Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'plants'.



More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
    Tags should be keywords or key phrases. e.g. carcharodon, pliocene, cypresshead formation, florida.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


Forums

  • Fossil Discussion
    • General Fossil Discussion
    • Fossil Hunting Trips
    • Fossil ID
    • Is It Real? How to Recognize Fossil Fabrications
    • Partners in Paleontology - Member Contributions to Science
    • Questions & Answers
    • Fossil of the Month
    • Member Collections
    • A Trip to the Museum
    • Paleo Re-creations
    • Collecting Gear
    • Fossil Preparation
    • Member Fossil Trades Bulletin Board
    • Member-to-Member Fossil Sales
    • Fossil News
  • Gallery
  • Fossil Sites
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Australia - New Zealand
    • Canada
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • South America
    • United States
  • Fossil Media
    • Members Websites
    • Fossils On The Web
    • Fossil Photography
    • Fossil Literature
    • Documents

Blogs

  • Anson's Blog
  • Mudding Around
  • Nicholas' Blog
  • dinosaur50's Blog
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • Seldom's Blog
  • tracer's tidbits
  • Sacredsin's Blog
  • fossilfacetheprospector's Blog
  • jax world
  • echinoman's Blog
  • Ammonoidea
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • Adventures with a Paddle
  • Caveat emptor
  • -------
  • Fig Rocks' Blog
  • placoderms
  • mosasaurs
  • ozzyrules244's Blog
  • Sir Knightia's Blog
  • Terry Dactyll's Blog
  • shakinchevy2008's Blog
  • MaHa's Blog
  • Stratio's Blog
  • ROOKMANDON's Blog
  • Phoenixflood's Blog
  • Brett Breakin' Rocks' Blog
  • Seattleguy's Blog
  • jkfoam's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Lindsey's Blog
  • marksfossils' Blog
  • ibanda89's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Back of Beyond
  • St. Johns River Shark Teeth/Florida
  • Ameenah's Blog
  • gordon's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • Pennsylvania Perspectives
  • michigantim's Blog
  • michigantim's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • GPeach129's Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • Olenellus' Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • maybe a nest fossil?
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • bear-dog's Blog
  • javidal's Blog
  • Digging America
  • John Sun's Blog
  • John Sun's Blog
  • Ravsiden's Blog
  • Jurassic park
  • The Hunt for Fossils
  • The Fury's Grand Blog
  • julie's ??
  • Hunt'n 'odonts!
  • falcondob's Blog
  • Monkeyfuss' Blog
  • cyndy's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • nola's Blog
  • mercyrcfans88's Blog
  • Emily's PRI Adventure
  • trilobite guy's Blog
  • xenacanthus' Blog
  • barnes' Blog
  • myfossiltrips.blogspot.com
  • HeritageFossils' Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Emily's MotE Adventure
  • farfarawy's Blog
  • Microfossil Mania!
  • A Novice Geologist
  • Southern Comfort
  • Eli's Blog
  • andreas' Blog
  • Recent Collecting Trips
  • retired blog
  • Stocksdale's Blog
  • andreas' Blog test
  • fossilman7's Blog
  • Books I have enjoyed
  • Piranha Blog
  • xonenine's blog
  • xonenine's Blog
  • Fossil collecting and SAFETY
  • Detrius
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Kehbe's Kwips
  • RomanK's Blog
  • Prehistoric Planet Trilogy
  • mikeymig's Blog
  • Western NY Explorer's Blog
  • Regg Cato's Blog
  • VisionXray23's Blog
  • Carcharodontosaurus' Blog
  • What is the largest dragonfly fossil? What are the top contenders?
  • Hihimanu Hale
  • Test Blog
  • jsnrice's blog
  • Lise MacFadden's Poetry Blog
  • BluffCountryFossils Adventure Blog
  • meadow's Blog
  • Makeing The Unlikley Happen
  • KansasFossilHunter's Blog
  • DarrenElliot's Blog
  • jesus' Blog
  • A Mesozoic Mosaic
  • Dinosaur comic
  • Zookeeperfossils
  • Cameronballislife31's Blog
  • My Blog
  • TomKoss' Blog
  • A guide to calcanea and astragali
  • Group Blog Test
  • Paleo Rantings of a Blockhead
  • Dead Dino is Art
  • The Amber Blog
  • TyrannosaurusRex's Facts
  • PaleoWilliam's Blog
  • The Paleo-Tourist
  • The Community Post
  • Lyndon D Agate Johnson's Blog
  • BRobinson7's Blog
  • Eastern NC Trip Reports
  • Toofuntahh's Blog
  • Pterodactyl's Blog
  • A Beginner's Foray into Fossiling
  • Micropaleontology blog
  • Pondering on Dinosaurs
  • Fossil Preparation Blog
  • On Dinosaurs and Media
  • cheney416's fossil story
  • jpc
  • Red-Headed Red-Neck Rock-Hound w/ My Trusty HellHound Cerberus
  • Red Headed
  • Paleo-Profiles
  • Walt's Blog
  • Between A Rock And A Hard Place
  • Rudist digging at "Point 25", St. Bartholomä, Styria, Austria (Campanian, Gosau-group)
  • Prognathodon saturator 101

Calendars

  • Calendar

Categories

  • Annelids
  • Arthropods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
    • Trilobites
    • Other Arthropods
  • Brachiopods
  • Cnidarians (Corals, Jellyfish, Conulariids )
    • Corals
    • Jellyfish, Conulariids, etc.
  • Echinoderms
    • Crinoids & Blastoids
    • Echinoids
    • Other Echinoderms
    • Starfish and Brittlestars
  • Forams
  • Graptolites
  • Molluscs
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods (Ammonites, Belemnites, Nautiloids)
    • Gastropods
    • Other Molluscs
  • Sponges
  • Bryozoans
  • Other Invertebrates
  • Ichnofossils
  • Plants
  • Chordata
    • Amphibians & Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Dinosaurs
    • Fishes
    • Mammals
    • Sharks & Rays
    • Other Chordates
  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 211 results

  1. Taking advantage of my time spent home, I finally got a couple of glass display cases to showcase fossil specimens from my collection. Finding ones that were affordable and blended with the style of our home, was challenge, and I took my time choosing. Despite a bit of criticism I receive from some of my fossil collecting friends, I am a generalist collector who doesn't specialize in anything. Having said that, my collection does feature some rare faunas; Devonian and Cretaceous bivalves, Lower and Middle Devonian brachiopods and gastropods, Cretaceous vertebrates, etc. The focus is largely on fossils of the Northeast (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Maryland, and Eastern Canada), but a number of trips to the Ohio Valley, Texas, out west, and Germany have expanded my collection which is about 90% self collected with remaining fossils primarily gifts from generous friends. There is only one purchased fossil in the display and one I traded for. I ended up with twelves shelves- ten devoted to animal life (seven of those are invertebrates), and two for plants. I was seeking to emulate the old style of specimen display that one might encounter in a 19th century museum, when displaying specimens was the priority. I didn't and couldn't display my entire collection which is too large, so I picked representative specimens to tell the story of the vast variety of prehistoric life on earth. Some of my best specimens didn't make it into the display. These are the cases which are situated in our finished basement:
  2. Hi all Im trying to label the morphological parts of a Lepidodendron stem in thin section for my course. I have found a half decent resource online BUT it is unreadable due to the resolution. I was wondering if anyone was confident enough to clear up the labelling lines for me? pic attached. cheers
  3. New hunt yesterday to find carboniferous fossils few sigillaria barks A lepidodendron bark A neuropteris plate
  4. I recently found several fossil plant impressions inside nodules from Indiana coal mine spoil dumps. It is Pennsylvanian age approximately 300 mya. Please help identify the specimens to genus, and species if possible. Thanks!
  5. PALAEOBOTANY HELP

    Hi all I was wondering if anyone knew of any good sources- online or otherwise- for pictures (HD would be amazing) of plant fossils in various forms of preservation i.e. compression, cast/mould, permineralisation etc. Any help much appreciated!
  6. My youngest son had to go to Denver to pick up a piece of equipment for his business, and like me, he decided to go the round about way and do some fossil hunting along the way. Him and his buddy went to Bonanza and spent 3 days looking and digging around. It took them awhile, he said they didnt find much of anything the first day, just wasting time digging holes, but then ran into a layer that had some decent stuff in it and kept following that layer for about 30 or 40 feet. They also found some insects and one very cool flower. I wish I took a photo of that. I will post more as i get some of this stuff prepped out. RB Here is a cute little leaf. If you look closely you can see where I prepped out the tips of three places and then I prepped out the stem. Came out purty dang good! It still has to be cut with the water saw but just about done. I will be posting more but have to prep it out first.
  7. Yesterday (Saturday, Aug. 22nd), I went fossil hunting in Ellsworth County, Kansas again for elusive Dakota Sandstone leaves and unfortunately it's mostly a bust, just like the previous trip. Despite that, I enjoyed the scenery and found some odd rocks and few fossils from new sites. A new site produced a few small plates containing woody and plant material fragments. I decided not to keep them. Closer views... Remember that interesting sandstone from the previous trip? I regretted for not taking it home so I took another opportunity and revisited the old site to get that rock! The back of this rock is quite smooth and flat, I think it would be great to have it hang up on the wall, but I'm actually not sure how I will display it. Looking at it is like reading a 3D map! It's the only object I brought home from this trip. It's peaceful out there and the views of the Smoky Hills never gets old. ...continued on the next post.
  8. Miocene Plants Predict Future.

    https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-53842626
  9. Carboniferous plants 1 Eusphenopteris striata Gothan Westphalian Calonne Ricouart France 2 Sphenophyllum(Annularia) Westphalian Calonne Ricouart France 3 Neuropteris and Alethopteris Deccurens Westphalian Calonne Ricouart France 4a Eusphenopteris 4b Pecopteris Westphalian Calonne Ricouart France Fortopteris latifolia Zeiller.and a stem on the reverse Mariopteris
  10. Leaf Stem in shale perhaps

    Went looking for ferns and plants today. Spent my lunch hour splitting shale nearby. This one caught my eye. The ghosted pattern around the stem is interesting. I feel like it’s part of it seeing how symmetrical it is. And ideas? Length of the stem part is 2 1/8” (Don’t have a metric ruler handy) To me, the bottom portion is the base, so the shape is confusing.
  11. My friend found this stone when she was togheter with me at an middle ordovician site. She wonder if it is real plants. Anyone have an idea? Thanka for any suggestion. MARTIN
  12. Fossil plant material?

    I had a hunch and stopped at a road cutting today just to have a quick peek. I am still trying to figure out the age. All of the photos where taken on sight and the specimens have been left there. So no other pics.
  13. For the last 4 years I have been collecting plant fossils from sites in East Central Illinois. These fossils were all brought to the surface by underground coal mining in the first half of the 20th century. Most of the spoil piles in the area have been graded or flattened out, but a few still remain, standing tall above the flatland. One particular pile is, I believe, the source of most or all of the fossils I find. The shale that makes up the spoil has been fired by the internal heat of the pile, resulting in the hard, reddish material known as "red dog". This shale is then crushed and used as paving material, on trails, parking lots, and construction sites in the area. It's at these secondary locations that I am able to search the material for the impressions of ancient plants and collect them. The shale is pretty smashed up, so complete or large fossils are rare, but the preservation of detail is generally quite good. Geologically, the fossils come from the Energy Shale Member of the late Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation.
  14. Fossil roots?

    Found in a stream in Gloucestershire. note: does not carry on on other side.
  15. Hello all Since I can't go to school for a couple of weeks I have time to catch up with some ID's. Most of these plants and pieces of wood have been in my collection for years, thinking it's impossible to ID these because of lack of location. All of these come from old collections without labelling. I know next to nothing about plants or wood. 1: No location at all. Piece is about 10 cm wide. I am not 100% this is actually wood and not just a mineral, but I think these are growth rings. 2: This piece has been in my family for the past 3 generations, without any info. About 10 cm wide. 3: Nothing is known about this piece. It's very heavy. About 16 cm. 4: Also nothing is known about this piece. I think this is called Calamites, but again not sure. It's very long (I have a joining piece so total length is about 15 cm) and thin. 5: Also no location. Largest fern piece is about 7 cm in length.
  16. Help request! I am putting together a tool for judging rock age based on very crude, whole-rock, hand-sample observations of fossil faunas/floras -- the types of observations a child or beginner could successfully make. I view this as a complement to the very fine, species-level identifications commonly employed as index fossils for individual stages, biozones, etc. Attached is what I've got so far, but I can clearly use help with corals, mollusks, plants, vertebrates, ichnofossils, and the post-Paleozoic In the attached file, vibrant orange indicates times in earth history to commonly observe the item of interest; paler orange indicates times in earth history to less commonly observe the item of interest. White indicates very little to no practical probability of observing the item of interest. Please keep in mind that the listed indicators are things like “conspicuous horn corals,” purposefully declining to address rare encounters with groups of low preservation potential, low recognizability, etc. Got additions/amendments, especially for the groups mentioned above? Toss them in the comments below! Thank you..... https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1tVm_u6v573V4NACrdebb_1OsBEAz60dS1m4pCTckgyA
  17. Ferns and More Ferns

    Little intro into why this find was important, when young we played and hunted in the old coal mine pits, I would shift through the slate and find fossils and throw them aside as then I didn’t care. Today I met a man who’s company owns mineral rights to all those places I used to go to. After he does his work he walks around the slate and picks up fossils. I bought a couple from him but then he started giving me a lot of them. I have this nice collection in hand now of ferns and different types of them. All this I remember from those days. i will have to post better pics of them later. he has two Huge plates I really wanted but he wouldn’t part with them. They actually had little footprints going across them. I been drooling over them ever since.
  18. Hi All. I was unsure where to put this message so hopefully this place is okay. I teach 7th grade Life Science and we are soon starting our coverage of major animal types (arthropods, echinoderms, molluscs, chordtates, etc). I am hoping to put together a teaching collection that can be used each year as we do this. If there are members here who are willing to donate any/all types of durable specimens (harder for young teens to destroy) that could be used to teach students the key features of these phyla. If you are willing and able to share can you please PM me directly. I do appreciate it :-)
  19. Help request! I am putting together a tool for judging rock age based on very crude, whole-rock, hand-sample observations of fossil faunas/floras -- the types of observations a child or beginner could successfully make. I view this as a complement to the very fine, species-level identifications commonly employed as index fossils for individual stages, biozones, etc. In this initial framework, vibrant orange indicates times in earth history to commonly observe the item of interest; paler orange indicates times in earth history to less commonly observe the item of interest. White indicates very little to no practical probability of observing the item of interest. Please keep in mind that the listed indicators are things like "conspicuous horn corals," purposefully declining to address rare encounters with groups of low preservation potential etc. Got additions/amendments? Toss them in the comments below! Thank you for your insight and assistance.....
  20. Early this winter morning,no rain in Northern France ,it was the time to make my last 2019 carboniferous hunt The first site With a good Annularia to start Few nice Pecopteris frond And a nice Eusphenopteris And a really good Alethopteris That was the main finds of this morning
  21. I bought a new old cabinet last winter and spent several months filling it with newly labeled specimens, most of them now stored in jewelry boxes. I took photos of it to show Tim, Fossildude19 and he suggested I post them in the Members Collections section. I followed his suggestion. The collection started in 2011 with a few fossil purchases off a well known public auction site. By the early spring of 2012 I was collecting in the field and the vast majority of my collection was self collected in that manner from sites, primarily in the Northeast and Ohio Valley as well as ones collected on trips to Texas, Germany and out west. There are also some gift specimens that I own thanks to the generosity of a number of friends, most of whom are on the Forum. The top of the cabinet is occupied by miscellaneous specimens, some that wouldn't fit in the drawers, some slated to be in a glass display case I hope to eventually get, and my collection of fossils found in New Jersey just above the Iridium Layer.
  22. Centralia's Bright White Ferns

    Deep in the heart of Pennsylvania's coal country runs the Carboniferous Lewellyn Formation. Once a vast tract of swampland, the area was home to 100 ft. tall Calamites (an extinct relative of modern herbaceous horsetails), giant tree ferns and other enormous plants, plus proportionally large insects. The conditions during the intervening millennia were just right for the plants to break down into iron-based minerals, including pyrophyllite and kaolinite, leaving a coating of white powder over the impressions in the rock. In rare spots, the iron minerals come in yellow, orange or red, too. All this makes the fossils stand out in sharp contrast to the dark, gray shale matrix. This is not a place for the timid. The shale is on a steep, slick slope covered in loose scree. The trees that look like good hand-holds are dead and rotten. Below the surface, fires burn in the coal veins, creating a sinkhole hazard all over the ghost town and on to the neighboring towns. However, the place I was hunting is definitely a beaten path these days, so there is probably a low risk of invisible disaster. I always say that no rock is worth your life, but that doesn't stop me from living a little dangerously. I went there for the first time last month. It was a short stop close to dusk. The fog was thick and the rocks were wet. The white powder was hard to make out in the gloom. Today, the light was good, the rocks were dry and the hunting was good!
  23. Hello everybody, My new museum tour focuses on the Geological and Palaeontological Museum of the University of Padua, Italy. I have visited more than 30 institutions in Italy, but this one remains my favourite. And it is generally acknowledged as having the most important collection of all the Italian universities. After seeing the pictures, I think that you'll agree with me!! The origin of the museum can be traced back to 1734 when the son of a professor donated his dead father's collections that were housed in a brand new natural sciences museum. in the following decades many more scholars helped to expand the collections. The museum moved in the present location, a XVII building decorated with frescoes, in 1932. After having been closed for many years, it reopened to the public in 2018. Unfortunately the whole invertebrate collection (more than 45.000 fossils) has been stored due to the building restoration. That's why only the plant and vertebrate collections can be visited, but nevertheless it is not short of surprises and amanzing specimens!! In this post I'll show you only the plant section. It is housed in a single large room and specimens are displayed like the XIX c. collections, but with modern equipment. It does nothing but enhance the astonishment. Padua is located 35 km west of Venice and 55 east of the Pesciara di Bolca, that is undoubtedly the most famous Italian palaeontological site (you can see specimens in the New york and Washington D.C. museums for example). it dates to the early Eocene and has yielded exceptionally well-preserved fishes, palm fruits and terrestrial and acquatic leafs. Most people don't know that around Bolca there are other important lagerstatten sites, with a similar age, that have yielded very different assemblages. For example in the Purga di Bolca, complete or isolated palm trunks and leafs have been found, as well as crocodiles and turtles. In the nearby province of Vicenza, an Oligocene outcrop preserves even more spectacular palm trees! I would have liked to explain in more detail the history of research in this areas and a description of flora and ancient environment, but it would take too long. If you are interested, I suggest you to read the most comprehensive and up-to-date work about the Bolca lagerstatten. You can download it for free from many sources. "CARNEVALE, G., et al. The Bolca Fossil-Lagerstätten: A Window into the Eocene World. 2014." Back, to Pauda, in the center of the room, plant specimens dating from the Carboniferous to the Pleistocene age and coming from all over Italy and other countries are exhibited. Now it's finaly time for the pictures!!! Let's start with two complete views of the room! It's impressive, isn't it? In the first case that I show you, you can see a wide range of plants from the Pesciara of Bolca, another outcrop near Bolca and from the province of Viceza: conifers, angiosperms, indeterminate specimens and horsetails. The close-up images are those of two conifers and of a horsetail. Next an undetermined plant showing inflorescences. In the Pesciara di Bolca, spectacular palm fruits can be found, some of them more than 30 cm (12 inch) long!! And now the amazing and almost breath-taking palm fronds! There are so many that you cannot take pictures of all of them, it would take so long!! Found from both in the Verona and Vicenza province, they show different stages of the growth of palms and and come from different parts of the plant. Of all of the aforementioned palm fronds, one stands out above all. It is actually a whole palm tree, 3 m (10 ft) tall. Definetely one of the most amazing fossil specimen that I've seen in any museum of the world. It belongs to the species "Latanites maximiliani" and was found in the Chiavon valley, Vicenza province. The next picture shows me (1,8 m or 5'9" tall) for size comparison. In the next post I'll explain to you the other plant exhibit. But first, enjoy this part!!
  24. Daring to Hunt Centralia Ferns

    I read @rachelgardner01 's trip report* recently on the fossil forum telling about St. Clair-style white fern fossils and how the ghost town was once again being visited by more than just the most reckless of thrill seekers. Not long ago, extremely few people dared to go beyond the new bypass for fear of falling into flaming sink holes. The place has become unregulated like the Wild West, with tourists coming from all over to see the “Highway to Hell” and ride their ATVs. The fire was reported to have burned out in town and moved down the coal vein. Clearly, no one is worried about sink holes. After a couple hours enjoying every ride with no lines at Knoebels Amusement Park on a very foggy, soggy day, we drove to Centralia for a little fun. What could be cooler than a ghost town on a foggy October day? And, by the way, after enjoying the romantic setting, maybe we could find the quarry. Rachel's trip report included a handy aerial map with the slope marked in red. It was a short walk from on of three cemeteries that are still maintained in town. All we had to do was follow the ATV tracks. We met a microbiologist while we walked. She was looking at the bacteria, comparing soil samples from places where the fire was out with samples from some hot spots above a fire that still exists deep below town (with surface soil temps around 80F). The bacteria present in the hot spots are out of balance. There is an overabundance of the wrong sort. However, in the spots that have cooled down, the balance has returned surprisingly quickly. And, by the way, she had a permit to be there. The town is still considered too unsafe for the general public, but it isn’t patrolled. Two lessons should be learned from this: 1. Nature always finds a way. 2. If the rocks I’m examining seem kind of warm, find someplace else to prospect! We found the quarry about an hour before sunset. We found ourselves at the top of steeply sloping walls covered in scree over smooth, slick, carbon shale. I watched my step, kept my center of gravity close to the ground, and tread carefully. I like sliding down scree-covered slopes, but not when I do it unintentionally. The fossils were plentiful! I saw calamites and lepidodendron all over the place. Some were bright white while others were gleaming gray on matte gray shale. Some had a single fern frond and others were a riot of plant textures. A few were coated pale yellow. The hard part was picking out the nicest ones to take home. I have been to this formation before. I made several trips to Carbondale, to the NE, over the last couple years. I missed my chance to go prospecting at St Clair ( a few miles to the SE ) as they closed the site to all but school groups a few years ago, but I do have some pieces that others collected before they closed. St Clair and Centralia both have the white ferns. Carbondale has the most detailed preservation. The ones there that are colored are yellow to deep red with a few that have iridescent spots. Centralia’s stone is the most crumbly and delicate, especially when damp. Although Centralia, St. Clair and Carbondale are all part of the Lewellen Formation and reasonably close to one another, there is a distinct difference in the stone at each locale. St Clair and Carbondale have firmer shales. I wanted to find things that I did not already have represented from Carbondale. That proved tricky in the short time I had, but I did find some nice white ferns to take home. Plus, I have a plan for another trip at some point with more time – maybe with some simple rappelling gear? Coincidentally, this month’s speaker for the Delaware Mineralogical Society was a geologist who participated in a study of the mineralization of St Clair plants. Here, then, are some of the highlights after I thought to take notes. Time period: Pennsylvanian Sub-period, 320-290 million years old The environment was a swampy area where the sediments settled slowly. The plants were minimally compressed during preservation, so the impressions are more or less the same size as the original biomatter. The silvery-gray material coating some of the plant impressions is graphite while the white is a combination of pyrophyllite and kaolinite after pyrite. When the swamp was buried, the thicker parts of the plants pyritized. Heat and pressure then transformed the pyrite into the white minerals, which settled to the bottom. The upper surfaces retained the carbon and became coated in glossy graphite. So, what one sees loose on the ground are a mix of upper and lower surfaces. *
×