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Found 37 results

  1. Kem Kem Jawbone

    Recently I posted this fossil in the fossil preparations forum in order to get some assistance in cleaning the fossil. The bone comes from the Kem Kem Beds, so the sandy matrix was fairly easy to pick off with a pin vice and a DRY toothbrush I believe this is Carcharodontosaur because of the amount of space between tooth sockets and the presence of labial foramina (both of these features outlined in photographs) but I'm not 100% sure. The size of the fossil is 6x3x1 inches. I've been driving myself nuts trying to figure out what this thing is, so I've decided to post it here because I'm all out of ideas
  2. Recently I acquired this 7x3 inch bone from the Kem Kem Beds (seller specifically labeled it as coming from Tegana Formation, but I know this formation is no longer valid). When I received the bone I saw that it was covered in spots of sand, so I found my box of exacto knives and went to work. I spent all last night picking off any sand I could find and I think I got most of it. However, the bone is still quite dirty looking and my exacto knives cannot pick off any of the remaining sand-colored material. My first thought was to soak the whole thing in water but I once heard that soaking Moroccan fossils in water can ruin them. What should be my next move? Thanks for any suggestions!
  3. FOSSIL ID Kem Kem Beds

    I was given this by my father as a gift. All he knows, is is it is from the Kem Kem Beds. It looks like it may be a jaw bone on some kind as it has indentations for what looks like teeth? But I can't decide on if it's from a fish, turtle, crocodile, dinosaur or reptile or if it's just a fragmentary piece of bone. I would appreciate it if anyone can shed any light on this! Huge thanks in advance .
  4. This week's red flags This bone is being sold as a neural spine of a reptile or dinosaur. It's actually a pretty complete Chevron and could be dinosaurian. Needs lots of prepping to clean it up. Lots of Dromaeosaur raptor teeth being sold. All are either Abelisaurid indet or juvie Carcharodontosaurid Lots of caudal Vertebrae being sold as Spinosaurus or Carcharodontosaurus, most are Crocodyliforms, unknown or other Dino so post here before you buy Lots of rare phalanx toe bones from Dinosaurs or reptiles being sold this week. Most are Reptlian, Croc or turtle.
  5. A recent interpretation of the fossil remains Spinosaurus aegyptiacus proposed that it was specially adapted for a semi-aquatic mode of life—a first for any predatory dinosaur. To test some aspects of this suggestion this study developed a three-dimensional, digital model of the animal that incorporates regional density variations, lungs and air sacs, and the flotation potential of the model was investigated using specially written software. It was found that Spinosaurus would have been able to float with its head clear of the water surface, although it was laterally unstable and would tend to roll onto its side. The conclusion is that Spinosaurus was not highly specialized for a semi-aquatic mode of life. Furthermore, the floating characteristics of the Spinosaurus model were similar to those of models of other predatory dinosaurs, indicating that there was nothing special about the buoyant characteristics of this animal, and that other theropods could have successfully taken to water to the same degree as well. So Spinosaurus may have been specialized for a shoreline or shallow water mode of life, but would still have been a competent terrestrial animal. Interesting paper, very reputable and a big deal considering the source, The Royal Tyrrell Museum. Newspaper Article: Royal Tyrrell Research Blows Swimming Dinosaur out of the water https://calgaryherald.com/news/local-news/royal-tyrrell-research-blows-swimming-dinosaur-theory-out-of-the-water https://peerj.com/articles/5409/ Henderson DM. (2018) A buoyancy, balance and stability challenge to the hypothesis of a semi-aquatic Spinosaurus Stromer, 1915 (Dinosauria: Theropoda)PeerJ 6:e5409 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5409
  6. This weeks round of red flags Recent listings offers a number of very long Spinosaur teeth at very low prices. Most of these have fake roots and more. Avoid and post here before you buy. A member just got taken last week so please be careful. Large rooted teeth are expensive. A finger bone is offered described from a Spinosaurus. I think its a carpal but we have no scientific evidence that this morphology is from a Spinosaur. Its a very nice indeterminate Theropod carpal. This bone is listed coming from a Carcharodontosaurus. We have no idea who is the owner of this bone, no associated foot material has been published for any large Kem Kem Theropod. Best identified as indeterminate Theropod. Lots of fake Dinosaur eggs continue to be listed. Please post interest before you buy. A pair of Aublysodon Premaxillary teeth offered for sale. Reminder this is no longer considered a valid species, they are best identified as Tyrannosaurid indet. Most likely Nanotyrannus.
  7. A very large Moroccan centrum is being offered for sale. Seller identifies it as a Carcharodontosaurus. In my opinion this looks more like a Sauropod with that very large pleurocoel in the lateral view. Not sure what is going on with that purplish looking material if its been added. Spinosaurus tail, caudal vertebra being offered for sale no mention of any repairs. The centrum does look like its from a Spinosaurid but the processes look composited. You can see the typical Moroccan matrix mix between those processss and centrum. Seller is advertising this as a Carcharodontosaurus toe bone. Identifying isolated toe bones to a species in the Kem Kem is very difficult not much is published that describes them. Its a nice bone buy it as an indeterminate Theropod. Lots of eggs are showing up for sale. Most are fake....this is just a reminder of that, please post interests here before you buy. I still see some dealers offering Rugops teeth for sale from the Kem Kem. Just a reminder that this species is only described from the Echkar Fm of Niger. Most of the teeth offered are Abelisaurid but are indeterminate from the Kem Kem until something is published. For fun saw this 4 figure listing, seller describes it as a petrified baby dinosaur skull with teeth, skin and brain matter coming out of the side of its mouth looks like an alien head to me.
  8. A cool tail vertebra is being sold as the Diplodocoid Rebbachisaurus is the ID correct? Kem Kem Beds. Any resto or repair evident. Thank you
  9. A 3" Carcharodontosaurus Foot Claw is being offered for sale from the Kem Kem of Morocco by a pretty respected dealer. It looks pretty nice but is it identified correctly and repairs or restoration visible? Thank you.
  10. Although the paper is paywalled the abstract provides some interesting insights The hypothesized aquatic habits of Spinosaurus have been called into question, and the distribution of aquatic habits within Spinosauridae remain unclear. New spinosaurid specimens from the Kem Kem beds of Morocco reveal aquatic adaptations in the cranium. 1) Elevated orbits and bending of the frontals placed the eyes atop the skull, as in semiaquatic animals such as crocodiles and hippos. 2) Two morphologies are present, a smaller morph characterized by narrow, triangular frontals, and a larger morph characterized by broad, subrectangular frontals overlapping the prefrontals. The two morphs suggest two distinct spinosaurine taxa, and are tentatively referred to the spinosaurines Spinosaurus cf. aegyptiacus and Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis, respectively Another interesting point in the abstract: The appearance of giant semiaquatic dinosaurs may have followed the disappearance of giant pholidosaurid crocodylomorphs, suggesting that the extinction of large crocodylomorphs was associated with the rise of dinosaurs as apex predators in the freshwater ecosystem in North Africa. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667117303427 Aquatic adaptation in the skull of carnivorous dinosaurs (Theropoda: Spinosauridae) and the evolution of aquatic habits in spinosaurus Thomas M.S.Arden, Catherine G.Klein, SamirZouhri, Nicholas R.Longrich From outline images frontals are shown. @LordTrilobite
  11. Unknown Kem Kem Beds, Teeth

    I have a few teeth here that i could you some help identifying! I'm thinking between a Crocodile or Raptor for the first tooth posted (includes photo of each side). The second photo contains multiple teeth that look to be from the same organism, however i have no clue as to what it could be. All of these teeth are from the Kem Kem Beds of Taouz, Morocco. The single (Crocodile/Raptor?) tooth is .53" (14 mm) long by .31" (8 mm) wide by .2" (5 mm) thick.
  12. These bones from the Kem Kem Beds of Morocco are being offered for sale as Spinosaurus Phalanx Toe Bones. They appear to be carpals, hand bones, and most likely from one of the Spinosaurid's in that fauna. Please note that I've yet to find any technical paper that describes any Spinosaurid hand bones The seller indicates only some glued and fill fractures however the excessive matrix on both these carpals might indicate otherwise. The distal end of the carpal on the right appears to have lots of "fill"
  13. I've had a number of questions raised via PMs and posts on Dinosaur claws from the Kem Kem Beds so here is a topic on that subject. We know very little about their morphology and that is not unexpected because this region continues to mystify everyone and new discoveries are constantly changing our understanding of these dinosaurs. Spinosaurid foot claws are the best understood but since we really do not know how many species exist, currently two, its difficult to assign the morphology shown below to any specific one. Best described as Spinosaurid indet. Note the dimple on the ventral surface The claw shown below is generally accepted as a Spinosaurid hand claw but like the foot claw cannot assign it to a specific species. Not aware of any publication showing this morphology in the Kem Kem but very similar to claws in other regions. Best described as Spinossurid indet. Abelsaurid foot claws..multiple species may exists do there may be some variation to this design Best described as Abelsaurid indet. Foot Claw of a Carcharodontosaurid. No Kem Kem claws have been described so like Spinosaurids hand claws we look at other regikns to compare agsinst. Tyrannotitan is a Carcharodontosaurid from Argentina Again there are multiple species described so best described as Carcharodontosaurid indet. Possible Reference paper http://www.academia.edu/1080746/Theropod_pedal_unguals_from_the_Late_Cretaceous_Cenomanian_of_Morocco_Africa
  14. Offered these two toe bones from a Spinosaurus. Claw appears to be from a Spinosaurid but identifying the phalanx to one is very problematic. Not a lot of comparative material out there. Regardless that phalanx location does not have a claw next to it.. Offered these two Spinosaurus toe finger bones Both belong to a Spinosaurid but one is a foot claw the other is a hand carpal Offered these three Spinosaurus toe finger bones. Dont believe the claw belongs to a Spinosaurus and like before identifying the two phalanx to a species is very difficult Offered are a Spinosaurus hand bone and claw Very cool pair great addition to any collection. The bone looks like a phalanx not a hand bone indeterminate species but the claw is not like anything I've seen before. No idea whats its from but very nice. Offered are these two unidentified theropod bones and claw. What you have here is an Abelsaurid claw and two unknown bones one of which may not be dinosaurian. What you are buying here is that claw its very nice. There are other other digits, claws offered. If you are interested please post them here and we will give them a look before you buy
  15. A number of vertebrae are up for sale from the Kem Kem beds. I would recommend if you have interest in any, please post them here for comment like some of you already have. I've commented on a few. Spinosaurs dorsal vertebra being offered for sale. Please exercise caution on this specimen. It has tons of fill and the centrum shape looks off. Hard to determine if this is a composite or from the same vertebra. Dorsal vertebra should look like this in lateral view. A Carcharodontosaurus centrum being offered for sale. Not sure one can identify this to any specific Dinosaur or Reptile. A Spinosaur caudal vertebra being offered for sale. Not sure what this is, not Spinosaurus. The centrum might be one but not the spines, look like crock. Spines may be composited Two Caudal vertebrae from a Sauropod are being offered. Unfortunately the one on the left is Crocodilian and the one on the right might also be one or theropod, needs cleaning up. Another similar group of Verts is being offered same comments. Neural spines like the one below typically are Croc. Okay not a vert but not dinosaurian as offered. Reptlian
  16. Location: Morocco Kem Kem Beds To often Crocodile jaws are composited with Spinosaurid teeth and sold as Spinosaurus jaws. So the purpose of this topic is to show the diagnostic features of Spinosaurid jaws First its extremely rare that any jaw from this region contains functional teeth. Germ/unerupted teeth are more common but those are typically well into the tooth cavity and not protuding above the jaw line. So its highly probable that those you see sold with teeth are composited. We currently do not know if there is a variation between the jaws of the different Spinosaurids described or yet to be discovered in this region so there could be some difference between them but the general characteristics should be similar. Here is a composite skull in private hands and paleontologist Cristophe Hendrickx drawing of that skull Dentary: This is Stromers original plate. 1) You can see the variation in the lateral (side) view of jaw. A very wide anterior end and more V shaped toward the hinge. So jaw sections that you see sold which are straight across are probably crocodile. 2) The teeth are also not positioned in a straight line, and not always next to one another. 3) The most telling feature is the lip on the labial side. It should be present across the entire length of the jaw 4) Broken dentary jaw sections being sold should wide not narrow like croc's Closeup of Lip Close up of germ/unerupted teeth Premaxillary/Maxillary Much more robust than dentary however the lip feature is still present but on the lingual side. Very wide in lateral view. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0144695 dal Sasso, C.; Maganuco, S.; Buffetaut, E.; Mendez, M.A. (2005). New information on the skull of the enigmatic theropod Spinosaurus with remarks on its sizes and affinities. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (4): 888–896. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0888:NIOTSO]2.0.CO;2 Maxilla for sale with composite teeth
  17. Isolated theropod Teeth from the Kem Kem Basin continue to be a mystery. Plan on documenting all the different morphologies I have in my collection. Can provide discussion and aid in identification at some point. Just a note, different morphologies do not necessarily mean different species. There is lots of tooth variations in the dentition of a theropod, why its so difficult to nail down an ID even in the best of circumstances. Morph Type 1 Anterior Tooth Distal margin is almost straight Mesial margin strongly recurved Mesial carina extends 3/4 crown height Denticles are oriented towards the tip Serration Density: Distal - 2/mm (More dense toward the base) Mesial - 1.7/mm (More dense toward the base) Morph Type 2 (possible Carcharodontosaurid) Anterior Tooth Distal margin is slightly concave Mesial margin strongly recurved Mesial Carina extends to the cervex Denticles are oriented toward the tip Interdental sulci present Serration Density: Distal: 2/mm (More dense toward the base) Mesial: 1.9/mm (More dense toward the base) Morph Type 3 Dentary? Anterior Mesial carina extends 3/4 crown height Denticles parallel to the base and rounded at tip Serration Density: Distal: 2.2/mm (More dense toward the base) Mesial: 2.4/mm (More dense toward the base) Additional Example Morph Type 4 (Possible Dromaeosaurid like) Lateral Tooth Tooth is recurved Mesial Carina extends to 3/4 crown height with a lingual twist Denticles parallel to the base Serration Density: Distal: 3.6/mm Mesial: 4.6/mm Additional Example Serration Density: Distal 3/mm, Mesial 5/mm Morph Type 4A (Dromaeosaurid like) Tooth is slightly recurved Mesial Carina extends to base with a lingual twist Denticles parallel to the base Serration Density: Distal: 3.6/mm Mesial: No Serrations Additonal Example Serration Density: Distal 3.3/mm, Mesial: No Serrations
  18. The past few weeks at the Tucson Fossil I ran across a few fake Spinosaur claws but also was surprised how many good ones there were on the market. I also understand the issues with online claws so decided to put this topic out to help collectors gain a better understanding of them since they are very expensive. These are my opinions and welcome others since no one person as all the answers. There is no bullet proof approach you can take to insure you have a claw that is not totally fake or composited. There are some things you need to consider. - First try dealing with what I call preferred Moroccan merchants, those are typically found at big shows and a few have online or FB sites, ones that specialize in Moroccan material are the best. They typically know what to look for and can point out issues with claws. Makes life a bit harder to get one but you want a good claw don't you. This does not take you off the hook its still YOUR responsibility to know what you are buying. - Unless you are an expert never buy one from Auction site. If you see one that interest you see seek assistant from an expert, not a collector friend, or post it here on the forum we have lots of opinions here. - 2D photos are not always the best to see what is going on with a claw, I prefer handling one. Composited claws can be good and photos don't show you all the issues. - Good preservation and quality are key for making life easy in deciding if its a good claw or not. There is where it pays to focus on the better claws. Claws that are deformed, partial, compressed, beat up or have matrix on them are very difficult to insure you have a good one and especially hard for experts to positively say its good. It always best to save and wait to buy a higher end one. - As a general rule try avoid claws that have matrix glued on them or have seams with matrix. The matrix is there for only one reason to hid trouble. Matrix is a red flag, just tread carefully when looking at one of these. Ask yourself why risk it and buy a potentially problem claw, there are plenty out there that are clean. PRICE = Preservation (Quality) + Size - Repairs - Real claws are expensive, simple as that. Nice ones in the 6+ inch range can easily fetch over 1K depending on quality, 7+ inches can go over 10K . So if you see big claws under 1K there must be a reason unless its the deal of a century and they exist. Most of the claws I show are in the 1-2K range for 4-6 inches. Here are a few from the Tucson show to give you an understanding what real ones look like. Focus on shape, the articulation end, blood grooves and preservation. These two are clean no matrix, no compression may have been broken and reattached, reasonable preservation. Nice claws for any collection Higher Grade - Fatter, nice surface finish, good preservation, few if any repairs. Couple of more examples. Honest merchant shows, some repair and resto. Excellent high end claw around 7 inches very very expensive Fake Claws These two were laying in the box and the merchant said he just had them fabricated. They look pretty good to a novice both reasonable size and configuration. Probably copied from a good one. Red Flags : Check out the graining its does not follow the curve of the claw but is straight. Uniform Color and looks too clean. Finish is flat with no hit of sheen seen on bone. Super long ones are the most suspect, here are two in a box. Unusually long and thin, usually the dorsal curvature is not smooth to the tip has kinks, the preservation is odd, hard to see bone, lots of surface repairs. These may be composited, faked or combo? Who knows to risky to find out. Off an auction site - terrible fake easier to spot- 6.9 inch claw One of the hardest items to replicate is the blood groove that is on either side of the claw. The groove is the widest at the articulation end and slowly tapers to a point to form a channel at the tip that extends outward beyond the dorsal surface. Here is an example of a perfectly preserved one. Here is the tip of the claw from above and you can see the blood groove is just a channel in the claw. Another Characteristic on these claws is that when looked at from the top or bottom they are shaped like an isosceles triangle. Much bigger at the articulation end than the tip. Preservation may affect this but most should be tapered. Like most theropods, hand claws vary depending on digit so there will be variations depending on that and the number of different Spinosaurids that exist in Kem Kem. This is a big unknown and we believe these type of claws all belong to the Spinosaurid family. But here are a couple more you can check out the blood grooves, articulation and shape
  19. There is quite of bit Kem Kem dinosaur material coming on the market and some of it quite good. Will try address the identification issue on some items so at least you will know what your bidding on. This appears to match quite well with a Spinosaurid ilium, seller calls it a pelvic bone. Looks quite nice, complete with a concern are the areas circled in white. Not sure it's bone or matrix. Seller does comment on filled fractures and some are visible but that should not detract from the piece. What the seller is offering here is a Spinosaurus phalanx and claw toe bones. What I believe you have here is a Spinosaurid foot claw and a carpal (hand bone). So think about this listing as two separate bones not associated in any way. This is a listing of a Spinosaurus complete finger with claw. What I believe you have are 3 carpals from a Spinosaurid that are completely unassociated and are not a good match as a composite. Hard to say much about the claw other that it appears to be a foot claw of what cannot determine with photos provided. Again like the one above if you're interested in this bid it as 4 separate items. Seller has this as a Spinosaurus phalanx toe bone. I find it difficult to call this one since its a partial but looks more like a carpal. I dont think you can ID this to any specific critter, not much diagnostic and we know so little. Seller is offering these as 4 Spinosaurus phalanx toe bones. The two on the left look like carpals, probably from a Spinosaurid. The one on the far right is a phalanx but it's hard to determine from what dinosaur. The second from the right to fragmented to say. Seller here has 4 Spinosaurus phalanx toe bone for sale. They are toe bones and may be from Spinosaurid but who knows there are lots of other theropods in this region and identifying isolated bones is very difficult. If interested they should be identified as theropod indeterminate. Being offered as a Spinosaurus phalanx toe bone. It might be from a Spinosaurid but have same comments as above
  20. Most everything you see sold on the commercial market as far as Sauropod teeth, from the Kem Kem of Morocco, is label Rebbachisaurus garasbae or Rebbachisaurus. Are they identified correctly is the topic of the day. Feel free to add your teeth to show variations. What do we know of Sauropod teeth from this fauna? - very simple answer, very very little in fact less than we know of Theropod material which is very little to begin with. I have seen nothing published on isolated sauropod teeth from this locality to base any ID on. In the Kem Kem there is one described species a Diplodocoid, Rebbachisaurus garasbae and evidence of a large Titanosaurid. That evidence on the Titanosaurid is based only on a single caudal vertebra. The holotype that described Rebbachisaurus contained only one complete dorsal vertebra, parts of another vertebra, some neural spines, rib fragments, ischium, humerus and a few more fragmentary material but NO skull, NO teeth. Like many Theropod dinosaurs we have teeth but no skull to identify them against and label them to a family level. Why should we not do the same with sauropod teeth there is no difference. The other fact that I find interesting is Rebbachisaurus once thought to be a large bodied Sauropod has been redescribed to a smaller animal and the Titanoaurid from this fauna is a very large one. I used some of the sauropod teeth in my collections to look at the variations across teeth. Are these just due to jaw to jaw variations, positional variations, growth cycles, evidence of multiple sauropod species, preservation, environmental factors, sampling...etc... No answers but there is variation and to label all sauropod material as one genus I believe is not appropriate at this point. There are two groups one with small teeth and the other that are significantly larger. The first smaller group show variations with all of them and I call them Morph Type 1 to 4 Does not look like a Diplodocoid tooth, peg like more Titanosaurid? This tooth is faceted all around the crown. Very round This tooth includes a base with enamel on it Large Teeth Typical Diplo type tooth, weak cutting edge Two very crisp cutting edges and very rough texture in the enamel, no wear facet maybe sign its an unerupted tooth. Have not see the texture on any other tooth. Very pointed Crown - positional? No cutting edges More peg like, no cutting edges This tooth shows wrinkles around the shaft. No its not a Spino no cutting edges Felt sorry or these two orphans just added them to the mix. Positional, no cutting edges
  21. A New Pterosaur from the Kem Kem

    Looks like the Kem Kem is giving up a few new secrets. Xericeps curvirostris is the latest newly described Pterosaur from the region. Unfortunately it's a paywalled paper. The papers illustrations can be see in a thumbnail by hitting the 3 green lines on the upper left of the link http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667117304044 Author :David M Martill, David M Unwin, Nizar Ibrahim, Nick Longrich Publication date 2017/9/14 Journal Cretaceous Research Publisher Academic Press Description Abstract A new genus and species, Xericeps curvirostris gen. et sp. nov., is erected for a highly distinctive pterosaur mandible from the mid-Cretaceous (? Albian to lower Cenomanian) Kem Kem beds of south east Morocco. The new taxon is referred to Azhdarchoidea based on the absence of teeth, slenderness of its mandible with sulcate occlusal surface, presence on the posterior section of the mandibular symphysis of short paired ridges bounding a central groove, and the presence of elongate foramina on its ... Scholar articles A new edentulous pterosaur from the Cretaceous Kem Kem beds of south eastern Morocco DM Martill, DM Unwin, N Ibrahim, N Longrich - Cretaceous Research, 2017 @LordTrilobite @Seguidora-de-Isis
  22. Kem Kem Vertebra

    Is it possible to ID this vertebra? Thanks ...
  23. More kem kem teeth to ID

    These teeth were all bought together, I'm guessing they are labeled more or less correctly, but I want y'all to varify. First was labeled pterosaur, so I'm guessing sirroccopteryx? The next was labeled carcharodontosaurus, which I'm guessing is correct. Lastly a tooth labeled dromeosaur, and from what I can gather, these teeth are from an indeterminate taxon? I can take more pictures, just tell me the angle.
  24. Need help with some teeth

    Until joining this forum, I thought that the kem kem beds were clear cut and simple in terms of teeth, you have crocs, raptors, carcharodantosaurs, and spinosaurs. I was of course, incrediblely wrong. I have acquired a few teeth from various suppliers, and they are of the kem kem beds. I got these way before I joined the forum and I would like to us your collective skills to get the best IDs possible. This will probably be the first of two posts. first up is a small tooth, labeled deltadromeus agilis, a species of which no skeletal elements are known. after that are two teeth in a lot of bones apparently from a sulphur mine.
  25. Moroccan bone fragments

    From the album WhodamanHD's Fossil collection.

    Four fragments that came with two other labeled theropod too the fragments. These are highly worn and poor in quality which makes me believe that it could be any bone from any thing. Bought online.
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