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Found 25 results

  1. It's been about five months since I've been able to get out and dig, so when my collecting comrade and I arranged it, off we went. The weather was perfect, although it was muddy going. Spent about a day and a half at our site. Finds were not the best for some species, but the focus was more on site preparation. Pictured here are some Greenops widderensis. Both are missing parts, so will likely be in the grafting pile:
  2. Although we are currently in the depths of February, spring is just around the corner! With spring comes spring break and a week of digging!! One of the locations I am planning a visit to is Jamesville quarry in Jamesville NY. I would love to unearth some nice placoderm pieces. If anybody has info about the site, especially who to contact for permission, I'd greatly appreciate it!
  3. Somewhat fishy

    Ahoi, I just finished a model of Dunkleosteus the lazy way, because I don´t have that much time these days. Lazy way means: Skull is a bought model from kaiyodo dinotales, postcranial is a skeletal drawing by Scott Hartmann I modified slightly and printed on some transparent foil. Like the outcome. It is quite small though, only 15 cm, representing a meager 3m in my chosen scale. can anyone tell what the other two are? both recent species, one handmade after a photograph, the other 3d printed from ct data. As I don´t know if I can add tags after posting , I just added the ones I may put in this thread if I ever find the time to build them. After all my Whales, other marine Mammals , Birds and Reptiles I thought it would be nice if I could include some more Reptiles and "Amphibians" (?) If it crossed the border between land and sea, its likeness shall be built by me -some day. -Placodus -Cyamodus -Mastodonsaurus -Tiktaalik -Ichthyostega -Diplocaulus Aloha, J
  4. Dunkleosteus armor/possible jaws

    From the album Sharks and fish

    Front side of armor which I believe could be the edge of the jaws! It comes to what would have been the razor sharp shearing edge, greatly worn down now, though. I also believe it could be the jaw because of the clear vertical wear lines on the surface, from being sheared against the inner surface of the other jaw, which is how they kept the edges razor sharp like scissors. I have seen similar wear lines on placoderm shearing jaws, so what I believe to be reasonable observations point to the possibility(maybe even likely?)of being from the cutting edge of the jaws.
  5. Dunkleosteus armor cross section

    From the album Sharks and fish

    Cross section of dunkleosteus' armor plate showing internal structure of mostly solid bone
  6. Dunkleosteus armor

    From the album Sharks and fish

    Part of dunkleosteus' amazing armored head
  7. Hi Folks, A couple of weeks ago we went on a 5 day trip around NSW to find a few different fossils which I'll post another day, but here are some of our best finds from near Cowra, NSW Australia. So in a nutshell, there's a quarry near Cowra that was quarried to be used as road base in the area, and thats how these specimens were found. You can find blocks of the stuff on the side of the road if you're lucky. Since you can't get into the quarry nowadays because the owner has pretty much lost the plot this is the only way to collect material. #1 Cowralepis mclachlani. This is one of a few species of fish at the site and is by far the most common. We have never found any other species there. Continued...
  8. Last Sunday we had a trip to the sandy quarry near St. Petersburg. Near of the sandy quarry there is a small village called "Novinka" (coordinates of this place on Google maps: 59.161362, 30.380684) Quarry near Novinka is a fairly large quarry, developed in the sands, introduced here in the Devonian (about 400 million years ago). The quarry is very picturesque and extremely interesting, there are mottled sands with a great variety of sedimentary textures deposited in various water conditions. During most of the Devonian Period, North America, Greenland, and Europe were united into a single Northern Hemisphere landmass, a minor supercontinent called Laurussia or Euramerica. We can say that the North America, Greenland and the north-western part of Russia were one territory. Here you can find many fossils of armoured prehistoric fish, as well as their teeth. A lot of paleo tourists from different countries come here in search of placoderms. We have a friend-professor of geology at the University of St. Petersburg. He said that last year a student from Japan went home with a necklace from the teeth of a armoured prehistoric fish. It was a very big paleontological luck. Next to the sand quarry are special designs for sifting sand. Large parts go in one direction, and fine sand in another. On photo few pieces of the shell of the fish (Asterolepis), which we found in 1 hour, and rock layers in sandy quarry. (Asterolepis is an extinct genus of antiarch placoderms from the Devonian of North and South America and Europe. They were heavily armored flat-headed benthic detritivores with distinctive jointed limb-like pectoral fins and hollow spine. The armor plate gives the Asterolepis a box-like shape. Its pectoral fins are also armored but the caudal and dorsal fin are not. The first fossils were named after M. Eichwald in 1840 after not star-like markings on the fossils.)
  9. Went out to Iowa for a Devonian hunt. Found a few placoderm teeth and what I'm told is a Dunkleosteus jaw/tooth bit. I'm happy. Can't wait to go back this Fall. I also found some nice crystals, pyrite and partial trilobites. Placoderm material Anyone know what this is from? My best guess is possible shark tooth.....? Dunkleosteus bit (it needs some prep and reconstruction)
  10. Ohioan Placoderms?

    I have heard about placoderms being uncovered from the Devonian of Ohio, but am unable to find any references to specific placoderm fossil specimens and where they are in Ohio. Can someone please shed some light for me on the subject? (I'm looking for ones just from the Ohio area ) I consider placoderms awesome! Thanks a ton!
  11. Concretion? Placoderm?

    My friend found this big concretion like fossil in Quqing, Yunnan of China. Something on the surface looks like a placoderm to me, what do you think?
  12. Today I went to the "Belgian institute of natural history" to donate my placoderm that I found in Oktober. It is verry likely that it is a new species , but only time will tel. The local placoderm specialist wil work on this specimen for the description. Here is the link to te 1st thread on this topic:
  13. huge placoderm

    I often visit the southern part of Belgium for Devonian fossils, the whole area is known for its reef systems. So most of the fossils are brachiopods and corals, but between the reefs sometimes rarer fossils can be found like cephalopods or in extremely rare cases even fish. In more than 25 years of fossil collecting I’ve only found 2 fragments of Devonian fish until last October. During a field trip I searched a few debris next to a quarry and found a strange piece of rock. At first I almost discarded it thinking that it was a strange nodule, surely a piece of this size couldn’t be bone. But I took time to clean of the dirt… I had in my hands a rock with a bone plate, the thing was huge, more than 20 cm on 25 cm, and it was only a fragment. I had never seen something like that from the late Devonian in our area. I started franticly to search the rest of the area, finding more and more fragments. Some parts were even larger and the plates were often more than 1 cm thick, on some places even more than 4 cm. This fish was a monster, I knew this was my find of a lifetime. The rest of the day I spend on the same 2 m² checking every rock. I finally found 14 fragments of the fish. At home I cleaned up all the fragments, I even had a few parts that fitted together, but I couldn’t make anything out of it except that it were large bone fragments. It was also clear that I only got a tiny part of it. In the week to follow I contacted a specialist in placoderms from the Institute in Brussels. Exited by the news he came to check out the fossils at my apartment on a evening. He confirmed that this was indeed a placoderm, and a huge one, even he had never seen one of this size from the late Devonian in Belgium. One of the parts turned out to be a fragment of the median dorsal plate, the typical keel from that part of the fish was clearly visible. One of the drawbacks of the fossil was the complete absence of any ornamentation or tubercles on the bones, this would make the identification difficult. But the size of the specimen limited the options in 3 groups: Either a new extremely large coccosteidea. ( in my opinion the least possible match) Or either a Dynichthydea or a Tytanichthydea. Either way, any of those possibilities are extremely spectacular J Of course on the weekend to follow I had to go back to check out if there was anything I overlooked. Armed with adequate equipment to dig, I started to dig out the spot with my girlfriend. The result was an extra 10 fragments, again with a few of them being very large. And on top of it lots of the new fragments fitted in the ones I found the week before. Since then I’ve been cleaning and prepping a little on the bones and kept contact with the placoderm specialist. Having contemplated what to do with it, I will donate the fossil to the institute next week so that professional work and a proper description of the placoderm can be made. Of course I will post an update of this in the “paleopartners section” I really hope this is a new species, but either way I had fun with this discovery, and there is still much to find out about my “little” fish
  14. Australian Placoderm

    G'day, We recently found this partial placoderm skull at a property near Wee Jasper, NSW and I'm wondering what part of the skull it is. We found a lot of other stuff on that trip too, and I'll do a trip report on that eventually. Thanks, Izak
  15. Deb and me just got in from a good six hour search for Greenops, carving out and extending benches. Did we find full ones? Well, yes and no. As those familiar with the area know all too well, finding a full Greenops is not easy. Apart from a zillion moulted pieces, their notorious delicate flakiness, and sometimes the frustration with the matrix itself, full ones - when they appear - rarely come out nice and pristine without some damage. I haven't been as much of a Greenops whisperer this year, but some pics of finds... First up are the heartbreakers - stuff that had the potential to be full, but for one reason or another wasn't. Next is a cluster of more heartbreakers, but there are two "full" ones in there, but with considerable damage on one and distortion on the other. The others in that group may prep out full, but they already display considerable damage. I don't usually find crinoid stems this far up in the Widder shale. This stem actually continues on the other side. Some very delicate prep, and I'm hoping I might find a surprise at the end of that stem. My rule about this orthocone nautiloids is, if it is intact, wrap it up and put it in the bucket. This might actually come free of the matrix.
  16. Millerosteus minor MILLER, 1858

    ventral view Lit.: Volume 16: Fossil Fishes of Great Britain. Chapter 6: Mid-Devonian fossil fishes sites of Scotland, Site: PENNYLAND (GCR ID: 648) Millerosteus minor (named after Hugh Miller, a Scottish geologist and paleontologist 1802-1856) was a small arthrodire placoderm, rarely exceeding 15cm. The extinct armored fishes known as placoderms make up what is considered to be the earliest branch of the gnathostome family tree -- the earliest branch of the jawed fishes. Arthrodires possessed jaws but no teeth. Razor-sharp bony dental plates formed sort of a beak and allowed to gnaw on prey. Arthrodires (“jointed neck”) are characterized by an unusual joint in the dorsal armor between the head and neck regions; this joint apparently allowed the head to move upwards as the jaw dropped downwards, creating a larger gape. In addition, it also had an internal joint between its neck vertebrae and the back of the skull, allowing for the mouth to be opened even wider and being able to feed on rather large prey. Millerosteus probably fed on invertebrates such as crustaceans and mollusks or even was a mud-grubber that ingested organic-rich mud for its food. Arthrodires possessed a heavily armored head- and neck-region. The slender fish-like body and heterocerc tail that extends behind the heavily armored portion is, because it is almost naked or only covered with small scales, rarely preserved. Millerosteus is a rather common fish in the Middle Devonian flagstones around Caithness.
  17. Microbrachius dicki TRAQUAIR, 1888

    Lit.: Volume 16: Fossil Fishes of Great Britain. Chapter 6: Mid-Devonian fossil fishes sites of Scotland. Site: JOHN O'GROATS, CAITHNESS (GCR ID: 353) Long, J.: Origins of copulation - ancient Scottish fishes did it sideways, square-dance style.
  18. Cowralepis mclachlani Ritchie, 2005

    Ritchie, A. (2005): Cowralepis, a new genus of phyllolepid fish (Pisces, Placodermi) from the late middle Devonian of New South Wales, Australia. Proceedings- Linnean Society of New South Wales 126:215-259 · March 2005 Carr, RK, Johanson, Z., Ritchie, A. (2009) The phyllolepid placoderm Cowralepis mclachlani: insights into the evolution of feeding mechanisms in jawed vertebrates. J. Morphol., 2009 Jul;270(7):775-804. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10719
  19. Placoderm?

    Well, without going into a lengthy explanation, yes, I found this in the Arkansas River about 3 feet under the bottom rocks and what we call the NTS (Nasty Toxic ..., unfortunately my rock hound playground is also a delisted superfund site). It took months to finally get it to where it's at now. About half a year in fact of fervent brushing and gentle filing with a diamond coated pen file. Acid has also played a major role but I'm at the point now where I can't risk using more lest I melt what I'm trying to reveal. Is there any readily available household remedy I can use as a protectant of sorts that I could apply on the delicate fossil material so that I can submerge this thing back into acid? Also, would Thyiglycolic acid benefit me here in this scenario? Thanks ~Noah Benzing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tn1uSydlkzQ Here is a view of the underside.... I'm getting close to revealing the actual teeth (although I have unfortunately destroyed one or two so far).
  20. Silica Shale Placoderm

    Im just curious, not planning to buy or sell one, but I was wondering if anyone has actually seen a placoderm fossil from the Ohio silica shale for sale anywhere? Or even just a reasonably complete carapace in a private collection? In particular Macropetalichthys rapheidolabis which appears to be a less rare one.
  21. Taken from my blog: http://redleafz.blogspot.ca/2013/08/miguasha-national-park-quebec-canada.html (I had wished that somebody from la belle province would have posted anything on Miguasha, but I guess I'll be the first =P ) A few weeks ago I took a day trip to our neighboring province of Quebec to check out Miguasha National Park. I've always wanted to check that place since I've started researching fossil localities. Miguasha National Park is what the paleontology community sees as the world's most important paleontological fossil record of the Devonian Period. Most of the main fossil fish groups have been found here, including lobe-finned fish, the antecedent of tetrapods. The park's fossil collection has over 5000+ specimens. The importance of these cliffs and the treasures they hold has put this little community on the map, and eventually became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. For me, seeing this site was important. I've been going to Joggins quite often and appreciated what information that this place was giving out to the world. I wanted to see how this mirror image of an as important site from a different time period would compare with Joggins's. Miguasha (red dot) Me and my friend Ray left Moncton with his little red hybrid Prius early to be able to get to Miguasha at a reasonable time. The drive from Moncton to Campbelton took about 2 hours and a half, and from Campbelton to Nouvelle (Quebec) was about 30 minutes or so. The scenery driving up was gorgeous as you come across the eroded Appalachian mountains and Mount Sugarloaf, an extinct volcano of the same age as the rocks where the fish from Miguasha are found. After crossing the bridge that links the two Canadian provinces, the signage made finding the interpretation center pretty easy. Eusthenopteron foordi ('Prince of Miguasha') The star attraction of Miguasha is Eusthenopteron foordi, also called 'The Prince', which made this place famous. Eusthenopteron is a good example of a transitional animal by having this fish well on its way to evolve into tetrapods. Bothriolepis Another well-known abundant animal found in these cliffs is Bothriolepsis canadensis, a placoderm that had bone forming some sort of armor plating mostly on their head and thorax. The specimens I saw at the Park's interpretation center were exquisite! Silurian fossiliferous limetones (Anticosti Island) Can you spot the trilobites? The exhibits didn't just contain fossils from the area, but also from other parts of the province, and other parts of Canada. They currently have some bone from an Hadrosaur that used to roam Alberta during the Cretaceous. Archaeopteris halliana The Devonian Period was called the 'Age of Fish', but there was also life on land, albeit a bit more desolate and mostly populated by arthropods (primitive insects). Plants like this archaeopteris doted the landscape. This fern-like plant was similar to modern trees, but reproduced by producing spores like many other flora of the Paleozoic. Eusthenopteron foordi Escuminaspis laticeps Escuminaspis laticeps was a bottom feeding fish that was on its way out. They went extinct not long after this period of time. They were similar to the modern lamprey, as these were jawless fish. Bothriolepis canadensis (complete) My friend Ray with Dunkleosteus (cast), which could grow up to 7 meters long The Prince of Miguasha, Eusthenopteron foordi Close up of Eusthenopteron's tail (look at 'em bones) Eusthenopteron showing off its teeth After the guided tour of the interpretation center was done, we went down to the beach. High tide was quickly closing in so we couldn't stay on the beach for too long, just enough to have a quick chat on the past and current digs done at the cliffs. Layers of shale and silt that still hide fish Miguasha's Interpretation Center And that was it. We made our back back to New Brunswick with a quick stop in Campbelton for a late lunch. Looking back, it is easy to see why geologists keep coming to this area. Across the bay, the cliffs of Atholville all the way to Belledune have in them a treasure trove of Devonian fossils just as important as the ones found in Miguasha. I feel that I'll be spending a little bit of time up North in the near future. Till next time, cheers! - Keenan
  22. From the album Red Hill Devonian Teeth, Scales, Dorsal Spines

    © Copyright (c) 2012 by Michael Tomczyk. Artist illustrations from the Devonian Times website.

  23. We collected these fossils at the classic Devonian site at Red Hill in PA (where some of the first early tetrapods that crawled onto land were discovered). Shown are a Placoderm tooth, a very clear Hynaria tooth impression, Hynaria dorsal spines, Placoderm scale (note the texture on the scale) and a fragment that we aren't sure if it's skin or bone. Note the tiny white dorsal fine/spine from a Devonian fish. Most intriguing to us is the vertical fossil next to the white dorsal spine which looks like a full fossil of a minnow sized fish - I added a separate horizontal image of this and the horizontal has a piece removed to reveal a "lobe" at the left side. Since posting this it has been suggested that the long fossil is actually a plant - archaeopteris - and what we thought was a "tail" is actually a leaf. However, the white bony dorsal/spine fossil still appears to be a Devonian fish. This was our first fossil hunting trip but although we are new to the field, we are enthusiastic about our new avocation. Doug Rowe who co-discovered and manages the Red Hill site, was extremely patient and helpful. Cathy Young and Karenne Snow led the trip, which took us to half a dozen Devonian and Ordovician sites and introduced us to a wide variety of fossil rich terrains.
  24. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since April 29, 2018. Class Placodermi - Armored Fishes Order Acanthothoraci Dupret, V., et al. (2017). The internal cranial anatomy of Romundina stellina Ørvig, 1975 (Vertebrata, Placodermi, Acanthothoraci) and the origin of jawed vertebrates - Anatomical atlas of a primitive gnathostome. PLoS ONE, 12(2). Dupret, V., et al. (2014). A primitive placoderm sheds light on the origin of the jawed vertebrate face. Nature, 507. Dupret, V., et al. (2011). The Skull of Hagiangella goujeti Janvier, 2005, a High-Crested Acanthothoracid (Vertebrata, Placodermi) from the Lower Devonian of Northern Vietnam. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(3). Dupret, V., et al. (2010). Bone vascularization and growth in placoderms (Vertebrata): The example of the premedian plate of Romundina stellina Ørvig, 1975. C.R. Palevol, 9. Jerve, A., et al. (2017). Vascularization and odontode structure of a dorsal ridge spine of Romundina stellina Ørvig, 1875. PLoS ONE, 12(12). Long, J.A. and G.C. Young (1988). Acanthothoracid remains from the Early Devonian of New South Wales, including a complete sclerotic capsule and pelvic girdle. Mems.Assn.Australas.Palaeontols., 7. Olive, S., et al. (2014). The Growth of the Skull Roof Plates in Arabosteus variabilis (Acanthothoraci, Placodermi) from the Early Devonian Jauf Formation (Saudi Arabia): Preliminary Results. Paleontological Journal, Vol.48, Number 9. Olive, S., et al. (2011). A new Placoderm fish (Acanthothoraci) from the Early Devonian Jauf Formation (Saudi Arabia). Geodiversitas, 33(3). Rücklin, M. and P.C.J. Donoghue (2015). Romundina and the evolutionary origin of teeth. Biol.Lett., 11: 20150326. Vaskaninova, V. and P.E. Ahlberg (2017). Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys. PLoS ONE, 12(4). Westoll, T.S. (1967). Radotina and other tesserate fishes. J.Linn.Soc. (Zool.), 47, 311. Order Antiarchi Antiarchi - Africa/Middle East Anderson, M.E., N. Hiller and R.W. Gess (1994). The first Bothriolepis-associated Devonian fish fauna from Africa. South African Journal of Science, Vol. 90. Antiarchi - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Grahn, J. (2016). The Primitive Antiarch Yunnanolepis from China: A Microtomographic Study. Independent Project at the Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Universitet. Janvier, P., et al. (2003). 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Further petalichthyid remains (placoderm fishes, Early Devonian) from the Taemas - Wee Jasper region, New South Wales. BMR Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, 9(2). Zhu, M. (1991). New Information on Diandongpetalichthys (Placodermi: Petalichthyida). In: Early vertebrates and related problems of evolutionary biology. Chang, M.-M., Y.-H. Liu and G.-R. Zhang (eds.), Science Press, Beijing. Order Phyllolepida Carr, R.K., Z. Johanson, and A. Ritchie (2009). The Phyllolepid Placoderm Cowralepis mclachlani : Insights into the Evolution of Feeding Mechanisms in Jawed Vertebrates. Journal of Morphology, 270. Dupret, V. and M. Zhu (2008). The earliest phyllolepid (Placodermi, Arthrodira) from the Late Lochkovian (Early Devonian) of Yunnan (South China). Geol.Mag., 145(2). Lane, J.A. and R.J. Cuffey (2005). Phyllolepis rossimontina Sp.Nov. (Placodermi) from the Uppermost Devonian at Red Hill, North-Central Pennsylvania. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 8(2). Long, J.A. and E.B. Daeschler (2013). First articulated phyllolepid placoderm from North America, with comments on phyllolepid systematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia, 162. Order Ptyctodontida Bifield, K. (2004). A Study of the Structure and Function of the Post-Cranial Skeleton of Two Orders of Placoderms: Arthrodira and Ptyctodontida. Bachelors (Honours) Paper, University of Western Australia. Forey, P.L. and B.G. Gardiner (1986). Observations on Ctenurella (Ptyctodontida) and the classification of placoderm fishes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 86. Miles, R.S. (1967). Observations on the ptyctodont fish, Rhamphodopsis Watson. J.Linn.Soc. (Zool.), 47, 311. Trinajstic, K. and J.A. Long (2009). A new genus and species of Ptyctodont (Placodermi) from the Late Devonian Gneudna Formation, Western Australia, and an analysis of Ptychtodont phylogeny. Geol.Mag., 146(5). Trinajstic, K., et al. (2012). New Morphological Information on the Ptyctodontid Fishes (Placodermi, Ptychodontida) from Western Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32(4). Order Rhenanida Lelievre, H. and R.K. Carr (2009). The Occipital-Synarcual Complex in Nefudina qalibahensis (Placodermi). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(2). Mark-Kurik, E. (2010). Dolganosteus, a new Early Devonian rhenanid (Placodermi) from Northern Siberia. In: Morphology, Phylogeny and Paleobiogeography of Fossil Fishes. Elliott, D.K., et al. (eds.), Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, Germany. (Uncorrected proof copy) General Placodermi General Placodermi - Africa/Middle East Antczak, M. and B. Berkowski (2017). Ornamentation of dermal bones of Placodermi from the Lower Devonian of Morocco as a measure of biodiversity. Geologos, 23, 2. Long, J.A., et al. (1997). New Placoderm Fishes from the Late Devonian of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 17(2). Rücklin, M. (2010). A new Frasnian placoderm assemblage from the eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco, and its palaeobiogeographical implications. Palaeoworld, 19. General Placodermi - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Wang, J.-Q. and S.-T. Wang (2002). The Discovery of Early Devonian Placoderms from Baoqing and Mishan Counties of Heilongjiang Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 40(2). Wang, N.-Z. and J.-Q. Wang (1999). Discovery of Placoderm Inferognathal from China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 37(4). Zhu, M., et al. (2016). A Silurian maxillate placoderm illuminates jaw evolution. Science, Vol.354, Issue 6310. Zhu, M., et al. (2013). A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones. Nature, Vol.502. General Placodermi - Australia/New Zealand Burrow, C.J. (2006). Placoderm fauna from the Connemarra Formation (?late Lochkovian, Early Devonian), Central New South Wales. Alcheringa Special Issue 1. Burrow, C.J. (1996). Placoderm Scales from the Lower Devonian of New South Wales, Australia. Modern Geology, Vol.20. Long, J.A. (1987). Upper Devonian conodonts associated with a large placoderm fish skull from the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Rec.West. Aust. Mus., 13(4). General Placodermi - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Gorzelak, P., et al. (2010). Inferred placoderm bite marks on Devonian crinoids from Poland. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont., published on-line. Ivanov, A. and M. Ginter (1997). Comments on the Late Devonian placoderms from the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 42(3). Olive, S., et al. (2016). Placoderm Assemblage from the Tetrapod-Bearing Locality of Strud (Belgium, Upper Famennian) Provides Evidence for a Fish Nursery. PLoS ONE, 11(8). (Thanks to oilshale for pointing this one out!) Plax, D.P. (2015). Late Emsian Placoderms of Belarus. Belarusian National Technical University, Minsk. Szrek, P. and V. Dupret (2017). Placoderms from the Lower Devonian "placoderm sandstone" of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland with biostratigraphical and palaeobiogeographical implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(4). General Placodermi - North America General Placodermi - South America/Central America/Caribbean General Placodermi Carr, R.K.(1995). Placoderm diversity and evolution. VIIth International Symposium: Studies on Early Vertebrates. Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 17. (20 MB download) Giles, S., M. Rücklin and P.C.J. Donoghue (2013). Histology of "Placoderm" Dermal Skeletons: Implications for the Nature of the Ancestral Gnathostome. Journal of Morphology, 274. Goujet, D. (2011). "Lungs" in Placoderms, a persistent palaeobiological myth related to environmental preconceived interpretations. C.R. Palevol, 10. Goujet, D. and G.C. Young (2004). Placoderm anatomy and phylogeny: new insights. In: Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates. Arratia, G., M.V.H. Wilson and R. Cloutier (eds.), Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, Germany. Johanson, Z. and K. Trinajstic (2014). Fossilized Ontogenies: The Contribution of Placoderm Ontogeny to Our Understanding of the Evolution of Early Gnathostomes. Palaeontology, Vol.57, Part 3. Johanson, Z. and M.M. Smith (2005). Origin and evolution of gnathostome dentition: a question of teeth and pharyngeal denticles in placoderms. Biol.Rev., 80. Johanson, Z. and M.M. Smith (2003). Placoderm Fishes, Pharyngeal Denticles, and the Vertebrate Dentition. Journal of Morphology, 257. Lelievre, H. and D. Goujet (1986). Biostratigraphic Significance of Some Uppermost Devonian Placoderms. Annales de la Societe geologique de Belgique, Vol.109. Smith, M.M. and Z. Johanson (2003). Separate Evolutionary Origins of Teeth from Evidence in Fossil Jawed Vertebrates. Science, Vol.299. Trinajstic, K., et al. (2014). Pelvic and reproductive structures in placoderms (stem gnathostomes). Biol.Rev., 90(2). Trinajstic, K., et al. (2007). Exceptional preservation of nerve and muscle tissues in Late Devonian placoderm fish and their evolutionary implications. Biology Letters, 3. Young, G.C. (2008). Number and arrangement of extraocular muscles in primitive gnathostomes: evidence from extinct placoderm fishes. Biol.Lett., 4. Young, G.C. (1986). The relationships of placoderm fishes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 88. Class Acanthodii (Polyphyletic) - Spiny 'Sharks' Order Acanthodiformes Baron, M.G. (2015). An investigation of the genus Mesacanthus (Chordata: Acanthodii) from the Orcadian Basin and Midland Valley areas of Northern and Central Scotland using traditional morphometrics. PeerJ, 3:e1331. Beznosov, P. (2009). A redescription of the Early Carboniferous acanthodian Acanthodes lopatini Rohon, 1889. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 90 (suppl.1). Burrow, C.J., K. Trinajstic and J. Long (2012). First acanthodian from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo Formation, Western Australia. Historical Biology, 24(4). Davis, S.P., J.A. Finarelli and M.I. Coates (2012). Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature, Vol.486. Hanke, G.F. (2008). Promesacanthus eppleri n.gen., n.sp., a mesacanthid (Acanthodii, Acanthodiformes) from the Lower Devonian of northern Canada. Geodiversitas, 30(2). Long, J.A. (1986). A New Late Devonian Acanthodian Fish from Mt. Howitt, Victoria, Australia, with Remarks on Acanthodian Biogeography. Proc.R.Soc.Vict., Vol.98, Number 1. Newman, M.J., et al. (2014). The Early Devonian acanthodian Euthacanthus macnicoli Posrie, 1864 from the Middle Valley of Scotland. Geodiversitas, 36(3). Newman, M.J., et al. (2011). The Early Devonian Acanthodian Euthacanthus gracilis from the Midland Valley of Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology, 47(2). Schultze, H.-P. (1990). A New Acanthodian from the Pennsylvanian of Utah, U.S.A., and the Distribution of Otoliths in Gnathostomes. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 10(1). Tanaka, G., et al. (2014). Mineralized rods and cones suggest colour vision in a 300 Myr-old fossil fish. Nature Communications, 5:5920. Zajic, J. (1995). Some Consequences of Recent Investigations on the Family Acanthodidae Huxley, 1861. Geobios, M.S., Number 19. Zidek, J. (1976) Kansas Hamilton Quarry (Upper Pennsylvanian) Acanthodes, With Remarks on the Previously Reported North American Occurrences of the Genus. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 83. Order Climatiiformes Suborder Climatiida Sullivan, R.M., S.G. Lucas and K.A. Randall (1999). The scapulocoracoid complex of Gyracanthus (Acanthodii: Climatiiformes) and a reassessment of the pectoral region in the Gyracanthidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 149. Turner, S., C.J. Burrow and A. Warren (2005). Gyracanthides hawkinsi Sp.Nov. (Acanthodii, Gyracanthidae) from the Lower Carboniferous of Queensland, Australia, With a Review of Gyracanthid Taxa. Palaeontology, Vol.48, Part 5. Warren, A., et al. (2000). A Redescription and Reinterpretation of Gyracanthides murrayi Woodward 1906 (Acanthodii, Gyracanthidae) from the Lower Carboniferous of the Mansfield Basin, Victoria, Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(2). Suborder Diplacanthida Burrow, C.J. and G.C. Young (2012). New Information on Culmacanthus (Acanthodii: Diplacanthiformes) from the ?Early-Middle Devonian of Southeastern Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 134. Burrow, C.J., et al. (2016). The diplacanthid fishes (Acanthodii, Diplacanthiformes, Diplacanthidae) from the Middle Devonian of Scotland. Paleontologia Electronica, 19.1.10A Gagnier, P.-Y., G.F. Hanke and M.V.H. Wilson (1999). Tetanopsyrus lindoei gen. et sp. nov., an Early Devonian acanthodian from the Northwest Territories, Canada. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.48, Number 2. Gess, R.W. (2001). A new species of Diplacanthus from the Late Devonian (Famennian) of South Africa. Ann.Paleontol., 87,1. Hanke, G.F. and S.P. Davis (2008). Redescription of the acanthodian Gladiobranchus probaton Bernacsek & Dineley, 1977, and comments on diplacanthid relationships. Geodiversitas, 30(2). Newman, M.J., et al. (2012). The Early Devonian Acanthodian Uraniacanthus curtus (Powrie, 1870) n.comb. from the Midland Valley of Scotland. Geodiversitas, 34(4). Order incertae sedis Botella, H., C. Martínez-Pérez and R. Soler-Gijón (2012). Machaeracantus goujeti n sp. (Acanthodii) from the Lower Devonian of Spain and northwest France, with special reference to spine histology. Geodiversitas, 34(4). Chevrinais, M., J.-Y. Sire and R. Cloutier (2017). Unravelling the ontogeny of a Devonian early gnathostome, the "acanthodian" Triazeugacanthus affinis (eastern Canada). PeerJ, 5: e3969. Chevrinais, M., J.-Y. Sire and R. Cloutier (2017). From body scale ontogeny to species ontogeny: Histological and morphological assessment of the Late Devonian acanthodian Trizeugacanthus affinis from Miguasha, Canada. PLoS ONE, 12(4). Chevrinais, M., E. Balan and R. Cloutier (2016). New Insights in the Ontogeny and Taphonomy of the Devonian Acanthodian Triazeugacanthus affinis from the Miguasha Fossil-Lagerstätte, Eastern Canada. Minerals, 6,1. Chevrinais, M., R. Cloutier and J.-Y. Sire (2015). The revival of a so-called rotten fish: the ontogeny of the Devonian acanthodian Trizeugacanthus. Biol.Lett., 11. Hanke, G.F. and S.P. Davis (2012). A re-examination of Lupopsyrus pygmaeus Bernascek & Dinely, 1977 (Pisces, Acanthodii). Geodiversitas, 34(3). Turner, S., C.J. Burrow and A. Warren (2005). Gyracanthides hawkinsi Sp.Nov. (Acanthodii, Gyracanthidae) from the Lower Carboniferous of Queensland, Australia, With a Review of Gyracanthid Taxa. Palaeontology, Vol.48, Part 5. Warren, A., et al. (2000). A Redescription and Reinterpretation of Gyracanthides murrayi Woodward 1906 (Acanthodii, Gyracanthidae) from the Lower Carboniferous of the Mansfield Basin, Victoria, Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(2). Order Ischnacanthiformes Botella, H., et al. (2014). Obruchevacanthus ireneae gen. et sp.nov., a New Ischnacanthiform (Acanthodii) from the Lower Devonian of Spain. Paleontological Journal, Vol.48, Number 10. Burrow, C.J. (2013). Reassessment of Ischnacanthus? scheei Spjeldnaes (Acanthodii, Ischnacanthiformes) from the latest Silurian or earliest Devonian of Ellesmere Island, arctic Canada. Can.J. Earth Sci., 50. Burrow, C.J. (2011). A partial articulated acanthodian from the Silurian of New Brunswick, Canada. Can.J. Earth Sci., 48. Burrow, C.J. (1995). Acanthodian dental elements from the Trundle beds (Lower Devonian) of New South Wales. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 17. Burrow, C.J. and D. Rudkin (2014). Oldest Near-Complete Acanthodian: The First Vertebrate from the Silurian Bertie Formation Konservat-Lagerstätte, Ontario. PLoS ONE, 9(8). Lindley, I.D. (2002). Lower Devonian ishnacanthid fish (Gnathostoma: Acanthodii) from the Taemas Limestone, Lake Burrinjuck, New South Wales. Alcheringa, 25. Long, J.A. (1986). New ischnacanthid acanthodians from the Early Devonian of Australia, with comments on acanthodian relationships. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 87. General Acanthodii General Acanthodii - Africa/Middle East Hairapetian, V., J. Valiukevicius, and C.J. Burrow (2006). Early Frasnian acanthodians from central Iran. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(3). General Acanthodii - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Liu, S. (1995). The Geological Significance of Sinacanthus from Tarim, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 33(2). Min, Z. (1998). Early Silurian Sinacanths (Chondrichthyes) from China. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 1. Wang, N.-Z., F. Jin and W. Wang (2004). Early Carboniferous Fishes (Acanthodian, Actinopterygians and Chondrichthyes) from the East Sector of North Qilian Mountain, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 42(2). Wang, N.-Z., et al. (1998). The First Discovery of Silurian and Early Devonian Acanthodians from Zoige and Tewo Counties, West Qinling Mountains. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 36(4). Wang, W. (2003). First Occurrence of Acanthodian Microfossils from the Early Devonian of Lijiang, Yunnan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 41(1). Zeng, X.-Y. (1988). Some Fin Spines of Acanthodii from Early Silurian of Hunan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 26(4). General Acanthodii - Australia/New Zealand Burrow, C.J. (2002). Lower Devonian acanthodian faunas and biostratigraphy of south-eastern Australia. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 27. Burrow, C.J. (1995). Acanthodian dental elements from the Trundle beds (Lower Devonian) of New South Wales. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 17. Burrow, C.J. and G.C. Young (2005). The Acanthodian Fauna of the Craven Peaks Beds (Early to Middle Devonian), Western Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 51(1). Trinajstic, K. (2001). Acanthodian microremains from the Frasnian Gneudna Formation, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 20. General Acanthodii - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Bliek, A. (2015). Early Devonian heterostracans of Wiheries and Paliseul, with notes on pteraspids of La Gileppe and an acanthodian of Paliseul (Belgium). Geologica Belgica, 18/1. Derycke, C. and G. Clement (2013). First assemblage of Acanthodian scales and spines from the Famennian (Upper Devonian) of Durnal (Belgium), palaeobiogeographical and palaeoenvironmental implications. Geologica Belgica, 16/1-2. Ilyes, R.R. (1995). Acanthodian scales and worm tubes from the Kapp Kjeldsen Division of the Lower Devonian Wood Bay Formation, Spitsbergen. Polar Research, 14(1). Jerve, A., et al. (2017). Morphology and histology of acanthodian fin spines from the late Silurian Ramasa E locality, Skane, Sweden. Palaeontologia Electronica, 20.3.56A. Newman, M.J. (2005). A Systematic Review of the Placoderm Genus Cosmacanthus and a Description of Acanthodian Remains from the Upper Devonian of Scotland. Palaeontology, Vol.48, Part 5. Pinakhina, D.V. and T. Marss (2018). The Middle Devonian acanthodian assemblage of the Karski Outcrop in Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 67,1. Valiukevičius, J. (2005). Silurian acanthodian biostratigraphy of Lithuania. Geodiversitas, 27(3). Valiukevičius, J. (2004). New Wenlock-Pridoli (Silurian) acanthodian fishes from Lithuania. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49(1). Voichyshyn, V. and H. Szaniawski, H. (2012). Acanthodian jaw bones from the Lower Devonian marine deposits of Podolia, Ukraine. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57(4). Wisshak, M., E. Volohonsky, and D. Blomeier (2004). Acanthodian fish trace fossils from the Early Devonian of Spitsbergen. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49(4). Zajic, J. (1988). Acanthodian (Acanthodii) jaws from the borehole Sa-2a. Vestnik Ustredniho ustavau geologickeho, 63,4. Zajic, J. (1988). Stratigraphic Position of Finds of the Acanthodians (Acanthodii) in Czechoslovakia. Acta Universitatis Carolinae - Geologica, Special Vol. Number 2. General Acanthodii - North America Yeager, K.M. (1996). Fossil Fishes (Arthrodira and Acanthodida) from the Upper Devonian Chadakoin Formation of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Ohio Journal of Science, 96(3). Zidek, J. (1975). Oklahoma Paleoichthyology Part IV: Acanthodii. Oklahoma Geology Notes, Vol.35, Number 4. General Acanthodii - South America/Central America/Caribbean Burrow, C.J., P. Janvier and C. Villaroel (2003). Late Devonian acanthodians from Colombia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 16. Janvier, P. and J.H.G. Melo (1988). Acanthodian Fish Remains from the Upper Silurian or Lower Devonian of the Amazon Basin, Brazil. Palaeontology, Vol.31, Part 3. Mutter, R.J. and M. Richter (2007). Acanthodian remains from the Middle-Late Permian of Brazil. Geological Journal, 42. Richter, M., P.A. Neis and M.M. Smith (1999). Acanthodian and Actinopterygian fish remains from the Itaituba Formation, Late Carboniferous of the Amazon Basin, Brazil, with a note on acanthodian ganoin. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Mh., 1999(12). Genera Acanthodii Hanke, G.F. and M.V.H. Wilson (2004). New teleostome fishes and acanthodian systematics. In: Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates. Arratia, G., M.V.H. Wilson and R. Cloutier (eds.), Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, Germany. Valiukevičius, J. and C.J. Burrow (2005). Diversity of tissues in acanthodians with Nostolepis-type histological structure. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(3). Zajic, J. (1995). Some Consequences of Recent Investigations on the Family Acanthodidae Huxley, 1861. GeoBios, Number 19. General Primitive Fish Brazeau, M.D. (2012). A Revision of the Anatomy of the Early Devonian Jawed Vertebrate Ptomacanthus anglicus Miles. Palaeontology, Vol.55, Part 2. Broad, D.S. (1968). Lower Devonian Heterostraci from the Peel Sound Formation, Prince of Wales Island, Northwest Territories. Masters Thesis - University of Ottawa. Smith, M.M. and I.J. Sansom (1997). Exoskeletal Micro-Remains of an Ordovician Fish from the Harding Sandstone of Colorado. Palaeontology, Vol.40, Part 3.
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