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Found 649 results

  1. NSR Mosasaur Bone Structure 2

    From the album North Sulfur River

    This mosasaur bone mineralized in a way that more details of the finer bone structures are preserved. This sample shows osteocytes, which are rings seen around holes where blood vessels used to be.
  2. NSR Mosasaur Bone Structure 1

    From the album North Sulfur River

    Closeup of mosasaur bone. This specimen has mineralized in such a way that the crystals form in planes, so that they reflect light at a given angle creating a glassy flash. This phenomenon is not captured in the photo.
  3. New Zealand marine reptile vertebra

    I've got this very worn vertebral centrum from the marine Conway Formation near Oaro (Late Cretaceous; about 79-73 Ma) on the south island of New Zealand. The only two logical candidates are plesiosaur or mosasaur from this formation, both of which are known here. There are characteristics of both groups seen on this bone which is tripping me up a bit. One end face seems a bit concave and the other more convex which is a mosasaur feature, but then there also looks to be two distinct holes on the ventral side (see photo three) which could be the paired foramina that are characteristic of plesiosaur vertebrae. So i am left scratching my head! What do others think? Front face Dorsal view Ventral view (note what look like paired foramina) Lateral view
  4. I went fossil hunting at the North Sulfur River (NSR) in mid December with @believerjoe and Cathleen, @cgmck a local fossil hunting buddy of mine who is a semi-retired environmental geologist.. I’d been trying to work out a time to go hunting with Joe for close to 6 weeks. He had extended the offered sometime after I had met him at the Ladonia Fossil Day event on October 20th. He offered to take me to teach me how to spot mosasaur and bone material in the NSR. We are both on the Dallas Paleontological Society Facebook group page and crossed paths on there quite frequently so we were acquitted on there and on TFF. We set 12/15/18 as the tentative date, but rain kept threatening to delay our hunt. Up until Friday evening, 12/14 I wasn’t sure we were going to be able to hunt. If the water was too deep it would be pretty murky, making it hard to spot fossils. Saturday dawned bright, clear and chilly. Water levels were huntable. It would be in the mid 30s when we were to meet at 8:00. We would be walking through a lot of water. I have rubber boots I usually wear in the wet and cold weather in creeks, but I knew the water would be high. I’ve hunted the river when the water was high like this and it prevented me from going up the river and creeks I wanted to go up. So I opted to buy myself a pair of hip waders before the trip. I found these for $25! They were 50%. The shoe size is a man’s size 7. They said they ran big for men. Men’s shoe size 10 is bigger than women’s 10 so I took the risk and they fit fine. They were comfortable and worked great. Anyway, I packed my hunting gear in my car and then a backpack with another pair of socks to keep my feet warmer when walking in the cold water, extra leggings, gloves and hat to put on once I got there. I didn’t do my hair. I was planning on wearing the hat. I threw my favorite ball cap in the pack too. When I got there I realized I’d left my backpack with the extra clothing for warmth at home! I was going to be a bit chilly. Especially my feet. My boots aren’t insulated. My hair was going to be all over the place with the wind. We met at the Ladonia Fossil Park and then transferred our stuff to Joe’s pickup truck. Joe drove us to a place he likes to hunt. We got out, put on our gear and walked down into the creek. Joe didn’t think the water was going to be too deep in the creek so I opted to wear just my boots rather than the waders. First step into the creek there was a rudist fragment that Joe pointed out. It was kind of big and we were going to be walking a long way. So, I opted to leave the rudist there. I walked maybe 30 feet and found a piece of turtle shell. Yay! My first piece of Texas turtle shell. I’ve found turtle shell elsewhere, but it was Miocene. The one on the right is the one I found. Joe found the other piece and let me have it. We walked on up the creek and Joe kept pointing out mosy verts here and there. I found one on my own the whole trip on the second leg of this creek hunt. He’d spot them from 30 feet away half covered. It was impressive how he could see them so far off mixed in with all the other rocks and gravel. Some were pretty little too. I think maybe 6 or 7 mosasaur vertebra were found total. Cathleen has always had higher fossil quality standards than I do so she turned all, but one of the vertebra down. She took the best one home. The water was pretty deep and cloudy so it limited finding fossils considerably. There were numerous places we came to where the water was fairly deep. Joe’s boots came almost to his knees, but mine were maybe 10 inches tall. So, we had to walk carefully as times to find where the water was more shallow so that I could cross or proceed up the creek. There were many places where there was no gravel in the creek and the bottom was the typical slick gray shale of the Ozan. We all had walking sticks, which helped considerably, especially with the mud. When you hit the mud sometimes you don’t know if it is safe or how far you will sink. Walking sticks served as a measuring stick for mud depth. Which reminds me that I need to put a mark on my walking stick for boot height and water depth. We came to a few places that we tried to walk through and sunk maybe 10 inches max, which isn’t too bad by NSR standards. Other places we avoided and went around. This is Joe and Cathleen in the creek. See the large blocks of stone in the creek. Well, I had been seeing stone like this in the river since I have been hunting it, but I had never known the source. Come to find out it was imported stone to help with erosion control. This is a piece of it up close. It is a sandstone type material. Now I know it isn't from the river. I have been wondering all this time where this formation was, because nothing in the description of the formations in the area say anything about this type of stone. So, it has been a complete mystery all this time to me. The mystery is now solved. We hiked on up the creek for a while without event or really finding much of anything. I was finding petrified wood left and right. The pieces in this feeder creek were, in general, larger than what I usually find in the river. Here is some of the pet wood I found. These are my favorite pieces. The first one actually looks like it has a stain on it. You can see the sharp peak pointing to the left. The second has lots of texture and contrast in color. The third is a nice deep, brick red that you can't tell from the pic. I could be mistaken about the last piece, but I think it may be a piece of palm root wood. As I walked along I came to a piece of what I initially thought was petrified wood, but as I looked at it I realized it was not petrified wood. I thought it looked like a fish tail, but I had never found fish fossils in the NSR area. Joe came over and he initially thought it was pet wood too, but then he turned it and said “Wait a minute, that is a piece of fish. “ Woohoo!!! I was quite excited and happy about that find. I think it was Anthony Maltese who told me he thought it was "probably a Pachyrhizodus or a Plethodid based on the segmentation of the fin rays (top left of the picture)". I think he may be @-AnThOnY- on here, but I could be wrong. We walked on and found a few more vertebra and then we came to a place where the water was too deep for Joe and I to cross. I do not mind getting wet, but when it is around 40 degrees I prefer to stay dry. At that point we had been walking for a little over 2 hours. We turned around and headed back. The walk back went a bit quicker. Maybe 1/3 of the way back we were walking in part of the creek we did not walk when going in. The shale was not flat on the creek bottom, but at an angle, slanting towards the center of the creek and deeper water. I stepped just wrong on it and down I went. As I was going down, I tried to ensure that I fell in more shallow water and that I didn’t flood my boots. Somehow I managed to be reasonably successful in my attempt. I landed in a sitting position in maybe an inch or so of water with my knees bent so very little water got in my boot. Still my back side and upper thighs got wet. I stood up and began to attempt to slide forward on the shale so as to not fall again. Cathleen was right in front of me. Before I made two steps she went down too. She was wearing full waders that came up to her torso, but she was not quite as lucky. Water got into her waders and when she stood up she could feel the icy water flow all the way down her back, then down into her boots. It was in the low 40s now so it had warmed a little, but it was not a pleasant feeling to be wet in 40 degree weather, but we toughed it out. It was when she stood that we realized that we had not walked this side of the creek on the way in. We immediately crossed the creek to get to less slippery ground. We made it back to our entry point. It was almost noon. Cathleen said she needed to drive back home for something planned with family. Joe drove us back to our cars. I emptied my pack, which was full of petrified wood mostly. Then Joe and I drove back out to the creek. I put on my waders at this point. We headed down stream to continue looking for mosasaur material. I found one little very beat up vert, but I also found several pieces of Pleistocene bone and a horse tooth. The horse tooth is likely modern, though there are not many horses in the NSR area so it could be Pleistocene. Weird thing about a lot of Pleistocene bones in Texas is that many of them are not fully mineralized and so they are fairly soft and light in color and appear modern. So it is hard to tell if something is modern or Pleistocene. Even the mammoth bones in Waco are not mineralized for the most part and so they are fairly fragile, white and look like modern bones in texture. Joe and I proceeded down the creek. I was walking on the bank on one side of the creek and he was walking in the water in the creek. I came to some deep mud and contemplated whether I should back track or attempt to make my way through it. Ahead of me the mud got much deeper. I decided I better make a 90 degree turn and cross over to the other side. I had my walking stick with me and tested the mud to make sure I would bottom out rather than keep sinking. The mud stopped and hit creek bottom at a little over 2 feet deep, up past my knees a ways. I figured I’d be OK. I went ahead and walked through it down into the water. It was tough pulling my legs out, but I managed OK until I was in the water. I was trying to balance on one foot and with my walking stick so I didn’t fall over into the water. I’d managed a few steps, but then I was having trouble pulling my foot out of one spot. Joe came over and took my hand to pull me out and hopefully keep me from falling down in the water as I pulled out of the mud. I made it out successfully with Joe’s help. If I had been alone I am not sure I would have taken the risk. Not with the water being so cold. It was icy cold. It wasn’t the worst mud I have encountered, but it was some serious mud. We moved along without event after that. I had told Joe I wanted at least one hour to hunt the red zone before I left the NSR. So after a bit we turned around and headed back. Joe is not a fan of the red zone. He says the preservation of mosasaur material there is not very good there. I have not found mosasaur material there, but it is true that a lot of red zone material has either pyrite or gypsum. Pyrite is the most common. If iron was present in the fossilization process, frequently the fossils develop pyrite disease when exposed to the air and they can disintegrate into dust. I am a fan of the red zone, because that is where some of the best ammonites come from. We made it out of the creek and Joe drove back to the fossil park. It was about 3:00. These are the finds from the creek. The long thin light one is a metapodial from something like a deer or the likes. I am not sure about the others. The horse incisor, from a young horse is at the bottom middle. These are the mosasaur verts and turtle bone that Joe pointed out. The horse tooth is there to prop the one vert up. I think I may have connected another piece to the NSR puzzle. See the white calcium layer on the vert on the far left? It is common to see this on fossils. I could be wrong, but I have come to believe that fossils with this white layer most likely come from the Roxton formation. My fish piece has the same stuff on it. I don't think I put my little worn vert in one of these. I will post is in my overall picture at the end. I will be back in a bit with the trip to the red zone. I want to thank Joe for being so kind as to take me hunting so I can learn from him. I hope we can go hunting again sometime so I can learn more. Joe is the mosy guy. I am the ammonite girl. So, it was helpful to hunt with him to broaden my knowledge.
  5. North Carolina Mosasaur Tooth

    I have decided to take a break from shells and delve into the vertebrate world for awhile. In going through several trips worth of North Carolina Cretaceous material, I came across this incomplete tooth which I believe is from a mosasaur. Reading through prior posts I know how difficult they are to identify but I am hoping that there are enough distinguishing characteristics to be able to identify by genus. The size of the tooth is 12 mm x 12 mm x 6 mm. I took pictures with my iphone so if the consensus is better quality pics are needed, I'll drag out the DSLR.
  6. I found this very small mosasaur bone (part of the paddle I assume), and it has a very small hole towards the top. This was found in the Cretaceous North Sulphur River of Ladonia, Texas. There have been a few discussions on other forums whether this is a natural or man-mad occurance. Has anyone else here ever found a mosasaur vertebrae or bone that has a near perfect hole in it? I’m very interested in how this occurred. Thank you for your input!
  7. Large Prognathodon Jaws

    Posting this a few days after driving four hours down to Tennessee and picking this bad boy up! It’s definitely the center piece of my collection thus far. Also want to say a quick thank you to all those who helped ensure the authenticity of this piece! Wasn’t about to pay all that money without being 110% sure! I did manage to come at the right time though, the shop offered a 20% post Christmas discount which helped a lot also, any opinions on the "bite mark"? I'd be more than happy to upload more photos if needed!
  8. NSR Mosasaur jawbone

    From the album North Sulfur River

    Mosasaur jawbone collected in the North Sulfur River in Ladonia, TX. Species unknown.
  9. Mosasaur jawbone

    From the album Fossil Collection

    Mosasaur jawbone collected from the North Sulfur River in Ladonia, TX. It has a root still in one of the sockets.
  10. Mosasaur teeth

    From the album Fossil Collection

  11. My finds from North Sulphur River near Ladonia on Saturday, December 22. The weather was great, the water was low and competition was moderate. Pleasant surprise finding an arrowhead. The little vert and the plate-like bone were both found near the Hwy 34 bridge.
  12. Mosasaur Teeth and Bones

    There are two rooted teeth with the larger one being 3.4” long and one smaller serrated tooth. Surrounding the teeth are various bones and jaw fragments (Mosasaur and other creatures), along with shells. The specimen is still covered in paste to secure the bones and teeth.
  13. 'Moose' the mosasaur

    I had the opportunity and good fortune to participate in the excavation and preparation of a mosasaur this past year. The specimen was discovered by a new friend, Allison, in a small unnamed stream adjacent to family property in east-central Mississippi (? Prairie Bluff Fm, Upper Cretaceous, Late Maastrichtian).Allison found the first bones in early May and contacted me for help in identifying the bones through a mutual friend. I'm far from an expert, but was able to ID the bones (a radius and vertebra) as mosasaur. She was really excited, since the bones were her first vertebrate fossils other than a few Pleistocene horse teeth from the same creek, and promised to continue searching. On her next trip, Allison exposed part of a mosasaur jaw and sent pics to me while still in the creek. Long story - short version -- We (Allison, my grandson, Logan and I) began serious excavation in early June 2018 and continued collecting (several trips) and preparation through November. Dr. Lynn Harell, Paleontologist with the Alabama Geological Survey viewed photos of the specimen as I prepped them and helped to ID individual bones and confirmed the genus as Mosasaurus. Dr. Takehito Ikejiri, Alabama Museum of Natural History, worked with me to compare "Moose' (named by Allison) to many specimens in the archives of the Museum. Both were extremely helpful to me as we tried to confirm the ID and agreed that it should be labeled as Mosasaurus sp. until further study. George Phillips of the Mississippi Museum of Natural Science identified associated invertebrate specimens in hopes of confirming the geology of the site (still unconfirmed). 'Moose' was donated to the Dunn-Seiler Museum at Mississippi State University in December 2018. It will be studied as part of a graduate students research. Following are a large number of photos documenting the site, excavation, prepration, and bones of 'Moose'. Thanks for looking.
  14. Tylosaurus Tooth

    From the album North Sulfur River

    Bottom view of the tooth (showing that it still could use some cleaning).
  15. Tylosaurus Tooth

    From the album North Sulfur River

    Lateral view showing enamel gloss (note finger reflection) and chipping along edge. The enamel also shows a strange orange coloration.
  16. NSR Tylosaurus tooth discovery

    From the album North Sulfur River

    T. Proriger tooth.
  17. Tylosaurus Proriger Tooth

    From the album North Sulfur River

    T. Proriger tooth. Enamel is almost entirely intact, with the exception of the tip which has been worn away by weathering, feeding, or a combination thereof.
  18. NSR Mosasaur Bones

    From the album North Sulfur River

    Unassociated mosasaur bones collected over 5-6 trips across 5 years. The two at the bottom are skull fragments, the rightmost being a small jaw section with one root. The leftmost likely is from the posterior portion of the skull.
  19. NSR Mosasaur Paddle Parts

    From the album North Sulfur River

    Unassociated mosasaur paddle parts. Arrangement not anatomically accurate.
  20. NSR Mosasaur Bones

    These are an assortment of mosasaur bones found in the north sulfur river in ladonia, tx. There are some paddle/flipper parts that are identifiable however most of them are "junk" bone. I've yet to find a vertebra.
  21. Tylosaur Tooth

    Hi yall, just posted to get to where I can create a photo album. This is hands down my favorite find. It's definitely a mosasaur, and likely belonged to Tylosaurus proriger. It was found in the North Sulfur River in Ladonia, TX. It is missing the root, has nearly complete enamel, and the tip is worn down possibly from feeding.
  22. Mosasaur jaw section

    Hi yall, just posting to get to where I can create a photo album. This is a section of mosasaur jawbone from the north sulfur river in ladonia, tx. It has one tooth. Species unknown.
  23. Hello all, I’m looking to purchase these Mosasaur jaws for a pretty steep price. From what I can tell from them, they look legitimate to me using what I have learned previously from here. But I just want some second opinions by people who have much more expertise than I. These pictures were taken by one of the shop employees, so I apologize for the lack of angles and close shots. Thank you all so much!
  24. Histology and osteology/Cretaceous

    LINDGR Lindgren, J., Uvdal, P., Engdahl, A., Lee, A. H., Alwmark, C., Bergquist, K-E., ... Jacobs, L. L. (2011). Microspectroscopic evidence of cretaceous bone proteins. PLoS ONE, 6(4), [e19445]. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019445
  25. Mosasaur Scales Exposed Under UV Light

    I'm working on a really excellent mosasaur skull right now! I also read a 2014 publication by Johan Lindgren , Michael Caldwell, Takuya Konishi , and Luis Chiappe. In Convergent Evolution in Aquatic Tetrapods: Insights from an Exceptional Fossil Mosasaur they reveal some of the amazing details preserved on the famous Bonner Platecarpus specimen at LACM (LACM 128319) seen here: Like the LACM specimen, my new skull seems to have the same sort of differential phosphatization / preservation (?) of the scale pattern. Here is a figure from the article: Here are a few pictures of the parietal on the skull I am working on now: I promise I will share more pictures as the prep of this specimen continues! Until then, Merry Christmas! -KS
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