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Found 13 results

  1. STH Micros in need of ID help

    I am fairly comfortable with the STH micros as far as identification goes but I found a few things that I need some help with. First up is one that I am 90% sure on the ID but I want to be sure. I believe I found a couple of Raja teeth. The first one I found looks to be complete and tiny, a little over 1mm. I know skate teeth are somewhat uncommon in this fauna and this would be my first one.
  2. I have a few unknowns from the Cenomanian of Russia that I am starting to get around to photographing and identifying. I am practicing with my actual camera instead of my phone so the pics are just ok but will get better lol The first one is from near Fedoravka Tambov Region of Russia. This one is about 13 mm or so. I think the ID when purchased was Cretoxyrhina but I do not know how accurate that is. I thought perhaps Cretalamna or maybe Dwardius or something completely different. I just do not know. It is a really striking tooth though and I would like to get some idea of what it is.
  3. This tooth was originally labelled as an Cardabiodon sp., but both dimensions and general crown's features led me to buy it due to curiosity (also was really cheap). The crown is higher than the root. The cutting edges bear no serrations. There're traces of secondary lateral cusplets. The lingual face of the root seems to have a rounded lingual foramen on the enlarged torus. The tooth, probably a lamniform, was collected near Fedorovka village, Tambov region, Russia and goes back to the Cenonian epoch (Cretaceous). Any guess?
  4. Cardabiodontid or something else ?

    I saw this Cretaceous Lamniformes tooth pop up on the auction site that shall not be named and grabbed it. It was inexpensive so it is not really much of a gamble. It was sold as Cardabiodon sp. It comes from the Cenomanian of Russia, Fedorovka Village, Tambov region. That is all the geological information i could get. I have not really studied up on Cardabiodontid teeth very much as I planned on getting one down the road. I did take a look at some papers on Cardabiodon and Dwardius yesterday, I also looked around for photos to compare with the pictures we were given of the tooth. The scale in the photos is cm. These are the only photos I have until the tooth arrives. I am far from an expert, closer to novice lol I think it MIGHT be a Dwardius tooth but that is really an uneducated guess based on limited research. I thought I would post it here and get some opinions from the knowledgeable folks here.
  5. I am really excited about a project we have been working on. We decided to switch our shark displays from the ones based on Geological era to a taxonomic display style. We had been considering this since we made a similar switch with our dinosaurs. It has made those programs flow more easily and i think allowed the kids to get a better understanding of the animals. We originally set our displays up as they were because we simply did not have enough material to do taxonomic displays. There were a few orders of sharks for which we had only one or two fossils and one extinct order for which we had zero fossils. Doing the displays along a timeline allowed us to cover up the holes in the collection. We have made a lot of improvements to our shark collection in the last year and were strongly considering changing things. A conversation with @siteseer really sealed the deal. Jess nudged me over the ledge lol So work has begun on this project and I am loving it but it is a lot of work. Each order of shark, extant and extinct, will eventually have it's own display. Within the the display, each family or in some cases genus, will be set up by temporal range. I think these displays will not only allow more efficient presentations but will also show temporal range and distribution as best we can. Step 1 was identifying which orders, families, and genera we need to add to the collection in order to round out what we already had. Some orders needed little attention but there were some that needed a bit of a boost. Heterodontiformes was an example of one that needed to a boost. We had Jurassic teeth (Paracestracion and Heterodontus) but little else. Having the Jurassic teeth is awesome because it shows how far back they go in the fossils record but that would be an underwhelming display visually and not give the kids a great sense of the sharks. We had to find fossils to place them at various points in their temporal range and widen their distribution to the best of our ability. Pristiophoriformes was another that we needed to upgrade as we only had one small rostal tooth. We had a good variety of material for most extinct orders but wanted a Carboniferous Xencanthid tooth to better tell the whole story of the Eel sharks as all of ours were Permian. We picked through micro fossils to add Devonian Ctenacanthiformes teeth to expand the temporal range and add diversity in the form of Phoebodus. Step 2 is on going and is probably the hardest part, acquiring the fossils we need. It is quite easy to find some of the things we needed. Others have been extremely difficult and a few are pretty much impossible. We are unlikely to knock Hemiscyllium or Oxynotus off the list. It proved very difficult, but not impossible, to locate a Cenozoic Chiloscyllium tooth. We had Cretaceous teeth but nothing beyond that and Bamboo Sharks are one that we do talk about quite a bit. After a lengthy search, we finally tracked one down and it was quite inexpensive. Cost is always a factor for us so early on we understood we were not going to be adding some collector type teeth like a 2" Chilean White Shark or the transitional White Shark teeth. We focused instead in smaller teeth and anything that added a new shark, contributed to showing distribution or temporal range. For us a STH Scyliorhinus is a significant fossils because it adds to both distribution and temporal range of a shark we talk about. I am very proud of some of the inexpensive teeth we have found including a Chilean Angelshark, a Miocene Mitsukurina, the Paleocene Chiloscyllium, and a Heterodontus fin spine from STH. We have also been greatly aided in our quest by a couple of donations, including one from @Troodon that included very important Eocene Orectolobiformes teeth and a super Megachasma from Chile. I want to credit @siteseer too though I am not sure what he is sending but I know it help tremendously lol Step 3 was figuring out how many display cases we would need and what sizes we would need. We knew that in addition to the displays by order, some sharks would get their own displays. For example, we have a lot of Lamniformes that we cover during our presentations but Goblin Sharks get special attention because kids really love them so they would get a separate display. The displays will not be of uniform size as some orders will be better represented. There will be more Carcharhiniformes than other orders for example. Size of the shark and size of the fossils also contribute to the need for a variation in display size. Step 4 is dismantling the old displays and putting together the new ones. This is on going and will not be finished until mid March probably. We need new labels which is taking a bit of time as there is a lot of shark fossils going into these displays. Step 5 will be displays of shark relatives. I think we will have one small one that will feature the three Stethacanthids we have, one small display for the two Eugenodontids and then another larger one to house the Batoids. We do cover shark relatives and they are quite popular with the students so these are important to the programs too. Kids love these wierdo creatues lol One of the really cool parts of this project is it allows me to think as an educator but also very much as a collector. I am an educator first and these fossils are for educational purposes but I consider myself a collector of shark fossils too. Doing this does allow me to add things that have educational value but also cross things off the personal list of sharks I want in the collection, like Megachasma and Mitsukurina. I can also view the collection and see areas where we can improve the quality of teeth at some point down the road. White Sharks and Cow sharks in particular will get an upgrade at some point. We can hunt for some of the rare Squaliformes teeth. Maybe we will track down a Ctenacanthus fin spine. Our goal is not just to tell the story of sharks but to show the story of sharks through the fossils. The people who invite us to present our fossils not only get to handle Megalodon teeth but they get close up examinations of a 300 million year old egg case, a Hybodus fin spine, shark vertebra and can compare the difference between Sawshark rostal teeth and Sawfish rostal teeth in their hands. I am quite proud of the hands-on education we give people and I think this project improves the overall impact. This project has also given us far more scientific knowledge and a far better understanding of shark classification. The learning has been invaluable really. Carter and I are both very passionate about sharks as we are with all of our programs but sharks have a special place. When he was a little guy, we would watch shark documentaries and this is an extension of that father son time for us. We knew this would require spending more money and take some time to do but we know it will be worth it. This will be a shark education program that will educate elementary students, museum patrons, college students and senior citizens. That is pretty darn cool I think. We also want to thank all of the forum members who contributed shark fossils and knowledge over the last year. This, like our other programs, would not be possible without the support, encouragement and generosity of TFF members. I apologize for the length of this post lol I have been really busy and have not been able to take the time to post about this and am pretty excited hence the rambling nature. I will post some pictures as we go through this and complete these. Pic 1 one of the boxes of shark fossils currently laying around our house lol It is a small box but there is quite a lot stored in there, just waiting for their permanent home.
  6. Just thought I'd share this post from our Facebook Group. Had a blast sharing some of my shark fossils with visitors this last Saturday. If you can contribute and give back to your community and society in general I promise that you'll find the experience rewarding and enriching. Pass on your knowledge to the next generation and get them exited about the sciences and paleontology.
  7. After the Hybodontids, our program starts to transition toward the modern sharks. We introduce lamniform sharks and the cow sharks. We will not be able to spend much time at all on the Cow and Crow Sharks. They only get a brief introduction and a look at the teeth. Squalicorax is an important species for us even though we do not spend a lot of time on it. The students in first few classes we do presentations for will be going home with Squalicorax teeth from Morocco. We would like to spend more time on the Cow sharks eventually but we only have one tooth to show them and we will have to edit content to free up space for them but I will work on that down the road. The primary focus in this section is Scapanorhynchus. The first shark art Carter did was a Goblin and we do give them a lot of time in the presentaton. They look cool and have been around for a long time. We present the kids with a nice assortment of teeth and some cool science. The teeth were important adaptations for catching fish and the snout had the ampullae of Lorenzini for sensing changes in the electro magnetic fields around them. We compare this to the modern hammerhead which we do not cover in the program but gives the kids a sense of how the adaptations of hammerheads work. We also talk about fin structure and being able to tell they were slow swimmers. The extend-o-matic jaw is another adaptation we cover with this species. I am happy with the fossil representations for now though I really want to add more Cow Shark fossils at some point and Anomotodon would also be a good addition. The fossils for the presentation.. Pic 1 Hexanchus andersoni from STH. I know H. andersoni should chronologically fit later but Cow Sharks fit here and this is the only one we have for now. Pic 2- Squalicorax pristodontus from Morocco. This is our largest Squalicorax tooth. The kids will get these teeth to take home so while we do not spend a lot of time on them, the teeth are very important to the program. Pic 3- Scapnorhynchus texanus and Scapanorhynchus puercoensis. Our nice little Goblin Shark display with some of our best teeth. Two of the texanus teeth are over 1.5 inches and the puercoenisis teeth are uncommon I believe and pretty super cool.
  8. I am not sure what species this Cretaceous shark tooth belonged to. It comes from Kansas but I really do not have much more information. It is 2 cm on the slant. It is really a nice tooth and it was a bargain. My best guess is Archeolamna which I believe is found in the chalk in Kansas. I do not think it is robust enough to be Cardabiodon and I do not know what other species it would match from the area. Any help would be appreciated.
  9. Otodus obliquus

    Three specimens acquired from a trade with @gavialboy Specimens are from an undisclosed location within the Aquia Formation linked to Purse State Park.
  10. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 27, 2018. Class Chondrichthyes - The Cartilaginous Fishes Subclass Elasmobranchii Infraclass Euselachii (Sharks and Rays) Division Neoselachii (Sharks, Rays and Sawfishes) Subdivision Selachii (Selachimorpha) - Modern Sharks Order Carcharhiniformes - Ground Sharks Family Carcharhinidae - Requiem Sharks Andreev, P.S. (2010). Enameloid Microstructure of the Serrated Cutting Edges in Certain Fossil Carcharhiniform and Lamniform Sharks. Microscopy Research and Technique, 73. Applegate, S.P. (1978). Phyletic Studies; Part I; Tiger Sharks. Univ. Nal. Auton. Mexico, Inst. Geologia Revista, Vol.2, Number 1. Carnevale, G., et al. (2006). The Silky Shark, Carcharhinus falciformes (Bibron, 1841), in the Pliocene of Cava Serredi (Fine Basin, Italy). N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 242(2/3). Gottfried, M.D. (1993). An Associated Tiger Shark Dentition from the Miocene of Maryland. The Mosasaur, Vol.5. Hovestadt, D.C. and M. Hovestadt-Euler (2002). The remains of a carcharhinid shark with a new triakid species in its digestive tract from the Oligocene of Germany. Tertiary Research, 21(1-4). Leder, R.M. (2013). Eocene Carcharhindae and Triakidae (Elasmobranchii) of Crimea and Kazakhstan. Leipziger Geowissenschaften, Edition 20. Malyshkina, T.P. (2012). New Sharks of the Genus Abdounia (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) from the Upper Eocene of the Trans-Ural Region. Paleontological Journal, Vol.46, Number 4. Marrama, G., G. Carnevale and J. Kriwet (2017). New observations on the anatomy and paleobiology of the Eocene requiem shark Eogaleus bolcensis (Carcharhiniformes. Carcharhinidae) from Bolca Lagerstätte, Italy. C.R. Palevol., xxx. (Article in press) Marsili, S. (2007). Revision of the Teeth of the Genus Carcharhinus (Elasmobranchii; Carcharhinidae) from the Pliocene of Tuscany, Italy. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.113, Number 1. Mollen, F.H. (2007). A New Species of Abdounia (Elasmobranchii, Carchahrinidae) from the Base of the Boom Clay Formation (Oligocene) in Northwest Belgium. Geologica Belgica, 10/1-2. Naylor, G.J.P. (1992). The Phylogenetic Relationships Among Requiem and Hammerhead Sharks: Inferring Phylogeny when Thousands of Equally Most Parsimonious Trees Result. Cladistics (1992), 8. Naylor, G.J.P. and L.F. Marcus (1994). Identifying Isolated Shark Teeth of the Genus Carcharhinus to Species: Relevance for Tracking Phyletic Change Through the Fossil Record. American Museum Novitates, Number 3109. Reinecke, T. and K. Hoedemakers (2006). Physogaleus hemmooriensis (Carcharhinidae, Elasmobranchii) A New Shark Species from the Early to Middle Miocene of the North Sea Basin. PalaeoVertebrata, Vol.34(1-2). Underwood, C.J. and G.C. Gunter (2012). The shark Carcharhinus sp. from the Middle Eocene of Jamaica and the Eocene record of Carcharhinus. Caribbean Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.44. Family Hemigaleidae - Weasel Sharks Chandler, R.E., et al. (2006). Quantifying a Possible Miocene Phyletic Change in Hemipristis (Chondrichthyes) Teeth. Palaeontologica Electronica, Vol.9, Issue 1. Family Scyliorhinidae - Catsharks Cappetta, H. (2005). New Carcharhiniformes (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii) from the Ypresian of the Paris Basin. Geobios, 25(5). Cappetta, H. and D.J. Ward (1977). A New Eocene Shark from the London Clay of Essex. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1. Hovestadt, D.C . and M. Hovestadt-Euler (1995). Additions to the fauna of the Boom Clay Formation of Belgium (Rupelian, Oligocene). Taxonomic adjustments on the Scyliorhinidae and Rajoidei, discovery of a dasyatid species (Pisces, Chondrichthyes) and of a cucrulionid species (Insecta, Coleoptera). Belgian Geological Survey, Professional Paper 278. Keyes, I.W. (1984). New records of fossil elasmobranch genera Megascyliorhinus, Centrophorus, and Dalatias (Order Selachii) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, Vol.27. Kiel, S., J. Peckmann and K. Simon (2013). Catshark egg capsules from a Late Eocene deep-water methane-seep deposit in western Washington State, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(1). Malyshkina, T. (2006). Late Eocene scyliorhinid sharks from the Trans-Urals, Russia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(3). Mollen, F.H. (2008). A New Middle Eocene Species of Premontreia (Elasmobranchii, Scyliorhinidae) from Vlaams-Brabant, Belgium. Geologica Belgica, 11. Sweetman, S.C. and C.J. Underwood (2006). A Neoselachian Shark from the Non-Marine Wessex Formation (Wealden Group: Early Cretaceous, Barremian) of the Isle of Wight, Southern England. Palaeontology, Vol.49, Part 2. Thies, D. (2005). A catshark (Neoselachii, Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) from the Late Jurassic of Germany. Palaontol.Z., 79/3. Family Sphyrnidae - Hammerhead Sharks Mara, K.R. (2010). Evolution of the Hammerhead Cephalofoil: Shape Change, Space Utilization, and Feeding Mechanics in Hammerhead Sharks (Sphyrnidae). Ph.D. Dissertation - University of South Florida. Mello, W. and P.M.M. Brito (2013). Contributions to the tooth morphology in early embryos in three species of hammerhead sharks (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae) and their evolutionary implications. C.R. Biologies, 336. Naylor, G.J.P. (1992). The Phylogenetic Relationships Among Requiem and Hammerhead Sharks: Inferring Phylogeny when Thousands of Equally Most Parsimonious Trees Result. Cladistics (1992), 8. Family Triakidae - Houndsharks Adnet, S. and H. Cappetta (2008). New fossil triakid sharks from the early Eocene of Premontre, France, and comments on fossil record of the family. Acta Paleontologica Polonica, 53(3). Cappetta, H. (2005). New Carcharhiniformes (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii) from the Ypresian of the Paris Basin. Geobios, 25(5). Fanti, F., et al. (2016). An exceptionally preserved Eocene shark and the rise of modern predator-prey interactions in the coral reef food web. Zoological Letters, 2:9. Herman, J. (1982). Additions to the Eocene fish fauna of Belgium. 5. The discovery of Mustelus teeth in Ypresnian, Paniselian and Wammelian strata. Tertiary Res., 3(4). Hovestadt, D.C. and M. Hovestadt-Euler (2002). The remains of a carcharhinid shark with a new triakid species in its digestive tract from the Oligocene of Germany. Tertiary Research, 21(1-4). Leder, R.M. (2013). Eocene Carcharhindae and Triakidae (Elasmobranchii) of Crimea and Kazakhstan. Leipziger Geowissenschaften, Edition 20. López, J.A., et al. (2006). Phylogeny of the sharks of the family Triakidae (Carchariniformes) and its implications for the evolution of carchariniform placental viviparity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40. Popov, E.V. and A.V. Lapkin (2000). A New Shark Species of the Genus Galeorhinus (Chondrichthyes, Triakidae) from the Cenomanian of the Lower Volga River Basin. Paleontological Journal, Vol.34, Number 4. General Carcharhiniformes Adnet, S., et al. (2007). New tropical carcharhinids (Chondrichthyes, Carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene-early Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 30. Cappetta, H. (1992). New Carcharhiniformes (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii) from the Ypresian of the Paris Basin. Geobios, 25(5). (Translated by J. Duran) Underwood, C.J. and D. Ward (2008). Sharks of the Order Carchariniformes from the British Coniacian, Santonian, and Campanian (Upper Cretaceous). Palaeontology, 51(3). Order Heterodontiformes - Bullhead Sharks Kriwet, J. (2008). A new species of extinct bullhead sharks, Paracestracion violhi sp.nov. (Neoselachii: Heterodontiformes), from the Upper Jurassic of South Germany. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Order Hexanchiformes - Six and Seven Gilled Sharks Family Chlamydoselachidae - Frilled Sharks Fulgosi, F.C., et al. (2009). A small fossil fish fauna, rich in Chlamydoselachus teeth, from the Late Pliocene of Tuscany (Siena, central Italy). Cainozoic Research, 6(1-2). Goto, M. and The Japanese Club for Fossil Shark Tooth Research (2004). Tooth remains of chlamydoselachian sharks from Japan and their phylogeny and paleoecology. Earth Science, Vol.58. Family Crassodontidanidae Cione, A.L. and F.A. Medina (1987). A record of Notidanodon pectinatus (Chondrichthyes, Hexanchiformes) in the Upper Cretaceous of the Antarctic Peninsula. Mesozoic Res., 1(2). Kriwet, J. and S. Klug (2014). Dental Patterns of the Stem-Group Hexanchoid Shark, Notidanoides muensteri (Elasmobranchii, Hexanchiformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(6). Kriwet, J. and S. Klug (2011). A new Jurassic cow shark (Chondrichthyes, Hexanchiformes) with comments on Jurassic hexanchiform systematics. Swiss J.Geosci., 104 (Suppl.1). Martin, J.E. (2016). A Hexanchid Shark from the Late Cretaceous Pierre Shale Group of the Western Interior Seaway of North America. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science, Vol.95. Family Hexanchidae Adnet, S. and R.A. Martin (2007). Increase of body size in sixgill sharks with change in diet as a possible background of their evolution. Historical Biology, 19(4). Applegate, S. and T. Uyeno (1968). The First Discovery of a Fossil Tooth belonging to the Shark Genus Heptranchias, with a New Pristiophorus Spine, Both from the Oligocene of Japan. Bull.Nat.Sci.Mus. Tokyo, 11(2). Welton, B.J. (1974). Heptranchias howellii (Reed, 1946) (Selachii: Hexanchidae) in the Eocene of the United States and British Columbia. PaleoBios, Number 17. Family incertae sedis Cione, A.L. and F.A. Medina (2009). The oldest hexanchiform shark from the Southern Hemisphere (Neoselachii; Early Cretaceous, Antarctica). Antarctic Science, 21(5). Family McMurdodontidae (?) Burrow, C.J., et al. (2008). New information on the Devonian shark Mcmurdodus, based on material from western Queensland, Australia. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Family Orthacodontidae Bottcher, R. and C.J. Duffin (2000). The neoselachian shark Sphenodus from the Late Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) of Nusplingen and Egesheim (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Stuttgarter Beitr.Naturk., Ser.B, Number 283. Kanno, S., et al. (2017). Sphenodus (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii) from the Upper Cretaceous in Nakagawa Town, Hokkaido, Japan. Paleontological Research, Vol.21, Number 2. Family Pseudonotidanidae (may belong with Synechodontiformes) Cuny, G. and J. Tabouelle (2014). First Mention of the Family Pseudonotidanidae (Chondrichthyes: Neoselachii) in the Jurassic of Normandy. Bulletin Sciences et Geologie Normandes, Vol.7. General Hexanchiformes Adnet, S. (2006). Biometric analysis of the teeth of fossil and Recent hexanchid sharks and its taxonomic implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(3). Guinot, G. and H. Cappetta (2011). Enameloid Microstructure of Some Cretaceous Hexanchiformes and Synechodontiformes (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii): New Structures and Systematic Implications. Microscopy Research and Techniques, 74. Tanaka, K., et al. (2013). Evolutionary Relations of Hexanchiformes Deep-Sea Sharks Elucidated by Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequences. BioMed Research International, Vol.2013, Article ID 147064. Ward, D.J. (1979). Additions to the fish fauna of the English Palaeogene. 3. A review of the Hexanchid sharks with a description of four new species. Tertiary Res., 2(3). Order incertae sedis Cuny, G., et al. (1998). A new neoselachian shark from the Upper Triassic of Grozon (Jura, France). Geol.Mag., 135(5). Duffin, C.J. (1998). Ostenoselache stenosoma n.g. n. sp., a new neoselachian shark from the Sinemurian (Early Jurassic) of Osteno (Lombardy, Italy). Paleontologia Lombardica, New series, Vol.IX. Ivanov, A.O., C.J. Duffin and S.V. Naugonykh (2017). A new euselachian shark from the early Permian of the Middle Urals, Russia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(2). Order Lamniformes - Mackerel Sharks Family Alopiidae - Thresher Sharks Nazarkin, M.V. and T.P. Malyshkina (2012). The first reliable record of selachians from the Neogene deposits of Sakhalin Island. Zoosystematica Rossica, 21(1). Ward, D.J. (1978). Additions to the fish fauna of the English Palaeogene. I. Two new species of Alopias (Thresher Shark) from the English Eocene. Tertiary Res., 2(1). Ward, D.J. and B.W. Kent (2015). Poster: A new species of giant thresher shark from the Miocene of the United States. University of Maryland Natural History Museum. Family Anacoracidae Andreev, P.S. (2010). Enameloid Microstructure of the Serrated Cutting Edges in Certain Fossil Carcharhiniform and Lamniform Sharks. Microscopy Research and Technique, 73. Becker, M.A. and J.A. Chamberlain (2012). Squalicorax Chips a Tooth: A Consequence of Feeding-Related Behavior from the Lowermost Navesink Formation (Late Cretaceous: Campanian-Maastrichtian) of Monmouth County, New Jersey, USA. Geosciences 2012, 2. Capppetta, H., et al. (2014). New Squalicorax species (Neoselachii: Lamniformes) from the Lower Maastrichtian of Ganntour phosphate deposit, Morocco. PalaeoVertebrata, Vol.38(2). Elicki, O. and M. Magnus (2012). Squalicorax kaupi AGASSIZ, 1843, (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) and Echinocorys gravesi AGASSIZ & DESOR, 1847, (Echinoidea, Holasteroida) from the late Cretaceous of Bornholm (Denmark). Freiberger Forschungshefte, C542. Hamm, S.A. and K. Shimada (2007). The Late Cretaceous anacoracid shark Pseudocorax laevis (Leriche), from the Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.110, Numbers 1/2. Rozefelds, A.C. (2008). Lower Cretaceous Anacoracidae? (Lamniformes: Neoselachii); vertebrae and associated dermal scales from Australia. Alcheringa, 17(3). Schwimmer, D.R., J.D. Stewart and G.D. Williams (1997). Scavenging by Sharks of the Genus Squalicorax in the Late Cretaceous of North America. Palaios, Vol.12. Shimada, K. and D.J. Cicimurri (2006). The Oldest Record of the Late Cretaceous Anacoracid Shark Squalicorax pristidontus (Agassiz) from the Western Interior, with Comments on Squalicorax Phylogeny.In: Late Cretaceous vertebrates of the Western Interior (Lucas, S.G. and R.M.Sullivan, eds.) New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 35. Family Cardabiodontidae Newbrey, M.G., et al. (2015). Vertebral morphology, dentition, age, growth and ecology of the large Lamniform shark Cardabiodon ricki. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(4). Siverson, M. and J. Lindgren (2005). Late Cretaceous sharks Cretoxyrhina and Cardabiodon from Montana, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(2). Family Cetorhinidae - Basking Shark and Its Relatives Cione, A.L and M.A. Reguero (1998). A middle Eocene basking shark (Lamniformes, Cetorhinidae) from Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 10(1). Martin, A.P. and G.J.P. Naylor (1997). Independent Origins of Filter-Feeding in Megamouth and Basking Sharks (Order Lamniformes) Inferred from Phylogenetic Analysis of Cytochrome b Gene Sequences. In: Biology of the Megamouth Shark. Kazunari, Y., et al. (eds.), Tokai University Press, Tokyo. Nazarkin, M.V. (2014). Gill rakers of basking sharks (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Tertiary of Sakhalin Island, Russia. Zoosystematica Rossica, 23(2). Welton, B.J. (2015). A New Species of Late Early Miocene Cetorhinus (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Astoria Formation of Oregon, and Coeval Cetorhinus from Washington and California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions in Science, 523. (Thanks to Boesse for locating this one!) Welton, B.J. (2014). A New Fossil Basking Shark (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Middle Miocene Sharktooth Hill Bonebed, Kern County, California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions in Science, 522. Welton, B.J. (2013). Cetorhinus cf. C. maximus (Gunnerus)(Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae), A Basking Shark from the Late Miocene Empire Formation, Coos Bay, Oregon. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, Vol.112, Issue 2. Welton, B.J. (2013). A New Archaic Basking Shark (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Late Eocene of Western Oregon, U.S.A., and Description of the Dentition, Gill Rakers and Vertebrae of the Recent Basking Shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 58. Family Cretoxyrhinidae (Cretolamna and Palaeocarcharodon may belong with Otodontidae) Bourdon, J. and M.J. Everhart (2011). Analysis of an associated Cretoxyrhina mantelli dentition from the Late Cretaceous (Smoky Hills Chalk, Late Coniacian) of western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Acadamy of Science, Vol.114, Numbers 1-2. Case, G.R. (1993). Probable occurrence of the shark genus Palaeocarcharodon (Neoselachii: Cretoxyrhinidae) in the Paleocene of New Jersey. The Mosasaur, Vol.5. Case, G.R. (1989). Palaeocarcharodon orientalis (Sinzow) (Neoselachii: Cretoxyrhinidae), from the Paleocene of Maryland, U.S.A. Palaeovertebrata, Montpellier, 19(1). Case, G.R. (1989). The Upper Cretaceous Shark Cretolamna appendiculata (Agassiz) in the Raritan Formation (Cenomanian) of New Jersey. The Mosasaur, Vol.4. Case, G.R. and J.J. Leggett (1999). Cretolamna cf. C. aschersoni (Stromer) (Neoselachii: Cretoxyrhinidae) from the Late Paleocene/Early Eocene of Mississippi, USA, with Comparisons to Moroccan Fauna. The Mosasaur, Vol.6. Ebersole, J.A. and D.J. Ehret (2018). A new species of Cretalamna sensu stricto (Lamniformes, Otodontidae) from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian-Campanian) of Alabama, USA. PeerJ, 6:e4229. (Thanks to SailingAlongToo for pointing the way to this one!) Everhart, M.J. (2005). Bite marks on an elasmosaur (Sauropterygia; Plesiosauria) paddle from the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) as probable evidence of feeding by the lamniform shark, Cretoxyrhina mantelli. PalArch, 2(2) Everhart, M.J. and K. Ewell (2006). Shark-bitten dinosaur (Hadrosauridae) caudal vertebrae from the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Coniacian) of western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.109, Numbers 1/2. Shimada, K. (2008). Ontogenetic Parameters and Life History Strategies of the Late Cretaceous Lamniform Shark, Cretoxyrhina mantelli Based on Vertebral Growth Increments. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(1). (No longer available from BioOne. E-mail Fruitbat for a copy.) Shimada, K. (2007). Skeletal and Dental Anatomy of Lamniform Shark Cretalamna appendiculata, from Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk of Kansas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(3). Shimada, K., et al. (2006). Caudal Fin Skeleton of the Late Cretaceous Lamniform Shark Cretoxyrhina mantelli, from the Niobrara Chalk of Kansas. In: Late Cretaceous vertebrates from the Western Interior. Lucas, S.G. and R.M. Sullivan, eds., New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 35. Siverson, M. and J. Lindgren (2005). Late Cretaceous sharks Cretoxyrhina and Cardabiodon from Montana, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(2). Siverson, M., et al. (2015). Cenomanian - Campanian (Late Cretaceous) mid-palaeolatitude sharks of Cretalamna appendiculata type. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(2). Note: Cretolamna may belong with Otodontidae. Siverson, M., et al. (2013). Mid-Cretaceous Cretoxyrhina (Elasmobranchii) from Mangyshlak, Kazakhstan and Texas, USA. Alcheringa, 37(1). Underwood, C.J. and S.F. Mitchell (2004) Serratolamna serrata (Agassiz) (Pisces, Neoselachii) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Jamaica.Caribbean Journal of Earth Science, 34. Family Eoptolamnidae Kriwet, J., et al. (2008). A new Early Cretaceous lamniform shark (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 154. Family incertae sedis Adnet, S., et al. (2009). Review of the enigmatic Eocene shark genus Xiphodolamia (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) and description of a new species recovered from Angola, Iran and Jordan. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 55. Amalfitano, J., et al. (2017). Direct evidence of trophic interaction between a large lamniform shark, Cretodus sp., and a marine turtle from the Cretaceous of northeastern Italy. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 469. Kriwet, J. (2006). Biology and Dental Morphology of Priscusurus adruptodontus, Gen. et Sp.Nov. (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) from the Albian (Early Cretaceous) of Peru. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(3). Family Lamnidae - White Shark, Makos and Their Relatives Including(?) C. megalodon Lamnidae - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Kuga, N. (1985). Revision of Neogene Mackerel Shark of Genus Isurus from Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Series of Geol. and Mineral., Vol. LI, Numbers 1-2. Seret, B. (1987). Discovery of a Fauna With Procarcharodon megalodon (Agassiz, 1835) in New Caledonia (Pisces, Chondricthyes, Lamnidae). Cybium, 11(4). Yabe, H. and M. Goto (1996). Fossil shark teeth of the genus Carcharocles (Elasmobranchii: Lamniformes) from the Middle Miocene at Kuzubukuro, Higashi-Matsuyama City, Saitama Prefecture, central Japan. Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku), Vol.50. Yabe, H. and T. Sugiyama (1935). Notes on a Fossil Shark's Tooth Found in the Daito Limestone of Kita-Daito-Zima, Borodino Islands. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy, Vol.11, Number 4. Yabumoto, Y. (1989). A New Eocene Lamnoid Shark, Carcharodon nodai, from Omuta in Northern Kyushu, Japan. Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Nat. Hist., 9. Yabumoto, Y. (1987). Oligocene Lamnid Sharks of the genus Carcharodon from Kitakyushu, Japan. Bull. Kitakyushu Mus.Nat.Hist., 6. Lamnidae - Australia/New Zealand Gottfried, M.D. and R.E. Fordyce (2001). An Associated Specimen of Carcharodon angustidens (Chondrichthyes, Lamnidae) from the Late Oligocene of New Zealand, with Comments on Carcharodon Relationships.Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21(4). Keyes, I.W. (1972). New Records of the Elasmobranch C. megalodon (Agassiz) and a Review of the Genus Carcharodon in the New Zealand Fossil Record. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 15:2. Lamnidae - Europe (including Greenland) Adnet, S., et al. (2009). New fossil teeth of the White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the Early Pliocene of Spain. Implications for its paleoecology in the Mediterranean. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., 256/1. Antunes, M.T. and A.C. Balbino (2010). The Great White Shark Carcharodon carcharias (Linne, 1758) in the Pliocene of Portugal and its Early Distribution in Eastern Atlantic. Revista Espanola de Paleontologia, 25(1). (Thanks to greel for finding this one.) Antunes, M.T., P. Legoinha and A. Balbino (2015). Megalodon, mako shark and planktonic foraminifera from the continental shelf off Portugal and their age. Geologica acta, Vol.13, Number 3. Bendix-Almgreen, S.E. (1983). Carcharodon megalodon from the Upper Miocene of Denmark, with comments on elasmobranch tooth enameloid: coronoin. Bull.geol.Soc.Denmark, Vol.32. Bianucci, G., et al. Trophic interaction between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and cetaceans: a comparison between Pliocene and Recent data from the central Mediterranean Sea. Diedrich, C.G. (2014). Skeleton of the Fossil Shark Isurus denticulatus from the Turonian (Late Cretaceous) of Germany - Ecological Coevolution with Prey of Mackerel Sharks. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Paleontological Journal, Article ID 934235. Kriwet, J., H. Mewis and O. Hampe (2015). A partial skeleton of a new lamniform mackerel shark from the Miocene of Europe. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(4). Medina-Gavilan, J.L., et al. (2015). First description of a tooth of the extinct giant shark Carcharocles megalodon (Agassiz, 1835) found in the province of Seville (SW Iberian Peninsula, Otodontidae). BV News, 4(57). Mollen, F.H. (2010). A Partial Rostrum of the Porbeagle Shark Lamna nasus (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) from the Miocene of the North Sea Basin and the Taxonomic Importance of Rostral Morphology in Extinct Sharks. Geologica Belgica, 13/1-2. Nazarkin, M.V. (2013). Hooked Mako Isurus planus (Agassiz, 1856) from the Miocene of Sakhalin. Zoosystematica Rossica, 22(2). Reolid, M. and J.M. Molina (2015). Record of Carcharocles megalodon in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin (Upper Miocene, South Spain). Estudios Geologicos, 71(2). Trif, N., R. Ciobanu and V. Codrea (2015). The First Record of the Giant Shark Otodus megalodon (Agassiz, 1835) from Romania. Brukenthal. Acta Musei, X(3). Lamnidae - North America Boessenecker, R.W. (2016). First record of the megatoothed shark Carcharocles megalodon from the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation of Northern California. PaleoBios, 33. Dockery, D.T. and E.M. Manning (1986). Teeth of the Giant Shark Carcharodon auriculatus from the Eocene and Oligocene of Mississippi. Mississippi Geology, Vol.7, Number 1. (Article starts on page 7) Freile, D. and M.L DeVore (2001). The First Report of Carcharocles auriculatus from the Oligocene of Georgia in the Context of Previous Gulf Coast Records. Georgia Journal of Science, 59. (Article starts on page 128) Kent, B.W. and G.W. Powell (1999). Reconstructed Dentition of the Rare Lamnoid Shark Parotodus benedeni (le Hon) from the Yorktown Formation (Early Pliocene) at Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina. The Mosasaur, Vol.6. Lucas, F.A. (1892). On Carcharodon mortoni Gibbes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol.VII. (Article starts on page 150). Mollen, F.H. and J.W.M. Jagt (2012). The taxonomic value of rostral nodes of extinct sharks, with comments on previous records of the genus Lamna (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) from the Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina (USA). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.62, Number 1. Lamnidae - South America/Central America/Caribbean Aguilera, O. and D.R. De Aguilera (2004). Giant-toothed White Sharks and Wide-toothed Mako (Lamnidae) from the Venezuela Neogene: Their Role in the Caribbean, Shallow-water Fish Assemblage. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.40, Number 3. Cione, A.L., D.A. Cabrera and M.J. Barla (2012). Oldest record of the Great White Shark (Lamnidae, Carcharodon; Miocene) in the Southern Atlantic. Geobios, Vol.45, Number 2. Collareta, A., et al. (2017). A Well Preserved Skeleton of the Fossil Shark Cosmopolitodus hastalis from the Late Miocene of Peru, Featuring Fish Remains as Fossilized Stomach Contents. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 123(1). Collareta, A., et al. (2017). Did the giant extinct shark Carcharocles megalodon target small prey? Bite marks on marine mammal remains from the late Miocene of Peru. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 469. Ehret, D.J., G. Hubbell and B.J. MacFadden (2009). Exceptional Preservation of the White Shark Carcharodon (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) from the Early Pliocene of Peru. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(1). Ehret, D.J., et al. (2012). Origin of the White Shark Carcharodon (Lamniformes: Lamnidae) Based on Recalibrations of the Upper Neogene Pisco Formation of Peru. Palaeontology, Vol.55, Part 6. (Thanks to doushantuo for finding this one!) Flemming, C. and D.A. McFarlane (1998). New Caribbean Locality for the Extinct Great White Shark Carcharodon megalodon. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol. 34, Numbers 3-4. Nievas-Rivera, A.M., et al. (2003). New Record of the Lamnid Shark Carcharodon megalodon from the Middle Miocene of Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vo.39, Number 2. Pimiento, C., et al. (2010). Ancient Nursery Area for the Extinct Giant Shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama. PLoS ONE, 5(5). General Lamnidae Andreotti, S., et al. (2016). New insights into the evolutionary history of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias. Journal of Biogeography, 43. Bertsos, M.J. (2016). Spatial Variation in Tooth Shape of Miocene Populations of Carcharocles megalodon Across Ocean Basins. Masters Thesis - Wright State University. Bruner, J.C. (1997). The "Megatooth" shark, Carcharodon megalodon "Rough toothed, Huge toothed". Mundo Marino Revista International de Vida Marina, 5(6). (Plates not included) Diedrich, C.G. (2013). Evolution of white and megatooth sharks, and evidence for early predation on seals, sirenians, and whales. Natural Science, Vol.5, Number 11. Ehret, D.J. (2010). Paleobiology and Taxonomy of Extinct Lamnid and Otodontid Sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii, Lamniformes). Ph.D. Dissertation - University of Florida. Kesmez, M., et al. (2004). Characterization of the Evolutionary Aspect of Great White Shark Teeth by X-Ray Diffraction Methods and Other Supporting Techniques. Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol.47. Nyberg, K.G., et al. (2006). Tracing the Ancestry of the Great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias, Using Morphometric Analyses of Fossil Teeth. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(4). Pimiento, C. and M.A. Balk (2015). Body-size trends of the extinct giant shark Carcharoles megalodon: a deep time perspective on marine apex predators. Paleobiology, 41(3). Pimiento, C. and C.F. Clements (2014). When Did Carcharocles megalodon Become Extinct? A New Analysis of the Fossil Record. PLoS ONE, 9(10). Pimiento, C., et al. (2016). Geographical distribution patterns of Carcharocles megalodon over time reveal clues about extinction mechanisms. Journal of Biogeography, 43(8). Purdy, R.W. and M.P. Francis (2007). Ontogenetic Development of Teeth in Lamna nasus (Bonnaterre, 1758) (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae) and its Implications for the Study of Fossil Shark Teeth. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(4). Schnetz, L., C. Pfaff and J. Kriwet (2016). Tooth Development and Histology Patterns in Lamniform Sharks (Elasmobranchii, Lamniformes) Revisited. Journal of Morphology, 277. Whitenack, L.B. and M.D. Gottfried (2010). A Morphometric Approach for Addressing Tooth-Based Species Delimitation in Fossil Mako Sharks, Isurus (Elasmobranchii: Lamniformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30(1). Family Megachasmidae - Megamouth Shark and Its Relatives De Schutter, P.J. (2009). The Presence of Megachasma (Chondrichthys: Lamniformes) in the Neogene of Belgium, First Occurrence in Europe.Geologica Belgica, 12, 3-4. Martin, A.P. and G.J.P. Naylor (1997). Independent Origins of Filter-Feeding in Megamouth and Basking Sharks (Order Lamniformes) Inferred from Phylogenetic Analysis of Cytochrome b Gene Sequences. In: Biology of the Megamouth Shark. Kazunari, Y., et al. (eds.), Tokai University Press, Tokyo. Shimada, K. (2008). Mesozoic Origin for Megamouth Shark (Lamniformes, Megachasmidae).Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(2). (No longer available from BioOne. E-mail Fruitbat for a copy.) Shimada, K. and D.J. Ward (2016). The oldest fossil record of the megamouth shark from the late Eocene of Denmark, and comments on the enigmatic megachasmid origin. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(4). Shimada, K., B.J. Welton and D.J. Long (2014). A New Fossil Megamouth Shark (Laminiformes, Megachasmidae) from the Oligocene-Miocene of the Western United States. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(2). Spadini, V. and G. Manganelli (2015). A megachasmid shark tooth (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) from the Zanclean (early Pliocene) of San Quirico d'Orcia, central Italy. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 54(1). Family Odontaspididae - Sand Tiger Shark and Its Relatives Cunningham, S.B. (2006 revision). A comparison of isolated teeth of early Eocene Striatolamia macrota (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes), with those of a Recent sand shark, Carcharias taurus. Tertiary Research, 20(1-4). de Ceuster, J. (1987). A Little Known Odontaspid Shark from the Antwerp Sands Member (Miocene, Hemmoorian) and Some Stratigraphical Remarks on the Shark-Teeth of the Berchem Formation (Miocene, Hemmoorian) at Antwerp (Belgium). Meded.Werkgr.Tert.Kwart. Geol., 24(3). De Schutter, P.J. (2011). Carcharias vorax (Le Hon, 1871) (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes), From the Miocene of Belgium: Redescription and Designation of a Neotype and Paraneotype. Geologica Belgica, 14/3-4. Fieman, D.M. (2016). Comparing body size of the sand tiger shark Striatolamia macrota from Eocene localities in the Eureka Sound Formation, Banks Island, northern Canada, and the Tuscahoma Formation, Meridian, Mississippi. Undergraduate Honors Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder. Hansen, B.B., et al. (2013). Associated skeletal and dental remains of a fossil odontaspidid shark (Elasmobranchii: Lamniformes) from the Middle Eocene Lillebaelt Clay Formation in Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.61. Hovestadt, D.C. and M. Hovestadt-Euler (2010). A partial skeleton of Carcharias gustrowensis (Winkler, 1875) (Chondrichthyes, Odontaspididae) including embryos, a chimaeroid dorsal fin spine and a myliobatid tail spine from the Oligocene of Germany. Cainozoic Research, 7(1-2). Lucifora, L.O., R.C. Menni and A.H. Escalante (2001). Analysis of Dental Insertion Angles in the Sand Tiger Shark, Carcharias taurus (Chondrichthyformes, Lamniformes). Cymbium, 25(1). Marrama, G., et al. (2018). The Southernmost Occurrence of Brachycarcharias (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) from the Eocene of Antarctica Provides New Information About the Paleogeography and Paleobiology of Paleogene Sand Tiger Sharks. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.124(2). Marrama, G., et al. (2017). Eocene sand tiger sharks (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) from the Bolca Konservat Lagerstätte, Italy: palaeobiology, palaeobiogeography and evolutionary significance. Historical Biology, 2017. Shimada, K., K. Ewell and M.J. Everhart (2004). The first record of the lamniform shark genus, Johnlongia, from the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous), western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.107, Numbers 3/4. Shimada, K., et al. (2015). A New Clade of Putative Plankton-Feeding Sharks from the Upper Cretaceous of Russia and the United States. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e981335. Ward, D.J. (1988). Hypotodus verticalis (Agassiz 1843), Hyptotodus robustus Leriche (1921) and Hypotodus heintzelini (Casier 1967), Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes, junior synonyms of Carcharias hopei (Agassiz 1843). Tertiary Res., 10(1). Family Otodontidae (C. megalodon, Palaeocarcharodon and Cretolamna may belong here) Ehret, D.J. (2010). Paleobiology and Taxonomy of Extinct Lamnid and Otodontid Sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii, Lamniformes). Ph.D. Dissertation - University of Florida. Ehret, D.J. and J. Ebersole (2014). Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA. PeerJ 2: e265. Ferron, H.G. (2017). Regional endothermy as a trigger for gigantism in some extinct macropredatory sharks. PLoS ONE, 12(9). Kent, B.W. (1999). Speculations on the Size and Morphology of the Extinct Lamnoid Shark Parotodus benedeni (le Hon). The Mosasaur, Vol.6. (Thanks to WhodamanHD for sending me in the direction of this one!) Kent, B.W. and G.W. Powell (1999). Reconstructed Dentition of the Rare Lamnoid Shark Parotodus benedeni (le Hon) from the Yorktown Formation (Early Pliocene) at Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina. The Mosasaur, Vol.6. Shimada, K., et al. (2016). A new elusive otodontid shark (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) from the lower Miocene and comments on the taxonomy of otodontid genera, including the 'megatoothed' clade. Historical Biology. General Lamniformes Antunes, M.T. and A.C. Balbino (2003). Uppermost Miocene Lamniform Selachians (Pisces) from the Alvalade basin (Portugal). Ciencias da Terra (UNL), Number 15. Belben, R.A., et al. (2017). Ecological impact of the end-Cretaceous extinction on lamniform sharks. PLoS ONE, 12(6). Blanco-Pinon, A., K. Shimada, and G.G. Barba (2005). Lamnoid Vertebrae from the Agua Nueva Formation (Upper Cretaceous: Lower Turonian), Northeastern Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.22, Number 001. Jagt, J.W.M., et al. (2006). Latest Cretaceous mosasaurs and lamniform sharks from Labirinta cave, Vratsa district (northwest Bulgaria): a preliminary note. Annales Geologiques de la Peninsule Balkanique, 67. Kim, S.H. (2009). Morphology and Evolution of Caudal Fin in Lamniform Sharks. Masters Thesis - DePaul University. Kim, S.H., K. Shimada and C.K. Rigsby (2013). Anatomy and Evolution of Heterocercal Tail in Lamniform Sharks. The Anatomical Record, 296. Mollen, F.H. and J.W.M. Jagt (2012). The taxonomic value of rostral nodes of extinct sharks, with comments on previous records of the genus Lamna (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) from the Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina, USA. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.62, Number 1. Pinon, A.B., K. Shimada, and G.G. Barba (2005). Lamnoid Vertebrae from the Agua Nueva Formation (Upper Cretaceous: Lower Turonian), Northeastern Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.22, Number 1. Schroeter, E.R., et al. (2014). Lamniform Shark Teeth from the Late Cretaceous of Southernmost South America (Santa Cruz Formation, Argentina). PLoS ONE, 9(8). Shimada, K. (2005).Phylogeny of lamniform sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) and the contribution of dental characters to lamniform systematics. Paleontological Research, Vol.9, Number 1. Shimada, K. (2002). Teeth of embryos in lamniform sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 63. Siverson, M. (1996). Lamniform Sharks of the Mid Cretaceous Alinga Formation and Beedagong Claystone, Western Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.39, Part 4. Siverson, M. (1992). Biology, Dental Morphology and Taxonomy of Lamniform Sharks from the Campanian of the Kristianstad Basin, Sweden. Palaeontology, Vol.35, Part 3. Sӧderblom, F. (2015). Disparity of Early Cretaceous Lamniformes Sharks. Independent Project at the Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Universitet, 2015:7. Wilga, C.D. (2005). Morphology and Evolution of the Jaw Suspension in Lamniform Sharks. Journal of Morphology, 265. Order Orectolobiformes - Whale Sharks and Carpet Sharks Bourdon, J. and M.J. Everhart (2010). Occurrence of the extinct Carpet shark, Orectoloboides, in the Dakota Formation (Late Cretaceous; Middle Cenomanian) of Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.113, Number 3-4. Delsate, D. and D. Thies (1995). Teeth of the fossil shark Annea THEIS 1983 (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii) from the Toarcian of Belgium. Belgian Geological Survey - Professional Paper 278. Duffin, C.J. (1988). The Upper Jurassic selachian Palaeocarcharias de Beaumont (1960). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 94. Duffin, C.J. and D.J. Ward (1983). Teeth of a New Neoselachian Shark from the British Lower Jurassic. Palaeontology, Vol. 26, Part 4. Engelbrecht, A., et al. (2017). Revision of Eocene Antarctic carpet sharks (Elasmobranchii, Orectolobiformes) from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. J.Syst.Paleontol., 15(12). (Author's manuscript) Goto, T. (2001). Comparative Anatomy, Phylogeny and Cladistic Classification of the Order Orectolobiformes (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii). Memoirs of the Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 48(1). Srdic, A., C.J. Duffin and D.M. Martill (2016). First occurrence of the orectolobiform shark Akaimia in the Oxford Clay Formation (Jurassic, Callovian) of England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 127. Order Squaliformes - Sleeper Sharks and Dogfishes Family Centrophoridae - Gulper Sharks De Schutter, P.J. and E. Wijnker (2012). Large Centrophorus (Chondrichthyes, Squaliformes) of the Belgian Neogene continental shelf. Geologica Belgica, 15/1-2. Keyes, I.W. (1984). New records of fossil elasmobranch genera Megascyliorhinus, Centrophorus, and Dalatias (Order Selachii) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, Vol.27. Family Dalatiidae - Kitefin and Cookiecutter Sharks Keyes, I.W. (1984). New records of fossil elasmobranch genera Megascyliorhinus, Centrophorus, and Dalatias (Order Selachii) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, Vol.27. Perez, V.J. and K.W. Marks (2017). The First Documented Fossil Records of Isistius and Squatina (Chondrichthyes) from Florida, With an Overview of the Associated Vertebrate Fauna. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, 55(7). Pino, J.L. (2014). Fossil tooth of a cookie cutter shark (Isistius triangulus) from the Late Miocene of Panama. Puente Biologico, 6. Welton, B.J. (2016). A New Dalatiid Shark (Squaliformes: Dalatiidae) from the Early Oligocene of Oregon and California, USA. In: Fossil Record 5. Sullivan, R.M. and S.G. Lucas (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 74. Family Echinorhinidae - Bramble Sharks Adnet, S., et al. (2012). Oldest evidence of bramble sharks (Elasmobranchii, Echinorhinidae) in the Lower Cretaceous of southeast France and the evolutionary history of orbitostylic sharks. Cretaceous Research, 35. Bogan, S., et al. (2017). A new species of the genus Echinorhinus (Chondrichthyes, Echinorhiniformes) from the upper Cretaceous of southern South America (Argentina-Chile). Cretaceous Research, 78. Family Etmopteridae - Lantern Sharks Adnet, S., H. Cappetta and K. Nakaya (2006). Dentition of etmopterid shark Miroscyllium (Squaliformes) with comments on the fossil record of lanternsharks. Cybium, 30(4). Cappetta, H. and S. Adnet (2001). Discovery of the Recent genus Trigonognathus (Squaliformes: Etmopteridae) in the Lutetian of Landes (southwestern France). Remarks on the teeth of the Recent species Trigonognathus kabeyai. Palaeontoligische Zeitschrift, 74(4). (Plates not included) Family Somniosidae - Sleeper Sharks Suzuki, T. (2008). Squaliform shark teeth of the genus Centroselachus from the Miocene of Japan. Jour.Geol.Soc. Japan, Vol.114, Number 10. Welton, B.J. and J.L. Goedert (2016). New Fossil Species of Somniosus and Rhinoscymnus (Squaliformes: Somniosidae), Deep Water Sharks from Oligocene Rocks of Western Washington State, USA. In: Fossil Record 5. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 74. Family Squalidae - Dogfish Sharks Bigelow, P.K. (1994). Occurrence of a Squaloid Shark (Chondrichthyes: Squaliformes) With the Pinniped Allodesmus from the Upper Miocene of Washington. J.Paleont., 68(3). (Thanks to piranha for making this one available!) Herman, J. (1982). Additions to the fauna of Belgium. 6. The Belgian Eocene Squalidae. Tertiary Res., 4(1). General Squalidae Siverson, M. (1993). Maastrichtian Squaloid Sharks from Southern Sweden. Palaeontology, Vol.36, Part 1. Order Synechodontiformes Callahan, W.R., et al. (2014). First Record of the Synechodontiform Shark Sphenodus (Neoselachii, Orthacodontidae) from the Danian of Eastern North America. The Mosasaur, Vol.8. Cuny, G. and S. Risnes (2005). The enameloid microstructure of the teeth of synechodontiform sharks (Condrichthyes: Neoselachii). PalArch, 3(2). Guinot, G. and H. Cappetta (2011). Enameloid Microstructure of Some Cretaceous Hexanchiformes and Synechodontiformes (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii): New Structures and Systematic Implications. Microscopy Research and Techniques, 74. Klug, S. (2008). Morphology and Phylogeny of Synechodontiform Sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) with Comments on the Origin and Early Evolution of Neoselachii. Ph.D. Dissertation, Freien Universitat Berlin. Klug, S. (2008). The Late Jurassic neoselachian Macrourogaleus Fowler, 1947 is a palaeospinacid shark (Elasmobranchii; Synechodontiformes). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Klug, S. and J. Kriwet (2010). A new Late Jurassic species of the rare synechodontiform shark, Welcommia (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii). Palaontol.Z. Klug, S. and J. Kriwet (2008). A new basal galeomorph shark (Synechodontiformes, Neoselachii) from the Early Jurassic of Europe. Naturwissenschaften, 95. Klug, S., et al. (2009). Skeletal anatomy of the extinct shark Paraorthacodus jurensis (Chondrichthyes; Palaeospinacidae), with comments on synechodontiform and palaeospinacid morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 157. Maisey, J.G. (1985). Cranial Morphology of the Fossil Elasmobranch Synechodus dubrisiensis. American Museum Novitates, Number 2804. Maisey, J.G. (1977). The fossil selachian fishes Palaeospinax Egerton, 1872 and Nemacanthus Agassiz, 1837. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 60. Chondrichthyes - Order incertae sedis Duffin, C.J. and G. Cuny (2008). Carcharopsis prototypus and the adaptations of single crystallite enameloid in cutting dentitions. Acta Geologica Polonica, 58(2).