Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'porifera'.

More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
    Tags should be keywords or key phrases. e.g. carcharodon, pliocene, cypresshead formation, florida.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


  • Fossil Discussion
    • General Fossil Discussion
    • Fossil Hunting Trips
    • Fossil ID
    • Is It Real? How to Recognize Fossil Fabrications
    • Partners in Paleontology - Member Contributions to Science
    • Questions & Answers
    • Fossil of the Month
    • Member Collections
    • A Trip to the Museum
    • Paleo Re-creations
    • Collecting Gear
    • Fossil Preparation
    • Member Fossil Trades Bulletin Board
    • Member-to-Member Fossil Sales
    • Fossil News
  • Gallery
  • Fossil Sites
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Australia - New Zealand
    • Canada
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • South America
    • United States
  • Fossil Media
    • Members Websites
    • Fossils On The Web
    • Fossil Photography
    • Fossil Literature
    • Documents


  • Anson's Blog
  • Mudding Around
  • Nicholas' Blog
  • dinosaur50's Blog
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • Seldom's Blog
  • tracer's tidbits
  • Sacredsin's Blog
  • fossilfacetheprospector's Blog
  • jax world
  • echinoman's Blog
  • Ammonoidea
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • Adventures with a Paddle
  • Caveat emptor
  • -------
  • Fig Rocks' Blog
  • placoderms
  • mosasaurs
  • ozzyrules244's Blog
  • Sir Knightia's Blog
  • Terry Dactyll's Blog
  • shakinchevy2008's Blog
  • MaHa's Blog
  • Stratio's Blog
  • Phoenixflood's Blog
  • Brett Breakin' Rocks' Blog
  • Seattleguy's Blog
  • jkfoam's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Lindsey's Blog
  • marksfossils' Blog
  • ibanda89's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Back of Beyond
  • St. Johns River Shark Teeth/Florida
  • Ameenah's Blog
  • gordon's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • Pennsylvania Perspectives
  • michigantim's Blog
  • michigantim's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • GPeach129's Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • Olenellus' Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • maybe a nest fossil?
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • bear-dog's Blog
  • javidal's Blog
  • Digging America
  • John Sun's Blog
  • John Sun's Blog
  • Ravsiden's Blog
  • Jurassic park
  • The Hunt for Fossils
  • The Fury's Grand Blog
  • julie's ??
  • Hunt'n 'odonts!
  • falcondob's Blog
  • Monkeyfuss' Blog
  • cyndy's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • nola's Blog
  • mercyrcfans88's Blog
  • Emily's PRI Adventure
  • trilobite guy's Blog
  • xenacanthus' Blog
  • barnes' Blog
  • myfossiltrips.blogspot.com
  • HeritageFossils' Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Emily's MotE Adventure
  • farfarawy's Blog
  • Microfossil Mania!
  • A Novice Geologist
  • Southern Comfort
  • Eli's Blog
  • andreas' Blog
  • Recent Collecting Trips
  • retired blog
  • Stocksdale's Blog
  • andreas' Blog test
  • fossilman7's Blog
  • Piranha Blog
  • xonenine's blog
  • xonenine's Blog
  • Fossil collecting and SAFETY
  • Detrius
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Kehbe's Kwips
  • RomanK's Blog
  • Prehistoric Planet Trilogy
  • mikeymig's Blog
  • Western NY Explorer's Blog
  • Regg Cato's Blog
  • VisionXray23's Blog
  • Carcharodontosaurus' Blog
  • What is the largest dragonfly fossil? What are the top contenders?
  • Hihimanu Hale
  • Test Blog
  • jsnrice's blog
  • Lise MacFadden's Poetry Blog
  • BluffCountryFossils Adventure Blog
  • meadow's Blog
  • Makeing The Unlikley Happen
  • KansasFossilHunter's Blog
  • DarrenElliot's Blog
  • jesus' Blog
  • A Mesozoic Mosaic
  • Dinosaur comic
  • Zookeeperfossils
  • Cameronballislife31's Blog
  • My Blog
  • TomKoss' Blog
  • A guide to calcanea and astragali
  • Group Blog Test
  • Paleo Rantings of a Blockhead
  • Dead Dino is Art
  • The Amber Blog
  • TyrannosaurusRex's Facts
  • PaleoWilliam's Blog
  • The Paleo-Tourist
  • The Community Post
  • Lyndon D Agate Johnson's Blog
  • BRobinson7's Blog
  • Eastern NC Trip Reports
  • Toofuntahh's Blog
  • Pterodactyl's Blog
  • A Beginner's Foray into Fossiling
  • Micropaleontology blog
  • Pondering on Dinosaurs
  • Fossil Preparation Blog
  • On Dinosaurs and Media
  • cheney416's fossil story
  • jpc
  • Red-Headed Red-Neck Rock-Hound w/ My Trusty HellHound Cerberus
  • Red Headed
  • Paleo-Profiles
  • Walt's Blog
  • Between A Rock And A Hard Place
  • Rudist digging at "Point 25", St. Bartholomä, Styria, Austria (Campanian, Gosau-group)
  • Prognathodon saturator 101


  • Calendar


  • Annelids
  • Arthropods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
    • Trilobites
    • Other Arthropods
  • Brachiopods
  • Cnidarians (Corals, Jellyfish, Conulariids )
    • Corals
    • Jellyfish, Conulariids, etc.
  • Echinoderms
    • Crinoids & Blastoids
    • Echinoids
    • Other Echinoderms
    • Starfish and Brittlestars
  • Forams
  • Graptolites
  • Molluscs
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods (Ammonites, Belemnites, Nautiloids)
    • Gastropods
    • Other Molluscs
  • Sponges
  • Bryozoans
  • Other Invertebrates
  • Ichnofossils
  • Plants
  • Chordata
    • Amphibians & Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Dinosaurs
    • Fishes
    • Mammals
    • Sharks & Rays
    • Other Chordates
  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 24 results

  1. Middle Devonian Stromatoporoids

    These fossil stromatoporoids came from the Traverse formation, Potter formation, Bell Shale, and antrim/dundee formation locations near the north eastern tip of the Mitt in Michigan USA.
  2. calcareous sponge spicules

    I have read that finding spicules preserved in sponge is quite rare. I am finding sponge fossils with what I believe are spicules, but the fossils seem to be all calcium carbonate, no silica. this seems to me to show the original sponge body was aragonite or calcite based. This was found on the north eastern side of the tip of the Mitt in Michigan The area is considered Middle Devonian, but these were found on the shore of Lake Huron, so there is also the possibility that they are glacial transports. Comments welcome.
  3. Missouri marine fossil ID

    Hello, Thanks to all for identifying my first of three 'mystery' fossil finds in Jackson County, Missouri. This second item keeps appearing in the chert used for landscaping at a building several decades old. As before I've been unable to identify it by photos on the internet for comparison. Any idea what they may be? I didn't want to break one in half and disturb the integrity of the piece. Thanks again.
  4. Missouri marine fossil ID

    Hello, I live near west Jackson County, Missouri. I found this fossil while I was walking my dog. It was part of the landscaping for the front of a building that has been there for 20 years or more. No one knows the origin of the material for the landscaping. Lots of reading, I found most of the chert in the landscaping has crinoids as a point of the time period, Devonian? Can't find any photos to compare it with on the internet, been trying for 2 months, a crash course on paleontology 101. I see Missouri in a different light from it all. Can this be identified? Thanks for the opportunity to share.
  5. Zumbergloverohrsreetalproxyporifer.2018online.pdf Demosponge steroid biomarker 26-methylstigmastane provides evidence for Neoproterozoic animals J. Alex Zumberge, Gordon D. Love, Paco Cárdenas , Erik A. Sperling, Sunithi Gunasekera, Megan Rohrssen, Emmanuelle Grosjean, John P. Grotzinger and Roger E. Summons Nature Ecology & Evolution 10.1038/s41559-018-0676 inherently interesting..
  6. Sponge on a stick...

    Hi again, Didn't think I should bother you guys with another sponge, but this is a bit peculiar and I can't find anything about sponges on sticks? This was found in the Kristianstad Basin, Cretaceous period. It is heavily erroded and mineralized, but probably a sponge. It seems to have a circular growth around what seems to be a stick of some sort. They seem proprotional, so I figure they grew together, but they might not be the same spieces? (the stick + the sponge). The images does not make the fossil justice, but it is a very voluminoes sponge with bulges that reminds of glass sponge. The stick is circular in the bottom and more flatt in the top. It might not have reached tremendous heights...? Questions: Would a sponge grow on a stick? Why would a sponge need to reach height if it is not drawing energy from sunlight? How would a sponge like this pump water? I can't find any "sucking holes" Shouldn't a sponge with sticks be more branching? More than one branch? All the best/ Linus
  7. Porifera indet.

    From the album Sponges, Kristianstad Basin

    Upper Campanian, Cretaceous I thought this was a Callopegma aucale, but now am unsure. (See discussion below) I've used this ref for identification ->LINK I've concluded from other sources that the area where this sponge was found - does indeed belong to the (lower) Upper Campanian. About 16cm at the base and 17.5cm at the diagonal.
  8. Help With Platteville Mystery Sponge

    I came across this unusual fossil on a recent collecting trip to Southwestern Wisconsin. It was attached to a hash plate containing mainly brachiopod fragments. It appears to be some type of sponge that I have never encountered before. It is roughly the size of a tennis ball with an opening at the top. There is also a smaller round opening on one side that might have been from predation. Any thoughts on what this might be?
  9. Hello, all! I'm working on an article presently about the existence of glass sponges in the Hamilton Group in New York state. The publications that I have found, most notably, The Great Glass-Sponge Colonies of the Devonian; Their Origin, Rise, and Disappearance, (Clarke, 1920)1 dispute their existence in the Hamilton group altogether. Recently, an example of an indet. Hexactinellida was presented to me from the site, and mention has been made of several others over the past 20 years having been found. I am wondering if anyone here in their vast array of experiences has encountered similar examples at the Penn Dixie site. If so, would you be willing to share photos and your information about where they were found? Thank you in advance! -J 1John M. Clarke, The Great Glass-Sponge Colonies of the Devonian; Their Origin, Rise, and Disappearance, 28 The Journal of Geology, 25-37 (1920)
  10. sponge reference

    Does anyone have access to this reference to help me ID Arizona Pennsylvanian sponges. Please PM me. Wewokella and other sponges from the Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation of north-central Colorado JK Rigby, SB Church Journal of Paleontology 67 (6), 909-916 Thanks, John
  11. Arizona Sponge

    I found a sponge in the Pennsylvanian Naco Formation north of Payson, Arizona. It may be the same species as an earlier find although instead of pancake form it is a conical form: http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/82186-knocking-about-the-naco-pennsylvanian-sponges-and-corals/&tab=comments#comment-871386 The first photo is of the convex outer surface. Part of top is broken off. Longest length of the sponge is 8cm. Any ideas as to identity? @Arizona Chris See photos in additional posts since I am doing this on a phone and cannot reduce file size.
  12. From the Great Limestone, Pendleian (Upper Mississippian) of County Durham, UK. One for @Spongy Joe and any other sponge experts out there. There appear to be no sponges (apart from Chaetetes) recorded from this well researched limestone but I've collected over thirty over the past few years. There are several different types, generally fossilised as broken fragments though these can be quite large (several inches across). This one is a curved sheet, like part of a vase or dish, about 10 - 15mm thick. The outer (convex) layer contains a good proportion of spicules showing five (and a few six) rays so could it be a heteractinid of some sort? The preservation is mostly calcite, perhaps original. Scale bar is 1cm long. Vertical section, showing disposition of tangential sections below. (specimen no. Sp. 13) Tangential section, cutting through outer surface on right and bottom (the orange layer, with smaller spicules than the internal ones). Closeups of tangential sections. Several five rayed spicules are visible along the edges (i.e. in the outer layer).
  13. part one cavaliersmithrslrstb20150476.pdf (less than 0,8 Mb) The name of the author, one of the big thinkers on the phylogenies of several phyla,was one of the things that attracted me to this piece part two:the response DufourMcIlroydiscussommerslcambrianeventexplosioediaca2017.pdf less than 1 Mb outtake: outtake from the response:
  14. BrainravediacarFirst(2012).pdf edit: about 3,8 Mb Notice the array of imaging techniques "Cyrogenian" is,of course,a typo Highly recommended to all those interested in early metazoan life Namibia is renowned(ever since the pioneering work of Hans Pflug)for its Neoproterozoic fossils Poriferan chemofossils had indicated the possibility of Precambrian porifera (Brasier et al/Geol.,1997):
  15. Not settled yet

    I consider this important insofar as the various reasons for ,and processes involved in,marine invertebrate settlement are still being elucidated. uedanitrogenporiferasrep37546.pdf A must read for those with an interest in marine (paleo)-ecology Recommended for the deliciously informative fig.7 alone. 2,8 Mb,and it's from THAT journal
  16. what is this sponge

    Found it in Oligocene strata in Mississippi. Bay Springs, MS
  17. Spongebob Rex

    I posted once before on cladorhizids. A single image this time. Note scale and to show the difference between a dredged and an in-place Chondrocladia
  18. odd looking sponge

    A carnivorous sponge. "Spongezilla" came to my mind. chonporifbathymel 2012.pdf
  19. I need to identify this sponge. Waccamaw fm., Pliocene from Brunswick County, North Carolina Thats all I have to go on. If you know this species/genus or know someone who might I would appreciate it. Regards, Jim Wyatt Houston, Texas
  20. Jurassic sponge

    Cracov is full of Jurassic sponges in the walls. Can you tell more about this one? Could it be a sphinctozoan?
  21. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 2, 2018. Chancelloriidae (Affinity Uncertain) Mehl, D. (1998). Porifera and Chancelloriidae from the Middle Cambrian of the Georgina Basin, Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 6. Serezhnikova, E. and A.Y. Ivantsov (2007). Fedomia mikhaili - A new spicule-bearing organism of sponge grade from the Vendian (Ediacaran) of the White Sea, Russia. Palaeoworld, 16. Phylum Porifera - Sponges Class Calcarea - Calcareous Sponges Botting, J.P. and N.J. Butterfield (2005). Reconstructing early sponge relationships by using the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia globosa, Walcott. PNAS, Vol.102. Number 5. Finks, R.M. (1995). Some New Genera of Paleozoic Calcareous Sponges. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Number 6. (Download from site.) Kozur, H.W., H. Mostler and J.E. Repetski (2008). A New Heteractinellid Calcareous Sponge from the Lowermost Ordovician of Nevada and a Discussion of the Suborder Heteractinellidae. Geo.Alp, Vol.5, S. Mehl, D. and J. Reitner (1996). Observations of Astraeospongium meniscum (Roemer, 1848) from the Silurian of western Tennessee: morphology and palaeobiology of the Astraeospongiidae (Calcarea, Heteractinellidae). Berliner Geowiss. Abh., E 18. Wells, J.W. A New Species of Astraeospongia from the Middle Devonian of Ohio. Class Demospongiae Blissett, D.J., R.K. Pickerill and J.K. Rigby (2006). A New Species of Boring Sponge from the White Limestone Group, Jamaica. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.42, Number 2. Botting, J.P., P. Cardenas and J.S. Peel (2014). A Crown-Group Demosponge from the Early Cambrian Sirius Passet Biota, North Greenland. Palaeontology, 58(1). Botting, J.P., L.A. Muir and J.-P. Lin (2013). Relationships of the Cambrian Protomonaxonida (Porifra). Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.16, Issue 2. Brustur, T., P. Tibuleac and C. Costea (2007). A Possible Horny Sponge (Demospongia, Keratosida) from the Eastern Carpathian Outer Flysch (Romania). Geo-Eco-Marina, 13. Ehrlich, H., et al. (2013). Discovery of 505-million-year-old chitin in the basal demosponge Vauxia gracilenta. Scientific Reports, 3:3497. Garcia-Bellido, D.C. (2003). The demosponge Leptomitus cf. L. lineatus, first occurrence from the Middle Cambrian of Spain (Murero Formation, Western Iberian Chain). Geologica Acta, Vol.1, Number 1. Garcia-Bellido, D.C., et al. (2011). First report of Crumillospongia (Demospongea) from the Cambrian of Europe (Murero biota, Spain). Bulletin of Geosciences, 86(3). Garcia-Bellido, D.C., et al. (2007). The Demosponge Genus Leptomitus and a New Species from the Middle Cambrian of Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.50, Part 2. Hoare, R.D. (1978). Report of a Pennsylvanian Sponge New to Ohio: Heliospongia ramosa Girty (Demospongia: Heliospongiidae). Ohio J.Sci., 78(6). Johns, R.A. (1994). Ordovician Lithistid Sponges of the Great Basin. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, NBMG Open-File Report 94-1. Kozur, H.W., H. Mostler and J.E. Repetski (1996). 'Modern' Siliceous Sponges from the Lowermost Ordovician (Early Ibexian - Early Tremadocian) Windfall Formation of the Antelope Range, Eureka County, Nevada, USA. Geol.Palaont.Mitt. Innsbruck, Vol.21. Pisera, A. (2000). New species of lithistid sponges from the Paleogene of the Ukraine. Zoosystema, 22(2). Reitner, J. and G. Worheide (2002). Non-Lithistid Fossil Demospongiae - Origins of their Palaeobiodiversity and Highlights in History of Preservation. In: Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. Hooper, J.N.A. and R.W.M. Van Soest (eds.), Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. Rhebergen, F. (2014). A new Late Ordovician erratic anthaspidellid sponge (Porifera) originating from Baltica. Scripta Geologica, 146. Rhebergen, F. (2011). Short note on three species of Orchocladina (Demospongea, Porifera). Scripta Geologica, 143. Rhebergen, F., A. Munnecke and E. Jarochowska (2016). First report of Archaeoscyphia rectilinearis (Porifera) from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden. GFF, Vol.0. Rigby, J.K. and V. Gunther (2003). The Largest and Oldest Known Choia hindei (Dawson), From the Middle Cambrian of the House Range, Western Utah. BYU Geology Studies 2003, Vol.47. Rigby, J.K. and J.K. Gilland (1977). A New Fossil Sponge from the Ordovician Garden City Limestone of Southeastern Idaho. Great Basin Naturalist, Vol.37, Number 4. Senowbari-Daryan, B. and V. Zamparelli (2003). Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) New Thalamid Sponges from Northern Calabria (Southern Italy). Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia, XLVIII, 2. Senowbari-Daryan, B. and G.D. Stanley (1992). Late Triassic Thalamid Sponges from Nevada. J.Paleont., 66(2). Class Hexactinellida Botting, J.P. and L.A. Muir (2014). First post-Cambrian records of the reticulosan sponges Valospongia and Hintzespongia from the late Tremadocian of North Wales. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(1). Botting, J.P. and L.A. Muir (2011). A new Middle Ordovician (late Daphingian) hexactinellid sponge from Cumbria, UK. Geological Journal, 46. Botting, J.P., et al. (2013). An enigmatic, possibly chemosymbiotic, hexactinellid sponge from the early Cambrian of South China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Bruckner, A. and D. Janussen (2003). The First Fossil Rossella (Porifera, Hexactinellida) from the Upper Cretaceous (Coniac) of Bornholm (Denmark) and Problems of Classification Within the Fossil Lyssacinosa. Ber.Inst.Geol.Palaont. K.-F.-Univ., Graz, Vol.7. Carter, H.J. (1879). On Holasterella, a Fossil Sponge of the Carboniferous Era, and on Hemiasterella, a new Genus of Recent Sponges. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 3. Carrera, M.G. and J.J. Rustan (2015). The new genus Talacastospongia: insights on the first record of a Devonian sponge from South America. Journal of Paleontology, 89(6). Chen, A.-L., et al. (2015). New articulated protospongiid sponges from the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota. Palaeoworld, 24. Harvey, T.H.P. (2010). Carbonaceous preservation of Cambrian hexactinellid sponge spicules. Biol.Lett. (2010), 6. Janussen, D. (2014). The second fossil Hyalonema species (Porifera: Hexactinellida), from the Late Cretaceous Arnager limestone, Bornholm, Denmark. Göttingen Contributions to Geosciences, 77. Mergl, M. (2008). The hexactinellid sponge Cyathophycus from the Lower Ordovician Klabava Formation of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic. Bulletin of Geosciences, 83(2). Nose, M., et al. (2014). First record of chambered hexactinellid sponges from the Palaeozoic. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Class Homoscleromorpha Wilson, E.C. (1986). The First Tertiary Sclerosponge from the Americas. Palaeontology, Vol.29, Part 3. Class Stromatoporoidea Galloway, J.J. and G.M. Ehlers (1960). Some Middle Devonian Stromatoporoids from Michigan and Southwestern Ontario, Including the Types Described By Alexander Winchell and A.W. Grabau. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XV, Number 4. Stearn, C.W. (1997). Intraspecific Variation, Diversity, Revised Systematics and Type of the Devonian Stromatoporoid, Amphipora. Palaeontology, Vol.40, Part 3. Wolniewicz, P. (2012). Stromatoporoid diversity in the Devonian of the Ardennes: a reinterpretation. Geologica Belgica, 15/1-2. Class Undefined Botting, J.P. (2012). Reassessment of the problematic Burgess Shale sponge Takakkawia lineata Walcott, 1920. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 49(9). General Porifera Porifera - Africa/Middle East Botting, J.P. (2016). Diversity and ecology of sponges in the Early Ordovician Fezouata Biota, Morocco. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 460. Rigby, J.K. and B. Senowbari-Daryan (1995). Upper Permian Inozoid, Demospongid, Hexactinillid Sponges from Djebel Tebega, Tunisia. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, New Series, Number 7. (Download from site) Porifera - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Forchielli, A., et al. (2012). Taphonomy of Cambrian (Stage 3/4) sponges from Yunnan (South China). Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(1). Li, L., et al. (2015). Unusual Deep Water sponge assemblage in South China - Witness of the end-Ordovician mass extinction. Scientific Reports, 5:16060. Stiller, F. (1998). Sponges from the lower Upper Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Bangtoupo near Qingyan, SW-China. Munster Forsch.Geol.Palaont., 85. Zhang, X.-g. and B.R. Pratt (1994). New and extraordinary Early Cambrian sponge spicule assemblage from China. Geology, Vol.22. Porifera - Australia/New Zealand Kruse, P.D. (1996). Update on the northern Australian Cambrian sponges Rankenella, Jawonya and Wagima. Alcheringa, 20. Lukowiak, M.A. (2016). Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene 'soft' sponges. Contributions to Zoology, 85(1). Lukowiak, M.A. (2015). Late Eocene siliceous sponge fauna of southern Australia: reconstruction based on loose spicules record. Zootaxa, 3917(1). Mehl, D. (1998). Porifera and Chancelloriidae from the Middle Cambrian of the Georgina Basin, Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 6. Porifera - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Bak, M., Z. Gorny and K. Bak (2015). Sponge growth on the Cenomanian carbonate shelves of the Carpathian Basin: a record from spicule-rich turbidites. Bulletin of Geosciences, 90(3). Botting, J.P. (2004). An exceptional Caradoc sponge fauna from the Llanfawr Quarries, Central Wales and phylogenetic implications. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 2(1). Castellani, C., et al. (2012). Isolated sponge spicules from the late Cambrian Alum Shale Formation ('Orsten' nodules) of Sweden. Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(3). Olszewska-Nejbert, D. and E. Swierczewska-Gladysz (2009). The phosphatized sponges from the Santonian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Wielkanoc Quarry (southern Poland) as a tool in stratigraphical and environmental studies. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.59, Number 4. Rhebergen, F. (2009). Ordovician sponges (Porifera) and other silicifications from Baltica in Neogene and Pleistocene fluvial deposits of the Netherlands and northern Germany. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 58(1). Rushton, A.W.A. and W.E.A. Phillips (1973). A Protospongia from the Dalradian of Clare Island, Co. Mayo, Ireland. Palaeontology, Vol.16, Part 2. Ungureanu, D. and E. Barbu (2004). Endemic Features of the Upper Jurassic Sponges in the Western Central Dobrogea (Atarnati-Cechirgea Perimeter). Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, Vol. Porifera - North America Botting, J.P. and N.J. Butterfield (2005). Reconstructing early sponge relationships by using the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia globosa, Walcott. PNAS, Vol.102, Number 5. Branson, C.C. (1966). Fossil Freshwater Sponges in Oklahoma. Proc. of the Okla.Acad. of Sci, Section B, Geology. King, R.H. (1932). A Pennsylvanian Sponge Fauna from Wise County, Texas. In: Contributions to Geology, 1932. University of Texas Bulletin 3201. (Note: the download includes the entire bulletin. The article on Pennsylvanian Sponges is on pages 52-62 of the pdf file. Rigby, J.K. and R.H. Mapes (2000). Some Pennsylvanian and Permian Sponges from Southwestern Oklahoma and North-Central Texas. In: Brigham Young University Geologyl Studies. Ritter, S. (ed.), Vol.45. (Thanks to DPS Ammonite for locating this one!) Rigby, J.K. and P.M. Myrow (1999). Lower Ordovician Sponges from the Manitou Formation in Central Colorado. In: Brigham Young University Geology Studies. Kowallis, B.J. (ed.), Vol.44. Rigby, J.K. and M.H. Nitecki (1968). Annotated Bibliography of Lower Paleozoic Sponges of North America. Fieldiana: Geology, Vol.18, Number 1. Rigby, J.K., R.B. Blodgett and B.B. Britt (2008). Ordovician sponges from west-central and east-central Alaska and western Yukon Territory, Canada. Bulletin of Geosciences, 83(2). Rigby, J.K., A.W. Potter and N.K. Anderson (2008). Ordovician sponges from the Montgomery Limestone, Taylorsville area, northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Bulletin of Geosciences, 83(3). Rigby, J.K., C.B. Linford and D.V. Lemone (1999). Sponges from the Ibexian (Ordovician) McKelligon Canyon and Victoria Hills Formations in the Southern Franklin Mountains, Texas. In: Brigham Young University Geology Studies. Kowallis, B.J. (ed.), Vol.44. (Thanks to DPS Ammonite for pointing me to this one!) Rigby, J.K., B. Senowbari-Daryan and H. Liu (1998). Sponges of the Permian Upper Capitan Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas. In: Brigham Young Geology Studies. B.J. Kowallis (ed.), Vol.43. (Thanks to DPS Ammonite for finding this one!) Tihansky, A.B. and K.J. Cunningham (2007). Newly Discovered Fossil Sponges Share Scientific Secrets About Miami's Ancient Marine Environment. USGS Sound Waves, Volume FY 2007, Issue 95. Whitfield, R.P. (1905). Descriptions of New Fossil Sponges from the Hamilton Group of Indiana. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XXI, Article XVII. Porifera - South America/Central America/Caribbean Beresi, M.S. (2007). Fossil sponges of Argentina: a review. Porifera Research: Biodiversity, Innovation and Sustainability. Beresi, M.S. (2003). Cambrian sponge spicules and Chancelloriid sclerites from the Argentine Precordillera: A review. Geologica Acta, Vol.1, Number 1. McMenamin, M.A.S. (2008). Early Cambrian sponge spicules from the Cerro Clemente and Cerro Rajon, Sonora, Mexico. Geologica Acta, Vol.6, Number 4. Pisera, A., M. Martinez and H. Santos (2006). Late Cretaceous Siliceous Sponges from El Rayo Formation, Puerto Rico. J.Paleont., 80(3). Ritterbush, K.A., et al. (2015). Andean sponges reveal long-term benthic ecosystem shifts following the end-Triassic mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 420. General Porifera Antcliffe, J.B., R.H.T. Callow and M.D. Brasier (2014). Giving the early fossil record of sponges a squeeze. Biological Reviews, 2014. Borchiellini, C., et al. (2001). Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa. J.Evol.Biol., 14. Botting, J.P., X. Yuan and J.-P. Lin (2014). Tetraradial symmetry in early poriferans. Chin.Sci.Bull., 59(7). Botting, J.P., L.A. Muir and J.-P. Lin (2013). Relationships of the Cambrian Protomonaxonida (Porifera). Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.16, Issue 2. Carrera, M.G. and J. Maletz (2014). Ordovician sponge spicules from Spitsbergen, Nevada and Newfoundland: new evidence for hexactinellid and demosponge early diversification. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.12, Number 8. Carrera, M.G. and J.K. Rigby (1999). Biogeography of Ordovician Sponges. J.Paleont., 73(1). Hooper, J.N.A. (2003). 'Sponguide' Guide to Sponge Collection and Identification. Queensland Museum. Hooper, J.N.A., R.W.M. van Soest and F. Debrenne (2002). Phylum Porifera Grant, 1836. In: Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. Hooper, J.N.A. and R.W.M. van Soest (eds.), Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. Reitner, J. and D. Mehl (1995). Early Paleozoic Diversification of Sponges: New Data and Evidences. Geol.Palaont.Mitt.Innsbruck, 20. Sperling, E.A., D. Pisani and K.J. Peterson (2007). Pofireran paraphyly and its implications for Precambrian palaeobiology. In: The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota. Vickers-Rich, P. and P. Komarower (eds.), Geological Society, London. Uriz, M.-J., et al. (2003). Siliceous Spicules and Skeleton Frameworks in Sponges: Origin, Diversity, Ultrastructural Patterns and Biological Functions. Microscopy Research and Techniques, 62. Walcott, C.D. (1920). Number 6.-Middle Cambrian Spongiae. In: Cambrian Geology and Paleontology IV. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.67, Number 6.