Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'peru'.

More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
    Tags should be keywords or key phrases. e.g. carcharodon, pliocene, cypresshead formation, florida.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


  • Fossil Discussion
    • General Fossil Discussion
    • Fossil Hunting Trips
    • Fossil ID
    • Is It Real? How to Recognize Fossil Fabrications
    • Partners in Paleontology - Member Contributions to Science
    • Questions & Answers
    • Fossil of the Month
    • Member Collections
    • A Trip to the Museum
    • Paleo Re-creations
    • Collecting Gear
    • Fossil Preparation
    • Member Fossil Trades Bulletin Board
    • Member-to-Member Fossil Sales
    • Fossil News
  • Gallery
  • Fossil Sites
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Australia - New Zealand
    • Canada
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • South America
    • United States
  • Fossil Media
    • Members Websites
    • Fossils On The Web
    • Fossil Photography
    • Fossil Literature
    • Documents


  • Anson's Blog
  • Mudding Around
  • Nicholas' Blog
  • dinosaur50's Blog
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • Seldom's Blog
  • tracer's tidbits
  • Sacredsin's Blog
  • fossilfacetheprospector's Blog
  • jax world
  • echinoman's Blog
  • Ammonoidea
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • Adventures with a Paddle
  • Caveat emptor
  • -------
  • Fig Rocks' Blog
  • placoderms
  • mosasaurs
  • ozzyrules244's Blog
  • Sir Knightia's Blog
  • Terry Dactyll's Blog
  • shakinchevy2008's Blog
  • MaHa's Blog
  • Stratio's Blog
  • Phoenixflood's Blog
  • Brett Breakin' Rocks' Blog
  • Seattleguy's Blog
  • jkfoam's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Lindsey's Blog
  • marksfossils' Blog
  • ibanda89's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Back of Beyond
  • St. Johns River Shark Teeth/Florida
  • Ameenah's Blog
  • gordon's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • Pennsylvania Perspectives
  • michigantim's Blog
  • michigantim's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • GPeach129's Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • Olenellus' Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • maybe a nest fossil?
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • bear-dog's Blog
  • javidal's Blog
  • Digging America
  • John Sun's Blog
  • John Sun's Blog
  • Ravsiden's Blog
  • Jurassic park
  • The Hunt for Fossils
  • The Fury's Grand Blog
  • julie's ??
  • Hunt'n 'odonts!
  • falcondob's Blog
  • Monkeyfuss' Blog
  • cyndy's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • nola's Blog
  • mercyrcfans88's Blog
  • Emily's PRI Adventure
  • trilobite guy's Blog
  • xenacanthus' Blog
  • barnes' Blog
  • myfossiltrips.blogspot.com
  • HeritageFossils' Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Emily's MotE Adventure
  • farfarawy's Blog
  • Microfossil Mania!
  • A Novice Geologist
  • Southern Comfort
  • Eli's Blog
  • andreas' Blog
  • Recent Collecting Trips
  • The Crimson Creek
  • Stocksdale's Blog
  • andreas' Blog test
  • fossilman7's Blog
  • Hey Everyone :P
  • fossil maniac's Blog
  • Piranha Blog
  • xonenine's blog
  • xonenine's Blog
  • Fossil collecting and SAFETY
  • Detrius
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Kehbe's Kwips
  • RomanK's Blog
  • Prehistoric Planet Trilogy
  • mikeymig's Blog
  • Western NY Explorer's Blog
  • Regg Cato's Blog
  • VisionXray23's Blog
  • Carcharodontosaurus' Blog
  • What is the largest dragonfly fossil? What are the top contenders?
  • Hihimanu Hale
  • Test Blog
  • jsnrice's blog
  • Lise MacFadden's Poetry Blog
  • BluffCountryFossils Adventure Blog
  • meadow's Blog
  • Makeing The Unlikley Happen
  • KansasFossilHunter's Blog
  • DarrenElliot's Blog
  • jesus' Blog
  • A Mesozoic Mosaic
  • Dinosaur comic
  • Zookeeperfossils
  • Cameronballislife31's Blog
  • My Blog
  • TomKoss' Blog
  • A guide to calcanea and astragali
  • Group Blog Test
  • Paleo Rantings of a Blockhead
  • Dead Dino is Art
  • The Amber Blog
  • TyrannosaurusRex's Facts
  • PaleoWilliam's Blog
  • The Paleo-Tourist
  • The Community Post
  • Lyndon D Agate Johnson's Blog
  • BRobinson7's Blog
  • Eastern NC Trip Reports
  • Toofuntahh's Blog
  • Pterodactyl's Blog
  • A Beginner's Foray into Fossiling
  • Micropaleontology blog
  • Pondering on Dinosaurs
  • Fossil Preparation Blog
  • On Dinosaurs and Media
  • cheney416's fossil story
  • jpc
  • Red-Headed Red-Neck Rock-Hound w/ My Trusty HellHound Cerberus
  • Red Headed


  • Calendar


  • Annelids
  • Arthropods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
    • Trilobites
    • Other Arthropods
  • Brachiopods
  • Cnidarians (Corals, Jellyfish, Conulariids )
    • Corals
    • Jellyfish, Conulariids, etc.
  • Echinoderms
    • Crinoids & Blastoids
    • Echinoids
    • Other Echinoderms
    • Starfish and Brittlestars
  • Forams
  • Graptolites
  • Molluscs
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods (Ammonites, Belemnites, Nautiloids)
    • Gastropods
    • Other Molluscs
  • Sponges
  • Bryozoans
  • Other Invertebrates
  • Ichnofossils
  • Plants
  • Chordata
    • Amphibians & Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Dinosaurs
    • Bony Fishes
    • Mammals
    • Sharks & Rays
    • Other Chordates
  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 10 results

  1. Hello everyone, I'd like to share my extreme budget collection of exotic megs/shark teeth so far, I've have been collecting shark teeth and other for a little over a year and a half now on an extremely tight budget and have been surprised by what I was able to get a hold of so far. Condition doesn't bother me hence the budget but I have been able to find some megs from from interesting locations over the short period of time I've been collecting with a little bit of luck. Locations include Puerto Rico, Cuba, Japan, Hawaii, Morocco, Mexico, Peru, and The Phillipines. I estimate I spent no more than $430 in total for this small collection. Anyone else out there with extreme budget rare finds especially shark teeth (or from generally exotic locations), feel free to share and I'd love to see! In order of pictures: 1) Two megs and a hemi from Isabella, Puerto Rico 2) meg from Hawaii (Restored) 3) great white from Japan 4) meg from Morocco 5) meg from Cuba (unfortunately stuck on a wood plate but still a lovely display piece) 6) meg from the Phillipines 7) cubutensis from Peru 8) 2 Makos from Mexico 9 & 10) Heavily and horribly restored 5.9 inch Chilean meg (funny story with this one had an even worse restoration on it with made it look no different from a replica, was suspicious and bought it and when attempting a horrible derestoration process and a few slight touch ups of my own a large chilean meg was hiding under the mess, still needs a tad bit of work but I still love I was able to snag a large one cheap in this day and age ) @WhodamanHD Here we go uploaded !
  2. Fossil fern in the High Andes of Peru

    Hi! French naturalist & ethnobiologist, I discovered this fossil fern in the 1990's when surveying the puna investigating Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) and collecting actual Lepidium sp. (Brassicaceae) at the altitude of 4250 m, some km eastwards of Lake Junin, in the High Andes of Peru. The specimen was broken into two pieces, on the ground of the puna, some meters from each other. Lenght: 11 cm. Wide: 7 cm. As I am not paleobiologist unfortunately, please would you help me to identify it ? Carboniferous/Early Carboniferous ? Adiantites (lindseaeformis?) ? Esphenopteris ? I have found other fossils (there are a lot in this calcareous region, you can see on the 2nd picture ) and I shall post them next time. Many thanks in advance. All the best. Pierre-Olivier Combelles Institut Andin d'Etudes Ethnobiologiques (France)
  3. Coral fossil of the High Andes of Peru

    Hi! In the same (calcareous) region of Lake Junin (or Lake Chinchaycocha, in quechua), in the High Central Andes of Peru, where I was investigating Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) I found in tne 1990's this nice coral fossil specimen at the altitude of 4200/4300m. Measure below in cm. What do you think about it ? Thank you in advance ! Warmfully Pierre-Olivier Combelles Institut Andin d'Etudes Ehnobiologiques (France)
  4. Ammonites in the High Andes of Peru

    During the same years (1997-2000) and in the same region of the High Andes of Peru, I discovered the fossil fern and the fossil coral presented in my two other topics: http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/72054-fossil-fern-in-the-high-andes-of-peru/#comment-758432 http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/72061-coral-fossil-of-the-high-andes-of-peru/#comment-758464 , I took this picture (slide poorly scanned, sorry) of ammonites in the stone wall of San Pedro de Parish, an old little abandonned church of the beginning of the Hispanic Colony, on the shore of Lake Junin (or Chinchaycocha, en quechua), altitude 4125m. What do you think about it, especially in relation with the branching coral ? Thanks
  5. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 29, 2017. Central and South American Faunas (by country) General Central/South America/Caribbean Arratia, G. and A. Cione (1996). The Record of Fossil Fishes of Southern South America. In: Contributions of Southern South America to Vertebrate Paleontology. Arratia, G. (ed.), Munchner Geowiss.Abh., (A) 30. Eva, A.N. (1980). Pre-Miocene Seagrass Communities in the Caribbean. Palaeontology, Vol.23, Part 1. Kirby, M.X. and B. MacFadden (2005). Was southern Central America an archipelago or a peninsula in the middle Miocene? A test using land-mammal body size. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 228. Latrubesse, E.M., et al. (2010). The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system. Earth-Science Reviews, 99. Latrubesse, E.M., et al. (1997). Paleoenvironmental Model for the Late Cenozoic of Southwestern Amazonia: Paleontology and Geology. Acta Amazonica, 27(2). Lucas, S.G. (2014). Vertebrate Paleontology in Central America: 30 Years of Progress. Revista Geologica de America Central. Special Number 2014,30. Marshall, L.G., T. Sempere and R.F. Butler (1997). Chronostratigraphy of the Mammal-Bearing Paleocene of South America. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol.10, Number 1. Woodburne, M.O., A.L. Cione and E.P. Tonni (2006). Central American Provincialism and the Great American Biotic Interchange. In: Advances in late Tertiary vertebrate paleontology in Mexico and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Carranza-Castaneda, O. and E.H. Lindsey (eds.), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geologia and Centro de Geosciencias, Special Publication 4. Woods, C.A. (1980). Collecting Fossil Mammals in the Greater Antilles: An Immense Journey. The Plaster Jacket, Number 34. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing this one out!) Argentina Arcucci, A., et al. (2015). Biotic assemblages from Early Cretaceous lacustrine systems in the San Luis Basin, mid-western Argentina. Boletin Geologico y Minero, 126(1). Cerdeno, E. and B. Vera (2007). Research on Cenozoic Mammals in Mendoza Province, Argentina. In: 4th European Meeting on the Paleontology and Stratigraphy of Latin America. Diaz-Martinez, E. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, Number 8. Cockerell, T.D.A. (1936). The Fauna of the Sunchal (Or Margas Verdes) Formation, Northern Argentina. American Museum Novitates, Number 886. Egerton, V.M. (2011). The Geology, Paleontology and Paleoecology of the Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Patagonia (Argentina). Ph.D. Thesis - Drexel University. Fernicola, J.C., et al. (2014). Fossil localities of the Santa Cruz Formation (Early Miocene, Patagonia, Argentina) prospected by Carlos Ameghino in 1887 revisited and the location of the Notohippidian. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 52. F*cks, E., M. Aquirre and C.M. Deschamps (2005). Late Quaternary continental and marine sediments of northeastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina): Fossil content and paleoenvironmental interpretation. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 20. Gallego, O.F., et al. (2011). Paleontology, sedimentology and paleoenvironment of a new fossiliferous locality of the Jurassic Canadon Asfalto Formation, Chubut Province, Argentina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 31. Guido, D.M., et al. (2010). Jurassic geothermal landscapes and fossil ecosystems at San Agustin, Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol.67. Kay, R.F., et al. (2008). Two new fossil vertebrate localities in the Santa Cruz Formation (late early - early middle Miocene, Argentina), ~51o South latitude. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25. MacFadden, B.J., T.E. Cerling and J. Prado (1996). Cenozoic Terrestrial Ecosystem Evolution in Argentina: Evidence from Carbon Isotopes of Fossil Mammal Teeth. Palaios, Vol.11. Mancuso, A.C., et al. (2014). The Chañares Formation: a window to a Middle Triassic tetrapod community. Lethaia, Vol.47. Martinelli, A.G. and A.M. Forasiepi (2004). Late Cretaceous vertebrates from bajo de Santa Rosa (Allen Formation), Rio ###### province, Argentina, with the description of a new sauropod dinosaur (Titanosauridae). Rev.Mus. Argentino Cienc.Nat.,n.s., 6(2). Martinelli, A.G., et al. (2007). Notes on fossil remains from the Early Cretaceous Lohan Cura Formation, Neuquen Province, Argentina. Gondwana Research, 11. Panti, C., S.A. Marenssi and E.B. Olivero (2008). Paleogene flora of the Sloggett Formation, Tierra de Fuego, Argentina. Ameghiniana, 45(4). Prevosti, F.J. and S.F. Vizcaino (2006). Paleoecology of the large carnivore guild from the late Pleistocene of Argentina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(3). Scanferla, A., et al. (2011). A vertebrate assemblage of Las Curtiembres Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of northwestern Argentina. Rev.Mus. Argentino Cienc.Nat., n.s., 13(2). Sempere, T., et al. (1997). Stratigraphy and chronology of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleogene strata in Bolivia and northwest Argentina. GSA Bulletin, Vol.109, Number 6. Tejedor, M.F., et al. (2009). New Early Eocene Mammalian Fauna from Western Patagonia, Argentina. American Museum Novitates, Number 3638. Bahamas Curran, A.H. and B. White (1984). Field Guide to the Cockburn Town Fossil Coral Reef, San Salvador, Bahamas. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on the Geology of the Bahamas. CCFL Bahamian Field Station. Hearty, P.J. and P. Kindler (1993). New Perspectives on Bahamian Geology: San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Journal of Coastal Research, 9(2). Olson, S.L. (ed.)(1982). Fossil Vertebrates from the Bahamas. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 48. Olson, S.L., G.K. Pregill and W.B. Hilgartner (1990). Studies on Fossil and Extant Vertebrates from San Salvador (Watling's) Island, Bahamas. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 508. Steadman, D.W., et al. (2015). Vertebrate community on an ice-age Caribbean island. PNAS, published on-line. Belize Pope, K.O., et al. (1999). Chicxulub impact ejecta from Albion Island, Belize. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 170. Bermuda Hearty, P.J. (2002). Revision of the late Pleistocene stratigraphy of Bermuda. Sedimentary Geology, 153. Hearty, P.J. and H.L. Vacher (1994). Quaternary Stratigraphy of Bermuda: A High Resolution Pre-Sangamonian Rock Record. Quaternary Science Reviews, 13. Hearty, P.J., et al. (2004). Stratigraphy and geochronology of pitfall accumulations in caves and fissures, Bermuda. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23. Olson, S.L., et al. (2005). 20. Prodromus of Vertebrate Paleontology and Geochronology of Bermuda. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium "Insular Vertebrate Evolution: the Paleontological Approach". Alcover, J.A. and P. Bover (eds.), Monografies de la Societat d'Historia Natural de les Balears, 12. Bolivia Anaya, F. and B.J. MacFadden (1995). Pliocene Mammals from Inchasi, Bolivia: The Endemic Fauna Just Before the Great American Interchange. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.39, Number 3. Badyrka, K., M.E. Clapham and S. Lopez (2013). Paleoecology of brachiopod communities during the late Paleozoic ice age in Bolivia (Copacabana Formation, Pennsylvanian-Early Permian). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 387. Blieck, A., et al. (1996). New Devonian fossil localities in Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol.9, Numbers 5/6. Coltori, M., et al. (2007). Last Glacial mammals in South America: a new scenario from the Tarija Basin (Bolivia). Naturwissenschaften, 94. Croft, D.A., et al. (2009). New Data on Miocene Neotropical Provinciality from Cerdas, Bolivia. J.Mammal.Evol., published on-line. de Muizon, C., et al. (1983). Late Cretaceous Vertebrates, Including Mammals, from Tiupampa, Southcentral Bolivia. Geobios, Number 16. Gagnier, P.Y., et al. (1996). New paleontological and geological data on the Ordovician and Silurian of Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol.9, Numbers 5/6. Gayet, M., L.G. Marshall and T. Sempere (1991). The Mesozoic and Paleocene Vertebrates of Bolivia and Their Stratigraphic Context: A Review. In: Fosiles y Facies de Bolivia - Vol.1 Vertebratos. Suarez-Soruco, R. (ed.), Revista Tecnica de YPFB, 12(3-4). Gayet, M., et al. (2001). Middle Maastrichtian vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, dinosaurs and other reptiles, mammals) from Pajcha Pata (Bolivia). Biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiogeographic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 169. Janvier, P. and M. Suarez-Riglos (1986). The Silurian and Devonian Vertebrates of Bolivia. Bull.Inst.Fr. Et And., XV, Numbers 3-4. MacFadden, B.J. (1981). Collecting Fossil Mammals in Bolivia: The Southern Connection. The Plaster Jacket, Number 38. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing this one out!) MacFadden, B.J. and B.J. Shockey (1997). Ancient feeding ecology and niche differentiation of Pleistocene mammalian herbivores from Tarija, Bolivia: morphological and isotopic evidence. Paleobiology, 23(1). MacFadden, B.J., et al. (1994). South American fossil mammals and carbon isotopes: a 25 million-year sequence from the Bolivian Andes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 107. MacFadden, B.J., et al. (1985). Magnetic Polarity Stratigraphy and Mammalian Fauna of the Deseadan (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene) Salla Beds of Northern Bolivia. The Journal of Geology, Vol.93, Number 3. Marshall, L.G. and T. Sempere (1991). The Eocene to Pleistocene Vertebrates of Bolivia and Their Stratigraphic Context: A Review. In: Fosiles Y Facies De Bolivia - Vol.I Vertebrados. Suarez-Soruco, R. (ed.), Revista Tecnica de YPFB, 12(3-4). Merino-Rodo, D. and P. Janvier (1986). Chondrichthyan and Actinopterygian Remains from the Lower Permian Copacabana Formation of Bolivia. Geobios, Number 19. Racheboeuf, P.R., et al. (2012). New data on the Silurian-Devonian paleontology and biostratigraphy of Bolivia. Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(2). Schaeffer, B. (1963). Cretaceous Fishes from Bolivia, with Comments on Pristid Evolution. American Museum Novitates, Number 2159. Sempere, T., et al. (1997). Stratigraphy and chronology of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleogene strata in Bolivia and northwest Argentina. GSA Bulletin, Vol.109, Number 6. Shockey, B.J. and F. Anaya (2008). 7. Postcranial Osteology of Mammals from Salla, Bolivia (Late Oligocene): Form, Function, and Phylogenetic Implications. In: Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology: A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay. Sargis, E.J. and M. Dagosto (eds.), Springer Science + Business Media B.V. Tonni, E.P., et al. (2009). Preliminar correlation of the Pleistocene sequences of the Tarija valley (Bolivia) with the Pampean chronological standard. Quaternary International, 210. Troth, I., et al. (2010). Devonian sea-level change in Bolivia: A high palaeolatitude biostratigraphical calibration of the global sea-level curve. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, in press. Vergel, M.M., G.F. Acenolaza and L. Araoz (2013). Palynology of the Iscayachi Formation (Cambro-Ordovician) from the Cordillera Oriental of Southern Bolivia: New data from the western margin of Gondwana. Geologica Acta, Vol.11, Number 2. Brazil Alves, Y.M. (2010). Report on the Upper Permian and Lower Cretaceous fossiliferous localities vertebrates-bearing in the central-north of Tocantins State, Brazil. Brazilian Geographical Journal: Geosciences and Humanities medium, Uberlandia, Vol.1, Number 2. Bergqvist, L.P., et al. (2008). Itaborai Basin, State of Rio de Janeiro. The cradle of mammals in Brazil. SIGEP 123. Bosetti, E.P., et al. (2012). The first recorded decline of the Malvinokaffric Devonian fauna in the Parana Basin (southern Brazil) and its cause; taphonomic and fossil evidences. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 37. (Author's personal copy) Candeiro, C.R.A. (2009). Vertebrates of the Marilia Formation (Late Maastrichtian) from the Peiropolis Paleontological Site: Toward a Better Understanding. Earth Sci.Res.J., Vol.13, Number 1. Candeiro, C.R.A., et al. (2011). Continental fossil vertebrates from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Alcantara Formation, Brazil, and their relationship with contemporaneous faunas from North Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 60. Candeiro, C.R.A., et al. (2006). Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: a reappraisal. Cretaceous Research, 27. Castro, M.C. and M.C. Langer (2011). The Mammalian Fauna of Abismo Iguatemi, Southeastern Brazil. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, Vol.73, Number 2. Chahud, A. and S. Petri (2015). The Tatui Formation (Early Permian, Parana Basin), Brazil: Paleontology and Paleoenvironmental Considerations. Earth Sciences Research Journal, Vol.19, Number 2. Cox, C.B. and P. Hutchinson (1991). Fishes and Amphibians from the Late Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation of Northern Brazil. Palaeontology, Vol.34, Part 3. Dias-Da-Silva, S. and A.A.S. Da-Rosa (2011). Granja Palmeiras, A New Fossiliferous Site for the Lower Triassic of Southern Brazil. Rev.bras.paleontol., 14(2). Garcia, A.J.V., A.A.S. da Rosa and K. Goldberg (2005). Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic control on early diagenetic processes and fossil record in Cretaceous continental sandstones of Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 19. Heimhofer, U., et al. (2010). Deciphering the depositional environment of the laminated Crato fossil beds (Early Cretaceous, Araripe Basin, North-eastern Brazil). Sedimentology, 57. Holz, M. and C.L. Schultz (1998). Taphonomy of the south Brazilian Triassic herpetofauna: fossilization mode and implications for morphological studies. Lethaia, Vol.31. Kellner, A.W.A. and D. de Almeida Campos (1999). Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil - a review. Episodes, Vol.22, Number 3. Kerber, L., et al. (2014). Late Pleistocene vertebrates from Touro Passo Creek (Touro Passo Formation), southern Brazil: a review. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, Vol.31, Number 2. Langer, M.C. (2005). Studies on continental Late Triassic tetrapod biochronology. I. The type locality of Saturnalia tupiniquim and the faunal succession in south Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 19. Langer, M.C., et al. (2007). The Continental Tetrapod-Bearing Triassic of South Brazil. In: The Global Triassic. Lucas, S.G. and J.A. Spielmann (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 41. Lindoso, R.M., J.G. Maisey and I. de Souza Carvalho (2016). Ichthyofauna from the Codo Formation, Lower Cretaceous (Aptian, Parnaiba Basin), Northeastern Brazil and their paleobiogeographical and paleoecological significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 447. Lucas, S.G. Age and Correlation of Triassic Tetrapod Assemblages from Brazil. Albertiana, 26. Maisey, J.G. and J.H.G. Melo (2005). Some Middle Devonian (Eifelian-Givetian) Fossil Fish Remains from the Pimenteira Formation of the Parnaiba Basin, Northeast Brazil. Arquivos do Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Vol.63, Number 3. Malabarba, M.C., et al. (2003). New Data on the Late Permian Vertebrate Fauna of Posto Queimado, Rio Dos Rasto Formation, Southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 6. Martill, D.M. (2007). The age of the Cretaceous Santana Formation fossil Konservat Lagerstätte of north-east Brazil: a historical review and an appraisal of the biochronostratigraphic utility of its palaeobiota. Cretaceous Research, xx. (Article in press) Martill, D.M. (1988). Preservation of Fish in the Cretaceous Santana Formation of Brazil. Palaeontology, Vol.31, Part 1. Martill, D.M., et al. (2012). A wildfire origin for terrestrial organic debris in the Cretaceous Santana Formation Fossil Lagerstätte (Araripe Basin) of north-east Brazil. Cretaceous Research, 34. Maury, C.J. (1934). Fossil Invertebrata from Northeastern Brazil. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LXVII, Article IV. (18.4MB download) Naish, D., D.M. Martill and E. Frey (2004). Ecology, Systematics and Biogeographical Relationships of Dinosaurs, Including a New Theropod, from the Santana Formation (?Albian, Early Cretaceous) of Brazil. Historical Biology, 2004. Perini, F.A., et al. (2009). Carnivores (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the Quaternary of Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Arquivos do Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Vol.27, Numbers 1-2. Reichel, M., C.L. Schultz and V.P. Pereira (2005). Diagenetic Patterns of Vertebrate Fossils from the Traversodontidae Biozone, Santa Maria Formation (Triassic), Southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 8(3). Chile Croft, D.A., J.J. Flynn and A.R. Wyss (2008). The Tinguiririca Fauna of Chile and the Early Stages of "Modernization" of South American Mammal Faunas. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Vol.66, Number 1. Finger, K.L., et al. (2007). Paleontologic Evidence for Sedimentary Displacement in Neogene Forearc Basins of Central Chile. Palaios, Vol.22. Flynn, J.J., et al. Chronologic implications of new Miocene mammals from the Cura-Mallin and Trapa Trapa Formations, Laguna del Laja area, south central Chile. Gutierrez, N.M., et al. (2013). Evidence for an Early-Middle Miocene age of the Navidad Formation (central Chile): Paleontological, paleoclimatic and tectonic implications. Andean Geology, 40(1). Isaacson, P.E., L.L. Fisher and J. Davidson (1985). Devonian and Carboniferous Stratigraphy of Sierra De Almeida, Northern Chile, Preliminary Results. Revista Geologica de Chile, Numbers 25-26. Long, D.J. (1993). Late Miocene and Early Pliocene fish assemblages from the north central coast of Chile. Tertiary Research, 14(3). Nielsen, S.N. (2005). The Triassic Santa Juana Formation at the lower Biobio River, south central Chile. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 19. Otero, R.A., et al. (2012). A Late Eocene age proposal for the Loreto Formation (Brunswick Peninsula, southernmost Chile), based on fossil cartilaginous fishes, paleobotany and radiometric evidence. Andean Geology, 39(1). Otero, R.A., et al. (2012). Marine reptiles from Late Cretaceous (early Maastrichtian) deposits in Algarrobo, central Chile. Cretaceous Research, 35. Pino, M., et al. (2012). The late Pleistocene Pilauco site, Osorno, south-central Chile. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press) Pyenson, N.D., et al. (2014). Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea. Proc.R.Soc. B, 281. Ragaini, L., C. di Celma and G. Cantalamessa (2007). First Record of a Warm-Water Pliocene Shell Bed from Northern Chile. In: 4th European Meeting on the Palaeontology and Stratigraphy of Latin America. Díaz-Martínez, E. and I. Rábano (eds.), Cuadernos de Museo Geominero, Number 8. Walsh, S.A. and J.P. Hume (2001). A New Neogene Marine Avian Assemblage from North-Central Chile. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21(3). Wyss, A.R., et al. (1994). Paleogene Mammals from the Andes of Central Chile: A Preliminary Taxonomic, Biostratigraphic and Geochronologic Assessment. American Museum Novitates, Number 3098. Yabe, A., K. Uemura and H. Nishida (2006). Geological Notes on Plant Fossil Localities of the Ligorio Marquez Formation, Central Patagonia, Chile. In: Post-Cretaceous Floristic Changes in Southern Patagonia, Chile. Nishida, H. (ed.), Chuo Univ., Tokyo. Colombia Hoedemaeker, P.J. (2004). On the Barremian-Lower Albian Stratigraphy of Colombia. Scripta Geologica, 128. Janvier, P. and C. Villarroel (2000). Devonian Vertebrates from Colombia. Palaeontology, Vol.43, Part 4. Kay, R.F. and R.H. Madden (1997). Mammals and rainfall: paleoecology of the middle Miocene at La Venta (Colombia, South America). Journal of Human Evolution, 32. Moreno, F., et al. (2015). Revised stratigraphy of Neogene strata in the Cocinetas Basin, La Guajira, Colombia. Swiss J.Palaeontol., published on-line. Pilsbry, H.A. and A.P. Brown (1917). Oligocene Fossils from the Neighborhood of Cartagena, Colombia, With Notes on Some Haitian Species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol.69, Number 1. Wesselingh, F.P. (2006). Molluscs from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Colombian Amazonia. Scripta Geologica, 133. (272 pages) Costa Rica Jaccard, S., et al. (2001). Barra Honda (Upper Paleocene-Lower Eocene) and El Viejo (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Carbonate Platforms in the Tempisque Area (Guanacaste, Costa Rica). Revista Geologica de America Central, 24. Lucas, S.G., G.E. Alvarado and E. Vega (1997). The Pleistocene Mammals of Costa Rica. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 17(2). Olsson, A.A. (1922). The Miocene of Northern Costa Rica. Bulletins of American Paleontology, Bulletin 39. Todd, J.A. and J.S.H. Collins (2005). Neogene and Quaternary crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda) collected from Costa Rica and Panama by members of the Panama Paleontology Project. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, Number 32. Cuba Allen, G.M. (1918). Fossil Mammals from Cuba. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Vol.LXII, Number 4. Anthony, H.E. (1917). Mammals Collected in Eastern Cuba in 1917. With Descriptions of Two New Species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XXXVII, Article XX. Bronnimann, P. (1955). Microfossils incertae sedis from the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of Cuba. Micropaleontology, Vol.1, Number 1. de Albear, J.F. (1947). Stratigraphic Paleontology of Camaguey District, Cuba. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol.31, Number 1. Gregory, W.K. (1923). A Jurassic Fish Fauna from Western Cuba, With an Arrangement of the Families of Holostean Ganoid Fishes. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XLVIII, Article VIII. Iturralde-Vinent, M. and Y.C. Izquierdo (2015). Catalog of Late Jurassic Vertebrate (Pisces, Reptilian) Specimens from Western Cuba. Paleontologia Mexicana, 3(65). Iturralde-Vinent, M. and M.A. Norell (1996). Synopsis of Late Jurassic Marine Reptiles from Cuba. American Museum Novitates, Number 3164. Iturralde-Vinent, M., et al. (2000). Las Breas de San Felipe, a Quaternary Fossiliferous Asphalt Seep near Marti (Matanzas Province, Cuba). Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.36, Numbers 3-4. Iturralde-Vinent, M., et al. (1999). A Small "Rancho La Brea" Site Discovered in Cuba. The Journal of the Geological Society of Jamaica, Vol.33. MacPhee, R.D.E. and M.A. Iturralde-Vinent (1995). Origin of the Greater Antillean Land Mammal Fauna, 1: New Tertiary Fossils from Cuba and Puerto Rico. American Museum Novitates, Number 3141. MacPhee, R.D.E., M. Iturralde-Vinent and E.S. Gaffney (2003). Domo de Zaza, an Early Miocene Vertebrate Locality in South-Central Cuba, with Notes on the Tectonic Evolution of Puerto Rico and the Mona Passage. American Museum Novitates, Number 3394. Molina, E., et al. (2016). Integrated biostratigraphy across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary at Noroña, Cuba, and the question of the extinction of orthophragminids. Newsletters in Stratigraphy, Vol.49/1. Palmer, R.H. (1945). Outline of the Geology of Cuba. The Journal of Geology, Vol.LIII, Number 1. El Salvador Cisneros, J.C. (2005). New Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna from El Salvador. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 8(3). Ecuador Cantalamessa, G., et al. (2001). A new vertebrate fossiliferous site from the Late Quaternary of San Jose on the north coast of Ecuador: preliminary note. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 14. Jaillard, E., et al. (1996). Stratigraphy of the Western <<Celica Basin>> (SW Ecuador). Third ISAG, St. Malo (France). French Guiana Guatemala Mead, J.I., et al. (2012). Late Pleistocene mammals from Chivacabé, Huehuetenango, Guatemala. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, Vol.29, Number 2. Guyana Honduras Gordon, M. and K. Young (1993). Bathonian and Valanginian Fossils from Honduras. Geobios, M.S., Number 15. Jackson, D.R. and E. Fernandez (2005). A Small Pleistocene Mammalian Megafauna from Southern Honduras. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.45, Number 4. Mexico Alvarado-Ortega, J., E. Ovalles-Damián and A. Blanco-Piñon (2009). The Fossil Fishes from the Sierra Madre Formation, Ocozocoautla, Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.12, Issue 2. Bravo-Cuevas, V.M., et al. (2009). Advances on Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Muhi Quarry from the Mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) of Hidalgo, Central Mexico. Boletin de la Sociedad Geologica Mexicana, Vol.61, Number 2. Carranza-Castaneda, O. (2006). Late Tertiary fossil localities in central Mexico, between 19o-23o N. In: Advances in Late Tertiary vertebrate paleontology in Mexico and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Carranza-Castaneda, O. and E.H. Lindsay (eds.), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geologia and Centro de Geosiensias, Special Publication 4. Carranza-Castaneda, O. and W.E. Miller (2004). Late Tertiary Terrestrial Mammals from Central Mexico and Their Relationship to South American Immigrants. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 7(2). Castaneda, O.C. and W.E. Miller (2004). Late Tertiary Terrestrial Mammals from Central Mexico and Their Relationship to South American Immigrants. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 7(2). Cordoba, D.A. Mesozoic Stratigraphy of Northeastern Chihuahua, Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society - Twentieth Field Conference. Croxen, F.W., C.A. Shaw and D.R. Sussman. Pleistocene Geology and Paleontology of the Colorado River Delta at Golfo de Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico. Emerson, W.K. (1960). Pleistocene Invertebrates from near Punta San Jose, Baja California, Mexico. American Museum Novitates, Number 2002. Emerson, W.K. and L.G. Hertlein (1960). Pliocene and Pleistocene Invertebrates from Punta Rosalia, Baja California, Mexico. American Museum Novitates, Number 2004. Emerson, W.K. and W.O. Addicott (1958). Pleistocene Invertebrates from Punta Baja, Baja California, Mexico. American Museum Novitates, Number 1909. Fastovsky, D.E., et al. (1995). Depositional Environments of a Middle Jurassic Terrestrial Vertebrate Assemblage, Huizachal Canyon, Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 15(3). Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I. (2003). Chapter 13. Mexico's Middle Miocene Mammalian Assemblages: An Overview. In: Vertebrate fossils and their context: contributions in honor of Richard H. Tedford, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 279. Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I. (1969). Rancho Gaitan Local Fauna, Early Chadronian, Northeastern Chihuahua. Bol. Soc. Geol. Mexicana, Vol.XXX, Number 2. Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I., et al. (2010). Pleistocene mammals of Mexico: A critical review of regional chronofaunas, climate change response and biogeographic provinciality. Quaternary International, 217. Gastil, R.G., et al. (1999). Geology and Paleontology of Southwestern Isla Tiburon, Sonora, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.16, Number 1. Gonzalez-Arreola, C., A.B. Villasenor-Martinez, and R. Corona-Esquivel (1994). Permian Fauna of the Los Arcos Formation, Municipality of Olinala, State of Guerrero, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.11, Number 2. González-Rodríguez, K.A., L. Espinosa-Arrubarrena and G. González-Barba (2013). A overview of the Mexican fossil fish record. In: Mesozoic Fishes 5 - Global Diversity and Evolution. Arratia, G., H.-P. Schultze and M.V.H. Wilson (eds.), Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich. Heilprin, A. (1890). The Geology and Paleontology of the Cretaceous Deposits of Mexico. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol.42. Hernandez-Romano, U., N. Aguilera-Franco, and B.E. Buitron (1998). Late Cenomanian Fossil Association from Morelos, Mexico - Stratigraphic Implications. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.15, Number 1. Hertlein, L.G. and W.K. Emerson (1959). Results of the Puritan-American Museum of Natural History Expedition to Western Mexico. 5. Pliocene and Pleistocene Megafossils from the Tres Marias Islands. American Museum Novitates, Number 1940. Hibbard, C.W. (1955). Pleistocene Vertebrates from the Upper Becerra (Beccera Superior) Formation, Valley of Tequixquiac, Mexico, With Notes on Other Pleistocene Forms. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Vol.XII, Number 5. Ifrim, C. (2006). The Fossil Lagerstätte at Vallecillo, North-Eastern Mexico: Pelagic Plattenkalks Related to Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Anoxia. Ph.D. Dissertation - Universität Fridericiana Karlsruhe (TH). (163 pages) Kashiyama, Y., et al. (2004). Genesis of a locality of exceptional fossil preservation: paleoenvironments of Tepexi de Rodriguez (mid-Cretaceous, Puebla, Mexico). Cretaceous Research, 25. Kellum, L.B. (1956). Cretaceous Invertebrates of the Aurora Limestone. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Vol. XLI. Kowalewski, M.J. (1995). Quantitative Taphonomy, Ecology and Paleoecology of Shelly Invertebrates from the Intertidal Environments of the Colorado River Delta, Northeastern Baja California, Mexico. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Arizona. McMenamin, M.A.S. (1996). Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. USA, Vol.93. Mead, J.I., et al. (2006). Tropical Marsh and Savanna of the Late Pleistocene in Northeastern Sonora, Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist, 51(2). Miller, W.E. and O. Carranza-Castaneda (1998). Importance of Late Tertiary Carnivores and Equids from the TransMexican Volcanic Belt.Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.15, Number 2. Montellano-Ballesteros, M. (1997). New Vertebrate Locality of Late Hemphillian Age in Teocaltiche, Jalisco, Mexico.Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.14, Number 1. Novacek, M.J., et al. (1991). Wasatchian (Early Eocene) Mammals and Other Vertebrates from Baja California, Mexico: The Loma Las Tetas de Cabra Fauna. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 208. Reynoso, V.-H. (2006). Chapter 10. Research on Fossil amphibians and reptiles in Mexico, from 1869 to early 2004 (including marine forms but excluding pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and obviously, birds). In: Studies on Mexican Paleontology. Vega, F., et al. (eds.), Springer, Netherlands. Rivera-Silva, H.E., et al. (2009). Preliminary Report on a Late Cretaceous Vertebrate Fossil Assemblage in Northwestern Coahuila, Mexico. Boletin de la Sociedad Geologica Mexicana, Vol.61, Number 2. Scott, R.W. and C. Gonzalez-Leon (1991). Paleontology and biostratigraphy of Cretaceous rocks, Lampazos area, Sonora, Mexico. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 254. Sour-Tovar, F., J.W. Hagadorn and T. Huitron-Rubio (2007). Ediacaran and Cambrian Index Fossils from Sonora, Mexico. Palaeontology, Vol.50, Part 1. Squires, R.L. and R.A. Demetrion (1992). Paleontology of the Eocene Bateque Formation, Baja California Sur, Mexico.Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles, Number 434. Stinnesbeck, W., et al. (2005). A new lithographic limestone deposit in the Upper Cretaceous Austin Group at El Rosario, county of Muzquiz, Coahuila, northeastern Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.22, Number 3. Vega, F.J., et al. (2006). El Espinal, A New Plattenkalk Facies Locality from the Lower Cretaceous Sierra Madre Formation, Chiapas, Southeastern Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.23, Number 3. Vogt, M., et al. (2016). Age and depositional environment of the "dinosaur graveyard" at Las Aguilas, southern Coahuila, NE Mexico. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441. Wardlaw, B.R., W.M. Furnish and M.K. Nestell (1979). Geology and paleontology of the Permian beds near Las Delicias, Coahuila, Mexico. Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol.90, Part 1. Wilson, J.A. (1967). Additions to El Gramal Local Fauna Nejapa, Oaxaca, Mexico. Bol.Soc.Geol. Mexicana, Vol.XXX, Number 1. Young, K. The Ammonite Zones of Northern Chihuahua. New Mexico Geological Society - Twentieth Field Conference. Nicaragua Swain, F.M. (1966). Bottom Sediments of Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua, Western Nicaragua. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol.36, Number 2. Panama Gillette, D.D. (1984). A Marine Ichthyofauna from the Miocene of Panama, and the Tertiary Caribbean Faunal Province. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 4(2). Kirby, M.X., D.S. Jones and B.J. MacFadden (2008). Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula. PLoS ONE, 3(7). (Read on-line or download from site) MacFadden, B.J. and P. Higgins (2004). Ancient ecology of 15 million-year-old browsing mammals within C3 plant communities from Panama. Oecologia, 140. O'Dea, A., et al. (2012). History of upwelling in the Tropical Eastern Pacific and the paleogeography of the Isthmus of Panama. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in press) Pearson, G.A. (2005). Late Pleistocene Megafaunal Deposits on the Isthmus of Panama and Their Paleoecological Implications. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.41, Number 1. Retallack, G.J. and M.X. Kirby (2007). Middle Miocene Global Change and Paleogeography of Panama. Palaios, Vol.22. Todd, J.A. and J.S.H. Collins (2005). Neogene and Quaternary crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda) collected from Costa Rica and Panama by members of the Panama Paleontology Project. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, Number 32. Uhen, M.D., et al. (2010). Marine Mammals from the Miocene of Panama. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 30. Woodring, W.P. (1959). Geology and Paleontology of Canal Zone and Adjoining Parts of Panama. Description of Tertiary Mollusks (Gastropods: Vermetidae to Thaididae). United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 306-B. (130 pages) Woodring, W.P. (1957). Geology and Paleontology of Canal Zone and Adjoining Parts of Panama. Geology and Description of Tertiary Mollusks (Gastopods: Trochidae to Turritellidae). United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 306-A. (186 pages) Paraguay Alfaro, M.B., et al. (2012). Graptolites and trilobites from the Eusebio Ayala Formation (Hirnantian?-early Llandovery), Parana Basin, eastern Paraguay. Geological Journal, Published on-line. Mu*f, R., et al. (1999). Palynological investigations and biostratigraphic correlations of Permian sedimentary rocks from eastern Paraguay. Newsl.Stratigr., 37(1/2). Tortello, M.F., et al. (2012). Trilobites and graptolites from the Vargas Pena Formation (early Silurian), Parana Basin, eastern Paraguay.Revue de Paleobiologie, Geneve, Special Volume 11. Peru Antoine, P.-O., et al. (2013). Middle Miocene vertebrates from the Amazonian Madre de Dios Subandean Zone, Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol.42. Antoine, P.-O., et. al (2007). The Middle Miocene (Laventan) Fitzcarrald Fauna, Amazonian Peru. In: 4th European Meetng on the Palaeontology and Stratigraphy of Latin America. (Diaz-Martinez,E. and I. Rabano, eds.) Bianucci, G., et al. (2015). Distribution of fossil marine vertebrates in Cerro Colorado, the type locality of the giant raptorial sperm whale Livyatan melvillei (Miocene, Pisco Formation, Peru). Journal of Maps, 12(3). Bosworth, T.O., et al. (1922). Geology of the Tertiary and Quaternary Periods in the North-West Part of Peru With Account of the Palaeontology. MacMillan and Co., Ltd., London. (671 pages) Boucot, A.J., P.E. Isaacson and G. Laubacher (1980). An Early Devonian, Eastern Americas Realm Faunule from the Coast of Southern Peru. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.54, Number 2. de Muizon, C. and T.J. DeVries (1985). Geology and paleontology of late Cenozoic marine deposits in the Sacaco area (Peru). Geologische Rundschau, 74/3. Di Celma, C., et al. (2017). Sequence Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Upper Miocene Pisco Formation Along the Western Side of the Lower Ica Valley (Ica Desert, Peru). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 123(2). Gariboldi, K., et al. (2015). The dolomite nodules enclosing fossil marine vertebrates in the East Pisco Basin, Peru: Field and petrographic insights into the Lagerstatte formation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 438. Jaillard, E., et al. (1993). Sedimentology, paleontology, biostratigraphy and correlation of the Late Cretaceous Vilquechico Group of southern Peru. Cretaceous Research, 14. Shockey, B.J., et al. (2009). Paleontology and Geochronology of the Deseadan (late Oligocene) of Moquegua, Peru. American Museum Novitates, Number 3668. Shockey, B.J., et al. (2009). New Pleistocene Cave Faunas of the Andes of Central Peru: Radiocarbon Ages and the Survival of Low Latitude Pleistocene DNA. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.12, Issue 3. Wesselingh, F.P. (2006). Molluscs from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Colombian Amazonia. Scripta Geologica, 133. (272 pages) Puerto Rico Briggs, R.P. (1969). Changes in Stratigraphic Nomenclature in the Cretaceous System East Central Puerto Rico. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 1274-O. Frank, E.F. and R. Benson (1998). Vertebrate Paleontology of Isla De Mona, Puerto Rico. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 60(2). MacPhee, R.D.E. and M.A. Iturralde-Vinent (1995). Origin of the Greater Antillean Land Mammal Fauna, 1: New Tertiary Fossils from Cuba and Puerto Rico. American Museum Novitates, Number 3141. MacPhee, R.D.E. and A.R. Wyss (1990). Oligo-Miocene Vertebrates from Puerto Rico, with a Catalog of Localities. American Museum Novitates, Number 2965. McFarlane, D.A. (1999). Late Quaternary Fossil Mammals and Last Occurrence Dates from Caves at Barahona, Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.35, Numbers 3-4. McIntyre, D.H., J.M. Aaron and O.T. Tobisch (1970). Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Stratigraphy in Northwestern Puerto Rico. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 1294-D. Suriname Uruguay Blanco, G., et al. (2009). Provenance of the Arroyo del Soldado Group (Ediacaran to Cambrian, Uruguay): Implications for the paleogeographic evolution of southwestern Gondwana. Precambrian Research, 171. Farina, R.A. and M. Di Giacomo (2014). Arroyo del Vizcaino Site, Sauce, Uruguay: Fieldwork, Research, Conservation Exhibition, Education. Dakoterra, Vol.6. Gaucher, C. and G.J.B. Germs (2003). Preliminary Biostratigraphic Correlation of the Arroyo del Soldado Group (Vendian to Cambrian, Uruguay) With the Cango Caves and Nama Groups (South Africa and Namibia). Revista de la Sociedad Uruguaya de Geologia, Special Publication Number 1. Gaucher, C. and P. Sprechmann (1999). Upper Vendian skeletal fauna of the Arroyo del Soldado Group, Uruguay. Beringeria, 23. Gaucher, C., L. Chiglino and E. Pecoits (2004). Southernmost Exposures of the Arroyo del Soldado Group (Vendian to Cambrian, Uruguay): Palaeogeographic Implications for the Amalgamation of W-Gondwana. Gondwana Research, Vol.7, Number 3. Pecoits, E., et al. (2008). Ediacaran in Uruguay: palaeoclimatic and palaeobiological implications. Sedimentology, 55. Perea, D., et al. (2009). A Late Jurassic fossil assemblage in Gondwana: Biostratigraphy and correlations of the Tacuarembo Formation, Parana Basin, Uruguay. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 28. Ubilla, M. (2004). Mammalian biostratigraphy of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in northern Uruguay, South America. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 115. Ubilla, M., et al. (2009). Pleistocene Mammals from Uruguay: Biostratigraphic, Biogeographic and Environmental Connotations. SBP Monografias. Venezuela Carillo-Briceño, J.D., et al. (2016). An Early Neogene Elasmobranch fauna from the southern Caribbean (Western Venezuela). Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.27A. Landau, B., G. Vermeij and C.M. da Silva (2007). Southern Caribbean Neogene palaeobiogeography revisted: New data from the Pliocene of Cubagua, Venezuela. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xx (Article in press) Nolf, D. and O. Aguilera (1998). Fish otoliths from the Centaure Formation (Early Miocene of Venezuela). Bulletin de L'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 68. Rincon, A.D., et al. (2014). Chronology and geology of an Early Miocene mammalian assemblage in North of South America, from Cerro La Cruz (Castlllo Formation), Lara State, Venezuela: implications in the 'changing course of the Orinoco river' hypothesis. Andean Geology, 41(3). Sanchez-Villagra, M.R., et al. (2004). New Faunal Reports for the Cerro La Cruz Locality (Lower Miocene), North-Western Venezuela. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 71. Sanchez-Villagra, M.R., et al. (2000). A New Near-Shore Marine Fauna and Flora from the Early Neogene of Northwestern Venezuela. J.Paleont., 74(5). Smith, C.J., et al. (2010). Marine Paleoenvironments of Miocene-Pliocene Formations of North-Central Falcon State, Venezuela. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, Vol.40, Number 3. Young, G.C. and J.M. Moody (2002). A Middle-Late Devonian fish fauna from the Sierra de Perija, western Venezuela, South America. Mitt.Mus.Nat.kd.Berl. Geowiss., Vol.5.
  6. New Eocene mysticete

    A new fossil mysticete paper is available online: Olivier Lambert; Manuel Martínez-Cáceres; Giovanni Bianucci; Claudio Di Celma; Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi; Etienne Steurbaut; Mario Urbina; Christian de Muizon (2017). "Earliest Mysticete from the Late Eocene of Peru Sheds New Light on the Origin of Baleen Whales". Current Biology. in press. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.026. As the second Eocene mysticete based on complete remains, Mystacodon muddies the picture of early mysticete evolution because Llanocetus is more derived than other toothed mysticetes in having wide gaps between posterior cheek teeth, unlike Mystacodon. Therefore, it is clear that the cranial bauplan of Eocene mysticetes is more complex than previously thought and that more work remains to elucidate mysticete evolution in the Eocene (no bonafide odontocetes have yet been described from the Eocene).
  7. Peruvian Expedition

    Hello, I am interested in going to Peru to look at carnivourous fossils in the Talara tar pits and to look at shark and whale fossils in the Ica region. However, I am currently an American citizen. How can I go to Peru and do these things? Thank you.
  8. Paracas National Reserve

    Last July I visited the Paracas National Reserve in Peru. It is a magnificent place to visit and one can view fossils in situ there but not collect them. The fossils in the viewing areas are mollusks from the Eocene some 46 million years ago, when this area was a sea floor. The shells are mainly from a species my guide identified as Turritella woodsi. I was told that the fossil of a giant (1.5 m tall) penguin, Inkayacu paracensis, was also found in the area. There is a small museum at the visitors' center with a depiction of "Pedro", as the giant bird has been dubbed, but the fossil has been taken elsewhere for study. A flock of wild flamingoes wandering within sight of the fossil area provides some recompense for Pedro's absence. I posted some pictures of it on my Paleo-Tourist blog at http://paleo-tourist.typepad.com/the-paleo-tourist/2014/10/index.html.
  9. I apologize for not having legitimate pictures but I will post more later when I have a computer. This is a large 9 inch conglomeration of shark teeth and bone. It looks fake to me. There is a hint of glue on one of the teeth. I bought this in the market of Peru.
  10. Hadrosaur?

    We took this photo at a Minister of Antiquities' office in Bagua Chica, Peru, but didn't record its name. We believe it's the upper part of a hadrosaur skull, but can't determine the species. Any ideas?