Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina, with comments on the probable depositional palaeoenvironment of the source of the gastroliths. Cretaceous Research, 40. Schmeisser, R.L. and D.D. Gillette (2009). Unusual Occurrence of Gastroliths in a Polycotylid Plesiosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Tropic Shale, Southern Utah. Palaios, Vol.24. Zhou, Z., et al. (2004). Gastroliths in Yanornis: an indication of the earliest radical diet-switching and gizzard plasticity in the lineage leading to modern birds? Naturwissenschaften, 91. Gastroliths - Pleistocene Hoskins, C.M., R.D. Guthrie and B.L.P. Hoffman. Pleistocene, Holocene and Recent Bird Gastroliths from Interior Alaska. Arctic, 23. General Gastroliths Calvo, J.O. (1994). Gastroliths in Sauropod Dinosaurs. Gaia, Number 10. Wings, O. (2007). A review of gastrolith function with implications for fossil vertebrates and a revised classification. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52(1). Wings, O. (2004). Identification, Distribution and Functions of Gastroliths in Dinosaurs and Extant Birds with Emphasis on Ostriches (Struthio camelus). Ph.D. Dissertation - Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn. Wings, O. and P.M. Sander (2007). No gastric mill in sauropod dinosaurs: new evidence from analysis of gastrolith mass and function in ostriches. Proc.R.Soc.B, 274. Regurgitated Material ('Ejecta', Gastric Pellets and Speiballen) Triassic Dalla Vecchia, F.M., G. Muscio and R. Wild (1989). Pterosaur Remains in a Gastric Pellet from the Upper Triassic (Norian) of Rio Seazza Valley (Udine, Italy). Gortiana. Holgado, B., et al. (2015). A Reappraisal of the Purported Gastric Pellet with Pterosaurian Bones from the Upper Triassic of Italy. PLoS ONE, 10(11). Jurassic Borszcz, T. and M. Zatoń (2013). The oldest record of predation on echinoids: evidence from the Middle Jurassic of Poland. Lethaia, Vol.46. Thies, D. and R.B. Hauff (2013). A Speiballen from the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale of South Germany. N.Jb.Geol.Paläont.Abh., 267. Zatoń, M., L. Villier and M.A. Salamon (2007). Signs of predation in the Middle Jurassic of south-central Poland: evidence from echinoderm taphonomy. Lethaia, Vol.40. Cretaceous Sanz, J.L., et al. (2001). An Early Cretaceous pellet. Nature, Vol.409 (Brief Communications) Oligocene Smith, K.T. and M. Wuttke (2015). Avian pellets from the late Oligocene of Enspel, Germany - ecological interactions in deep time. Palaeobio. Palaeoenv. Pleistocene Attard, I.R. and J.W.F. Reumer (2009). Taphonomic reinterpretation of a bone sample of endemic Pleistocene deer from Crete: osteoporosis versus regurgitation. Palaeodiversity, 2. Boaz, N.T., et al. (2000). Large Mammalian Carnivores as a Taphonomic Factor in the Bone Accumulation at Zhoukoudian. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, Supplement to Vol.19. Coprolites (Feces) Coprolites - Cambrian Kimmig, J. and B.R. Pratt (2018). Coprolites in the Ravens Throat River Lagerstätte of Northwestern Canada: Implications for the Middle Cambrian Food Web. Palaios, Vol.33. Kimmig, J. and L.C. Strotz (2017). Coprolites in mid-Cambrian (Series 2-3) Burgess Shale-type deposits of Nevada and Utah and their ecological implications. Bulletin of Geosciences, 92(3). Coprolites - Silurian Edwards, D., et al. (1995). Coprolites as evidence for plant-animal interaction in Siluro-Devonian terrestrial ecosystems. Nature, Vol.377. Coprolites - Devonian Edwards, D., P.A. Selden and L. Axe (2012). Selective Feeding in an Early Devonian Terrestrial Ecosystem. Palaios, Vol.27. Habgood, K.S., H. Hass and H. Kerp (2004). Evidence for an early terrestrial food web: coprolites from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences. 94. Herbig, H.-G. (1993). First Upper Devonian Crustacean Coprolites: Favreina prima n.sp. from Northern Morocco. J.Paleont., 67(1). Zaton, M. and M. Rakocinski (2014). Coprolite evidence for carnivorous predation in a Late Devonian pelagic environment of southern Laurussia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 394. Coprolites - Carboniferous Baxendale, R.W. (1979). Plant-Bearing Coprolites from North American Pennsylvanian Coal Balls. Palaeontology, Vol.22, Part 3. Gong, Y.-M., L.-J. Zhang and Y.-B. Wu (2010). Carboniferous coprolites from Qinhuangdao of North China. South China Earth Sciences, Vol.53, Number 2. Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas (2013). The Fossil Record of Carboniferous and Permian Vertebrate Coprolites. In: The Carboniferous-Permian Transition. Lucas, S.G., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 60. Hunt, A.P., et al. (2013). Late Pennsylvanian Coprofauna from the Finis Shale of North-Central Texas. In: The Carboniferous-Permian Transition. Lucas, S.G., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 60. Hunt, A.P., et al. (2012). Bromalites from the Mississippian Bear Gulch Lagerstatte of Central Montana, USA. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P., et al. (2012). A New Marine Coprofauna from the Beeman Formation (Late Pennsylvanian: Late Missourian), Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, USA. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Krzykawski, T., et al. (2014). Carboniferous coprolite in the siderite concretion from Sosnowiec-Zagorze Lagerstatte, Poland - preliminary data. Freiberger Forschunghefte, C 548, 22. Rothwell, G.W. and A.C. Scott (1983). Coprolites Within Marattiaceous Fern Stems (Psaronius magnificus) from the Upper Pennsylvanian of the Appalachian Basin, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 41. Scott, A.C. (1977). Coprolites Containing Plant Material from the Carboniferous of Britain. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1. Coprolites - Permian Permian Coprolites - Antarctica Retallack, G.J. and E.S. Krull (1999). Permian coprolites from Graphite Peak, Antarctica. U.S. Antarctic Journal, 30(5). Permian Coprolites - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands D'Rosario, A., et al. (2011). Spatiotemporal extension of the Euramerican Psaronius component community to the Late Permian of Cathaysia: In situ coprolites in a P. housuoensis stem from Yunnan Province, southwest China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 306. Feng, Z., J. Wang and L.-J. Liu (2010). First report of oribatid mite (arthropod) borings and coprolites in Permian woods from the Helan Mountains of northern China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 288. Permian Coprolites - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Bajdek, P., et al. (2016). Microbiota and food residues including possible evidence of pre-mammalian hair in Upper Permian coprolites from Russia. Lethaia, Vol.49. Niedzwiedzki, G., et al. (2016). Reduction of vertebrate coprolite diversity associated with the end-Permian extinction event in Vyazniki region, European Russia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 450. Owocki, K., et al. (2012). Upper Permian Vertebrate Coprolites from Vyazniki and Gorokhvets, Vyatkian Regional Stage, Russian Platform. Palaios, Vol.27(12). Permian Coprolites - North America Cantrell, A.K., et al. (2012). Vertebrate Coprolites from the Lower Permian (Middle Wolfcampian) Gallina Well Locality, Joyita Hills, Socorro County, New Mexico. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P., S.G. Lucas and J.A. Spielmann (2005). Biochronology of Early Permian Vertebrate Coprolites of the American Southwest. In: The Permian of Central New Mexico. Lucas, S.G., K.E. Ziegler and J.A. Spielmann (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 31. Hunt, A.P., S.G. Lucas and J.A. Spielmann (2005). Early Permian Vertebrate Coprolites from North-Central New Mexico With Description of a New Ichnogenus. In: The Permian of Central New Mexico. Lucas, S.G., K.E. Ziegler and J.A. Spielmann (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 31. Permian Coprolites - South America/Central America/Caribbean Dentzien-Dias, P.C., G. Poinar and H. Francishini (2016). A new actinomycete from a Guadalupian vertebrate coprolite from Brazil. Historical Biology 2016. Dentzien-Dias, P.C., et al. (2012). Paleobiology of a unique vertebrate coprolites concentration from Rio do Rasto Formation (Middle/Upper Permian), Parana Basin, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 40. Izumi, K., R. Gunimaraes-Netto and J.H.D. Lima (2015). Microbe-Mediated Preservation of Invertebrate Fecal Pellets: Evidence from the Microfossil Phymatoderma burkei, Permian Shallow Marine, Teresina Formation, Southern Brazil. Palaios, Vol.30. General Permian Coprolites Dentzien-Dias, P.C., et al. (2013). Tapeworm Eggs in a 270 Million-Year-Old Shark Coprolite. PLoS ONE, 8(1). Coprolites - Triassic Brachaniec, T., et al. (2015). Coprolites of marine vertebrate predators from the Lower Triassic of southern Poland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 435. Da Silva, P.A., et al. (2014). A new ascarid species in cynodont coprolite dated of 240 million years. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 86(1). Fiorelli, L.E., et al. (2013). The oldest known communal latrines provide evidence of gregarism in Triassic megaherbivores. Scientific Reports, 3: 3348. Francischini, H., P. Dentzian-Diaz and C.L. Schultz (2017). A fresh look at ancient dungs: the Brazilian Triassic coprolites revisted. Lethaia, 2017. Hansen, B.B. (2014). Description and analysis of a Rhaetian vertebrate coprolite assemblage of the Kap Stewart Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland. Masters Thesis - University of Copenhagen. (98 pages) Hansen, B.B., et al. (2015). Coprolites from the Late Triassic Kap Stewart Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland: morphology, classification and prey inclusions. Geological Society London Special Publications, 434. Hollocher, K.T., et al. (2003). Carnivore Coprolites from the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, Argentina: Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Evidence for Rapid Initial Mineralization. Palaios, 20(1). Hugot, J.-P., et al. (2014). Discovery of a 240 million year old nematode parasite egg in a cynodont coprolite sheds light on the early origin of pinworms in vertebrates. Parasites&Vectors, 7. Hunt, A.P., S.G. Lucas and J.A. Spielmann (2013). Triassic Vertebrate Coprolite Ichnofaunas. In: The Triassic System. Tanner, L.H., J.A. Spielmann and S.G. Lucas (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 61. Hunt, A.P., et al. (2007). A Review of Vertebrate Coprolites of the Triassic With Descriptions of New Mesozoic Ichnotaxa. In: The Global Triassic. Lucas, S.G. and J.A. Spielmann (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 41. Klavins, S.D., et al. (2005). Coprolites in a Middle Triassic cycad pollen cone: evidence for insect pollination in early cycads? Evolutionary Ecology Research, 7. Milàn, J., et al. (2012). A Preliminary Report on Coprolites from the Late Triassic Part of the Kapstewart Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Nakajima, Y. and K. Izumi (2014). Coprolites from the upper Osawa Formation (upper Spathian), northeastern Japan: Evidence for predation in marine ecosystems 5 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 414. Niedzwiedzki, G., et al. (2016). An Early Triassic polar predator ecosystem revealed by vertebrate coprolites from the Bulgo Sandstone (Sydney Basin) of southeastern Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464. Perez Loinaze, V.S., et al. (2018). Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chanares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in press) Senowbari-Daryan, B., P. Schafer and R. Catalano (1979). Helicerina siciliana n.sp., a new anomuran coprolite from Upper Triassic reef limestones near Palermo (Sicily). Bull.Soc.Paleont.It., Vol.18, Number 2. Zaton, M., et al. (2015). Coprolites of Late Triassic carnivorous vertebrates of Poland: An integrative approach. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 430. Coprolites - Jurassic Buckland, W. (1829). XII. On the Discovery of Coprolites, or Fossil Faeces, in the Lias at Lyme Regis, and in other Formations. Geol.Trans. 2nd Series, Vol.III. Kietzmann, D.A., et al. (2010). Crustacean microcoprolites from the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous of the Neuquen Basin, Argentina: Systematics and biostratigraphic implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(2). Senowbari-Daryan, B., J. Lazăr and I.I. Bucur (2013). Favreina carpathica n.ichnosp. (Crustacean Microcoprolite) from the Middle Jurassic of Rucăr-Bran Zone (Southern Carpathians, Romania). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.119, Number 2. Coprolites - Cretaceous Cretaceous Coprolites - Africa/Middle East Senowbari-Daryan, B., et al. (2009). Crustacean microcoprolites from the Upper Cretaceous of Egypt. Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève, 28(2). Cretaceous Coprolites - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Ghosh, P., et al. (2003). Dinosaur coprolites from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Lameta Formation of India: isotopic and other markers suggest a C3 plant diet. Cretaceous Research, 24. Sonkusare, H., B. Samant and D.H. Mohabey (2017). Microflora from Sauropod Coprolites and Associated Sediments of Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Lameta Formation of Nand-Dongargaon Basin, Maharashtra. Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.89. Cretaceous Coprolites - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Anagnostakis, S. (2013). Upper Cretaceous coprolites from the Münster Basin (northwestern Germany) - a glimpse into the diet of extinct animals. Masters Thesis - Lund University. Bajdek, P. (2013). Coprolite of a durophagous carnivore from the Upper Cretaceous Godula Beds, Outer Western Carpathians, Poland. Geological Quarterly, 57(2). Barrios-de Pedro, et al. (2018). Exceptional coprolite association from the Early Cretaceous continental Lagerstätte of Las Hoyas, Cuencas, Spain. PLoS ONE, 13(5). Mansby, U. (2009). Late Cretaceous coprolites from the Kristianstad Basin, southern Sweden. Bachelors Thesis - Geologiska institutionen Centrum for GeoBiosfarsvetenskap, Lunds universitet. Milàn, J., et al. (2015). First Record of a Vertebrate Coprolite from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. Fossil Record 4, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 67. Segesdi, M., et al. (2017). First report on vertebrate coprolites from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Csehbanya Formation of Iharkut, Hungary. Cretaceous Research, 74. Vajda, V., et al. (2016). Dietary and environmental implications of Early Cretaceous predatory dinosaur coprolites from Teruel, Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in Press) Cretaceous Coprolites - North America Baghai-Riding, N.L. and J.N. DiBenedetto (2001). An Unusual Dinosaur Coprolite from the Campanian Aguja Formation, Texas. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, Vol.LI. Becker, M.A. and J.A. Chamberlain (2006). Anomuran Microcoprolites from the Lowermost Navesink Formation (Maastrichtian), Monmouth County, New Jersey. Ichnos, 13. Broughton, P.L., F. Simpson and S.H. Whitaker (1978). Late Cretaceous Coprolites from Western Canada. Palaeontology, Vol.21, Part 2. Broughton, P.L., F. Simpson and S.H. Whitaker (1977). Late Cretaceous Coprolites from Southern Saskatchewan: Comments on Excretion Plasticity and Ichnological Nomenclature. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, Vol.25, Number 5. Chin, K., J.H. Hartman and B. Roth (2009). Opportunistic exploitation of dinosaur dung: fossil snails in coprolites from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Lethaia, Vol.42. Chin, K., et al. (1998). A king-sized theropod coprolite. Nature, Vol.393. Everhart, M.J. (2007). Remains of a pycnodont fish (Actinopterygii: Pycnodontiformes) in a coprolite; An uppermost record of Micropycnodon kansasensis in the Smoky Hills Chalk, western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.110, Numbers 1/2. Harrell, S.D. and D.R. Schwimmer (2010). Coprolites of Deinosuchus and Other Crocodylians from the Upper Cretaceous of Western Georgia, USA. In: Crocodyle Tracks and Traces. Milàn, J. et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 51. Hollocher, K.T., T.C. Hollocher and J.K. Rigby (2010). A Phosphatic Coprolite Lacking Diagenetic Permineralization from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Northeastern Montana: Importance of Dietary Calcium Phosphate in Preservation. Palaios, Vol.25(2). Hollocher, K.T., et al. (2001). Bacterial Residues in Coprolite of Herbivorous Dinosaurs: Role of Bacteria in the Mineralization of Feces. Palaios, Vol.16. Mahaney, W.C., et al. (2012). Coprolites from the Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation of Saskatchewan. Cretaceous Research, xxx. (Article in Press). Mehling, C.M. (2004). Occurrence of Callianassid Coprolites in the Cretaceous of New Jersey. The Mosasaur, 7. Schwimmer, D.R., R.E. Weems and A.E. Sanders (2015). A Late Cretaceous Shark Coprolite With Baby Freshwater Turtle Vertebrae Inclusions. Palaios, Vol.30. Suazo, T.L., et al. (2012). Coprolites Across the Cretaceous/Tertiary Boundary, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Sullivan, R.M. and S.E. Jasinski (2012). Coprolites from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland, Kirtland and Ojo Alamo Formations, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Cretaceous Coprolites - South America/Central America/Caribbean Kietzmann, D.A. and R.M. Palma (2014). Early Cretaceous crustacean microcoprolites from Sierra de la Cara Cura, Neuquen Basin, Argentina: Taphonomy, environmental distribution, and stratigraphic correlation. Cretaceous Research, xxx. (Article in press) General Cretaceous Coprolites Poinar, G. and A.J. Boucot (2006). Evidence of intestinal parasites of dinosaurs. Parasitology, 133. Coprolites - Paleocene Milan, J. (2010). Coprolites from the Danian Limestone (Lower Paleocene) of Faxe Quarry, Denmark. In: Crocodyle tracks and traces. Milan, J., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 51. Milan, J. and A.P. Hunt (2016). Daniacopros hofstedtae, Ichnogen. et Ichnosp.nov., A New Vertebrate Coprolite Ichnotaxon from the Lower Danian Stevns Klint Formation of the Hammelev Limestone Quarry, Denmark. In: Fossil Record 5. Sullivan, R.M. and S.G. Lucas (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 74. Coprolites - Eocene Diedrich, C.G. and H. Felker (2012). Middle Eocene Shark Coprolites from Shallow Marine and Deltaic Coasts of the Pre-North Sea Basin in Central Europe. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2012). Crocodylian Coprolites from the Eocene of the Zaysan Basin, Kazakstan. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Robin, N., et al. (2016). Scale insect larvae preserved in vertebrate coprolites (Le Quesnoy, France, Lower Eocene): paleoecological insights. Sci.Nat., 103: 85. Coprolites - Miocene Dentzien-Dias, P., et al. (2018). Paleoecological and taphonomical aspects of the Late Miocene vertebrate coprolites (Urumaco Formation) of Venezuela. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 490. Godfrey, S.J. and J.B. Smith (2010). Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland. Naturwissenschaften, 97. Pesquero, M.D., et al. (2014). Calcium phosphate preservation of faecal bacteria negative moulds in hyaena coprolites. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Sharma, K.M. and R. Patnaik (2010). Coprolites from the lower Miocene Baripada beds of Orissa. Current Science, Vol.99, Number 6. Coprolites - Pliocene Harrison, T. (2011). Chapter 14. Coprolites: Taphonomic and Paleoecological Implications. In: Paleontology and Geology of Laetoli: Human Evolution in Context. Volume 1: Geology, Geochronolgy, Paleoecology and Paleoenvironment. Harrison, T. (ed.), Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology, Springer Science + Business Media B.V. Hunt, A.P., S.G. Lucas and A.J. Lichtig (2015). A Helical Coprolite from the Red Crag Formation (Plio-Pleistocene) of England. In: Fossil Record 4. Sullivan, R.M. and S.G. Lucas (eds.) New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 67. Coprolites - Pleistocene Pleistocene Coprolites - Africa/Middle East Bamford, M.K., et al. (2010). Botanical remains from a coprolite from the Pleistocene hominin site of Malapa, Sterkfontein Valley, South Africa. Palaeont.afr., 45. Carrión, J.S., et al. (2000). Palynology and palaeoenvironment of Pleistocene hyaena coprolites from an open-air site at Oyster Bay, Eastern Cape coast, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 96. Djamali, M., et al. (2011). Pollen analysis from coprolites from a late Pleistocene-Holocene cave deposit (Wezmeh Cave, west Iran): insights into the late Pleistocene and late Holocene vegetation and flora of the central Zagros Mountains. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38. Scott, L., E. Marais and G.A. Brook (2004). Fossil hyrax dung and evidence of Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation types in the Namib Desert. Journal of Quaternary Science, 19(8). Pleistocene Coprolites - Australia/New Zealand Wood, J.R. and J.M. Wilmshurst (2014). Late Quaternary terrestrial vertebrate coprolites from New Zealand. Quaternary Science Reviews, 98. Wood, J.R. and J.M. Wilmshurst (2013). Pollen analysis from coprolites reveals dietary details of heavy-footed moa (Pachyornis elephantopus) and coastal moa (Euryapteryx curtus) from Central Otago. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 37(1). Pleistocene Coprolites - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Alcover, J.A., et al. (1999). The diet of Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla: Caprinae), an extinct bovid from the Balearic Islands: evidence from coprolites. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 66. Argant, J. and V. Demitrijevic (2007). Pollen analyses of Pleistocene hyaena coprolites from Montenegro and Serbia. Annales Geologiques de la Peninsule Balkanique, 68. Carrión, J.S., et al. (2007). Pleistocene landscapes in central Iberia inferred from pollen analysis of hyena coprolites. Journal of Quaternary Science, 22(2). Carrión, J.S., et al. (2005). Palynology of badger coprolites from central Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 226. Diedrich, C.G. (2012). Topology of Ice Age Spotted Hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) Coprolite Aggregate Pellets from the European Late Pleistocene and Their Significance at Dens and Scavenging Sites. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Lewis, M.D. (2011). Pleistocene Hyaena Coprolite Palynology in Britain: Implications for the Environments of Early Humans. In: The Ancient Human Occupation of Britain. Ashton, N., S.G. Lewis and C. Stringer (eds.), Developments in Quaternary Science, Amsterdam: The Netherlands. Sanz, M., et al. (2016). Not only hyenids: A multi-scale analysis of Upper Pleistocene carnivore coprolites in Cova del Coll Verdaguer (NE Iberian Peninsula). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443. Reumer, J., D. Mol and W. Borst (2010). The first Late Pleistocene coprolite of Crocuta crocuta spelaea from the North Sea. DEINSEA, 14. Welker, F., et al. (2014). Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus. Quaternary Research, 81. Pleistocene Coprolites - North America Gill, F.L., et al. (2009). Lipid analysis of a ground sloth coprolite. Quaternary Research, 72. Poinar, H.N., et al. (2003). Nuclear Gene Sequences from a Late Pleistocene Sloth Coprolite. Current Biology, Vol.13. Poinar, H.N., et al. (1998). Molecular Coproscopy: Dung and Diet of the Extinct Ground Sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis. Science, Vol.281. General Pleistocene Coprolites Bon, C., et al. (2012). Coprolites as a source of information on the genome and diet of the cave hyena. Proc.R.Soc. B, Published online. General Coprolites (Feces) Chame, M. (2003). Terrestrial Mammal Feces: a Morphometric Study and Description. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz, Vol.98(Suppl.1). Chase, B.M., et al. (2012). Rock hyrax middens: a palaeoenvironmental archive for southern African drylands. Quaternary Science Reviews, 56. Chin, K. (2002). Analysis of Coprolites Produced by Carnivorous Vertebrates. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Duffin, C.J. (2009). "Records of warfare...embalmed in the everlasting hills": a History of Early Coprolite Research. Mercian Geologist, 17(2). Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas (2013). The Significance of Vertebrate Coprolites in Late Paleozoic (and Younger) Lagerstatten. In: The Carboniferous-Permian Transition. Lucas, S.G., et al. (eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 60. Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas (2012). Classification of Vertebrate Coprolites and Related Trace Fossils. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas (2012). Descriptive Terminology of Coprolites and Recent Feces. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas (2012). A Bromalite Collection at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), With Descriptions of New Ichnotaxa and Notes on Other Significant Coprolite Collections. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.) New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P., et al. (2012). Vertebrate Coprolite Studies: Status and Prospectus. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Hunt, A.P., et al. (2012). Vertebrate Coprolites and Other Bromalites in National Park Service Areas. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Johnson, K.L., et al. (2008). A Tick from a Prehistoric Arizona Coprolite. The Journal of Parasitology, Vol.94, Number 1. Kulkarni, K.G. and R. Panchang (2015). New Insights into Polychaete Traces and Fecal Pellets: Another Complex Ichnotaxon? PLoS ONE, 10(10). (Thanks to doushantuo for finding this one!) McAllister, J.A. (1985). Reevaluation of the Formation of Spiral Coprolites. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 114. Rawlence, N.J., et al. (2016). Dietary interpretations for extinct megafauna using coprolites, intestinal contents and stable isotopes: Complementary or contradictory? Quaternary Science Reviews, 142. Reinhard, K.J. and V.M. Bryant (1992). Coprolite Analysis: A Biological Perspective on Archaeology. Papers in Natural Resources, Paper 46. Scott, L., et al. (2003). Preservation and interpretation of pollen in hyaena coprolites: taphonomic observations from Spain and southern Africa. Palaeont. afr., 39. Thulborn, R.A. (1991). Morphology, preservation and palaeobiological significance of dinosaur coprolites. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 83. Williams, M.E. (1972). The Origin of "Spiral Coprolites". The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 59. Wings, O. (2012). Gastroliths in Coprolites - A Call to Search. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Wood, J.R. and J.M. Wilmshurst (2016). A protocol for subsampling Late Quaternary coprolites for multi-proxy analysis. Quaternary Science Reviews, 138. Wood, J.R., et al. (2013). Resolving lost herbivore community structure using coprolites of four sympatric moa species (Aves: Dinornithiformes). PNAS, Early Edition. Wood, J.R., et al. (2012). High-Resolution Coproecology: Using Coprolites to Reconstruct the Habits and Habitats of New Zealand's Extinct Upland Moa (Megalapteryx didinus). PLoS ONE, 7(6).
  10. Gastrolith In Coprolite?

    Hello All, I found this unique rock/fossil specimen at a local consignment store. It didn't have any information associated with it. I thought it may be a gastrolith imbedded in a coprolite due to the size and shape of the stone and the layering of the rock around it - but I may be way off. I live in northern Florida so it may have come from somewhere in this region. I would greatly appreciate your help identifying it! Weight: 170.4g or 6oz Size: 62mm by 50mm (Just bigger than a golf ball)