Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'guide'.



More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
    Tags should be keywords or key phrases. e.g. carcharodon, pliocene, cypresshead formation, florida.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


Forums

  • Fossil Discussion
    • General Fossil Discussion
    • Fossil Hunting Trips
    • Fossil ID
    • Is It Real? How to Recognize Fossil Fabrications
    • Partners in Paleontology - Member Contributions to Science
    • Questions & Answers
    • Fossil of the Month
    • Member Collections
    • A Trip to the Museum
    • Paleo Re-creations
    • Collecting Gear
    • Fossil Preparation
    • Member Fossil Trades Bulletin Board
    • Member-to-Member Fossil Sales
    • Fossil News
  • Gallery
  • Fossil Sites
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Australia - New Zealand
    • Canada
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • South America
    • United States
  • Fossil Media
    • Members Websites
    • Fossils On The Web
    • Fossil Photography
    • Fossil Literature
    • Documents

Blogs

  • Anson's Blog
  • Mudding Around
  • Nicholas' Blog
  • dinosaur50's Blog
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • Seldom's Blog
  • tracer's tidbits
  • Sacredsin's Blog
  • fossilfacetheprospector's Blog
  • jax world
  • echinoman's Blog
  • Ammonoidea
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • Adventures with a Paddle
  • Caveat emptor
  • -------
  • Fig Rocks' Blog
  • placoderms
  • mosasaurs
  • ozzyrules244's Blog
  • Sir Knightia's Blog
  • Terry Dactyll's Blog
  • shakinchevy2008's Blog
  • MaHa's Blog
  • Stratio's Blog
  • ROOKMANDON's Blog
  • Phoenixflood's Blog
  • Brett Breakin' Rocks' Blog
  • Seattleguy's Blog
  • jkfoam's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Lindsey's Blog
  • marksfossils' Blog
  • ibanda89's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Back of Beyond
  • St. Johns River Shark Teeth/Florida
  • Ameenah's Blog
  • gordon's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • Pennsylvania Perspectives
  • michigantim's Blog
  • michigantim's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • GPeach129's Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • Olenellus' Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • maybe a nest fossil?
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • bear-dog's Blog
  • javidal's Blog
  • Digging America
  • John Sun's Blog
  • John Sun's Blog
  • Ravsiden's Blog
  • Jurassic park
  • The Hunt for Fossils
  • The Fury's Grand Blog
  • julie's ??
  • Hunt'n 'odonts!
  • falcondob's Blog
  • Monkeyfuss' Blog
  • cyndy's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • nola's Blog
  • mercyrcfans88's Blog
  • Emily's PRI Adventure
  • trilobite guy's Blog
  • xenacanthus' Blog
  • barnes' Blog
  • myfossiltrips.blogspot.com
  • HeritageFossils' Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Emily's MotE Adventure
  • farfarawy's Blog
  • Microfossil Mania!
  • A Novice Geologist
  • Southern Comfort
  • Eli's Blog
  • andreas' Blog
  • Recent Collecting Trips
  • retired blog
  • Stocksdale's Blog
  • andreas' Blog test
  • fossilman7's Blog
  • Hey Everyone :P
  • fossil maniac's Blog
  • Piranha Blog
  • xonenine's blog
  • xonenine's Blog
  • Fossil collecting and SAFETY
  • Detrius
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Kehbe's Kwips
  • RomanK's Blog
  • Prehistoric Planet Trilogy
  • mikeymig's Blog
  • Western NY Explorer's Blog
  • Regg Cato's Blog
  • VisionXray23's Blog
  • Carcharodontosaurus' Blog
  • What is the largest dragonfly fossil? What are the top contenders?
  • Hihimanu Hale
  • Test Blog
  • jsnrice's blog
  • Lise MacFadden's Poetry Blog
  • BluffCountryFossils Adventure Blog
  • meadow's Blog
  • Makeing The Unlikley Happen
  • KansasFossilHunter's Blog
  • DarrenElliot's Blog
  • jesus' Blog
  • A Mesozoic Mosaic
  • Dinosaur comic
  • Zookeeperfossils
  • Cameronballislife31's Blog
  • My Blog
  • TomKoss' Blog
  • A guide to calcanea and astragali
  • Group Blog Test
  • Paleo Rantings of a Blockhead
  • Dead Dino is Art
  • The Amber Blog
  • TyrannosaurusRex's Facts
  • PaleoWilliam's Blog
  • The Paleo-Tourist
  • The Community Post
  • Lyndon D Agate Johnson's Blog
  • BRobinson7's Blog
  • Eastern NC Trip Reports
  • Toofuntahh's Blog
  • Pterodactyl's Blog
  • A Beginner's Foray into Fossiling
  • Micropaleontology blog
  • Pondering on Dinosaurs
  • Fossil Preparation Blog
  • On Dinosaurs and Media
  • cheney416's fossil story
  • jpc
  • Red-Headed Red-Neck Rock-Hound w/ My Trusty HellHound Cerberus
  • Red Headed
  • Paleo-Profiles
  • Walt's Blog
  • Between A Rock And A Hard Place
  • Rudist digging at "Point 25", St. Bartholomä, Styria, Austria (Campanian, Gosau-group)
  • Prognathodon saturator 101

Calendars

  • Calendar

Categories

  • Annelids
  • Arthropods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
    • Trilobites
    • Other Arthropods
  • Brachiopods
  • Cnidarians (Corals, Jellyfish, Conulariids )
    • Corals
    • Jellyfish, Conulariids, etc.
  • Echinoderms
    • Crinoids & Blastoids
    • Echinoids
    • Other Echinoderms
    • Starfish and Brittlestars
  • Forams
  • Graptolites
  • Molluscs
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods (Ammonites, Belemnites, Nautiloids)
    • Gastropods
    • Other Molluscs
  • Sponges
  • Bryozoans
  • Other Invertebrates
  • Ichnofossils
  • Plants
  • Chordata
    • Amphibians & Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Dinosaurs
    • Fishes
    • Mammals
    • Sharks & Rays
    • Other Chordates
  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 21 results

  1. If you think you have found an egg fossil, chances are that it isn't actually an egg fossil. 90% of most "eggs" posted here are not actual egg fossils. It could be a concretion or nodule. However, if you really want to learn about fossil eggs, here are a few links to get you started. Our resident Egg Studying Paleontologist, CBChiefski, has been kind enough to produce some in depth guides on egg identification. Think you found an egg? Read this first! Dinosaur Egg Guide- Basic Dinosaur Egg Guide - Advanced
  2. Advanced Dinosaur Egg Guide

    The Advanced Dinosaur Egg Guide Please share this with those who have egg questions. When possible, technical terms were avoided or defined. Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, but it is always important to do your own research. This guide is merely a snapshot of information taken from many scientific publications. I am not an expert on eggs, rather I just love sharing what little I have learned over the years, what science has learned over the years. For an overview on how to spot a fossilized dinosaur egg and the sizes of eggs, see the basic guide: Somewhat outdated yet still a good overview of dinosaur reproduction and eggs, with a focus on Mongolia: What is so special about eggs? The amniotic egg is one of the most significant evolutionary adaptations as it allowed vertebrate life to permanently exist on land. Long before the dinosaurs and their modern descendants including the chicken, the egg came first. In fact, the better question to ask is “Which came first? The lizard or the egg?” Before the amniotic egg, amphibians and some fish were the only vertebrates able to even venture on land and only for rather short periods of time. A great deal of information has come from studying eggs. What we have learned is summarized as: From University of California Museum of Paleontology Egg Anatomy: Using the best known modern avian dinosaur, the chicken--scientifically Gallus gallus, let us go over the different parts of an egg: “(A) The generalized anatomy of an egg. (B) The chicken eggshell comprises three crystalline layers, including the mammillary layer, prismatic layer, and external layer. The cuticle layer overlying the calcareous eggshell is further divided to two layers, including a HAp inner layer and a proteinaceous outer layer. The shell membrane, namely membrane testacea, is also characterized by two layers. (C) SEM image of the cuticle on the surface of the Gallus eggshell, showing a patchy and cracked pattern. (D) SEM image of the radial section of the Gallus eggshell. The white arrow indicates the cuticle layer that lies on the calcitic eggshell.” From Yang et al. 2018 Fig. 1 Those were technical terms, so how about we simplify. The chicken egg has three distinct shell layers mainly made of calcite, then a soft membrane on the inside of that. What is known as egg whites are the albumen which surrounds the yellow yolk located near the center. The embryo develops within the albumen and is fed with nutrients stored in the yolk. The surface of eggshell is full of openings, tiny pores, and these allow for gas to pass through the shell. A developing embryo needs to breathe just like any animal. Additional information: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell1.php How to spot a fake egg: First, the best way to avoid fake eggs is to go and collect them yourself. Always make sure to follow the laws and have permission to collect. In the United States, typically a good way to follow the law is through collection on private land with expressed permission from the landowner. Views of paleontologists do range on private ownership of fossils with many not condoning or endorsing. I personally have little issue with it since amateur collectors have made countless important finds while prospecting for their personal collection. If you are going to buy, do everything possible to ensure the egg or any fossil was legally collected. Often with fake eggs everything seems too perfect. Eggs are delicate and easily crushed or damaged so if there are no signs of any damage or natural alterations be very wary. If the surface has ridges, check to see those ridges continue across a crack or break of the shell. Many fake eggs are mosaics made up of real eggshell fragments assembled together in an egg shape. These mosaics tend to not have the eggshell match on opposite sides of a crack. If you would like more information beyond what is provided or have an unanswered question, feel free to start a thread. If after reading, you want to purchase an egg then please ask the seller for the best pictures they can provide of that egg with something to show scale such as a ruler and start a thread. There are many on the forum who are happy help determine if an egg is in fact real. Just please, whether collecting or buying, make sure you know the laws and follow them. A few good threads on real vs fake eggs: http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/69391-examples-of-commonly-faked-dino-eggs/ http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/83533-red-flag-on-hadrosaur-egg/ http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/71462-beware-of-hadrosaur-eggs/ http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/79465-this-is-how-realistic-a-fakereplica-oviraptor-egg-looks/ How are eggshell and eggs classified? Many people try to name an egg to a specific dinosaur, usually incorrectly. With embryonic remains, however, an egg can be scientifically linked to a particular dinosaur (explained in the next section). Another accepted way for eggs to be linked is through a pregnant female, there are examples of females which died while carry eggs internally. Adults on top of a clutch can be used however only with caution. Eggs are given their own naming scheme just as animals have theirs. In normal taxonomy, we have species, genus, and family whereas eggs have an oospecies, oogenus, and oofamily. The term used for egg taxonomy is parataxonomy. Parataxonomy is used in place of traditional taxonomy when an actual animal or plant cannot be linked, for example--from a lack of data. In the case of Troodon formosus, its eggs are the oofamily Prismatoolithidae, oogenus Prismatoolithus, and oospecies levis. Parataxonomy is the same system used for trace fossils, such as footprints which are normally not linked to the dinosaur who made them. What is inside a fossilized egg? Is there a yolk? What about bones? Very rarely are embryonic bones found, typically eggs have been filled in with sediments. These then lithify (become rock) and so the inside of nearly all fossil eggs is rock that is similar, if not identical, to the surrounding rock. Eggshell is brittle by its nature and so often cracks, these cracks allow whatever sediments are surrounding to fill in the egg and, depending on how recent it was laid to said crack, allow the amniotic sac and other fluids to drain out. Here is a CT scan of some eggs I am working on. You can see how the surrounding rock is very similar to the inside of the eggs. In addition to looking for embryonic material, the scan gives us information on the infill, the true shape of the eggs, and reveals anything which could otherwise not be seen within them. Sometimes insects can be found near an egg, for example. Embryonic bones from the oviraptor Citipati, this embryo is curled within the egg. From Wikimedia Commons Importance of Embryonic bones: https://youtu.be/cubdagTiRHE?t=48 Embryonic remains are vital for an actual animal ID, so any chance of them being present must be investigated. If you have any tiny bones which can be seen inside an egg or directly near it, I would strongly encourage you to take the specimen to your nearest paleontology related museum or university. If it does have embryonic remains in or near, then the specimen is invaluable to science. The presence of those tiny remains allows for the next question to be asked. Do we know who laid this egg? Which particular dinosaur? Most likely no, there are some wonderful exceptions though. Several ootaxa (eggshell type) are known to the dinosaur genus or family they were laid by. Here are some examples of eggs and eggshell which were linked scientifically to a particular dinosaur from embryonic remains. Dinosaur or family and its known egg type, oogenus or oofamily. This list is not comprehensive as new discoveries and revisions are made every year. Allosaurus sp. known to Preprismatoolithus coloradensis. (This is debated) Beibeilong (Oviraptor) known to Elongatoolithidae. Citipati (Oviraptor) known to Elongatoolithidae. (See the picture above) Gobipipus (Avian) known to Gobioolithus minor. Heyuannia (Oviraptor) known to Elongatoolithidae. Hypacrosaurus (Hadrosaur) known to Spheroolithus oosp. Lourinhanosaurus (Theropod) known to cf. Preprismatoolithus. Maiasaura (Hadrosaur) known to Spheroolithus oosp. Oviraptorid known to Elongatoolithidae. Therizinosauroid (med to large theropod) known to Dendroolithidae. Titanosaur (Sauropod) known to Megaloolithus patagonicus. Troodon (small Theropod) known to Prismatoolithus levis. Generally, be wary of any claim that an egg was laid by a certain dinosaur! Additional information: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell3.php What groups of dinosaurs do we have eggs for? The vast majority of eggs are from non-avian theropods. This group includes dromaeosaurs (like Velociraptor), allosaurs, and tyrannosaurs. We also have eggs from Mesozoic aves (birds), hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs) and sauropods (long-necks). It is worth noting when we say that the majority of eggs are therapod we mean it. Around 61% of the eggs found globally are therapod and between 41-64% are maniraptorans (birds and their closest non-avian dinosaur relatives). For the others the numbers are much smaller: 7% are sauropods, 13% are ornithischians (hadrosaurs and relatives) with 19% still unknown and that is no yolk. Here is an example of a clutch from an oviraptor, elongated eggs are typical of many theropods: Pic from The Zuhl Museum On the non-dinosaur side of things, we also have eggs from turtles, crocodiles, lizards, and pterosaurs (flying reptiles). There are several groups of dinosaurs who have no egg representation in the fossil record yet. Despite many people trying to find them, there are still no ceratopsian (horned dinosaur) eggs. There are no ankylosaur (armored dinosaur) or stegosaur (spiked/plated dinosaur) eggs as of yet either. This could simply be due to bias in the fossil record but there also could be other factors. Perhaps, it is a case like the ichthyosaur (marine reptile), which gave live birth, unlike most reptiles that lay eggs. Most of us are familiar with the platypus in the mammalian world, which lay eggs despite being a mammal. Maybe some dinosaurs did not actually lay eggs. Now that would be an eggciting discovery! Below one can see how similar clutches are for two very different types of hadrosaurs. The above is a rather typical egg clutch for a hadrosaur with spherical shaped eggs. Some of these eggs had embryonic remains which allowed them to be identified to a dinosaur. In this case they were narrowed down to within the lambeosaurinae subfamily but sadly could not be narrowed further. Pic from Museum of the Rockies Clutch of another hadrosaur, the good mother Maiasaura. Again, the eggs are spherical and embryonic remains allowed the eggs to be linked with Maiasaura. Pic from Museum of the Rockies The great identification mistake: Now that it is abundantly clear the only way to link a dinosaur and an egg is with embryonic bone. Why is that? Surely there must be other ways to ID who an egg is from. Well, let me share the story of poor Oviraptor, who was wrongly accused of stealing eggs. When the first Oviraptor was discovered, the skeleton was not alone. Underneath it was a clutch of eggs. At the time there were no embryonic remains in these eggs, so it was assumed that the strange looking animal was, in fact, stealing the eggs from Protoceratops, hence the name oviraptor meaning “egg thief.” Later, not far from the original site, another nest was found, this time with an almost perfectly preserved embryo. The embryo was clearly of that of an Oviraptor to be eggs-act. So, with both discoveries, paleontologists determined that Oviraptor was actually a brooding dinosaur much like birds today. This story is an eggcellent example of science improving upon itself and the need to be careful with assumptions. Paleontology is an ever-changing field, which constantly works to improve our understanding of the prior natural world. A common incorrect identification nowadays is that of “Tarbosaurus eggs.” Tarbosaurus is very similar to Tyrannosaurus rex, however, it lived in Asia. Among the largest of eggs ever found, were two measuring 11 cm (4.3 in) wide and an amazing 60 cm (24 in) long. The elongated shape meant they were probably from a large theropod and so were thought to be from Tarbosaurus. Scientifically these eggs are the oogenus macroelongatoolithus. Based on detailed analysis, these eggs most likely are from a large oviraptor and not Tarbosaurus. Alright, so then how are eggs differentiated and how without embryonic bones would an egg likely be from an oviraptor? How are eggs distinguished from each other? We went over how to link a dinosaur to an egg, what about one egg to another or finding differences between eggs? Well, there are a few different ways, one is the surface of eggshell. Many eggs have different textures but surface texture can be eroded or altered so cannot be used alone. Thickness and porosity of eggshell can be measured and provide solid data points for comparisons. Two of the best techniques for examining eggshell are with the use of SEM and thin sections. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a very powerful microscope, which can view objects in eggstreme detail. Petrographic thin sections are tiny slices of a rock so thin that light can actually pass through it. Both SEM and thin sections allow for the tiny details of eggshell to be visible, meaning unique traits, variations, and similarities can all be seen. Below are two types of eggshell, how many differences can you spot? A thin section of hadrosaur eggshell, there is only a single continuous layer. Pic from University of Calgary A thin section of oviraptor eggshell, there are two distinct layers with the arrow showing the point where both meet. Pic from University of Calgary On thick eggshell, the cross-section view can often show many details otherwise too small to see. Below is Faveoolithus eggshell, which is large enough to show the internal structure of the shell itself. Pic from Montana State University, taken by P. Germano Naming: Dinosaur eggs, much like actual dinosaurs, are named following a convention with information in the name, and normally an honor to an individual or location where it was discovered. As already covered, naming uses a system of parataxonomy and with eggs, this is called ootaxonomy. Using the method covered above, similarities and differences of eggshell can be identified. Based on these similarities and differences, eggs can be grouped. Some of these groups are associated with a type of dinosaur. As already covered, from embryonic remains or other methods an animal can be linked and associated to its eggs. Sometimes eggs can be grouped based on similarities yet there are no ways to associate them with a dinosaur, so these are listed as unknown. An egg group being associated to a type of dinosaur does not mean all eggs within the group are exclusive to that single type of dinosaur. Some eggs were named prior to the naming convention being established or do not fit any of the known groups, as such these have a truly unique name. That said, most eggs fit one of the following: Name- dinosaurs associated Sphero- Hadrosaurs Ovalo- Unknown Faveo- Unknown (Could be sauropods) Megalo- Titanosaurs Dictyo- theropods Dendro- Therizinosaurs Elongato- Oviraptors Prismato- Troodontids Egg and dinosaur associations, from top to bottom, Elongato- with Oviraptors, Sphero- with Hadrosaurs, Prismato- with Troodontids, Dictyo- and similar eggs from unknown theropods. Pic from the Royal Tyrrell Museum What time periods do we have eggs from? Nearly every egg from the Mesozoic is from within the Late Cretaceous. One study found of 238 eggs examined, 225 were from the Late Cretaceous, 10 from the Early Cretaceous, 2 from during the Late Jurassic and a single egg from the early Jurassic. Since then more eggs have been found, yet the trend holds. A likely explanation for such massive bias would be the Late Cretaceous is more recent so eggs from then are more likely to be preserved and undergo less alteration. Did an egg hatch? The hatching question is a difficult one to answer scientifically with most egg specimens, of course, a nearly complete egg is likely unhatched. Much of the strength in eggs comes from their shape and this means once there is an opening in the shell that strength is lost. There are many ways for an egg to break, one of which is the baby breaking out, but many of the broken eggs we find may have yielded no baby. The term unhatched and failed are often used interchangeably but the term failed is preferred as “unhatched” which implies the egg was fertilized and had a real chance. It is possible and likely probable that no fertilization was the cause for many eggs to not hatch. An overview of the different ways an egg can be filled. From Mueller-Towe et al. (2002) Nest? For as rare as eggs are, finding an egg clutch within a sedimentary structure is many times rarer. There have been several sedimentary structures found around egg clutches, which were interpreted as nests. One of the most interesting of these is a “U” shaped structure which looks similar to a horseshoe, see the picture below. In the center of this “U” shaped structure was a clutch of Troodon eggs. It is possible many nests were constructed like modern bird nests, with sticks, straw, leaves and other such material. This material in nest building, unfortunately, means they would most likely not preserve. Possible nest structure for Troodon, tape measure equals 1m (39in) and the white plaster jacket is covering a clutch of Troodon eggs. Modified from Varricchio et al. 1997 How can we tell what happened to an egg and the nest? By studying modern nests, it was found eggshell fragments tend not to travel very far while remaining in large concentrations. This means when a large grouping of eggshell fragments are found, it is unlikely they have moved much. Modern eggshell fragments can be found in ratios of concave up vs concave down based on what happened to the nest. For example, if a nest had a predator come and eat eggs, the eggshell would be concave up vs down in a ratio of about 70:30, sometimes 65:35. Obviously, if the eggshell fragments are moved then ratios will not work, but again, where high concentrations of eggshell are found, there was little to no movement. The ratio technique is still in the early stages of being applied to nest from the Mesozoic so in time there may be more information. The Emu eggshell above is concave-up. Pic by P. Germano The Emu eggshell below is concave down. Pic by P. Germano In both pictures, different layers of the eggshell can be seen and such layering indicates the eggshell is from a theropod, in this particular case, an avian. Where in the world are dinosaur eggs found? Eggs are extremely rare and there are only a select number of places where they have been found so far. Eggshell fragments, on the other hand, are actually rather common and can be found in many formations. One main reason eggshell is relatively abundant compared to complete eggs is that a single egg when broken can become dozens of fragments. Geographically eggs so far were found in Argentina, Canada, China, Columbia, France, Great Britain, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Peru, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, the United States, and Uruguay. Within Canada, eggs are exclusively found in Alberta. Within the USA, eggs have been found in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. The vast majority of eggs are found in Asia. Additional information: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell4.php Did dinosaurs care for their young? It seems that many dinosaurs did in fact care for their young. Evidence for this has been found on multiple continents. There is still debate over the type and amount of care the parents may have provided. There are two major variations in care being debated, and these come down to whether the offspring were altricial or precocial. See the list of terms near the end of this guide for definitions. One possibility is that a group of adults would use cooperative breeding to care for a clutch, this is basically the village raising a child approach. With theropods, in particular Oviraptor, the presence of adults on eggs does support incubation and possibly even brooding. Hatchlings have been found within a nest and could have died there for many reasons, brood reduction and siblicide are both entirely possible. Given the diversity of dinosaurs, it is likely different dinosaurs provided varying levels of care for their young. Modern example showing a female crocodile providing care: Modern example of a spoonbill bird raising young: Some dinosaurs such as the sauropod titanosaurs, likely did not care for their young but rather used the same strategy as sea turtles. A large group of females would lay hundreds of eggs at once to overwhelm the predators and just by sheer numbers allowing some of the babies to live to adulthood. Are there any diseases or mutations of eggshells? Yes, we have paleopathologies found in eggshell. Paleo meaning ancient and pathology being the study of diseases, so paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases. One of the more common is where two or more layers of eggshell overlap in a way where the pores no longer pass through the entire shell, this reduces the amount of oxygen an embryo can receive. Too many of the pores being misaligned can be fatal. What color were eggs? One of the most recent breakthroughs in egg research is an ability to determine colors present within fossilized eggshell. Interestingly, from the eggs so far examined there seem to be many colors and patterns. With this being rather new to the field, not many eggs have been tested plus there is likely some error and bias. Even so, there are remarkable results. Some eggs were simple, just white. Some were speckled. Many were dull earthy colors, while others were green and blue. Given their close relationship, it is logical to assume dinosaur eggs could show any variations of what we see from either crocs or birds. Modern crocodiles have white eggs whereas modern bird eggs range in color and pattern. Interestingly, even within the same bird species there is a range in color, so it is entirely possible dinosaur eggs from the same species also vary in color. Three modern chicken eggs showing variation in colors and size. From Wikimedia Commons What is working with eggs like? Fieldwork: The basic process of removing eggs from the ground is very similar to that of removing fossilized bones. The approximate size of an egg is figured out and then the area around it is trenched until a plateau is formed. Next, a plaster jacket is made encasing the plateau. The bottom of this is removed until the whole thing can be “popped.” After which it is flipped and then is ready to be brought back to the museum. An egg at a new nesting site just after I uncovered it. Pic from the Two Medicine Dinosaur Center Jacketing an egg at Egg Mountain in Montana. Pics by D. O’Farrell. To find small fragments of eggshell and embryonic bones, removed rock is often sifted. Since they are so small—and also a rock surrounded by rocks—many times until sifted, the tiny bones or eggshell are not visible. Sifting for eggshell, here I am showing Paleontologist Barbie an example eggshell fragment. Pic from Coffeewithhallelujah After viewing the example fragment, my esteemed colleague Paleontologist Barbie was able to find an eggshell fragment. Can you find the piece of eggshell below? Pic from Coffeewithhallelujah Preparing and reconstructing an egg: Eggs tend to be more tedious and require more patience than normal prep work. Eggs are not that difficult to prepare, however, to an even greater extent than bones, they are very unforgiving. Reassembling a fossil bone after a mistake is not necessarily easy, however it is normally possible. The same often cannot be said for fossilized eggs. If you ever want to try and reconstruct a dino egg, just save the last chicken egg after cracking it and then try to reassemble. Remember, chickens are dinosaurs and their eggs make a decent modern analog to a classic theropod egg. Eggs in context- The Two Medicine Formation: To bring us all the way back to the beginning, what is the importance of studying eggs? Why bother? The primary geologic formation I have spent the last seven years working in is the Two Medicine and in terms of eggs, it is the most significant location in North America. One newly discovered nest I am fortunate enough to have an ongoing role in excavating and scientifically describing. From eggs and embryonic remains, the ecosystem of the Two Medicine is relatively well known compared to nearly every other formation. In terms of paleoecology, nesting sites show where adults felt safe and secure with enough food, water, and other resources. Within this formation was true evidence for parental care, particularly care in the form of nurture similar to birds. Behavior is nearly impossible to deduce from the limited fossil record, yet the care for young is strongly supported thanks to discoveries in the Two Med. Three dinosaurs from the formation have been linked to their eggs, Hypacrosaurus, Maiasaura, and Troodon. It may not seem impressive but three dinosaurs with embryonic remains is a truly remarkable find and incredibly rare. Even now, after over forty years of study, the Two Med continues to surprise with new nesting sites. Read about how the Two Medicine and Maiasaura was discovered: Additional information: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell_case1.php https://www.nps.gov/articles/mesozoic-egg-mountain-dawson-2014.htm https://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/mt_geoheritage/sites/augusta_choteau/paleontology.html http://www.georgialifetraces.com/2014/07/15/tracing-the-two-medicine/ http://www.georgialifetraces.com/2014/08/04/fossil-visions-in-the-two-medicine/ Hear me talk about my research on eggs and Troodon: Dinosaurs as living animals: Eggs allow us to see these animals as just that, animals. There is a reason many feel sad when seeing a baby dinosaur still in its egg, yet the same sadness tends to not be shown for adults. Why? The poor baby was deprived of an actual life and it is easy to relate. When covering a natural disaster, one goal of reporting is to humanize the story. In a similar way, when reporting on dinosaurs, it is important to try and do the same. Eggs allow us to come far closer to dinosaurs as true animals than I feel we ever will through bones alone. Eggs and reproduction give a window into the lives of these wonderful animals. When trying to describe what separates something living from an inanimate object, the ability to reproduce is used as a major criterion, therefore making it one of the most important aspects of dinosaurs to study in detail. Some Relevant Terms: These typically are used for modern birds and the classic theropods. Altricial: A developmental classification where at hatching, the offspring are relatively immobile, lack feathers or down, have closed eyes and are completely dependent on their parents for survival. Altricial birds include herons, hawks, woodpeckers, owls, and most passerine songbirds. Brood (n): The offspring of an animal which are hatched or cared for at one time. Brood (v): To sit on and keep warm. Brooding: To sit on and keep offspring warm when they cannot maintain their own body temperatures. Brood reduction: A reproductive strategy where the female lays more eggs than can be cared for and raised. The smallest and weakest of the brood typically starve or are killed by siblings. Clutch: Total number of eggs laid by a female in one nest attempt, often 3 or more. Conspecific: Of the same species. Cooperative breeding: Breeding system where non-parental adults assist other breeding pairs (usually their own parents) to rear offspring, instead of dispersing from the nest or breeding themselves. Incubation: The process by which parents keep eggs at the proper temperature to ensure normal embryonic development until hatching. In most cases, birds sit on eggs and transfer their body heat through a patch of skin known as the brood patch. In many species, only the female incubates; in other species, both males and females incubate. Less common is where only the male incubates. Precocial: Offspring are capable of a high degree of independent activity immediately after hatching. Precocial young typically can move about, have their eyes open and will be covered in down at hatching. They are generally able to walk away from the nest as soon as they have dried off. Siblicide: The death of a young animal usually as a result of fighting with siblings over food, common in years when food is in short supply. Further reading and information: https://www.amnh.org/our-research/paleontology/about-the-division/more/fossil-identification/dinosaur-eggs-fossil-identification http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/index.php http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell_hirsch.php http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/science/eggshell/eggshell5.php https://feederwatch.org/blog/raptors-make-good-neighbors-hummingbirds/ Images: University of California Museum of Paleontology: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ Yang et al. 2018: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5144 Montana State University: http://www.montana.edu/ Two Medicine Dinosaur Center: http://www.tmdinosaurcenter.org/ Royal Tyrrell Museum: http://tyrrellmuseum.com/ Museum of the Rockies: https://museumoftherockies.org/ The Zuhl Museum: https://zuhlmuseum.nmsu.edu/ Dr. Tony Martin: http://www.georgialifetraces.com/ Mueller-Towe et al. 2002: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260391508_Hatching_and_infilling_of_dinosaur_eggs_as_revealed_by_computed_tomography University of Calgary Hadrosaur eggshell: https://www.ucalgary.ca/drg/imagesort/00S000500 Oviraptor eggshell: https://www.ucalgary.ca/drg/imagesort/00S001300 Varricchio et al. 1997: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232793785_Nest_and_egg_clutches_of_the_dinosaur_Troodon_formosus_and_the_evolution_of_avian_reproductive_traits Coffeewithhallelujah: http://coffeewithhallelujah.blogspot.com/2015/07/paleontologist-barbie-at-two-medicine.html Wikimedia Commons Citipati: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citipati Chicken eggs: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_as_food List of open access egg related papers: Thanks to the late Joe Gallo for this wonderful list. Disclaimer: For legal purposes, it should be noted links to an institution does not constitute endorsement by the respective institution and pictures are used here for educational purposes only. All rights belong to their respective owners. From the 2018 SVP meeting, my poster, which was a presentation on new dinosaur eggs. Pic from the Two Medicine Dinosaur Center Many thanks to J. Cozart and L. Murphy for writing some sections as well as edits. Thanks to D. Lawver, Ph.D. for reviewing the information presented. I especially would like to thank @Fossildude19 for assisting me and additionally thank these members for input and suggestions: @Troodon . @Seguidora-de-Isis . @HamptonsDoc . @-Andy- Eric P.
  3. The Basic Dinosaur Egg Guide Many people often mistake a concretion for an egg, to help clarify what is a concretion, and what is a real egg, here is a guide. A quick overview with examples: How to spot a concretion: How are they different from eggs? A concretion is a rather common rock made of tightly compressed minerals. Typically, concretions are a smooth sphere or oval with little to no surface texture or just a few bumps. Often nearly a perfect sphere, sometimes more of an oval. In a concretion, there is no eggshell. If you cannot see eggshell then you do not have an egg. If it looks the same shape as modern egg, such as from chicken then you do not have an egg. Concretions may have fragments breaking off and these will tend to be smooth on both sides. They tend to be dull earthy colors with a different composition in the center, as seen by a change in color. A different color in the center normally means you do not have an egg. Often circular bandings can be seen around exterior of concretions. Sizes of concretions range from just an inch, or a few millimeters, up to more than 10 ft (3 m). Egg sizes, along one side, range from just an inch or a few millimeters and top out at around 8 in (20 cm). If you find an oval or round shape, which is larger than 8 in (20 cm) along a side then it is probably not an egg. For more information on concretions: https://www.priweb.org/index.php/education/education-projects-programs/earth-101/concretions http://tumblehomelearning.com/geologists-find-largest-dinosaur-eggs-in-the-world-another-fraudulent-fossil/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concretion In video form: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5IoyLEwkMY Example of concretions, these three were incorrectly given an ID as “dinosaur eggs” however they are clearly not: From Tumblehome Learning, link above Pseudofossils: There are some pseudofossils, which can have a similar appearance to an actual egg, right down to seeming like there are bits of eggshell. This pseudofossil does look similar to an egg and even seems to have eggshell, however it is not an egg and is actually geologic. The surface ranges too much in texture and composition. Pic from Montana State University, taken by P. Germano Trace fossils: Many times, an actual trace fossil can be mistaken for an egg, common examples of this are pupa cases and cocoons. As one can see below, they do tend to have an egg-like shape and are yet another perfect example of why shape alone should not be used when trying to identify eggs. The three below are important trace fossils, just not eggs. Pic by Tony Martin, Ph.D. How to spot a real egg: The best and only true sign you have an actual egg is eggshell actually being present. Eggs come in many shapes from a semi-rounded, elongated oval to a perfect sphere and many others. Shape is not a good indicator of an egg. It is useful but only when combined with other details. Eggshell often has surface ornamentation that gives it a unique texture which can be seen by the naked eye or with a hand lens. There are many such ornamentations and they are used to help distinguish one egg type from another. On the surface look for little bumps, ridges with valleys, river channels, and similar textures. Individual fragments of eggshell are rather common in some geologic formations so be on the lookout for a larger grouping of eggshell. From University of California Museum of Paleontology Also read: http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/59654-dinosaur-eggs-lowell-carhart-guide/ Examples of real eggshell: Example of eggshell fragments: An eggshell fragment from Maiasaura, which is the oogenus Spheroolithus oosp. Pic by W. Freimuth. Examples of real eggs: A clutch of Troodon formosus eggs, which are the oospecies Prismatoolithus levis. Pic from Museum of the Rockies Do I have embryos inside this egg? Most likely no. Embryonic remains are extremely rare within eggs, and you add that with the rarity of eggs to start and it is a remote possibility. No fossilized yolks have been found and since they are soft tissue, it is near impossible for any to fossilize. I still think this is an egg! If you still think you have an actual egg, then please start a thread. Take close detailed pictures with something for scale such as a ruler and provide all the information you can about it--like where it was found. Good pictures will help greatly with a proper and correct ID. Below is an example of how to best photograph an egg or eggshell. There is clear lighting, a background which is clearly different than the eggshell in question and a scale bar. Lights can be as simple as a desk lamp; a scale bar can just be a ruler and the background can be very simple, in the example just a paper towel. Megaloolithus egg. Pic from Montana State University, taken by P. Germano If you would like to learn much more on eggs, here is the advanced egg guide which goes in depth. Also, see the advanced guide for sources. Eric P.
  4. Here is The Association of Applied Paleontological Sciences online guide for fossil dealers and other paleo related info for the 2019 Tucson (Arizona) fossil, gem and mineral shows. The guide lists dealers by speciality and venue. The guide has some blank pages (advertisements missing?). https://aaps.net/pdf/2019-AAPS-Guide-final-lo-res.pdf
  5. Arizona Paleontology Guide

    Arizona Paleontology Guide Paleontology Guides Master Index link My Favorite Paleontology Resources Guide link This is a guide to the most relevant literature, websites, photos and The Fossil Forum content relating to paleontology in Arizona. This main page is a continually updated and monitored index with links to subpages of paleontology resources. Click on links on this page to see content in the subpages. Click on link in the upper right of every subpage to go back to this main page, the index. This is a modest start for an important resource. I have more to add. Please contact me if you if you have any questions, suggestions or content that I should add. Feel free to send a link to this Guide to anyone that needs information about Arizona Paleontology. Thanks to Fruitbat, Joe, for his inspiration and many of the reference citations. Enjoy, John Arizona Paleontology Literature by Formation & Member etc. link Arizona Paleontology Literature by Geological Age link Arizona Paleontology Literature by Taxonomy link Arizona Paleontology Maps link Arizona Paleontology Photos link Arizona Paleontology Websites: General link Arizona Paleontology Websites: Museums, School Depts., Parks & Societies link
  6. Any Fossil guidebooks for NC?

    Hey guys, I know there is plenty of generalized information about fossil sites and the formations listed here on TFF, but I was wondering if anyone knew of a specific book, or guide that was specified toward North Carolina only. Maybe even a website that had some good information about the geological history, formations, as well as fossil deposits here in NC?
  7. Detroit Lakes??

    Hello, I will be going to visit kin up in Ottertail county over the 4th of July week. We are coming up from Florida Despite visiting Minnesota repeatedly throughout my life, I know almost nothing about fossil hunting possibilities...my focus has always been on fishing and such, but my 5 year old is high on fossiling (and has quite a collection from Florida already) We are flying in from Florida to the Cities and driving out. IF any of y'all have insight on: 1) locations around ottertail county/detroit lakes 2) locations between Fergus Falls and the Cities 3) locations in EASTERN North Dakota 4) guides or trips we could participate in 5) fossil/dinosaur related sites to see in that part of the country 6) tips on applicable laws we should be aware of ...I would be GREATLY obliged I reckon anything between MSP and Jamestown ND would be reasonable, bu the closer to Fergus, Alexandria, DL, etc., the better! Thanks y'all very much in advance
  8. Crown Point Formation

    Recently, I have obtained a Wikipedia account so that I could update articles on some of Vermont’s geologic formations. The first of which I have made is the Ordovician age Crown Point Formation, in which I have collected many rocks completely covered in fossil invertebrates. Although I am unsure as to how far this formation goes (possibly extending into New York as well),localities known for having some of the most fossils from the formation include the towns of Panton and Isle La Motte. In creating the list, my main source of information was Paleontology of the Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont, as well as my own observations of what fossils were collected by myself and other members of the Burlington Gem & Mineral Club when we collected specimens from private quarries in Panton, VT last October. However, as my main source was written in 1962, the names and classification for some of the fauna included in the list may have names that are dubious, and the list itself if subject to change. If there is any further information that should be added to the article, please let me know, or edit the page responsibly (basing your facts/information with resources). Note: I have not added algae & porifera yet, so this post (and the Wikipedia article) will be edited. The Crown Point Formation Cephalopods Maclurites magnus Stereospyroceras champlainensis Vaginoceras oppletum Vaningenoceras sp. Proteoceras perkinsi Proteoceras pulchrum Plectoceras jason Nanno sp. Trilobites Bumastus erautusi Bumastus globosus Cryptolithus tesselatus Eoharpes antiquatus Flexicalymene senaria Isotelus gigas Pliomerops canadensis Vogdesia bearsi Echinoderms Dendrinocrinus alternatus Brachipods Atleasma multicostum Camerella varians Macrocoelia champlainensis Corals Streptelasma expansum Foerstephyllum wissleri Lambeophyllum profundum Bryozoans Praspora orientalis Rhinidictya fenestrata Stictopora ramosa
  9. Antwerpen

    Hello, hopefully somebody can help me. I live in Denmark and might be going to Antwerpen on March 23 until about 27 march. Do anybody know where I can go and find shark teeths? Do you know somebody who are might to guide me to the place and show me how to find them? Best regards Marianne
  10. hold the mayo

    mayoetalaracesystematics Please forgive me for thinking this was too nice to pass up,at least pictorially. edit:19 Mb Haven't checked into the fossil record of the taxa treated.....................yet
  11. Calvert Cliffs Guide?

    Hey all, i am planning a trip to Calvert Cliffs in Maryland with my girlfriend, but I was curious if there were any guides that frequently assist people who have never been to the cliffs before. It looks a little intimidating, but perhaps that's because I've never been there. Would you even suggest a guide if one was available? Or is it not crazy to go without one? I just want to be safe there. Could you offer your best advice if I were to go by myself to let's say Brownie's beach? Obviously I'd love to come across a Meg, as I've never found a tooth bigger than 3/4 of an inch before. It would be a thrill id never forget. I most certainly don't want anyone to give up any secret spots, but I'd love to know your best advice on a newbie like myself looking for some better looking fossils. Lastly, do I need to be wading in water to search for megs? I really wanted to strictly search on land (obviously not directly in the cliffs as I know that's illegal, and I wouldn't even if it was legal due to ruining something so naturally pretty). Thanks so much everybody.
  12. Finding Fossilized Shark (Selachimorpha [Selachii]) Teeth On The Shores Of Myrtle Beach, SC: A Definitive, Authoritative, Don't-Deviate-Or-Die Guide By Shane R., a.k.a. "THE master expert of all gurus" Shell-bed - Crushed shells deposited during the high tide transformation to low tide. A proper bed will have NO SAND VISIBLE, ONLY CRUSHED SHELLS!! The ocean's dump... Dump of joy and goodness! This is where you always want to be in some form or another. DO NOT waste time with shell-bedless sand. Bigger pieces of shells in the bed = bigger teeth, less chance of finding squat. Smaller pieces = small teeth but higher chances. Zone 4 - Fine, hot, trash-filled, bone-dry, dredged, behind pretty sea oats sand that's furthest from the ocean (2.25/5 rating & small teeth) Zone 3 - Lumpy, warm, uneven, ever-so-slightly-moist, feet-trodden, gritty sand that's marked by beach scraping machinery tracks (?[unimportant enough that I've never looked]/5 rating & small teeth) Zone 2 - Cool, moist, older-shell-bed-filled, severely foot-trodden, vacationers-set-up-shop-full, smooth sand (3.5/5 rating & small to large teeth) Zone 1 - Very cool, super moist, lightest of waves, fresh-shell-bed filled, heavens-opened-up, stay-here-all-day, smooth-as-a-baby's-rear, where-toothy-addictions-and-backbreaking-obsessions-are-made shore sand (5/5 rating & small to very large teeth) ps. if you can't already tell, this is the zone you want Zone Almost Pointless - Cold, in the "deeper than lightest of waves," impossible-to-see-anything, "that fast wave took my spotted treasure away before I could process," shell-beds so exceptional your feet cut open and bleed, waterery sand (1.75/5 rating & large to extremely large teeth) *Baby Zip bag needed. Leave open the whole time searching. Touch fingers in ocean water, let water drip into bag, fill about 1/4 of bag (the water atoms secure your teeth), hold in one hand between thumb, forefinger, and middle finger (thumb is on right side gripped next to zipper [sharp edge of bag], forefinger nail distance is inside bag, middle finger is above forefinger outside of bag gripped to forefinger nail) while searching. Touch (or drop if you found a big momma) newly acquired teeth to water inside bag until said atoms overtake tooth, securing it in bag. Check continually for low water level and leakages. If found, dip ocean fingers and refill. DO NOT DROP BAG!!!!!! HOLY.. DONT DROP THE BAG. AND.... Don't... be.. tipping the bag either Ahem... Now for that meat. A good mindset to always, always keep is that, chances are, if a shell bed is not actively being eroded at by active waves, any teeth of substantial size have been already taken by another collector. If you aren't actively eye-searching, continually walking, moving around, and searching for the next great eroding shell bed, you ARE wasting precious, valuable time! Look down the beach and head to the next visible bed near the shore! Lots of speed walking is needed! Check to see if waves are or might be close to hitting beds. If so, GET there as fast as possible! Scour the beach with your eyes and be PROACTIVE! Beat the next collector! Be on top of it! If you aren't bent over the whole time, you ARE missing great teeth! R.I.P. Mr. back When you've found a shell-bed near the shore that's actively being eroded by waves, pay super close attention to the area where the sand (closest to ocean) meets the shell bed. This area (and just to the top of bed [furthest from ocean]) is where very large teeth can be found! The middle of the bed is just as good! So check the whole bed!!duh! Make sure the sun is BEHIND YOU and the tooth's enamel should shine like utter diamond from the fresh water on them. Pay SUPER close attention to the bottom of said bed when a wave thoroughly hits it: sometimes teeth come SHOOTING out! The water is naturally sorting this big bed of shells for you! Thank the wind for the eroding waves! Thank the moon for providing the large tide that dropped the shells! The bed that is actively being hit by waves is loooong, as you can see, so don't stay in one place! Pace back and forth the distance of bed where waves are hitting (only where waves are sorting for you)! You are greatly increasing your chances of finding a tooth if you are walking back and forth whilst looking! Pace! Don't stay in one place! Pace! Don't do et . Pace! Scan scan scan! If you aren't actively scanning, you are missing! Active active! Nonstop! This is work since they're valuable to the Gay Dolphin dude! If not trying to fool with tide charts, prepare to be out for at least six hours in order to catch key times. Full moons and new moons are the greatest times to look. Day before and after. Morning. 6:45 am. Nautical twilight time... If there is a storm, GET OUT THERE NOW. Legendary fun awaits. If no shell beds can be found (you're basically fricked...but), bring a short metal shovel, use toes to find an under the sand shell bed, make sure it is close to the ocean, dig large scoops, throw to edge of where water is hitting, let nature erode, search quickly at results. Thank me for this quality, highly treasured, highly secret, authoritative, veteran, insider, seasoned info and data by... Showing me what you find! <3 ~SR
  13. Looking for a Kid Friendly Site in OK.

    I have absolutely zero background or experience in this field, but I do have a six year old who very much wants to partner his museum experiences with a "real" fossil dig. He understands that our findings may be meager, so anything would be great. We are in central OK between OKC and Tulsa and have time for a day trip either tomorrow or Sunday. Any recommendations you can offer are greatly appreciated!
  14. Hi all, I don't know if you know it already, but this series of divulgative publications seems me absolutely interesting and useful: http://www.echinoids-gallery.com/presentaciones/asociacion paleontologica.htm
  15. Hi. Here is a guide to collecting fossils from the British Coal Measures. I will update it often to make it more useful for those wishing to learn about the Coal Measures. The British Coal Measures is Upper Carboniferous aged- approximately 310 million to 315 million years old. It's split into three main sections- the Lower Coal Measures (the oldest), the Middle Coal Measures and the Upper Coal Measures (the most recent.) In the Upper Carboniferous, the UK had a tropical climate, with forests containing dense vegetation. Sometimes, the sea levels increased, causing flooding, which made marine bands. There are many different fossils to be found in the British Coal Measures- Insects, Myriapods, Arachnids, Plants, trace fossils, Crustaceans, Amphibians, bivalves, Brachiopods, fish (including sharks), the occasional trilobite, Goniatites and a few other fossils. Where to find fossils in the British Coal Measures - Streams often cut through various rock types, including mudstone which isn't often exposed in old quarries. - There are few sites which contain coal mining waste these days but they contain some very nice fossils. - Old quarries usually have outcrops of Sandstone, which often contains plant stems and trace fossils. - Coastal locations have plenty of material to search through and various rock types can be found. A geology map is useful to check if the site which you plan to visit has Coal Measures rocks. If the site you plan to visit is on private land remember to get permission to visit from the land owner. Which rock types contain fossils? There are a few rock types which contain fossils- Sandstone- Sandstone often contains plant stems and trace fossils. The sand grains don't preserve fossils very well, so the fossils found in sandstone don't usually have fine detail. Also, the sandstones were formed in flowing rivers, so, for example if a plant fell into a river, the soft parts would have got separated from the harder stem, so usually only the stem can be found. Although they're quite rare, Trigonocarpus seeds can be found. Coastal locations, streams and old quarries are good places to look for fossils in sandstone. Fossils found in Sandstone- 1/2- Calamites stems 3/4- Artisia stems 5- Trigonocarpus seeds 6- Fossil burrow
  16. Thinking about hunting the Peace river

    Would like all the details I can get. I will use a guide and would like to know your favorites and why. I have a jet ski and motorized canoe. If I choose not to use a guide (not likely) are these devices allowed? Is scuba allowed? What parts of the river are best? Are there rules, laws, restrictions? What are the river conditions now and is there an online water temp/water level gauge? What levels are best?
  17. It's not always easy to take great photos of your fossils. Often, we have to deal with poor lighting and bad angles. Here's a quick guide to improving the quality of your photos with Photoshop. (Note: this is not to say you can just work with any crappy photo. Taking a decent shot helps save you a great deal with time, since photoshop editing would be minimal.) 1) I've taken a photo of my ammonite. Unfortunately, I lack a specialized lighting system, and the sun wasn't helpful. So it's up to Photoshop to fix this. 2) Fire up your Levels editor tool (CTRL + L). You'll find it under Image > Adjustments > Levels. You want to make use of all available input levels. Drag the slider to do so (see red arrow). 3) Now, use sample in image to capture white point. Use the tool and click on any white spot in your photo. 4) Looking better, isn't it? And that was done with just the level editor tool in literally 10 seconds 5) Crop your image. People mainly want to see the fossil, so go ahead and crop out the background, stand, and your hand etc; use your discretion, retain what is necessary to give the photo a scale of size, while getting rid of anything else that distracts. Add a scale bar (stick to CM or inch) with the Horizontal Type tool (T) and Rectangular Marquee tool (M). 6) This step is optional; adjust brightness and contrast as you like. But don't over-adjust your photo! We want the fossil to look as natural as possible! 7) And we are done! Easy, wasn't it? As said at the beginning, do try to take good photos if you can. Leave photoshop as a last resort. Here's a chart to working with Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO. Take note of the difference in lighting and sharpness. If you lack Photoshop, you can download GIMP for free; the same general concept applies to it too > https://www.gimp.org/ If you have any questions or requests about Photoshop, feel free to ask me
  18. Hi all. eBay is generally a good website for us to get fossil specimens as long as we do the proper research, and seek out reputable sellers. However, certain fossils pop up every now and then that are obvious fakes, and not every buyer is diligent enough to know so. What we can do is to report these listings. Believe it or not, sometimes they do get taken down. To begin, say you notice a fossil you know is fake. Click on Report Item on the top right, it's above the eBay item number. eBay takes you to another screen: Choose Listing practices > Fraudulent listing activities > You suspect that a listing is fraudulent Hit Continue, and you'll be given an item number. Hit 'Send Report'. You do not need to be a bidder to make this report. You'll know the report is made when you're taken to this new screen: Ultimately, the best practice if you shop on eBay is to do your due research. Ask the experts here; they are more than willing to point out when a fossil is fake. I've personally saved thousands just by helpful advice here. Also, if you notice any fake fossils, do us a favor as well by posting about it here, but do not mention the seller's name or identity; we are here to learn, not conduct a witch hunt. Good luck
  19. After feeling inspired be Missourian's amazing thread "Backyard Trip" and while not wanting to let everything I've learned about the Tulsa area go to waste when I move, I wanted to make a thread sharing my knowledge for the benefit of everyone in the area and anyone who might come through the area. I decided that I will not post specific locations in most situations to prevent over hunting and damage to the sites, but I will give most of the locations over PM ( if they were given to me by a friend, I'll let you know who to contact, but it is their site so it's not mine to give away). I will try to give details on the areas, formations present, fossils found there and provide pictures where I can. There are also a number of rumored location I've never had a chance to visit, so I'll try and give information on those too. My time will be sporadically available, so I'll be updating when I can. For the first post I wanted to provide quick links to some of the documentation available in the area. The main source is from the Oklahoma Geologic Survey. Some of the written material is old, outdated, or incomplete, but it is a great place to start. Their documents can be found here: http://www.ogs.ou.edu/pubs.php And most of their maps (which are up to date and excellent where available) here: http://www.ogs.ou.edu/geolmapping.php Another site with some good information can be found here (information spans multiple states and hasn't been updated for years): http://www.bluesinheaven.com/pgs/paleo/index.html Unfortunately, I haven't found any good books on the area to list.
×