Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'lizard'.

More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
    Tags should be keywords or key phrases. e.g. carcharodon, pliocene, cypresshead formation, florida.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


  • Fossil Discussion
    • General Fossil Discussion
    • Fossil Hunting Trips
    • Fossil ID
    • Is It Real? How to Recognize Fossil Fabrications
    • Partners in Paleontology - Member Contributions to Science
    • Questions & Answers
    • Fossil of the Month
    • Member Collections
    • A Trip to the Museum
    • Paleo Re-creations
    • Collecting Gear
    • Fossil Preparation
    • Member Fossil Trades Bulletin Board
    • Member-to-Member Fossil Sales
    • Fossil News
  • Gallery
  • Fossil Sites
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Australia - New Zealand
    • Canada
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • South America
    • United States
  • Fossil Media
    • Members Websites
    • Fossils On The Web
    • Fossil Photography
    • Fossil Literature
    • Documents


  • Anson's Blog
  • Mudding Around
  • Nicholas' Blog
  • dinosaur50's Blog
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • Seldom's Blog
  • tracer's tidbits
  • Sacredsin's Blog
  • fossilfacetheprospector's Blog
  • jax world
  • echinoman's Blog
  • Ammonoidea
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • Adventures with a Paddle
  • Caveat emptor
  • -------
  • Fig Rocks' Blog
  • placoderms
  • mosasaurs
  • ozzyrules244's Blog
  • Sir Knightia's Blog
  • Terry Dactyll's Blog
  • shakinchevy2008's Blog
  • MaHa's Blog
  • Stratio's Blog
  • Phoenixflood's Blog
  • Brett Breakin' Rocks' Blog
  • Seattleguy's Blog
  • jkfoam's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Lindsey's Blog
  • marksfossils' Blog
  • ibanda89's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Back of Beyond
  • St. Johns River Shark Teeth/Florida
  • Ameenah's Blog
  • gordon's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • Pennsylvania Perspectives
  • michigantim's Blog
  • michigantim's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • GPeach129's Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • Olenellus' Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • maybe a nest fossil?
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • bear-dog's Blog
  • javidal's Blog
  • Digging America
  • John Sun's Blog
  • John Sun's Blog
  • Ravsiden's Blog
  • Jurassic park
  • The Hunt for Fossils
  • The Fury's Grand Blog
  • julie's ??
  • Hunt'n 'odonts!
  • falcondob's Blog
  • Monkeyfuss' Blog
  • cyndy's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • nola's Blog
  • mercyrcfans88's Blog
  • Emily's PRI Adventure
  • trilobite guy's Blog
  • xenacanthus' Blog
  • barnes' Blog
  • myfossiltrips.blogspot.com
  • HeritageFossils' Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Emily's MotE Adventure
  • farfarawy's Blog
  • Microfossil Mania!
  • A Novice Geologist
  • Southern Comfort
  • Eli's Blog
  • andreas' Blog
  • Recent Collecting Trips
  • retired blog
  • Stocksdale's Blog
  • andreas' Blog test
  • fossilman7's Blog
  • Piranha Blog
  • xonenine's blog
  • xonenine's Blog
  • Fossil collecting and SAFETY
  • Detrius
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Kehbe's Kwips
  • RomanK's Blog
  • Prehistoric Planet Trilogy
  • mikeymig's Blog
  • Western NY Explorer's Blog
  • Regg Cato's Blog
  • VisionXray23's Blog
  • Carcharodontosaurus' Blog
  • What is the largest dragonfly fossil? What are the top contenders?
  • Hihimanu Hale
  • Test Blog
  • jsnrice's blog
  • Lise MacFadden's Poetry Blog
  • BluffCountryFossils Adventure Blog
  • meadow's Blog
  • Makeing The Unlikley Happen
  • KansasFossilHunter's Blog
  • DarrenElliot's Blog
  • jesus' Blog
  • A Mesozoic Mosaic
  • Dinosaur comic
  • Zookeeperfossils
  • Cameronballislife31's Blog
  • My Blog
  • TomKoss' Blog
  • A guide to calcanea and astragali
  • Group Blog Test
  • Paleo Rantings of a Blockhead
  • Dead Dino is Art
  • The Amber Blog
  • TyrannosaurusRex's Facts
  • PaleoWilliam's Blog
  • The Paleo-Tourist
  • The Community Post
  • Lyndon D Agate Johnson's Blog
  • BRobinson7's Blog
  • Eastern NC Trip Reports
  • Toofuntahh's Blog
  • Pterodactyl's Blog
  • A Beginner's Foray into Fossiling
  • Micropaleontology blog
  • Pondering on Dinosaurs
  • Fossil Preparation Blog
  • On Dinosaurs and Media
  • cheney416's fossil story
  • jpc
  • Red-Headed Red-Neck Rock-Hound w/ My Trusty HellHound Cerberus
  • Red Headed
  • Paleo-Profiles
  • Walt's Blog
  • Between A Rock And A Hard Place
  • Rudist digging at "Point 25", St. Bartholomä, Styria, Austria (Campanian, Gosau-group)
  • Prognathodon saturator 101


  • Calendar


  • Annelids
  • Arthropods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
    • Trilobites
    • Other Arthropods
  • Brachiopods
  • Cnidarians (Corals, Jellyfish, Conulariids )
    • Corals
    • Jellyfish, Conulariids, etc.
  • Echinoderms
    • Crinoids & Blastoids
    • Echinoids
    • Other Echinoderms
    • Starfish and Brittlestars
  • Forams
  • Graptolites
  • Molluscs
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods (Ammonites, Belemnites, Nautiloids)
    • Gastropods
    • Other Molluscs
  • Sponges
  • Bryozoans
  • Other Invertebrates
  • Ichnofossils
  • Plants
  • Chordata
    • Amphibians & Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Dinosaurs
    • Fishes
    • Mammals
    • Sharks & Rays
    • Other Chordates
  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 22 results

  1. Lizard embryo?

    Found this on a river in central Texas. embryo fossil?
  2. Fossil Inception

    Another fossil as stomach contents of a fossil microraptor. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/new-fossil-lizard-found-inside-microraptor-dinosaur/
  3. Hello to everyone, what do you people think about this small foot fossil? The seller says it is Mycterosaurus. I would really like to read some opinions. Thank you all in advance. Best regards, Savvas
  4. Amber Lizard claw?

    Hello everyone! This one might be hard to identify with sub-par photos – even in person the microscope photos were unclear but you're all smarter than I am. It's about an inch long for scale. Story: I was looking through a clearly un-sorted bag of hundreds of small pieces of Dominican amber (my favorite SO COOL) and saw this tiny piece with what looked like a tiny lizard hand, even though it had three fingers instead of five (maybe they were separated in fossilization). There was no loupe available to check for skin patterns and bone fragments so I bit the bullet. It was cheap so I bought it so I could sleep soundly tonight. I'm thinking it's probably a botanical inclusion at best but wanted to see what you guys thought! Let's discuss. Thanks in advance everyone!
  5. Friends fossil

    Well I'd like to I'd this beast but pictures aren't as good as I thought. The fossil is in two pieces. lower Jaw & upper jaw with cranium. This is looking down at the top of the head. I will take a couple more after work today & post this evening. Any help will be much appreciated. Thanks guys, Tracy
  6. Dinosaur or reptile(Lizard) limb bone? Found in Nanxiong Formation, Ganzhou, China. It was found with dinosaur eggs and egg shell was preserved together in matrix
  7. Although lizards are prime material for fakers, i think this tail is authentic. It is an unusial cast fossil. Kind of like a ghost form. It seems that the tail became detached. Much like they do today. This is cenomanian age amber. From Myanmar kachin state.
  8. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/pretty-amazing-alberta-researchers-spot-new-fossil-species-and-its-lunch-1.4715056?cmp=rss
  9. What crawled out of here?

    This looks like a small lizard laid here on the side or something- maybe?? And what about the deep hole? Or is it all just weathering? Thanks!
  10. Dinosaur/lizard from Jiangxi?

    Found in Ganzhou of Jiangxi, China. Any idea if it’s a lizard or dinosaur?
  11. Mosasaur morph Animation

    Hi everyone, This animation is not meant to be accurate, otherwise I would not have drawn a generic lizard in the beginning and grow a mosasaurine snout much earlier in the sequence. Again, this was created on Adobe Animate CC 2018 using my Huion 1060PLUS tablet.
  12. Lizard or fish skull fragments?

    As I found this yesterday,I thought that is a fish or fish fragments in the matrix,now when I cleaned little bit more it looks like a lizard ,I'm no expert in this so I'm asking for little help.
  13. Are Mosasaurs considered lizards?
  14. Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi: Exceptional Ancient Lizard Fossil Astonishes Scientists The Fossil: Artists' rendering: LINK to Article LINK to Open Access Paper Enjoy!
  15. Complete Tiny Lizard Or Paperweight?

    This little specimen actually found me as I walked the shoreline somewhere between Manhattan Beach, CA and San Diego, CA. (It's been 20 years so . . .) But I do remember the tide was rolling out. The waves literally washed it over my feet but I was able to grab it before it rolled back into the sea again. After sitting in a dark closet for 17 years I finally took a serious look at it and realized it was probably something special. But instead of passing it around for a professional opinion, I chose to display it on my desk. Every single day for 3 years I looked at and studied this little guy; and so did anyone else who walked into my office. Without fail, everyone is fascinated. What I See: About the size and shape of a jumbo egg, perhaps a little larger. The entire body of the lizard is completely wrapped around the sphere with the top half its body on one long side and the bottom half of its body literally wrapped around to the other long side. On the top half; the skull, upper body and one arm is visible but the other arm appears to be hidden underneath the body. The opposite side shows both legs completely stretched out and clearly defined with its bones, joints and even a foot visible. There appears to be something attached to the spine that looks like it could be a tail. It too wraps around the entire sphere. But what I find most fascinating is the flesh and outline of its entire body are extraordinarily clear! My Take: It looks like an egg with a complete lizard embryo inside. It's outer shell long worn away after spending millions of years being churned and thrown around by the ocean. I've been calling it "My Little Lizard Friend" for a few years now. But I was really hoping someone here could tell me its proper name, age, etc. Thank a bunch. I'm just a wannabe but loving every minute of it.
  16. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/11/snakes-tetrapodophis-fossils-ethics-science/?utm_source=Facebook&utm_medium=Social&utm_content=link_fb20161102news-snakefossil&utm_campaign=Content&sf40823705=1
  17. Reptile fossil?

    Can anyone tell us what this could possibly be? We live on Lake Ontario in upstate New York. Thank you for any help!!
  18. http://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/this-ancient-bug-within-a-lizard-within-a-snake-will-blow-your-mind/ Fossils come in a wide variety of forms, from preserved bones to leftover (and sometimes enormous) footprints. Sometimes, though, they come in the form of a bug within a lizard within a snake, all perfectly preserved within a volcanic lake. About 48 million years ago, an ancestral iguana was having a rather wonderful day in prehistoric Germany. It had just managed to ingest a rather colorful insect, after all, and who doesn’t like a good lunch? However, little did this scuttling Geiseltaliellus maarius know that it just consumed its last meal. It was at this moment that a juvenile Palaeopython fischeri snake decided to strike. More related to modern boa than the python, this tree-dwelling snake slithered out from the shadows and pounced, managing to successfully gobble up both the lizard and its lunch. Sadly, it must have got lost on the way back to its arboreal residence, because it fell into the Messel Pit, a formerly active volcanic lake spewing out highly acidic sulfur dioxide, suffocating carbon dioxide. If anything became overwhelmed by these gasses, it would have likely stumbled into the broiling, bubbling, liquid haze, and sunk down into oxygen-poor waters. As described in the journal Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, this was how the story of the life of the snake, the lizard, and the bug ended. Thankfully for paleontologists, these anoxic and bacteria-depleted waters guaranteed that – along with a wealth of other clumsy lifeforms – the ancient triplets were immaculately preserved for tens of millions of years. “It’s probably the kind of fossil that I will go the rest of my professional life without ever encountering again, such is the rarity of these things,” study co-author Krister Smith, a paleontologist at Germany’s Senckenberg Institute, told National Geographic. “It was pure astonishment.” Although this meal-within-a-meal feature wasn’t immediately obvious at first glance, powerful CT (X-ray) scans were used to peer inside. The iguana-like lizard was successfully identified, but the bug’s species designation remains a mystery for now. Either way, it’s an utterly breathtaking fossil – one that reveals an ancient food chain of predators and their prey. The bug was found within the abdominal cavity of the lizard. Smith & Scanferla/Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments An interpretive sketch of the lizard (orange) and the bug (blue) fossils within the preserved snake (white).
  19. Skull?

    Hello, thank you in advance for any assistance! My 5 year old son found this "rock" on the side of a creek bed in north Arkansas. We joked around saying it was a Dino Head fossil. Well the more I stare at it, the more I wonder? I know it's in bad condition. But do you see any clues to think it's actually NOT just a rock? And maybe more?
  20. Hi All: Does anyone know about herps preserved in amber? I've got a specimen from Baltic amber that's partial---head and leg with digits. It seems to be particularly well-preserved, so much so that all the details of the eye and digits, scales, etc. look incredible. Is it possible to nail it down to genus (or at least family) from the limited specimen? And how common is it for lizard specimens from Baltic amber to have such near-perfect fixation? Here's one photo attached, and (for the moment at least) I've got it on eBay for more photos and provenience details etc. If it turns out to be something less-than-common taxonomically then I should say it would be more honorable to take down the post...
  21. This stone is the centerpiece of the mantle above our fireplace, and we've always wondered what kind of fossil this is. Our house is in Los Angeles, but I don't know where the stone is from. It looks like some kind of lizard with fins for feet. It's about 12 inches from head to tail. What do you think this is? Full view: Close-ups:
  22. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since July 5, 2018. Class Reptilia Order Squamata - Lizards and Snakes Suborder Amphisbaenia - 'Worm Lizards' Berman, D.S. (1977). Spathorhynchus natronicus, A New Species of Rhineurid Amphisbaenian (Reptilia) from the Early Oligocene of Wyoming. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.51, Number 5. Bolet, A. and S.E. Evans (2013). Lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata) from the Late Eocene of Sossís (Catalonia, Spain). Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.16, Issue 1. Georgalis, G.L., A. Villa and M. Delfino (2017). The last amphisbaenian (Squamata) from continental Eastern Europe. Annales de Paleontologie, xxx. (Article in press) Georgalis, G.L., et al. (2018). First Fossil Find of the Blanus strauchi Complex (Amphisbaenia, Blanidae) from the Miocene of Anatolia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 38(2). Gilmore, C.W. (1938). Descriptions of New and Little Known Fossil Lizards from North America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol.86, Number 3042. Hembree, D.I. (2007). Phylogenetic Revision of Rhineuridae (Reptilia: Squamata: Amphisbaenia) from the Eocene to Miocene of North America. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Number 15. Kearney, M. (2003). The Phylogenetic Position of Sineoamphisbaena hexatabularis Reexamined. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(2). Kearney, M., J.A. Maisano and T. Rowe (2005). Cranial Anatomy of the Extinct Amphisbaenian Rhineura hatcherii (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) Based on High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography. Journal of Morphology. Longrich, N.R., et al. (2015). Biogeography of worm lizards (Amphisbaena) driven by end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Proc.R.Soc. B, 282. Müller, J., et al. (2011). Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins. Nature, 473. Scanferia, C.A., R. Montero and F.L. Agnolin (2006). The First Fossil Record of Amphisbaena heterozonata from the Late Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. South American Journal of Herpetology, 1(2). Vidal, N., et al. (2007). Origin of tropical American burrowing reptiles by transatlantic rafting. Biol.Lett., published on-line. Wu, X.-C., D.B. Brinkman and A.P. Russell (1996). Sineoamphisbaena hexatabularis, an amphisbaenian (Diapsida: Squamata) from the Upper Cretaceous redbeds at Bayan Mandahu (Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China), and comments on the phylogenetic relationships of the Amphisbaenia. Can.J.Earth Sci., 33. Suborder Lacertilia - Lizards Lizards - Africa/Middle East Apesteguia, S., et al. (2016). The first iguanian lizard from the Mesozoic of Africa. R.Soc. open sci., 3. Arnold, E.N., et al. (2002). The oldest reptile in amber: a 120 million year old lizard from Lebanon. J.Zool.Lond., 258. Lizards - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Averianov, A.O. and I.G. Danilov (1997). A Varanid Lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) from the Early Eocene of Kirghizia. Russian Journal of Herpetology, Vol.4, Number 2. Averianov, A.O. and I.G. Danilov (1996). Agamid lizards (Reptilia, Sauria, Agamidae) from the Early Eocene of Kyrgysztan. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Mh., 12. Bever, G.S., C.J. Bell and J.A. Maisano (2005). The Ossified Braincase and Cephalic Osteoderms of Shinisaurus crocodilurus (Squamata, Shinisauridae). Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 1. Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. (1990). Gobekko cretacicus gen. et sp.n., A New Gekkonid Lizard from the Cretaceous of the Gobi Desert. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 35(1-2). Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. (1988). Globaura venusta gen. et sp.n. and Eoxanta lacertifrons gen. et sp.n. - Non-Teiid Lacertoids from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 33(3). Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. (1985). Carolinidae, a New Family of Xenosaurid-Like Lizards from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 30(3-4). Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. and V.R. Alifanov (1991). First Asiatic 'iguanid' lizards in the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 36(3). Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. and S.M. Moody (1984). Priscagaminae, a New Subfamily of the Agamidae (Sauria) from the Late Cretaceous of the Gobi Desert. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 29(1-2). Chow, M. (1957). Remarks on Placosaurus (or Glyptosaurus) of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 1(2). Conrad, J.L. and M.A. Norell (2007). A Complete Late Cretaceous Iguanian (Squamata, Reptilia) from the Gobi and Identification of a New Iguanian Clade. American Museum Novitates, Number 3584. Conrad, J.L., et al. (2011). Osteology of Gobiderma pulchrum (Monstersauria, Lepidosauria, Reptilia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 362. (37 MB download) D*ng, L.-P., S.E. Evans and Y. Wang (2016). Taxonomic revision of lizards from the Paleocene deposits of the Qianshan Basin, Anhui, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 54(3). Evans, S.E. and R. Matsumoto (2015). An assemblage of lizards from the Early Cretaceous of Japan. Palaeontologia Electronica, 13.2.36A. Evans, S.E. and Y. Wang (2009). A Long-Limbed Lizard from the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of Daohugou, Ningcheng, Nei Mongol, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 47(1). Evans, S.E. and Y. Wang (2007). A juvenile lizard specimen with well-preserved skin impressions from the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Naturwissenschaften, 94. Evans, S.E. and Y. Wang (2005). The Early Cretaceous lizard Dalinghosaurus from China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(4). Evans, S.E., G.V.R. Prasad and B.K. Manhas (2002). Fossil Lizards from the Jurassic Kota Formation of India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(2). Head, J.J., et al. (2013). Giant lizards occupied herbivorous mammalian ecospace during the Paleogene greenhouse in Southeast Asia. Proc.R.Soc. B, 280. Joshi, M. and B.S. Kotlia (2010). First Report of the Late Pleistocene Fossil Lizards from Narmada Basin, Central India. e-Journal Earth Science India, Vol.3(1). Li, Y.-X. and X.-X. Xue (2002). The First Appearance of Tinosaurus Fossil in the Quaternary. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 40(1). Li, Y.-X., X.X. Xue and H.J. Liu (2004). Fossil Lizards of Qinling Mountains. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 42(2). Mo, J.-y., X. Xu and S.E. Evans (2012). A large predatory lizard (Platynota, Squamata) from the Late Cretaceous of South China. Journal of Systematic Paleontology, 10:2. Norell, M.A. and G. Keqin (1997). Braincase and Phylogenetic Relationships of Estesia mongoliensis from the Late Cretaceous of the Gobi Desert and the Recognition of a New Clade of Lizards. American Museum Novitates, Number 3211. Norell, M.A., K-Q Gao and J. Conrad (2007). A New Platynotan Lizard (Diapsida: Squamata) from the Late Cretaceous Gobi Desert (Omnogov), Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 3605. Norell, M.A., M.C. McKenna and M.J. Novacek (1992). Estesia mongoliensis, a New Fossil Varanoid from the Late Cretaceous Barun Goyot Formation of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 3045. Prasad, G.V.R. and S. Bajpai (2008). Agamid Lizards from the Early Eocene of Western India: Oldest Cenozoic Lizards from South Asia. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.11, Issue 1. Pregill, G.K. (1993). Fossil Lizards from the Late Quaternary of 'Eua, Tonga. Pacific Science, Vol.47, Number 2. Rana, R.S., et al. (2013). High diversity of acrodontan lizards in the Early Eocene Vastan Lignite Mine of India. Geologica Belgica, 16/4. Smith, K.T., et al. (2011). Acrodont Iguanians (Squamata) from the Middle Eocene of the Huadian Basin of Jilin Province, China, with a Critique of the Taxon "Tinosaurus". Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 49(1). Yi, H.-Y. and M.A. Norell (2013). New materials of Estesia mongoliensis (Squamata: Anguimorpha) and the evolution of venom grooves in lizards. American Museum Novitates, Number 3767. Young, C.-C. (1958). On a New Locality of Yabeinosaurus tenius Endo and Shikama. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 2(3). Lizards - Australia/New Zealand Anderson, C. (1930). Palaeontological notes number II. Meiolania platyceps Owen and Varanus (Megalania) priscus (Owen). Records of the Australian Museum, 17(7). Fry, B.G., et al. (2009). A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus. PNAS, Vol.106, Number 22. Lee, M.S.Y., et al. (2009). Miocene skinks and geckos reveal long-term conservatism of New Zealand's lizard fauna. Biol.Lett., 5. Owen, Prof. (1881). XI. Description of some Remains of the Gigantic Land-Lizard (Megalania prisca, Owen) from Australia - Part III. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond., Vol.171. Reed, E. and M.N. Hutchinson (2005). First Record of a Giant Varanid (Megalania, Squamata) from the Pleistocene of Naracoorte, South Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 51(1). Lizards - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Auge, M.L. and S. Hervet (2009). Fossil lizards from the locality of Gannat (late Oligocene - early Miocene, France) and a revision of the genus Pseudeumeces (Squamata, Lacertidae). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 89(3). Auge, M.L. and R.M. Sullivan (2006). A New Genus, Paraplacosauriops, (Squamata, Anguidae, Glyptosaurinae) from the Eocene of France. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(1). Bolet, A. and S.E. Evans (2013). Lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata) from the Late Eocene of Sossís (Catalonia, Spain). Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.16, Issue 1. Borsuk-Bialynicka, M., M. Lubke and W. Bohme (1999). A lizard from Baltic amber (Eocene) and the ancestry of crown group lacertids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 44, 4. Čerňanský, A. (2012). The oldest known European Neogene girdled lizard fauna (Squamata, Cordylidae), with comments on Early Miocene immigration of African taxa. Geodiversitas, 34(4). Čerňanský, A. (2011). A revision of the chameleon species Chamaeleo pfeili Schleich (Squamata; Chamaeleonidae) with description of a new material of chamaeleonids from the Miocene deposits of southern Germany. Bulletin of Geosciences, 86(2). Čerňanský, A. (2010). Earliest world record of green lizards (Lacertilia, Lacertidae) from the Lower Miocene of Central Europe. Biologia, 65/4. Čerňanský, A. and A.M. Bauer (2010). Euleptes gallica Müller (Squamata: Gekkota: Sphaerodactylidae) from the Lower Miocene of North-West Bohemia, Czech Republic. Folia Zool., 59(4). Čerňanský, A., J.D. Daza and A.M. Bauer (2018). Geckos from the middle Miocene of Devinska Nova Ves (Slovakia): new material and a review of the previous record. Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 111. Čerňanský, A., J. Klembara and K.T. Smith (2016). Fossil lizard from central Europe resolves the origin of large body size and herbivory in giant Canary Island lacertids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 176. Conrad, J.L., A.M. Balcarcel and C.M. Mehling (2012). Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata). PLoS ONE, 7(8). Delfino, M., et al. (2013). Early Miocene dispersal of the lizard Varanus into Europe: Reassessment of vertebral material from Spain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(4). Delfino, M., et al. (2008). Agamid lizards from the Plio-Pleistocene of Sardinia (Italy) and an overview of the European fossil record of the family. Geodiversitas, 30(3). Evans, S.E. (1994). A New Anguimorph Lizard from the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of England. Palaeontology, Vol.37, Part 1. Evans, S.E. and L.J. Barbadillo (1996). The Early Cretaceous lizards of Montsec (Catalonia, Spain). Treb.Mus.Geol. Barcelona, 5. Evans, S.E., P. Raia and C. Barbera (2004). New lizards and rhynchocephalians from the Lower Cretaceous of southern Italy. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49(3). Ivanov, M., et al. (2017). A new species of Varanus (Anguimorpha: Varanidae) from the early Miocene of the Czech Republic. and its relationships and palaeoecology. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 2017. Klembara, J. and B. Green (2010). Anguimorph lizards (Squamata, Anguimorpha) from the Middle and Late Eocene of the Hampshire Basin of southern England. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.8, Issue 1. Klembara, J., M. Böhme and M. Rummel (2010). Revision of the Anguine Lizard Pseudopus laurillardi (Squamata, Anguidae) from the Miocene of Europe, With Comments on Paleoecology. J.Paleont., 84(2). Kohring, R. (1991). Lizard Egg Shells from the Lower Cretaceous of Cuenca Province, Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.34, Part 1. Mateer, N.J. (1982). Osteology of the Jurassic Lizard Ardeosaurus brevipes (Meyer). Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 3. Mlynarski, M. (1956). Lizards from the Pliocene of Poland. Study on the Tertiary bone-breccia Fauna from Weze near Dzialoszyn in Poland. Part VI. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.1, Number 2. Moody, S. and Z. Rocek (1980). Chamaelo caroliquarti (Chamaeleonidae, Sauria): a new species from the Lower Miocene of central Europe. Vestnik Ustredniho ustavu geologickeho, 55(2). Müller, J., et al. (2011). Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins. Nature, 473. Nopcsa, F.B. (1903). On the Varanus-Like Lizards of Istria. Beitr.z.Pal. & Geol.Oestr.Ung., 15. Rees, J. (2000). An Early Cretaceous scincomorph lizard dentary from Bornholm, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.48. Rocek, Z. (1984). Lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) from the Lower Miocene locality Dolnice (Bohemia, Czechoslovakia). Rozpravy Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved, Vol.94, Number 1. Sullivan, R.M. and M. Auge (2006). Redescription of the Holotype of Placosaurus rugosus Gervais 1848-1852 (Squamata, Anguidae, Glyptosaurinae) from the Eocene of France and a Revision of the Genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(1). Tempfer, P.M. (2009). The early Vallesian vertebrates of Atzeldorf (Late Miocene, Austria). 3. Squamata, Scleroglossa. Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, 111A. Venczel, M. (2006). Lizards from the Late Miocene of Polgardi (W-Hungary). Nymphaea, XXXIII. Lizards - North America Bell, C.J. (1993). Fossil Lizards from the Elsinore Fault Zone, Riverside County, California. PaleoBios, 15(2). Bell, C.J. and R.G. Dundas (1993). Fossil Lizards from Rancho La Brea in the Collections of the University of California Museum of Paleontology. PaleoBios, 15(2). Cifelli, R.L. and R.L. Nydam (1995). Primitive Helodermatid-Like Platynotan from the Early Cretaceous of Utah. Herpetologica, 51(3). Conrad, J.L. (2015). A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America. PLoS ONE, 10(7). (Thanks to Oxytropidoceras for finding this one!) Conrad, J.L. (2006). An Eocene Shinisaurid (Reptilia, Squamata) from Wyoming, USA. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(1). Conrad, J.L., O. Rieppel and L. Grande (2008). Re-assessment of varanid evolution based on new data from Saniwa ensidens Leidy, 1870 (Squamata, Reptilia). American Museum Novitates, Number 3630. Gilmore, C.W. (1938). Descriptions of New and Little Known Fossil Lizards from North America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol.86, Number 3042. Ledesma, D.T. (2017). A new classification of a Pliocene fossil lizard (Anguidae: Gerrhonontinae) from Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, California. Bachelors Thesis with Special Honors - The University of Texas at Austin. Lucas, S.G., R.M. Sullivan and T.R. Logan (1983). Glyptosaurine lizard from Eocene Baca Formation, south-central New Mexico. New Mexico Geology, Vol.5, Number 4. Mead, J.I., et al. (2015). Early Pleistocene (Blancan) Helodermatid Lizard from Arizona, USA. Journal of Herpetology, Vol.49, Number 2. Mead, J.I., et al. (2012). Helodermatid lizard from the Mio-Pliocene oak-hickory forest of Tennessee, eastern USA, and a review of Monstersauria osteoderms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57(1). Moscato, D. (2013). A Glyptosaurine Lizard from the Eocene (late Uintan) of San Diego, California, and Implications for Glyptosaurine Evolution and Biogeography. Masters Thesis - East Tennessee State University. Norell, M.A. (1989). Late Cenozoic Lizards of the Anza Borrego Desert, California. Contributions in Science - Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 414. Norell, M.A. and K. De Querioz (1991). The Earliest Iguanine Lizard (Reptilia: Squamata) and its Bearing on Iguanine Phylogeny. American Museum Novitates, Number 2997. Nydam, R.L. (2000). New Records of Early, Medial and Late Cretaceous Lizards and the Evolution of the Cretaceous Lizard Fauna of North America. Ph.D. Thesis - University of Oklahoma. Nydam, R.L. (1999). Polyglyphanodontinae (Squamata: Teiidae) from the Medial and Late Cretaceous : New Taxa from Utah, U.S.A. and Baja California del Norte, Mexico. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Society, Miscellaneous Publications 99-1. Nydam, R.L. and R.L. Cifelli (2005). New data on the dentition of the scincomorphan lizard Polyglyphanodon sternbergi. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(1). Nydam, R.L. and R.L. Cifelli (2002). Lizards from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Antlers and Cloverly Formations. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(2). Scarpetta, S. (2018). The earliest known occurrence of Elgaria (Squamata: Anguidae) and a minimum age for crown Gerrhonotinae: Fossils from the Split Rock Formation, Wyoming, USA. Palaeontologia Electronica, 21.1.1FC. Schatzinger, R.A. (1975). Later Eocene (Uintan) Lizards from the Greater San Diego Area, California. Masters Thesis - San Diego State University. Smith, K.T. and J.A. Gauthier (2013). Early Eocene Lizards of the Wasatch Formation near Bitter Creek, Wyoming: Diversity and Paleoenvironment during an Interval of Global Warming. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 54(2). Sullivan, R.M. (1989). Proglyptosaurus huerfanensis, New Genus, New Species: Glyptosaurine Lizard (Squamata: Anguidae) from the Early Eocene of Colorado. American Museum Novitates, Number 2949. Lizards - South America/Central America/Caribbean Candeiro, C.R.A., et al. (2009). New lizard record (Diapsida, Lepidosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation, Brazil. Bulletin of Geosciences, 84(3). Daza, J.D. and A.M. Bauer (2012). A New Amber-Embedded Sphaerodactyl Gecko from Hispaniola, with Comments on Morphological Synapomorphies of the Sphaerodactylidae. Breviora, Number 529. Daza, J.D., et al. (2013). A reconsideration of Spaerodactylus domelli Bohme, 1984 (Squamata: Gekkota: Sphaerodactylidae), a Miocene lizard in amber. J.Zool.Syst.Evol.Res., 51(1). De Queiroz, K., L-R. Chu and J.B. Losos (1998). A Second Anolis in Dominican Amber and the Systematics and Ecological Morphology of Dominican Amber Anoles. American Museum Novitates, Number 3249. Del Rosario Castaneda, M., E. Sherratt and J.B. Losos (2014). The Mexican amber anole, Anolis electrum, within a phylogenetic context: implications for the origins of Caribbean anoles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 172(1). Etheridge, R. (1964). Late Pleistocene Lizards from Barbuda, British West Indies. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Vol.9, Number 2. Hecht, M.K. (1951). Fossil Lizards of the West Indian Genus Aristelliger (Gekkonidae). American Museum Novitates, Number 1538. Hsiou, A.S. (2007). A New Teiidae Species (Squamata, Scincomorpha) from the Late Pleistocene of Rio Grande Do Sul State, Brazil. Rev.bras.paleontol., 10(3). Hsiou, A.S., A.M. Albino and J. Ferigolo (2009). First Lizard Remains (Teiidae) from the Miocene of Brazil (Solimoes Formation). Rev.bras.paleontol., 12(3). Hsiou, A.S., et al. (2012). Lizards and Snakes (Lepidosauria, Squamata) from the Late Quaternary of the State of Ceara in Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, Vol.74, Number 3. Lazell, J.D. (1965). An Anolis (Sauria, Iguanidae) in Amber. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.39, Number 3. Nava, W.R. and A.G. Martinelli (2011). A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group), Sao Paolo State, Brazil. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 83(1). Nydam, R.L. (1999). Polyglyphanodontinae (Squamata: Teiidae) from the Medial and Late Cretaceous : New Taxa from Utah, U.S.A. and Baja California del Norte, Mexico. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Society, Miscellaneous Publications 99-1. Polcyn, M.J., et al. (2002). Computed Tomography of an Anolis Lizard in Dominican Amber: Taphonomic, Biogeographic, and Evolutionary Implications. Paleontologia Electronica, 5(1). Reynoso, J.-H. (1998). Huehuecuetzpalli mixtecus gen. et sp.nov.: a basal squamate (Reptilia) from the Early Cretaceous of Tepexi de Rodriguez, Central Mexico. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 353. Sherratt, E., et al. (2015). Amber fossils demonstrate deep-time stability of Caribbean lizard communities. PNAS - Early Edition. Simões, T.R. (2012). Redescription of Tijubina pontei, an Early Cretaceous lizard (Reptilia; Squamata) from the Crato Formation of Brazil. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 84(1). General Lacertilia Arida, E. and W. Böhme (2010). The Origin of Varanus: When Fossils, Morphology and Molecules Alone are Never Enough. Biawak, 4(4). Auge, M.L. (2007). Past and Present Distribution of Iguanid Lizards. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Vol.65, Number 4. Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. (1983). The Early Phylogeny of Anguimorpha as Implicated by Craniological Data. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 28(1-2). Conrad, J.L. and M.A. Norell (2008). The braincases of two glyptosaurines (Anguidae, Squamata) and anguid phylogeny. American Museum Novitates, Number 3613. Daza, J.D., A.M. Bauer and E.D. Sniveley (2014). On the Fossil Record of the Gekkota. The Anatomical Record, 00:00-00. Dutchak, A.R. (2005). A review of the taxonomy and systematics of aigialosaurs. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 84(3). Evans, S.E. (2003). At the feet of dinosaurs: the early history and radiation of lizards. Biol.Rev., 78. Hocknull, S.A., et al. (2009). Dragon's Paradise Lost: Palaeobiogeography, Evolution and Extinction of the Largest-Ever Terrestrial Lizards (Varanidae). PLoS ONE, 4(9). Lambert, S.M. and J.J. Wiens (2013). Evolution of Viviparity: A Phylogenetic Test of the Cold-Climate Hypothesis in Phrynosomatid Lizards. Evolution, 67. McGuire, J.A. and R. Dudley (2011). The Biology of Gliding in Flying Lizards (Genus Draco) and their Fossil and Extant Analogs. Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol.51, Number 6. Nydam, R.L., J.G. Eaton and J. Sankey (2007). New Taxa of Transversely-Toothed Lizards (Squamata: Scincomorpha) and New Information on the Evolutionary History of "Teiids". J. Paleont., 81(3). Schulte, J.A. and F. Moreno-Roark (2010). Live birth among Iguanian lizards predates Pliocene-Pleistocene glaciations. Biol.Lett., 6. Simões, T.R., et al. (2016). Reacquisition of the lower temporal bar in sexually dimorphic fossil lizards provides a rare case of convergent evolution. Nature - Scientific Reports, 6: 24087. (Thanks to edd for locating this one!) Sullivan, R.M. (1986). Glyptosaurus? obtusidens is a Nomen Dubium. Journal of Herpetology, Vol.20, Number 1. Sullivan, R.M. (1979). Revision of the Paleogene Genus Glyptosaurus (Reptilia, Anguidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.163, Article 1. Wiens, J.J. and J.L. Slingluff (2001). How Lizards Turn Into Snakes: A Phylogenetic Analysis of Body-Form Evolution in Anguid Lizards. Evolution, 55(11). Yatkola, D.A. (1976). Fossil Heloderma (Reptilia, Helodermatidae). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas, 51. Suborder Serpentes - Snakes Snakes - Africa/Middle East Head, J.J. and C.J. Bell (2007). Snakes from Lemudong'o, Kenya Rift Valley. Kirtlandia, Number 56. Houssaye, A., et al. (2011). Three-Dimensional Pelvis and Limb Anatomy of the Cenomanian Hind-Limbed Snake Eupodophis descouensi (Squamata, Ophidia) Revealed by Synchrotron-Radiation Computed Laminography. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(1). LaDuke, T.C., et al. (2010). A Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Snake Assemblage from the Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Basin, Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30(1). Lee, M.S.Y. and M.W. Caldwell (1998). Anatomy and relationships of Pachyrhachis problematicus, a primitive snake with hindlimbs. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 353. McCartney, J.A. and E.R. Seiffert (2015). A Late Eocene Snake Fauna from the Fayum Depression, Egypt. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1029580. McCartney, J.A., N.J. Stevens and P.M. O'Connor (2014). The Earliest Colubroid-Dominated Snake Fauna from Africa: Perspectives from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation of Southwestern Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 9(3). McCartney, J.A., et al. (2018). Large palaeophiid and nigerophiid snakes from Paleogene Trans-Saharan Seaway deposits of Mali. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 63(2). Polcyn, M.J., L.L. Jacobs and A. Haber (2005). A Morphological Model and CT Assessment of the Skull of Pachyrhachis problematicus (Squamata, Serpentes), A 98 Million Year Old Snake With Legs from the Middle East. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 1. Rieppel, O. and H. Zaher (2000). The Intramandibular Joint in Squamates, and the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Fossil Snake Pachyrhachis problematicus Haas. Fieldiana Geology, New Series, Number 43. Rieppel, O., et al. (2003). The Anatomy and Relationships of Haasiophis terrasanctus, a Fossil Snake with Well-Developed Hind Limbs from the Mid-Cretaceous of the Middle East. J.Paleont., 77(3). Szyndlar, Z. and I. Hosgor (201X). Bavarioboa sp. (Serpentes, Boidae) from the Oligocene/Miocene of eastern Turkey with comments on connections between European and Asiatic snake faunas. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 5X(X). (Under review) Tchernov, E., et al. (2000). A Fossil Snake With Limbs. Science, Vol.287. Zaher, H. (1998). The Phylogenetic Position of Pachyrhachis Within Snakes (Squamata, Lepidosauria). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18(1). Zaher, H. and O. Rieppel (2002). On the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Cretaceous Snakes With Legs, With Special Reference to Pachyrhachis problematicus (Squamata, Serpentes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(1). Zaher, H. and O. Rieppel (1999). The phylogenetic relationships of Pachyrhachis problematicus, and the evolution of limblessness in snakes (Lepidosauria, Squamata). Earth and Planetary Sciences, 329. Snakes - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Danilov, I.G. and A.O. Averianov (1999). A new species of Calamagras Cope, 1873 (Serpentes, Boidae, Erycinae) from the early Eocene of Kirghizia. Geodiversitas, 21(1). Head, J.J. (2005). Snakes of the Siwalik Group (Miocene of Pakistan): Systematics and Relationship to Environmental Change. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 1. Head, J.J., et al. (2005). First Report of Snakes (Squamata) from the Late Middle Eocene Pondaung Formation, Myanmar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25(1). Holman, J.A. and M. Tanimoto (2004). cf. Trimerisurus LACEPEDE (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from the late Early Miocene of Japan. Acta zoologica cracoviensia, 47(1). Ivanov, M., et al. (2018). Miocene snakes from northeastern Kazakhstan: new data on the evolution of snake assemblages in Siberia. Historical Biology, 2018. Rage, J.-C., et al. (2008). A diverse snake fauna from the early Eocene of Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53(3). Rage, J.-C., et al. (2003). Early Eocene snakes from Kutch, Western India, with a review of the Palaeophiidae. Geodiversitas, 25(4). Shikama, T. (1955). On Some Serpent Remains from Quaternary Cave- and Fissure Deposits in Japan. Science Reports of the Yokohama National University, Sec.II, Number 4. Sun, A.-L. (1961). Notes on Fossil Snakes from Shanwang, Shantung. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 1961(4). Wilson, J.A., et al. (2010). Predation upon Hatchling Dinosaurs by a New Snake from the Late Cretaceous of India. PLoS Biology, Vol.8, Issue 3. Snakes - Australia/New Zealand Palci, A., et al. (2018). Palaeoecological inferences for the fossil Australian snakes Yurlunggur and Wonambi (Serpentes, Madtsoiidae). R.Soc. open Sci., 5: 172012. Rieppel, O., A.G. Kluge and H. Zaher (2002). Testing the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Pleistocene Snake Wonambi naracoortensis Smith. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(4). Scanlon, J.D. (2006). Skull of the large non-macrostomatan snake Yurlunggur from the Australian Oligo-Miocene. Nature, Vol.439(16). Scanlon, J.D. (2005). Cranial morphology of the Plio-Pleistocene giant madtsoiid snake Wonambi naracoortensis. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(1). Scanlon, J.D. (2004). First known axis vertebra of a madtsoiid snake (Yurlunggur camfieldensis) and remarks on the necks of snakes. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory, 20. Scanlon, J.D. (2003). The Basicranial Morphology of Madtsoiid Snakes (Squamata, Ophidia) and the Earliest Alethinophidia (Serpentes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(4). Scanlon J.D. and B.S. Mackness (2002). A new giant python from the Pliocene Bluff Downs Local Fauna of northeastern Queensland. Alcheringa, 25. Scanlon, J.D. and M.S.Y. Lee (2002). Varanoid-Like Dentition in Primitive Snakes (Madtsoiidae). Journal of Herpetology, Vol.36, Number 1. Scanlon, J.D., M.S.Y. Lee and M. Archer (2003). Mid-Tertiary elapid snakes (Squamata, Colubroidea) from Riversleigh, northern Australia: early steps in a continent-wide adaptive radiation. Geobios, 36. Smith, M.J. and M. Plane (1985). Pythonine snakes (Boidae) from the Miocene of Australia. BMR Journal Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, 9. Wüster, W., et al. (2005). Snakes across the Strait: trans-Torresian phylogeographic relationships in three genera of Australasian snakes (Serpentes: Elapidae: Acanthophis, Oxyuranus and Pseudechis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 34. Snakes - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Auffenberg, W. (1959). Anomalophis bolcensis (Massalongo), A New Genus of Snake from the Italian Eocene. Breviora, Number 114. Bachmayer, F. and Z. Szyndlar (1987). A second contribution to the ophidian fauna (Reptilia: Serpentes) of Kohfidisch, Austria. Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, 88A. Bachmayer, F. and Z. Szyndlar (1985). Ophidians (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the Kohfidisch Fissures of Burgenland, Austria. Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, 87A. Georgalis, G.L., et al. (2016). New material of Laophis crotaloides, an enigmatic giant snake from Greece, with an overview of the largest fossil European vipers. Swiss J.Geosci., 109. Ivanov, M. (2002). The oldest known Miocene snake fauna from Central Europe: Merkur-North locality, Czech Republic. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 47(3). Ivanov, M. (2000). Snakes of the lower/middle Miocene transition at Vieux Collonges (Rhone, France), with comments on the colonisation of western Europe by colubroids. Geodiversitas, 22(4). Ivanov, M. (1999). The first European pit viper from the Miocene of Ukraine. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 44(3). Ivanov, M. and M. Böhme (2011). Snakes from Griesbeckerzell (Langhian, Early Badenian), North Alpine Foreland Basin (Germany), with comments on the evolution of snake faunas in Central Europe during the Miocene Climatic Optimum. Geodiversitas, 33(3). Kuch, U., et al. (2005). Snake fangs from the Lower Miocene of Germany: evolutionary stability of perfect weapons. Naturwissenschaften. Lee, M.S.Y., M.W. Caldwell and J.D. Scanlon (1999). A second primitive marine snake: Pachyophis woodwardi from the Cretaceous of Bosnia-Herzegovina. J.Zool.Lond., 248. Musilova, R., V. Zavadil and P. Kotlik (2007). Isolated populations of Zamensis longissimus (Reptilia: Squamata) above the northern limit of the continuous range in Europe: origin and conservation status. Acta Soc.Zool.Bohem., 71. Rage, J-C and I.G. Danilov (2008). A new Miocene fauna of snakes from eastern Siberia, Russia. Was the snake fauna largely homogenous in Eurasia during the Miocene? C.R.Palevol, 7. Santos, X., et al. (2008). Biogeography and evolution of the Smooth snake Coronella austriaca (Serpentes: Colubridae) in the Iberian Peninsula: evidence for Messinian refuges and Pleistocene range expansions. Amphibia-Reptilia, 29. Scanferla, A., K.T. Smith and S.F.K. Schaal (2016). Revision of the cranial anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of the Eocene minute boas Messelophis variatus and Messelophis ermannorum (Serpentes, Booidea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 176. Smith, K.T. and A. Scanferla (2016). Fossil snake preserving three trophic levels and evidence for an ontogenetic dietary shift. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. Szyndlar, Z. (2009). Snake fauna (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the Early/Middle Miocene of Sandelzhausen and Rothenstein 13 (Germany). Palaontol.Z., 83. Szyndlar, Z. (2000). The snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes) of the Miocene of Portugal. Ciencias da Terra (UNL), Number 14. Szyndlar, Z. (1991). A Review of Neogene and Quaternary Snakes of Central and Eastern Europe. Part I: Scolecophidia, Boidae, Colubrinae. Estudios geol., 47. Szyndlar, Z. and G.A. Zerova (1990). Neogene Cobras of the Genus Naja (Serpentes: Elapidae) of East Europe. Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, 91A. Venczel, M. (2011). Middle-Late Miocene Snakes from the Pannonian Basin. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, Vol.7. Venczel, M. (2000). Quaternary Snakes from Bihor (Romania). Publishing House of the Tarii Crisurilor Museum. Venczel, M. (1998). Late Miocene snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) from Polgardi (Hungary): a second contribution. Acta zool. cracov., 41. Venczel, M. (1994). Late Miocene snakes from Polgardi (Hungary). Acta zool.cracov., 37(1). Venczel, M. and G. Vardai (2000). The Genus Elaphe in the Carpathian Basin: Fossil Record. Nymphaea, XXVIII. Zvonok, E.A. and P.B. Snetkov (2012). New Findings of Snakes of the Genus Palaeophis Owen, 1841 (Acrochordoidea: Palaeophiidae) from the Middle Eocene of Crimea. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, Vol.316, Number 4. Snakes - North America Auffenberg, W. (1967). The Fossil Snakes of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 3. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing me to this one!) Douglas, M.E., et al. (2006). Evolution of rattlesnakes (Viperidae; Crotalus) in the warm deserts of western North America shaped by Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change. Molecular Ecology, 15. Dowling, H.G. (1958). Pleistocene Snakes of the Ozark Plateau. American Museum Novitates, Number 1882. Drumheller, S.K. (2005). Paleoecologic and Paleogeographic Implications of a Hemphillian (7-4.5 MA) Snake Assemblage in Washington County Tennessee. University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects. Guiher, T.J. and F.T. Burbrink (2008). Demographic and phylogeographic histories of two venomous North American snakes of the genus Agkistrodon. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 48. Harrington, J.W. (1953). A Fossil Pleistocene Snake from Denton County, Texas. Field & Laboratory, SMU, 21(1). Holman, J.A. (1999). Early Oligocene (Whitneyan) snakes from Florida (USA), the second oldest colubrid snakes in North America. Acta zool.cracov., 42(3). Holman, J.A. (1987). Snakes from the Robert Local Fauna (Late Wisconsinan) of Meade County, Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.27, Number 6. LaDuke, T.C. (1991). Fossil Snakes of Pit 91, Rancho La Brea, California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 424. Parmley, D. (1990). Late Pleistocene Snakes from Fowlkes Cave, Culberson County, Texas. Journal of Herpetology, Vol.24, Number 3. Parmley, D. and M. De Vore (2005). Palaeopheid Snakes from the Late Eocene Hardie Mine Local Fauna of Central Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist, 4(4). Parmley, D. and J.A. Holman (2003). Nebraskophis HOLMAN from the Late Eocene of Georgia (USA), the oldest known North American colubrid snake. Acta zoologica cracoviensia, 46(1). Snakes - South America/Central America/Caribbean Albino, A.M. (2000). A new record of snakes from the Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina). Geodiversitas, 22(2). Albino, A.M., J.D. Carrillo-Briceño and J.M. Neenan (2016). An enigmatic aquatic snake from the Cenomanian of Northern South America. PeerJ, 4:e2027. Head, J.J., et al. (2009). Giant boid snake from the Paleocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures. Nature, Vol.457. Hsiou, A.S., A.M. Albino and J. Ferigolo (2010). Reappraisal of the south American Miocene snakes of the genus Columbophis, with description of a new species. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(3). Hsiou, A.S., et al. (2014). The oldest Brazilian snakes from the Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(3). Hsiou, A.S., et al. (2012). Lizards and Snakes (Lepidosauria, Squamata) from the Late Quaternary of the State of Ceara in Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, Vol.74, Number 3. Martill, D.M., H. Tischlinger and N.R. Longrich (2015). A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana. Science, Vol.349. Onary, S.Y. and A.S. Hsiou (2018). Systematic revision of the early Miocene fossil Pseudoepicrates (Serpentes: Boidae): implications for the evolution and historical biogeography of the West Indian boid snakes (Chilabothrus). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, XX. Onary-Alvez, S.Y., A.S. Hsiou and A.D. Rincon (2016). The northernmost South American fossil record of Boa constrictor (Boidae, Boinae) from the Plio-Pleistocene of El Breal de Orucual (Venezuela). Alcheringa, 41, xxx-xxx. Place, A.J. and C.I. Abramson (2004). A Quantitative Analysis of the Ancestral Area of Rattlesnakes. Journal of Herpetology, Vol.38, Number 1. Simpson, G.G. (1933). A New Fossil Snake from the Notostylops Beds of Patagonia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LXVII, Article 1. General Serpentes Apesteguia, S. and H. Zaher (2006). A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum. Nature, Vol.440. Burbrink, F.T. and R. Lawson (2007). How and when did Old World rat snakes disperse into the New World? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 43. Caldwell, M.W. and A.M. Albino (2001). Palaeoenvironment and palaeoecology of three Cretaceous snakes: Pachyophis, Pachyrhachis and Dinilysia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 46(2). Fry, B.G. and W.Wuster (2004). Assembling an Arsenal: Origin and Evolution of the Snake Venom Proteome Inferred from the Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxin Sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol.21, Number 5. Head, J.J. (2015). Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.6FC. Head, J.J., K. Mahlow and J. Muller (2016). Fossil calibrations dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC. Lynch, V.J. (2009). Live-Birth in Vipers (Viperidae) is a Key Innovation and Adaptation to Global Cooling During the Cenozoic. Evolution, 63-9. Noonan, B.P. and P.T. Chippindale (2006). Dispersal and vicariance: The complex evolutionary history of boid snakes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40. Petermann, H. and J.A. Gauthier (2018). Fingerprinting snakes: paleontological and paleoecological implications of zygantral growth rings in Serpentes. PeerJ, 6:e4819. Pyron, R.A. and F.T. Burbrink (2012). Extinction, Ecological Opportunity, and the Origins of Global Snake Diversity. Evolution, 66-1. Rage, J-C and F. Escuille (2003). The Cenomanian: stage of hindlimbed snakes. Notebooks on Geology, Article 2003/01. Szyndlar, Z. and J.-C. Rage (2002). Chapter 27. Fossil Record of the True Vipers. In: Biology of the Vipers. Schuett, G.W., M. Hoggren and M.E. Douglas (eds.), Eagle Mountain Publishing, LC. Vidal, N. and S.B. Hedges (2004). Molecular evidence for a terrestrial origin of snakes. Proc.R.Soc.Lond. B (Suppl.), 271. Wüster, W., et al. (2008). A nesting of vipers: Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Viperidae (Squamata: Serpentes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 49. General Squamata Blain, H-A., S. Bailon and J. Agusti (2007). Anurans and squamate reptiles from the latest early Pleistocene of Almenara-Casablanca-3 (Castellon, East of Spain). Systematics, climatic and environmental considerations. Geodiversitas, 29(2). Bohme, M. (2007). 3. Herpetofauna (Anura, Squamata) and palaeoclimatic implications: preliminary results. In: Oligocene-Miocene Vertebrates from the Valley of Lakes (Central Mongolia): Morphology, phylogenetic and stratigraphic implications. Daxner-Hock, G. (ed.), Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, 108A. Brandley, M.C., J.P. Huelsenbeck and J.J. Wiens (2008). Rates and Patterns in the Evolution of Snake-Like Body Form in Squamate Reptiles: Evidence for Repeated Re-Evolution of Lost Digits and Long-Term Persistence of Intermediate Body Forms. Evolution. Candeiro, C.R.A. (2007). Paleogeographic Distribution of the Terrestrial Squamate Reptiles from the Cretaceous of Brazil. Biosci.J., Vol.23, Number 1. Čerňanský, A. (2011). New finds of the Neogene lizard and snake fauna (Squamata: Lacertilia; Serpentes) from the Slovak Republic. Biologia, 66(5). Čerňanský, A., Z. Szyndlar and T. Mors (2016). Fossil squamate faunas from the Neogene of Hambach (northwestern Germany). Palaeodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, published on-line. Conrad, J.L. (2008). Phylogeny and Systematics of Squamata (Reptilia) Based on Morphology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 310. Fry, B.G., et al. (2005). Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes. Nature - Letters. Hutchinson, M.N., A. Skinner and M.S.Y. Lee (2012). Tikiguania and the antiquity of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Biol.Lett., published on-line. Longrich, N.R., B.-A.S. Bhullar and J.A. Gauthier (2012). Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. PNAS, Vol.109, Number 52. Meylan, P.A. (1982). The Squamate Reptiles of the Inglis IA Fauna (Irvingtonian, Citrus County, Florida). Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.27, Number 3. Mulcahy, D.G., et al. (2012). Estimating divergence dates and evaluating dating methods using phylogenomic and mitochondrial data in squamate reptiles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 65. Reeder, T.W., et al. (2015). Integrated Analyses Resolve Conflicts over Squamate Reptile Phylogeny and Reveal Unexpected Placements for Fossil Taxa. PLoS ONE, 10(3). Sites, J.W., T.W. Reeder and J.J. Wiens (2011). Phylogenetic Insights on Evolutionary Novelties in Lizards and Snakes: Gender, Birth, Bodies, Niches and Venom. Annu.Rev.Ecol.Evol.Syst., 42. Smith, K.T. (2006). A Diverse New Assemblage of Late Eocene Squamates (Reptilia) from the Chadron Formation of North Dakota, U.S.A.. Palaeontologis Electronica, Vol.9, Issue 2. Wiens, J.J., et al. (2010). Combining Phylogenomics and Fossils in Higher-Level Squamate Reptile Phylogeny: Molecular Data Change the Placement of Fossil Taxa. Syst.Biol., 59(6). Wiens, J.J., M.C. Brandley and T.W. Reeder (2006). Why Does a Trait Evolve Multiple Times Within a Clade? Repeated Evolution of Snakelike Body Form in Squamate Reptiles. Evolution, 60(1).