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Found 115 results

  1. Ceratopsian tooth (root) wear?

    Hi all, I came across this Ceratopsian tooth from the HC Fm. online and was wondering what you make of the 'wear facet' on the root? Did this occur naturally in the jaw while the tooth got disposed of? I have not seen this before so I am curious Thanks in advance!
  2. Hell Creek Claw ID - Dakotaraptor?

    Hi everyone! I have a large claw from the Hell Creek Formation of Harding County, South Dakota that I was hoping to have help identifying. It is large enough that I initially believed it stood a chance at being tyrannosaurid, but it seems a bit more compressed than tyrannosaur claws I’ve worked with in the past - particularly on the lower ridge. The ventral surface of the claw is also distinctly flat rather than rounded, which seems unusual. Could this be a Dakotaraptor claw or is that just wishful thinking? Large Anzu perhaps? It is right around 1.75 inches across the length of the claw (sorry, no metrics on this ruler). I have referred to the incredible guide posted by Troodon, and have some experience with various claws, but I still can’t quite come to a conclusion on this one. What are your thoughts? Thanks in advance!
  3. Hell Creek vertebra

    Hello! I got this dinosaur vertebra from Hell Creek (Montana) a few years back. It was sold to me as a Triceratops vertebra but I don't know how that ID was made. It's not in the best condition (has moss(?) on it and has been broken and then glued back together) but it is about 13-14 centimetres across so it is clearly from a big dinosaur, but there were plenty of those in Hell Creek (even two large ceratopsids - Triceratops and Torosaurus). Looking for any insight into how an ID could be made here and if Triceratops (or even just ceratopsid) is correct
  4. T. rex posterior dentary tooth

    From the album Dinosaurs

    A high-quality replica of Stan's posterior right dentary tooth. About 4.5" in length.
  5. Nanotyrannus serrations

    From the album Dinosaurs

    Distal serrations of a juvenile Nanotyrannus lancensis (Hell Creek Fm., Dawson Co., MT).
  6. K-Pg Boundary Microtektites

    From the album Dinosaurs

    K-Pg Boundary Microtektites Hell Creek Formation Garfield Co., MT, USA These aren't fossils, but are relevant to the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, large marine reptiles, and many other species of flora/fauna at the end of the Cretaceous. When a large meteor/asteroid struck the earth ~ 66 mya, it sent molten ejecta across the world. Some of this molten material, sourced from the impact site, was shaped by its trajectory through the atmosphere and cooled into small, glassy droplets. The black blobs you see are those droplets, called tektites (each typically ~ 1 mm in diameter). The layer which these came from is more famous for its unusually high concentration of iridium (which is more common in meteorites than on Earth). However, in some locations, tektites have been preserved. In this matrix sample, I've also found carbonized plant material (charcoal), which suggests fires that could be associated with the impact event.
  7. From the album Dinosaurs

    A juxtaposition of the bases of two juvenile Tyrannosaurid tooth crowns from the Hell Creek Formation. Nanotyrannus: Dawson Co., MT Tyrannosaurus: Carter Co., MT
  8. This work by Denver Fowler reviews the stratigraphy of the Hell Creek Formation, as currently understood using the Fort Peck as his study area https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3263/10/11/435
  9. The skull of any dinosaur is composed of many different elements. When I go collecting in an Edmontosaurus bonebed one never finds a skull but the elements that make up one up. Like to use this topic to share the complexity and variety of some of the elements I have collected. I do not have many but will post the ones I have and will continue to add as I prep or find them. Of course if anyone sees any discrepancies please feel to comment and like to thank Olof (LordTrilobite) in the ID of some. Skull still in a jacket not from my usual bonebed but one can see it all together. One day I'll get it mounted. To aid in identification of where SOME these elements are located have this illustration that comes from Marsh's 1893 This is a Saurolophus skull but elements are the same QJ: Quadrotojugal PMX: Premaxilla L: Lacrimal SA: Surangular SQ: Squamosal PO: Postorbital EO: Exoccipital Dentary (Less Teeth ) The Maxilla Surangular Squamosal Quadrotojugal Exoccipital Quadrate \ Splenial
  10. The virus put a damper on my Spring dinosaur collecting trip but I was able to get a partial one in for the Fall. I was able to spend several days at my usual Edmontosaurs bonebed but unfortunately only one day at a channel deposit in Montana where theropod/mammal material can be found. Hopefully next year will be more normal, Hopefully. Quite a few new members since my last trip so I will get into more specifics to get them a view of how I collect this material. First let me share with you a view of the collecting area and the LOCAL wildlife that we deal with on a daily basis. The area in Montana is very remote no phone or internet The badlands where we collect in South Dakota The most beautiful critter that we see everywhere on these sites and all over the west is the Pronghorn. At this time of the year we typically see a small herd with a bull and his harem. For those of you not familiar with a Pronghorn its the fastest animal in the western hemisphere able to achieve speeds in excess of 50 mph (80 km/h) Mule deer are ever present and very dangerous if you are driving when dark The site is located on edge of cliff and over the years lots of holes and cavities have been created by erosion creating a wonderful winter den area for the local snakes. So during our fall trip its not uncommon to have visitors slither by us and of course wishing us good luck by waving their tongue Here are some we have seen this season: The only dangerous one is the Prairie Rattler but they typically are not interested in bothering us. You just have to watch where you are walking. Being from Arizona its normal... The Western Ribbon Snake The Yellow belly Racer The Prairie Bullsnake We do have more cuties' Tiger Salamander after a rainfall On to collecting Other than a pick and shovel these are the tools I use 90% of the time to collect I use two glues, Paleobond field prep and stabilizer. The latter on teeth and when I need a very strong deep bond. Harder to prep with PB002 so its only used when needed. For wrapping the bones Heavy duty aluminum foil does the trick where minimal support is needed . Where additional support is needed on large bones we use burlap and plaster. However plaster cloth like the one in the photo works most of the time and is a heck easier to use than burlap
  11. Richardoestesia or Dakotaraptor?

    Hi everyone, I just got this tooth from the Hell Creek Formation of Carter County, Montana. It was labeled as Richardoestesia, so based on the curvature, I was assuming the proper ID would be cf Richardoestesia gilmorei. However, when taking some measurements, what caught my eye was that the mesial carina appeared to end 1/3 from the base, and I started to wonder if instead this tooth could possibly be Dakotaraptor. These are the measurements I was able to get: Mesial: around 5.5-6 serrations/mm Distal: around 5 serrations/mm CH: around 16.5 mm CBL: around 7 mm CH/CBL: around 2.4 The crown appears to be smooth, the base is almond shape, and I believe the denticles have rounded tips. Please let me know what you all think. Also, some of the measurements may need double checking. Thanks!
  12. Juvenile Nanotyrannus lancensis

    From the album Dinosaurs

    A tooth from a juvenile Nanotyrannus lancensis. Only missing the very tip.
  13. Edmontosaurus annectens

    From the album Dinosaurs

    Hadrosaurs evolved very interesting teeth and complex mastication. Read "Complex Dental Structure and Wear Biomechanics in Hadrosaurid Dinosaurs:" https://science.sciencemag.org/content/338/6103/98
  14. I was very happy to see that recent publication that finally described the youngest known alvarezsurid Trierarchuncus prairiensis from the Hell Creek Formation. Material is rare but is most commonly overlooked and described as Croc or unknown theropod so knowing what to look for helps. I'm constantly on the lookout for this material and have been for years and have been fortunate to either find it or be able to acquire it over time. I used publications of other Alvarezsauridae like the Asian Mononykus and Canadian Albertonykus to help in the identification of my specimens. The paper is pay-walled but I included it for reference purposes. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0195667120302469?via%3Dihub Extremely rare associated material found in SD
  15. Every few years we get rewarded with a new dinosaur described from the Lance/Hell Creek Formations. In this crazy year we finally have one. Finally an Alvarezsauridae has been described from the Hell Creek Formation: Trierarchuncus prairiensis. Sorry its paywalled cannot make comments https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667120302469 Here is some info on this very different dinosaur, one of my favorites, including some of my material so you can see what the paper is describing. Far better than what you see in the paper
  16. Late Cretaceous mammal fossils from North America

    Could someone help me find PDFs of scientific papers about mammal fossils from the Campanian-Maastrichtian of North America? I'm specifically interested in papers that deal with mammal faunas from the Hell Creek Formation, the Lance Formation and the Dinosaur Park Formation... Thanks for any help Christian
  17. Looking for confirmation on this theropod bone being sold. Seller is identifying it as a theropod (Anzu?) Arctometatarsal from the Hell Creek of Montana, Powder River County.. 10.4" Long. They indicate it cannot definitely provide an ID but the giant raptor Anzu Wylie is a likely candidate be cause other material from this theropod has been found at the quarry. What is a Arctometatarsal?
  18. Hi all, I posted this tooth for ID a while back. Conclusion was that it could be a Dakotaraptor, maybe, maybe. Since then I am going back and forth on the ID, basically on a daily basis So I decided to take more & new images, measure it thoroughly, put it up again, and kindly ask for your help. It was found in the Hell Creek Fm, Powder River Co., Montana. Measurements are: CH: 2.08cm CBL: 0.8cm CBW: 0.42cm Serration count per 5mm is mesial 24 and distal 18. What makes it hard for me to judge: the shape of denticles is between round and chisel (?), the tiny mesial denticles, and the position of the carinae. Lowest part of the mesial carina is sheared off, but I would not expect a twist - looking closely it would end either half way or 1/3 from base. Any help is highly appreciated!
  19. Unidentified Theropod tooth

    Hey everyone i hope you all had a great holiday season....this next tooth in my collection was labled saurornitholestes from the hell creek formation from powder county MT. We know that the only two described raptors from there are dakotaraptor and acheroraptor so im curious to see what you all think of this one. Nanotyrannus perhaps? Unfortunately the anterior serrations have worn off which im sure will make id'ing this tooth difficult but anyway here it is. ....the CH is 9 mm the posterior serrations are 12 per 3 mm. @Troodon
  20. Troodontid or Dromaeosaurid teeth?

    Hey everyone, I came across these teeth online; They're being sold as an Acheroraptor teeth, but seemed odd to me and reminded me of some recurved Pectinodon teeth I had seen elsewhere (given their small size, too). [Tooth 1] The tooth was found in Hell Creek deposits in Carter County, Montana. I edited the seller's images together to make some features more visible. Its total height is 5mm; the serration density I measured is around 6/mm; Scale bar is 4mm. [Tooth 2] The tooth was found in Hell Creek deposits in Powder River County, Montana. Its total height [?] is around 4mm; Since there was no exact scale reference I couldn't edit in a scale bar. Thanks for any help with this!
  21. I urge caution to all collectors buying or trading from dealers, diggers or fellow collectors. Most collectors, diggers or dealers are honest and trustworthy but not all have a firm handle on identification and I'm seeing this situation worsening not improving. Its not easy even for paleontologists who are trained. I include collectors because like myself, have over the years, been sold misidentified material. So dont trust anything you see offered to you and get it verified. Here is just a sampling of a few items I've run across. Provenance is very important in identification ALWAYS request Formation, State or Province and very important County or Town if in the States or City/Area if Alberta. I see lots of genus/species names being assigned to Ceratopsian or Hadrosaurian bones. Other than Edmontosaurus from the Hell Creek or Lance formations its extremely difficult to assign names to any post cranial material from these families. There are just to many named or yet to be named species from Campanian deposits of formations like Aguja of Texas and the Judith River & Two Med Formations of Montana not to mention Canada. Theropod teeth especially Jurassic ones are very hard to distinguish between one another, photos are just not adequate to validate them. Serration counts and dimensions are needed to try to properly assign them. So request it from the seller. Some real life examples: Very nice Metatarsal listed as a Lambeosaurus from the Hell Creek Fm, Jordan, Montana. Species does not even exist in the HC. Its Edmontosaurus This beautiful vertebra is being listed as a caudal of a Carcharodontosaurus sp., a great collector piece. The description states that the ball and socket indicated how far the tail could swing. Unfortunately the seller is looking at the wrong end of the dinosaur. To me it looks like a cervical vertebra of a Spinosaurid. I did advise the seller a few days ago and he did say a change would be made and the listing has been corrected. Here is a photo of a Sigilmassasaurus for you skeptics This type of tooth from the Kem Kem is an indeterminate Abelisaurid not a RAPTOR, not a Dromaeosaur, not a Deltadromeus Very nice femur being listed as Pachycephalosaurus, its Thescelosaurus .. Very nice rooted tooth being listed as Torosaurus, its a Ceratopsian tooth. There is no way to distinguish Torosaurus teeth from all the other large bodied ceratopsian in the Hell Creek Fm other that if it was found with an identifiable skull. This claw was sold as Troodon from the Judith River, to me it looks like Caenagnathidae This is being listed as a first phalange Toe bone of a tyrannosaur Daspletosaurus. Its a metatarsal of an indeterminate Tyrannosaurid either Daspletosaurus or Gorgosaurus. Unless it was found with some Daspleto diagnostic material, difficult to tell them apart. Seller was advised a long time ago, no changes made. A Daspletosaurus tooth is listed from the Judith River Fm...beautiful tooth but one cannot distinguish teeth between teeth of Tyrannosaurids and Daspletosaurus sp. although assumed to be present its yet to be described from JR deposits
  22. Hey everyone! In this post im going to be sharing two teeth from my collection. The first one was sold to me as acheroraptor. Its from the Hell Creek formation in MT and its CH is 7 mm. @Troodon
  23. My sons and I have been searching different formations in MD/VA for many years so we know how to recognize the different formation layers and have a good idea where to find/or at least check for micro sites/micro lenses. My sons have also been collecting the Eocene/Oligocene formations of Nebraska for years so again they know how to recognize the formation layers. My younger son Mel moved to South Dakota in 2018 and began to also collect the Lance Formation and Hell Creek Formation. However he is still learning the different formation layers. His interest is dinosaur fossils from these formations. My interests are the much smaller micro dinosaur fossils as well as the micro mammal, squamate, amphibian, and fish fossils. I’m always bugging him to send me micro matrix. He sent me matrix this Fall. This post is about one batch of matrix. Mel’s first approach was to send matrix from small areas that have high density surface concentrations of teeth and bones. Where Mel is collecting is more flat and rolling with different Hell Creek layers exposed on the surface versus bluffs and small cliff faces. Mel for Thanksgiving sent me a large USPS priority box of matrix (around three gallons) from a small 6 ft. by 6 ft. area that had a high concentration of dino teeth on the surface. Although sand/clay based this matrix was hard as concrete. I had to use a rock hammer and a small hand sledge hammer to break what he sent into more manageable pieces (definitely not recommended if you are looking for larger specimens). That said the matrix broke down completely in a single day in buckets of very hot tap water and dawn dish soap. I would every few hours use finger pressure to help break up clumps. There was very little residue left after breakdown of this matrix. The below picture shows the residue from about 1/3 of the matrix or around a gallon. The below picture shows what I found. On the left maybe some petrified wood? Doesn’t really look like bone. Maybe geologic. In the middle there is a really nice Croc tooth (4mm), seed (5mm) (maybe modern?), and a partial gar fish scale (7mm). On the right there are several definite small bones and a few specimens that could be bones. Looks like a terrestrial/fluvial environment. What I found was nice but not worth the effort to remove the matrix, send it to Virginia, break the matrix down, and then to search it. Although like I said earlier, there was very little residue after breakdown, so it took only about 15 minutes to search all of the residue. Sampling different sites/layers and trial and error can be extremely tedious and non-productive if you really don’t understand the formation layers and how to recognize them in the field. So I reached out to a TFF member for advice and insight. He explained the matrix types and gave advice on where to take matrix samples. Taking matrix from areas with high density surface concentrations of larger fossils is one way to sample for micros like Mel did for this matrix. However TFF member cautioned that lots of times these concentrations of larger fossils got washed from another layer to the current area years ago and that the underlying layer may not contain much at all as seemed to be the case with this area/layer for this matrix. When you find a good micro site/layer it is very rewarding in the micros that you can find but these sites/micro layers can be difficult to find especially if you don’t have a lot of experience with the Formation. If anyone reading this post has any advice or insight for looking for a Hell Creek Formation specific micro site/layer please post it in a reply. Marco Sr.
  24. Work on Hell Creek Display Begins

    It has taken 10 and a half months but I can finally start putting together our large display of the Hell Creek Fauna. I am really quite excited to start putting it together. We have a pretty good cross section of critters and I think it will be an excellent display to show the diversity of the formation. I also think this will be a great display to use as we explain how different animals share an ecosystem which is a science standard we want to get into more with the 2nd and 3rd grade students. I delayed starting this until we had tracked won three key fossils we were missing, Leptoceratops, Pachycephalosaurus, and Denversaurus. Those three have all gotten crossed off the list in the last month or so with the final domino being Denversaurus. We are still missing a Pectinodon tooth but we can add that down the road. I think now is the time to put it together so we can use this display for our presentation in Paradise which comes shortly after the year anniversary of the Camp Fire which burned the city down. It is a special program at the newly rebuild elementary school I will add some pictures of all the fossils in their individual displays later and once it is all living in one display. I am really proud of this one and I want to give a huge thanks to @Troodon who helped us immensely with this formation. Here is the Denversaurus tooth that I just picked up. A pretty nice tooth and a decent price at that. Today has been a good day for us as this is the one we needed to finish this up right !
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