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Found 7 results

  1. Ground Sloth Toe Bone?

    So I found these fossil toe (possibly hand) bones at an antique store, they're allegedly the toe bones from a ground sloth, unfortunately there is no location for these specimens, while my instinct tells me they're from around the area; Florida, with no documentation I'm not sure. They were very lowly priced so even if they can't be ID'd I figured I might as well buy them, any ideas? Specimen 1 Specimen 2 (Note the blue mark was just an eraser shaving, my bad!)
  2. Ground Sloth Phalanx ?

    Hello Everyone, My treks to the river total 3 now and it is definitely a hit or miss sort of journey. This is a very worn phalanx of some sort ? Sloth possibly ... ? I'm not sure it's just a wild guess based on what I have seen before and online. @Harry Pristis @Shellseeker My mammal id's are not comparable to those of my South Florida fossil hunter masters. I apologize ahead of time these images are not my usual standard. The bones were in a fresh water soak and were still drying .... Size: 3 inches Long -- 1.5 inches wide Thanks, Brett
  3. Ancient human, giant sloth remains found in world's biggest flooded cave. Bones of Ice Age animals, including elephants and bears, found in Sac Actun system in Mexico. Thomson Reuters Posted: Feb 20, 2018 http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/mexico-flooded-cave-1.4543416 https://www.gob.mx/cultura/prensa/dan-a-conocer-hallazgos-en-el-sitio-arqueologico-sumergido-sac-actun Yours, Paul H.
  4. A not so lazy sloth...

    Hi all, Came across this, and thought it might interest a few of you: http://interestingengineering.com/these-impressive-tunnels-were-dug-by-ancient-giant-sloths/ Those ground sloths are really my favorite, they're gigantic but still have a cute/gentle look. And they're architectural masters too. Max
  5. Is this a sloth tooth?

    This tooth came out of the mud shattered and I reassembled the pieces I had. It was found in Florida's Peace River in a mix of miocene and pleistocene material. It measures approx. 2.25" wide x 2.25" long x 3/8" thick.
  6. Hi, I just signed in on fossilforum to see whether anybody is able to help me ID the fossil in the picture. Although I´ve read the guidelines on posting pics I'm afraid I can't offer any better pictures since the fossil in question is not in my posession and I was only able to take the picture attached. I did some checking on the internet, and my (very not expert) guess is it might be the upper jaw (part of skull) of some kind of ground sloth. The fossil was dragged up from the Orthon River in the northern Amazon of Bolivia, while dragging for gold. Apparently at the time they also found other parts of the animal including ribs, but it would be very difficult to retrieve any of this. I'd appreciate any suggestions on what this might be. Vincent
  7. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since March 23, 2018. Superorder Xenarthra Order Cingulata - The Armadillos and Their Allies. Family Dasypodidae - The Armadillos Dasypodidae - North America Osborn, H.F. (1904). An Armadillo from the Middle Eocene (Bridger) of North America. Vol.XX, Article XII. Schubert, B.W. and R.W. Graham (2000). Terminal Pleistocene armadillo (Dasypus) remains from the Ozark Plateau, Missouri, USA. PaleoBios, 20(1). Shapiro, B., R.W. Graham and B. Letts (2015). A revised evolutionary history of armadillos (Dasypus) in North America based on ancient mitochondrial DNA. Boreas, Vol.44. Slaughter, B.H. (1959). The first noted Occurrence of Dasypus bellus in Texas. Field and Laboratory, SMU, Vol.XXVII, Number 2. Dasypodidae - South America/Central America/Caribbean Babot, J., D.A. Garcia and T.J. Gaudin (2012). The Most Ancient Xenarthran Petrosal: Morphology and Evolutionary Significance. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32(5). Carbot-Chanona, G. (2010). The First Record of Dasypus (Xenarthra: Cingulata: Dasipodidae) in the Late Pleistocene of Mexico. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 27. Castro, M.C., et al. (2014). A new Dasypodini armadillo (Xenarthra: Cingulata) from San Gregorio Formation, Pliocene of Venezuela: affinities and biogeographic interpretations. Naturwissenschaften, Published on-line. Castro, M.C., et al. (2013). Redescription of Dasypus punctatus Lund, 1840 and Considerations on the Genus Propaopus Ameghino, 1881 (Xenarthra, Cingulata). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(2). Francia, A. and M.R. Ciancio (2013). First record of Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae) in the late Pleistocene of Corrientes Province (Argentina). Revista del Museo de La Plata, 13(70). Gonzalez-Ruiz, L.R., et al. (2012). A new species of Peltephilidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the late Miocene (Chasicoan SALMA) of Argentina. Zootaxa, 3359. Olveira, E.V. and L.P. Bergqvist (1998). A New Paleocene Armadillo (Mammalia, Dasypodoidea) from the Itaborai Basin, Brazil. Asociacion Paleontologica Argentina, Special Publication 5. Olveira, E.V., et al. (2014). The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (2014). Scillato-Yane, G.J., C.M. Krmpotic and G.I. Esteban (2010). The species of genus Chasicotatus Scillato-Yane (Eutatini: Dasypodidae). Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.27, Number 1. Tomassini, R.L., C.I. Montalvo and M.C. Esquiaga (2016). The oldest record of flea/armadillos interaction as example of bioerosion on osteoderms from the late Miocene of the Argentine Pampas. International Journal of Paleopathology, 15. Vizcaino, S.F., et al. (2006). The armadillos (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) of the Santa Cruz Formation (early-middle Miocene): An approach to their paleobiology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 237. General Dasypodidae Farina, R.A. and S.F. Vizcaino (1997). Allometry of the bones of living and extinct armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypoda). Z. Saugetierkunde, 62. Galliari, F.C., A.A. Carlini and M.R. Sanchez-Villagra (2010). Evolution of the axial skeleton in armadillos (Mammalia, Dasypodidae). Mammalian Biology, 75(4). Gaudin, T.J. and J.R. Wible. The Phylogeny of Living and Extinct Armadillos (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata): A Craniodental Analysis. Guillaume, B., et al. (2011). Oldest cingulate skulls provide congruence morphological and molecular scenarios of armadillo evolution. Proc.R.Soc. B, published on-line. Vizcaino, S.F. and G. De Iuliis (2003). Evidence for advanced carnivory in fossil armadillos (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae). Paleobiology, 29(1). Family Chlamyphoridae (Glyptodontidae) (†) - The Glyptodonts Glyptodontidae - North America Carlini, A.A., A.E. Zurita and O.A. Aguilera (2008). North American Glyptodontines (Xenarthra, Mammalia) in the Upper Pleistocene of of northern South America. Palaontol.Z., Vol.82/2. Gidley, J.W. (1925). Fossil Proboscidea and Edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 140-B. Gillette, D.D. and C.E. Ray (1981). Glyptodonts of North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 40. (262 pages) Gould, C.N. The Fossil Glyptodon in the Frederick Gravel Beds. The University of Oklahoma - Academy of Science, Article XV. Melton, W.G. (1964). Glyptodon fredericensis (Meade) from the Seymour Formation of Knox County, Texas. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Vol. XLIX. Osborn, H.F. (1903). Glyptotherium texanum, a New Glyptodont, from the Lower Pleistocene of Texas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XIX, Article XVII. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). Late Pliocene Glyptodontinae (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) of South and North America: Morphology and paleobiogeographical implications in the GABI. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 31. Glyptodontidae - South America/Central America/Caribbean Brown, B. (1912). Brachyostracon, a New Genus of Glyptodonts from Mexico. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XXXI, Article XVII. Carlini, A.A., A.E. Zurita and O.A. Aguilera (2008). North American Glyptodontines (Xenarthra, Mammalia) in the Upper Pleistocene of of northern South America. Palaontol.Z., Vol.82/2. Carlini, A.A., et al. (2008). New Glyptodont from the Codore Formation (Pliocene), Falcon State, Venezuela, its relationships with the Asterostemma problem, and the paleobiogeography of the Glyptodontinae. Palaontol.Z., Vol.82/2. Croft, D.A., J.J. Flynn and A.R. Wyss (2007). A New Basal Glyptodontid and Other Xenarthra of the Early Miocene Chucal Fauna, Northern Chile. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(4). Da Costa Pereira, P.V.L., et al. (2014). Osteoderm histology of Late Pleistocene cingulates from the intertropical region of Brazil. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(3). Dantas, M.A.T., et al. (2011). About the occurrence of Glyptodon sp. in the Brazilian intertropical region. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press) de los Reyes, M., et al. (2013). First evidence of scavenging of a Glyptodont (Mammalia, Glyptodontidae) from the Pliocene of the Pampean region (Argentina): taphonomic and paleoecological remarks. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.16, Issue 2. Fernicola, J.C., et al. (2012). A neomorphic ossification of the nasal cartilages and the structure of paranasal sinus system of the glyptodont Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto 1957 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.15, Issue 3:27A. Ferreira, J.D., M. Zamorano and A.M. Ribeiro (2015). On the fossil Remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 87(1). González Ruiz, L.R., et al. (2017). Old and new specimens of a poorly known glyptodont from the Miocene of Patagonia and their biochronological implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(X). González Ruiz, L.R., et al. (2010). The southernmost record of a Neuryurini Hoffstetter, 1958 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae). Paläontol Z, published on-line. Mead, J.I., et al. (2007). Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) Glyptodont and Pampathere (Xenarthra, Cingulata) from Sonora, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.24, Number 3. Mitchell, K.J., et al. (2016). Ancient DNA from the extinct South American giant glyptodont Doedicurus sp. (Xenarthra: Glyptodontidae) reveals that glyptodonts evolved from Eocene armadillos. Molecular Ecology. Olveira, E.V., K.O. Porpino and A.F. Barreto (2010). On the presence of Glyptotherium in the Late Pleistocene of Northeastern Brazil, and the status of "Glyptodon" and "Chlamydotherium". Paleobiogeographic implications. N.Jb.Geol.Paläont.Abh., 258/3. Ramirez-Cruz, G.A. and M. Montellano-Ballesteros (2014). Two New Glyptodont Records (Mammalia: Cingulata) from the Late Pleistocene of Tamaulipas and Tlaxcala, Mexico: Implications for the Taxonomy of the Genus Glyptotherium. The Southwestern Naturalist, 59(4). Simpson, G.G. (1947). A Miocene Glyptodont from Venezuela. American Museum Novitates, Number 1368. Vizcaino, S.F., A. Rinderknecht and A. Czerwonogora (2003). An Enigmatic Cingulata (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from the Late Miocene of Uruguay. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(4). Zamorano, M. and D. Brandoni (2013). Phylogenetic analysis of the Panochthini (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae), with remarks on their temporal distribution. Alcheringa, 37. Zamorano, M., G.J. Scillato-Yane and A.E. Zurita (2013). An enigmatic and large-sized specimen of Panochthus (Glyptodontidae, "Panochthini") from the Ensenadan (Early-Middle Pleistocene) of the Pampean region, Argentina. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 84. Zurita, A.E. and S.A. Aramayo (2007). New Remains of Eoslcerocalyptus tapinocephalus (Cabrera) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae): Description and Implications for Its Taxonomic Status. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.113, Number 1. Zurita, A.E., A.A. Carlini and G.J. Scillato-Yane (2008). A new species of Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto, 1957 (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae, Hoplophorinae) from the middle Pleistocene of the Pampean region, Argentina. Geodiversitas, 30(4). Zurita, A.E., E. Soibelzon and A.A. Carlini (2006). Neuryurus (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae) in the Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene) of the Pampean region. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Mh., 2006(2). Zurita, A.E., et al. (2016). On the status of "Urotherium antiquum" (Ameghino) (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae). C.R. Palevol, xxx. (Article in press) Zurita, A.E., et al. (2016). Regarding the real diversity of Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) in the late Pliocene (Chapadmalalan Age/Stage) of Argentina. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 88. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2014). First Neogene skulls of Doedicurinae (Xenartha, Glyptodontidae): morphology and phylogenetic implications. Historical Biology. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2013). The Most Complete Known Neogene Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata) from Northern South America: Taxonomic, Paleobiogeographic, and Phylogenetic Implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(3). Zurita, A.E., et al. (2013). A new species of Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto ((Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata): the oldest record of the genus and morphological and phylogenetic aspects. Zootaxa, 3721(4). Zurita, A.E., et al. (2012). The Pleistocene Glyptodontidae Gray, 1869 (Xenarthra: Cingulata) of Colombia and Some Considerations About the South American Glyptodontinae. Rev.bras.paleontol., 15(3). Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). Neosclerocalyptus spp. (Cingulata: Glyptodontidae: Hoplophorini): cranial morphology and palaeoenvironments along the changing Quaternary. Journal of Natural History, Vol.45, Numbers 15-16. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). On the taxonomic status of some Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of South America. Annales de Paleontologie, 97. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). Late Pliocene Glyptodontinae (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) of South and North America: Morphology and paleobiogeographical implications in the GABI. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 31. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2011). An exceptional Pleistocene specimen of Panochthus Burmeister (Xenarthra, Glyptodontoidea) from Bolivia: Its contribution to the understanding of the Early-Middle Pleistocene Panochthini. C.R. Palevol, 10. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2009). The diversity of Glyptodontidae (Xenarthra, Cingulata) in the Tarija Valley (Bolivia): systematic, biostratigraphic, and paleobiogeographic aspects of a particular assemblage. N.Jb.Geol.Paläont.Abh., Vol.251/2. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2009). First record and description of an exceptional unborn specimen of Cingulata Glyptodontidae: Glyptodon Owen (Xenarthra). C.R. Palevol, 8. Zurita, A.E., et al. (2009). The earliest record of Neuryurus Ameghino (Mammalia, Glyptodontidae, Hoplophorinae). Alcheringa, 33. General Glyptodontidae Alexander, R. McNeil, R.A Farina and S.F. Vizcaino (1999). Tail blow energy and carapace fractures in a large glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 126. Barbosa, F.H.D.s., et al. (2014). Arthritis in a Glyptodont. PLoS ONE, 9(2). Blanco, R.E., W.W. Jones and A. Rinderknecht (2009). The sweet spot of a biological hammer: the centre of percussion of glyptodont (Mammalia: Xenarthra) tail clubs. Proc.R.Soc. B. Farina, R.A. and S.F. Vizcaino (2001). Carved teeth and strange jaws: How glyptodonts masticated.Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 46(2). Gonzalez-Ruiz, L.R., et al. (2015). First Record of Supernumerary Teeth in Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e885033. Vizcaino, S.F., et al. (2011). Evaluating Habitats and Feeding Habits Through Ecomorphological Features in Glyptodonts (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Ameghiniana, 48(3). Zamorano, M. and D. Brandoni (2013). Phylogenetic analysis of the Panochthini (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae), with remarks on their temporal distribution. Alcheringa, 37. Zurita, A.E., et al (2010). Accessory protection structures in Glyptodon Owen (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae). Annales de Paleontologie, 96. (Author's copy) Family Pampatheriidae (†) - The Pampatheres De Iuliis, G., M.S. Bargo and S.F. Vizcaino (2000). Variations in Skull Morphology and Mastication in the Fossil Giant Armadillos Pampatherium spp. and Allied Genera (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Pampatheriidae), With Comments on Their Systematics and Distribution. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(4). Gois, F., et al. (2015). A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity. PLoS ONE, 10(6). Gois, F., et al. (2013). A new species of Scirrotherium Edmund & Theodor, 1997 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Pampatheriidae) from the late Miocene of South America. Alcheringa, 37. Mead, J.I., et al. (2007). Late Pleistocene (Ranchlabrean) Glyptodont and Pampathere (Xenarthra, Cingulata) from Sonora, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, Vol.24, Number 3. Rodriguez-Bualó, S., et al. (2014). Pampatheriidae (Xenarthra, Cingulata) from the Tarija Valley, Bolivia: A Taxonomic Update. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.120, Number 2. Simpson, G.G. (1930). Holmesina septentrionalis, Extinct Giant Armadillo of Florida. American Museum Novitates, Number 442. Vizcaino, S.F., G. de Iuliis and M.S. Bargo (1998). Skull Shape, Masticatory Apparatus, and Diet of Vassallia and Holmesina (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Pampatheriidae): When Anatomy Constrains Destiny. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, Vol.5, Number 4. Wolf, D., D.C. Kalthoff and P.M. Sander (2012). Osteoderm Histology of the Pampatheriidae (Cingulata, Xenarthra, Mammalia): Implications for Systematics, Osteoderm Growth, and Biomechanical Adaptation. Journal of Morphology, 273. General Cingulata Ciancio, M.R., et al. (2016). Diversity of cingulate xenarthrans in the middle-late Eocene of Northwestern Argentina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(3). Downing, K.F. and R.S. White (1995). The Cingulates (Xenarthra) of the Leisey Shell Pit Local Fauna (Ivringtonian), Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part II, Number 12. Milne, S., S.F. Vizcaino and C.J. Fernicola (2009). A 3D geometric morphometric analysis of digging ability in the extant and fossil cingulate humerus. Journal of Zoology. Oliveira, E.V. and J.C. Pereira (2009). Intertropical Cingulates (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Quaternary of Southern Brazil: Systematics and Paleobiogeographical Aspects. Rev.bras.paleontol., 12(3). Rincon, A.D., R.S. White and H.G. McDonald (2008). Late Pleistocene Cingulates (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Mene de Inciarte Tar Pits, Sierra de Perija, Western Venezuela. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(1). Soibelzon, E., L.S. Avilla and M. Castro (2015). The cingulates (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from the late Quaternary of northern Brazil: Fossil records, paleoclimates and displacements in America. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press) Vizcaino, S.F., et al. (2004). Functional and phylogenetic assessment of the masticatory adaptations in Cingulata (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Ameghiniana, 41(4). Order Pilosa - The Anteaters and Sloths. Suborder Folivora - The Sloths Family Megalonychidae Megalonychid Sloths - North America Hirschfeld, S.E. (1981). Pliometanastes protistus (Edentata, Megalonychidae) from Knight's Ferry, California with discussion of Early Hemphillian megalonychids. PaleoBios, 36. Hirschfeld, S.E. and S.D. Webb (1968). Plio-Pleistocene Megalonychid Sloths of North America. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Vol.12, Number 5. Hoganson, J.W. and H.G. McDonald (2007). First Report of Jefferson's Ground Sloth Megalonyx jeffersonii in North Dakota: Paleobiogeographical and Paleoecological Significance.Journal of Mammalogy, 88(1). Lindahl, J. (1892). Description of a Skull of Megalonyx leidyi n.sp. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol.17, Number 1. McDonald, H.G. and J.C. Anderson (1983). A Well-Preserved Ground Sloth (Megalonyx) Cranium from Turin, Monona County, Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad.Sci., 90(4). McDonald, H.G., T.W. Stafford and D.M. Gnidovec (2015). Youngest radiocarbon age for Jefferson's ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii (Xenarthra, Megalonychidae). Quaternary Research, xxx. (Article in press) McDonald, H.G., W.E. Miller and T.H. Morris (2001). Taphonomy and Significance of Jefferson's Ground Sloth (Xenartha: Megalonychidae) from Utah. Western North American Naturalist, 61(1). McDonald, H.G., et al. (2000). The Ground Sloth Megalonyx from Pleistocene Deposits of the Old Crow Basin, Yukon, Canada. Arctic, Vol.53, Number 3. Mills, R.S. (1974). A Ground Sloth, Megalonyx, from a Pleistocene Site in Darke Co., Ohio. Schubert, B.W., et al. (2004). Latest Pleistocene paleoecology of Jefferson's ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) and elk-moose (Cervalces scotti) in northern Illinois.Quaternary Research, 61. Wilson, M.C, H.G. McDonald and C.L. Hill (2005). Fossil Ground Sloths, Megalonyx and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra), from the Doeden Local Fauna, Montana. Current Research in the Pleistocene, Vol.22. Megalonychid Sloths - South America/Central America/Caribbean Bargo, M.S., S.F. Vizcaino and R.F. Kay (2009). Predominance of Orthal Masticatory Movements in the Early Miocene Eucholaeops (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megalonychidae) and Other Megatherioid Sloths. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(3). Brandoni, D. (2014). A New Genus of Megalonychidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Late Miocene of Argentina. Rev.bras.paleontol., 17(1). Brandoni, D. (2011). The Megalonychidae (Xenarthra, Tardigrada) from the late Miocene of Entre Rios Province, Argentina, with remarks on their systematics and biogeography. Geobios, 44. Brandoni, D. (2010). On the Systematics of Ortotherium Ameghino (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megalonychidae) from the 'Congolmerado Osifero' (Late Miocene) of Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30(3). Cartelle, C., G. De Iuliis and F. Pujos (2008). A new species of Megalonychidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Quaternary of Poco Azul (Bahia, Brazil). C.R. Palevol, 7. De Iuliis, G., C. Cartelle and F. Pujos (2016). New Pleistocene remains of megalonychid ground sloths (Xenartha: Pilosa) from the intertropical Brazilian region. Journal of Paleontology, published on-line. De Iuliis, G.C., F. Pujos and C. Cartelle (2009). A new ground sloth (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from the Quaternary of Brazil. C.R. Palevol, 8. De Iuliis, G.C., et al. (2014). Eucholeops Ameghino, 1887 (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megalonychidae) from the Santra Cruz Formation, Argentine Patagonia: implications for the systematics of Santacrucian sloths. Geodiversitas, 36(2). Gaudin, T.J. (2011). On the Osteology of the Auditory Region and Orbital Wall in the Extinct West Indian Sloth Genus Neocnus Arredondo, 1961 (Placentalia, Xenarthra, Megalonychidae). Annals of Carnegie Museum, Vol.80, Number 1. Gaudin, T.J., et al. (2015). The Basicranium and Orbital Region of the Early Miocene Eucholoeops ingens Ameghino, (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Megalonychidae). Ameghiniana, Vol.52(2). MacPhee, R.D.E. and M.A. Iturralde-Vinent (1994). First Tertiary Land Mammal from Greater Antilles: An Early Miocene Sloth (Xenarthra, Megalonychidae) from Cuba. American Museum Novitates, Number 3094. MacPhee, R.D.E., J.L. White, and C.A. Woods (2000). New Megalonychid Sloths (Phyllophaga, Xenarthra) from the Quaternary of Hispaniola. American Museum Novitates, Number 3303. McAfee, R.K. (2011). Feeding Mechanics and Dietary Implications in the Fossil Sloth Neocnus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megalonychidae) from Haiti. Journal of Morphology, 272. Pujos, F., et al. (2007). A peculiar climbing Megalonychidae from the Pleistocene of Peru and its implications for sloth history. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149. Rega, E., et al. (2002). A New Megalonychid Sloth from the Late Wisconsinan of the Dominican Republic. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.38, Numbers 1-2. General Megalonychid Sloths Fields, S.E. (2009). Hypsodonty in the Pleistocene ground sloth Megalonyx: Closing the "diastema" of data. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54(1). Lyon, L.M., et al. (2015). Premaxillae of the Extinct Megalonychid Sloths Acratocnus, Neocnus, and Megalonyx, and Their Phylogenetic Implications (Mammalia, Xenarthra). J.Mammal.Evol., 23(2). Family Megatheriidae (†) Megatheriid Sloths - North America McDonald, H.G. and E.L. Lundelius (2009). The Giant Ground Sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in Texas. In: Papers on Geology, Vertebrate Paleontology, and Biostratigraphy in Honor of Michael O. Woodburne. Albright, L.B. (ed.), Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 65, Flagstaff, Arizona. Megatheriid Sloths - South America/Central America/Caribbean Amson, E., C. De Muizon and T.J. Gaudin (2017). A reappraisal of the phylogeny of the Megatheria (Mammalia: Tardigrada), with an emphasis on the relationships of the Thalassocninae, the marine sloths. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 179. Amson, E., et al. (2015). Osteology and Functional Morphology of the Forelimb of the Marine Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Tardigrada). Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 22(2). (156 pages) Amson, E., et al. (2014). Osteology and Functional Morphology of the Hind Limb of the Marine Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Tardigrada). Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 22(3). Amson, E., et al. (2014). Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru. Proc.R.Soc. B, 281. Bargo, M.S. (2001). The ground sloth Megatherium americanum: Skull shape, bite forces, and diet. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 46(2). Bonini, R.A. and D. Brandoni (2015). Pyramiodontherium Rovereto (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megatheriinae) from the Early Pliocene of San Fernando, Catamarca Province, Argentina. Ameghiniana, Vol.52(6). Brandoni, D. (2006). A review of Pliomegatherium KRAGLEVICH, 1930 (Xenarthra: Phyllophaga: Megatheriidae). N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Mh., 2006(4). Brandoni, D. and A.A. Carlini (2009). On the Presence of Pyramiodontherium (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Late Miocene of Northeastern Argentina and its Biogeographical Implications. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia y Stratigrafia, Vol.115, Number 1. Brandoni, D. and G. De Iuliis (2007). A new genus for the Megatheriinae (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megatheriidae) from the Arroya Chasico Formation (Upper Miocene) of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., Vol.244/1. Brandoni, D., J.E. Powell and O.E. González (2012). Anisodontherium from the Late Miocene of north-western Argentina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57(2). Brandoni, D., E. Soibelzon and A. Scarano (2008). On Megatherium gallardoi (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) and the Megatheriinae from the Ensenedan (lower to middle Pleistocene) of the Pampean Region, Argentina. Geodiversitas, 30(4). Brandoni, D., et al. (2016). Megatheroidea (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada) from the Pinturas Formation (Early Miocene), Santa Cruz Province (Argentina) and their chronological implications. Palaontol. Z. Brandoni, D., et al. (2004). The pes of Pyramiodontherium bergi (Moreno & Mercerat, 1891) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Phyllophaga): the most complete pes of a Tertiary Megatheriinae. Geodiversitas, 26(4). Canto, J., et al. (2008). The Aquatic Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Late Miocene of North-Central Chile: Biogeographic and Ecological Implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(3). Carlini, A.A., D. Brandoni and C.N. Dal Molin (2013). A new genus and species of Planopinae (Xenarthra: Tardigrada) from the Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Zootaxa, 3694(6). Carlini, A.A., D. Brandoni and R. Sanchez (2008). Additions to the knowledge of Urumaquia robusta (Xenarthra, Phyllophaga, Megatheriidae) from the Urumaco Formation (Late Miocene), Estado Falcon, Venezuela. Palaontol.Z., Vol.82/2. Carlini, A.A., D. Brandoni and R. Sanchez (2006). First Megatheriines (Xenarthra, Phyllophaga, Megatheriidae) from the Urumaco (Late Miocene) and Codore (Pliocene) Formations, Estado Falcon, Venezuela. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 4(3). De Iuliis, G., D. Brandoni and G.J. Scillato-Yane (2008). New Remains of Megathericulus patagonius Ameghini, 1904 (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae): Information on Primitive Features of Megatheriines. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(1). De Muizon, C. and H.G. McDonald (1995). An aquatic sloth from the Pliocene of Peru. Nature (Letters), Vol.375. De Muizon, C., et al. (2004). The Youngest Species of the Aquatic Sloth Thalassocnus and a Reassessment of the Relationships of the Nothrothere Sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(2). De Muizon, C., et al. (2004). The Evolution of Feeding Adaptations of the Aquatic Sloth Thalassocnus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(2). De Muizon, C., et al. (2003). A New Early Species of the Aquatic Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Late Miocene of Peru. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(4). Martinelli, A.G., et al. (2012). First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Trîangulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 37. McDonald, H.G. and C. De Muizon (2002). The Cranial Anatomy of Thalassocnus (Xenarthra, Mammalia), A Derived Nothrothere from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation (Peru). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(2). Pujos, F. and G. De Iuliis (2007). Late Oligocene Megatherioidea Fauna (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Salla-Luribay (Bolivia): New Data on Basal Sloth Radiation and Cingulata-Tardigrada Split. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(1). Pujos, F. and R. Salas (2004). A New Species of Megatherium (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megatheriidae) from the Pleistocene of Sacaco and Tres Ventanas, Peru. Palaeontology, Vol.47, Part 3. Pujos, F., G. De Iuliis and B.M. Quispe (2011). Hiskatherium saintandrei, Gen. et Sp.Nov.: An Unusual Sloth from the Santacrucian of Quebrada Honda (Bolivia) and an Overview of Middle Miocene, Small Megatherioids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(5). Pujos, F., et al. (2013). Implication of the presence of Megathericulus (Xenarthra: Tardigrada: Megatheriidae) in the Laventan of Peruvian Amazonia. Journal of Systematic Paleontology, Vol.11, Issue 8. Saint-Andre, P.-A. and G. De Iuliis (2001). The smallest and most ancient representative of the genus Megatherium Cuvier, 1796 (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megatheriidae) from the Pliocene of the Bolivian Altiplano. Geodiversitas, 23(4). General Megatheriid Sloths Amson, E., C. de Muizon and T.J. Gaudin (2016). A reappraisal of the phylogeny of the Megatheria (Mammalia: Tardigrada), with an emphasis on the relationships of the Thalassocninae, the marine sloths. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Buckley, M., et al. (2015). Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium. PLoS ONE, 10(11). De Iuliis, G. (1996). A Systematic Review of the Megatheriinae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megatheriidae). Ph.D. Thesis - University of Toronto. De Iuliis, G., F. Pujos and G. Tito (2009). Systematic and Taxonomic Revision of the Pleistocene Ground Sloth Megatherium (Pseudomegatherium) tarijense (Xenarthra: Megatheriidae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(4). Gill, F.L., et al. (2009). Lipid analysis of a ground sloth coprolite. Quaternary Research, 72.Green, J.L. and D.C. Kalthoff (2015). Xenarthran dental microstructure and dental microwear analysis, with new data for Megatherium americanum (Megatheriidae). Journal of Mammalogy, 96(4). Naples, V.L. and R.K. McAfee (2012). Reconstruction of the cranial musculature and masticatory function of the Pleistocene panamerican ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae). Historical Biology, Vol.24, Number 2. Family Mylodontidae (†) Mylodontid Sloths - North America Brown, B. (1903). A New Genus of Ground Sloth from the Pleistocene of Nebraska. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XIX, Article XXII. Dundas, R.G. and L.M. Cunningham (1993). Harlan's Ground Sloth (Glossotherium harlani) and a Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) from Stevenson Bridge, Yolo County, California.PaleoBios, Vol.15, Number 3. McAfee, R.K. (2009). Reassessment of the cranial characters of Glossotherium and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Mylodontidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155. McAfee, R.K. (2007). Reassessing the Taxonomy and Affinities of the Mylodontinae Sloths, Glossotherium and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Tardigrada). Ph.D. Dissertation - Northern Illinois University. (178 pages) McDonald, H.G. (2012). Harlan's Ground Sloth (Paramylodon harlani) (Xenarthra: Mylodontidae) from the Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) of Iowa. The Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, 119(1-4). McDonald, H.G. (2006). Sexual Dimorphism in the Skull of Harlan's Ground Sloth. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 510. McDonald, H.G., L.D. Agenbroad and C.M. Haden (2004). Late Pleistocene Mylodont Sloth Paramylodon harlani (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Arizona. The Southwestern Naturalist, 49(2). Prothero, D.R. and K.R. Raymond (2011). Stasis in the Late Pleistocene Ground Sloths (Paramylodon harlani) from Rancho La Brea Tar Pits, California. In: Fossil Record 3. Sullivan, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 53. Ruez, D.R. (2005). Diet of Pleistocene Paramylodon harlani (Xenarthra: Mylodontidae): Review of Methods and Preliminary Use of Carbon Isotopes. Texas J.Sci., 57(4). Sinclair, W.J. (1910). Dermal Bones of Paramylodon from the Asphaltum Deposits of Rancho La Brea, near Los Angeles, California. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol.49, Number 195. Stock, C. (1914). The Systematic Position of the Mylodont Sloths from Rancho La Brea. Science, N.S., Vol.XXXIX, Number 1012. Wilson, M.C, H.G. McDonald and C.L. Hill (2005). Fossil Ground Sloths, Megalonyx and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra), from the Doeden Local Fauna, Montana. Current Research in the Pleistocene, Vol.22. Mylodontid Sloths - South America/Central America/Caribbean Bargo, M.S., et al. (2000). Limb-Bone Proportions, Strength and Digging in Some Lujanian (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) Mylodontid Ground Sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(3). Cartelle, C., G. De Iuliis and R.L. Ferreira (2009). Systematic Revision of Tropical Brazilian Scelidotheriine Sloths (Xenarthra, Mylodontoidea). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(2). Christiansen, P. and R.A. Farina (2003). Mass estimation of two fossil ground sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Mylodontidae). Senckenbergiana biologica, 83(1). Corona, A., D. Perea and H.G. McDonald (2013). Catonyx cuvieri (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae, Scelidotheriinae) from the Late Pleistocene of Uruguay, With Comments Regarding the Systematics of the Subfamily. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(5). Dantas, M.A.T. and M.H. Zucon (2007). Occurrence of Catonyx cuvieri (Lund, 1839) (Tardigrada, Scelidotheriinae) in Late Pleistocene-Holocene of Brazil. Revista Brasileira De Paleontologia, 10(2) Guilherme, E., J. Bocquentin and A.S. Porto (2011). A New Specimen of the Genus Octodontobradys (Orophodontidae, Octodontobradyinae) from the Late Miocene-Pliocene of the Southwestern Amazon Basin, Brazil. Anuário do Instituto de Geosciências - UFRJ, Vol.34-2. Lopes, R.P. and J.C. Pereira (2010). Fossils of Scelidotheriinae Ameghino, 1904 (Xenarthra, Pilosa) in the Pleistocene deposits of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Gaea, 6(1). McDonald, H.G. and D. Perea (2002). The Large Scelidothere Catonyx tarijensis (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Pleistocene of Uruguay. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3). Mino-Boilini, A.R. (2015). Additions to the knowledge of the ground sloth Catonyx tarijensis (Xenarthra, Pilosa) in the Pleistocene of Argentina. Palaontol.Z., Vol.90, Number 1. Mino-Bollini, A.R. and A.A. Carlini (2009). The Scelidotheriinae Ameghino, 1904 (Phyllophaga, Xenarthra) from the Ensenadan-Lujanian Stage/Ages (Early Pleistocene to Early-Middle Pleistocene-Early Holocene) of Argentina. Quaternary International, 210. (Author's personal copy) Mino-Bollini, A.R., R.L. Tomassini and V.H. Contreras (2014). First record of Scelidotheriinae Ameghino (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Chasicoan Stage/Age (late Miocene) of Argentina. Estudios Geologicos, 70(1). Mino-Boilini, A.R., et al. (2009). First record of Scelidodon chiliense (Lydekker) (Phyllophaga, Scelidotheriinae) from the Lujanian Stage (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) of Argentina. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., Vol.253/2-3. Pereira, L.C.S., M.A.T. Dantas and R.F. Ferreira (2013). Record of the giant sloth Valgipes bucklandi (Lund, 1839) (Tardigrada, Scelidotheriinae) in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, with notes on taphonomy and paleoecology. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 43. Pitana, V.G., et al. (2013). Cranial and dental studies of Glossotherium robustum (Owen, 1842) (Xenarthra: Pilosa: Mylodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil. Alcheringa, 37(2). Pujos, F., et al. (2012). The Scelidotheriine Proscelidodon (Xenarthra: Mylodontidae) from the Late Miocene of Maimara (Northwestern Argentina, Jujuy Province). Ameghiniana. Rincón, A.D., et al. (2016). Baraguatherium takumara, Gen. et Sp.Nov., The Earliest Mylodontid Sloth (Early Miocene) from Northern South America. J.Mammal.Evol. (Author's personal copy) Rincón, A.D., et al. (2015). A new enigmatic Late Miocene mylodontoid sloth from northern South America. Royal Society Open Science, 2: 140256. Salles, L.O., et al. (2016). A new record of a Scelidotheriine ground sloth (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from Central Brazil: Quaternary cave stratigraphy, taxonomy and stable isotopes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in press) Shockey, B.J. and F. Anaya (2010). Grazing in a New Late Oligocene Mylodontid Sloth and a Mylodontid Radiation as a Component of the Eocene-Oligocene Faunal Turnover and the Early Spread of Grasslands/Savannas in South America. J.Mammal.Evol. Simpson, G.G. (1941). A Miocene Sloth from Southern Chile. American Museum Novitates, Number 1156. General Mylodontid Sloths Buckley, M., et al. (2015). Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium. PLoS ONE, 10(11). Czerwonogora, A., R.A. Farina and E.P. Tonni (2011). Diet and isotopes of Late Pleistocene ground sloths: first results for Lestodon and Glossotherium (Xenarthra, Tardigrada). N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 262/3. McDonald, H.G. (2006). Sexual Dimorphism in the Skull of Harlan's Ground Sloth. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 510. McAfee, R.K. (2009). Reassessment of the cranial characters of Glossotherium and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Mylodontidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155. McKafee, R.K. (2007). Reassessing the Taxonomy and Affinities of the Mylodontinae Sloths, Glossotherium and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Tardigrada). Ph.D. Dissertation - Northern Illinois University. Naples, V.L. (1989). The Feeding Mechanisms in the Pleistocene Ground Sloth, Glossotherium. 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