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Found 31 results

  1. I have recently obtained this Pennsylvanian Fossil Fern - Schuylkill County. Leaves on both sides of the plate. I have read that some plants on slate can peel. Is that something that tends to happen with this material? If so, what would I use to prevent this from happening? Thanks
  2. At my main fossil site, soft fossil driftwood is pretty common, buried in cretaceous mud. It is full clam borings. Some of it looks great when first dug up, even with the bark still on it. Unfortunately, as it dries it crumbles to fragments. I think it is full of pyrite. Does anyone know how to preserve wood like this?
  3. Okay so I have some questions on what you can and can't do with your typical trilobite in shale fossils. To help direct the discussion, I am interested in setting a small trilobite in silver as a gift. I make silver jewelry both using PMC (Precious Metal Clay) and traditional cutting and soldering. So, first question: Can you use high percentage (70% or higher) rubbing alcohol to clean all the dust and debris before sealing a trilobite? If not, what should I use? (I know you shouldn't use water) Question 2: What sealants can/should you use on a trilobite? I am looking for something that will be both waterproof and help prevent chipping. Question 3: Does anyone have any experience exposing them to high heat? It is common in jewelry making for heat to be involved, from both direct flame and indirect radiant heat. Is there any kind of precautions I should take and if so, what? What type of heat did you expose them to and what was the result? Different minerals act differently so remember we are talking about soft-medium shale. Question 4: Do you have any other advice or precautions you can give me regarding the use of fossil trilobites in/from shale matrix regarding their use in mixed media projects? The information I gather on this will help dictate my methods and help me create a plan for my project. There are many different ways I can do this and want to get a better idea of my options. Thanks. Picture is not of the exact trilobite to be used. It's just a reference for the kind of material/fossil I will be using.
  4. These have only been out of the water a very short time. Are there preservation steps that I should be taking or will they be fine if placed under glass and out of the sunlight? Thanks for any information.
  5. I got a soft slab of very nice Keichousaurus a a year ago. I keep it in a drawer at home, perhaps it’s too humid, I found that it’s broken into several pieces. Could anyone advise me how I could keep the soft slab without breaking? Shall I apply a layer of protective solution on the slab?
  6. I am going to feel bad if there is already a post with as much information as I am looking for, but I can't seem to find one. Essentially, I am having a hard time finding the proper consolidation materials. I have never prepped before, and I am going to be starting my first project this weekend. That being said, the extent of my knowledge of sealants comes from research on this forum. I am looking for the right materials to use (with or without acetone dilute) to keep my fossils from being damaged while working on some Moroccan matrix. I'm not finding anywhere reliable to purchase PVA B-15, Butvar, or anything of the sort. Is there a more easily accessible material I can work with? I need very little at this point in time, and not necessarily something expensive or overly high-quality as the items I will be working with are small and cheap. What are other alternatives that people use, and what are the benefits of each of them? I am eager to know all there is to know, and I've been slowly going down the list of each of the topics in this thread hoping to find what I'm looking for!
  7. Hi friend, I am working on a cluster of shark vertebrae and need advice on preservation. I have decided to clean up the whole sample and expose some of the fragments of different bones which are in the matrix surrounding the vertebrae. I need to stabilize the whole sample after I finish but I can't get here in Czech republic Butvar b76 as many people recommend. Can I use PARALOID B72 or AKEPOX 1005? Will I be able to apply paraloid with a brush and is it even suitable for this? Can you please advise or recommend other product?
  8. Butvar-76

    Hi Everyone, I recently decided to start preserving all of my pleistocene fossils and feel that Butvar-76 would be the best option. My problem is I can't find it anywhere. I contacted the Florida Paleontological Society and they said they don't carry it anymore. They recommended I either use Duco Cement in acetone or to look on the Museum Service Corporation website. On the Museum Service Corporation website it says that Butvar-76 has been discontinued, but they have an equivalent called B08SY Resin. Here's what they have listed: Butvar Resins White, free flowing powders. Generally soluble in alcohols, acetone and aromatic hydrocarbons. Forms films similar to polyvinyl acetate and is suggested as picture varnishes. Widely used to waterproof textiles. The films resist degradation by sunlight and heat. Average molecular weight is 30-34,000. Butvar B-76 has been discontinued. B08SY Resin is considered an equivalent resin to Butvar B-76, from a different supplier. It utilizes the same Polyvinyl Butyral resin as Butvar B-76. B08SY resin has the same solubility as Butvar B-76, but has a smaller grain size. Contact Museum Services Corporation for additional information, or to acquire a sample for testing purposes. F4503-001 B08SY 1 kilogram $34.00 F4504-001 B-79 1 kilogram $31.09 F4505-001 B-90 1 kilogram $25.08 F4501-001 B-98 1 kilogram $46.12 Has anyone bought B08SY or know where I can still get Butvar-76? If not, are there any consolidants that you would recommend using instead?
  9. I just recently bought one of my most expensive fossils and wanted to know if there's anything i need to do to prevent cracking / chipping. Its a partial antler of a Megaloceras giganteus . It came with a card saying it was treated for that but not to keep it in a room with a ton of humidity . anything else i should do , or is it going to be fine?
  10. Help with preservation

    I found a Mastadon tooth yesterday while walking a creek looking for Indian artifacts I need help preserving this correctly.
  11. I have been trying to find a reasonable solution for preserving St. Clair fossils, which are mineralized in white, yellow and orange colors. Cleaning with water dissolves the colors. Coating with most types of glue will also remove the color, turning white fossils to black! I experimented this week with decoupage, which seems to preserve the white mineralized fossils without changing them, and gives the specimen a glossy sheen. I am interested in this because the colors of St. Clair fossils are fairly robust, but can flake off over time, and may suffer from oxidation. My reason for posting is to ask if anyone has good reasons to NOT use decoupage to preserve and seal St. Clair fossil specimens? Here is a photo one the first one I tried, which is a small fragment - note the glossy sheen, and also how the color and detail was preserved. Decoupage looks milky when applied but dries clear. I want to verify that this is a good approach before trying this on larger speciments, some of which are 1 to 2 feet in size.
  12. I have a shell that I had found a while back and only now have I noticed that it has an outer layer that looks very similar to mother of pearl, this made the shell quite unique among many others that I had found, but sadly this layer is highly fragile and flakes off from any minor disturbances. I was wondering if there is any way to preserve this unique feature of the shell with some kind of coating before it is too late, any information is welcome. Thank you.
  13. Hello I present an interesting question that I'm not to confident to answer myself and am seeking help from the more knowledgeable. Since it seems like (from what I had seen) iron concretions can at rare times preserve certain fossils or traces in one way or another such as molluscs, brachopods, and such. Due to this would it be possible for material such as turtle shell scutes or maybe even croc scutes to turn up in such concretions in one way or another? (the pics are just snipets of general info that I came across online)
  14. Mosasaur fossil question

    Hey all. I’ve got a couple of quick newbie questions. My wife, who luckily is supportive of this new hobby of mine, decided to surprise me with some fossils from a reputable dealer to help jumpstart my collection, among them this Mosasaur tooth. I’ve not got any questions about it’s species (Prognathodon sp. if I’ve been reading all these posts I’ve been looking at right), and everything about it looks real. What I’m wondering is. A.) What are these two little circular inclusions in the matrix that I’ve circled? There’s one on each side, and they don’t look like natural rock. Fish vert maybe? And B.) Is there anything special I should do to help preserve this piece, as the climate here in Kentucky is vastly different from its original Moroccan home? I’ve read some people add fixatives, some don’t, some do on certain pieces. I just want to make sure that this piece which has lasted for millions of years lasts more than a few more. Thanks for all your help.
  15. Hadrosaur eggs and storage

    I was wondering what the best storage situation/environment is optimal as regards fossilized dinosaur eggs, especially hadrosaur eggs. Any advice would be appreciated.
  16. Long-term effects of shellac?

    I've heard that shellac is not commonly used to coat fossils and bones anymore because it doesn't hold up well over time. Does anyone know how long it typically takes for shellac to start darkening and cracking? Do you have an alternative you prefer? Thanks!
  17. We found a couple of sand dollar fossils in a hard matrix. From what I have read today I can’t get the hard matrix off without some special air tools. What should I do to preserve the specimens?
  18. Mastodon Tooth

    So I found this tooth over a decade ago while canoeing down a local river. I always have had little flakes coming off and I finally decided to see if I could find a way to keep it from falling apart. It is only flaking off from the root of the tooth. Any help would be appreciated.
  19. Curing a large mammoth tusk?

    I work at a small placer (gold) mine in the interior of Alaska, and we routinely find mammoth ivory. Sometimes just small pieces, sometimes complete tusks. I have purchased one from my employer, and try as I might, I have been unable to find any information on curing, or drying, the tusk before treating with butvar-76 or similar. This tusk is over nine feet long, weighs 85#, and is a beautiful specimen from a mature female wooly mammoth. The bark is a rich mahogany color, mottled with blue and ivory patches. It is obviously worth a small fortune, and I would like to preserve it as best as possible. Other tusks I have seen, will crack and deform as they dry. I want to minimize this as much as possible. I have heard of techniques such as banding with hose clamps, wrapping with burlap and keeping moist, even burying for a period of time, or a combination of these. What have others done with large tusks? How much moisture is acceptable before treating with acetone and butvar-76? Will the solution draw out moisture from deep inside the tusk, or will that water remain trapped there? This one has been out of the ground for less than two weeks. Thanks for any help! Here's another, my tusk is the one in the foreground.
  20. Hi guys, can someone please help me by telling me how to clean and preserve a mammoth tooth. My dad got this mammoth tooth from an archeologist about 20 years ago. In that time it was never cleaned and it is really dry and a bit crumbly. I would like to clean it and preserve it, it would be a shame to watch it turn to dust.
  21. Helllo friendly folks of the fossil forum, I have been searching for a coelacanth fossil on and off for years now. I finally found one that preserved all the characteristic fin "limbs" in profile from an Ebayer who acquired it while in Madagascar. I was pleased with the degree of preservation on both split halves. To my surprise, taking a hand lens to the more concave side revealed scale preservation. I know this is typical of bony fish with scutes like Gars from the Green River, WY - but! Is this unusually good for nodules in Madagascar? More to the point, am I keeping something away from the scientific eye that should be seeing this? I imagine 3-D scanning could reveal finer details for comparison to the living fossil ancestor today. Attached are photos taken with my iPhone and two photos through a regular light microscope at 2x magnification. Thank you for any advice or knowledge you may have on these classes of coelacanths. Warmly, Mark
  22. Ammonite preservation

    Part-timer here, always like to look at your beautifully preserved specimens! I collected a number of concretions and recently have had some time to hone my prepping skills....Some of the ammonites I am working with have an awesome mother-of-pearl look to their shell which tends to fade, dry and flake over time. What will preserve them? Is there something that I can do to them before air abrasion to avoid fracturing them? Here's a couple of pics.....my technique has been smash the concretion with a big hammer then look for specimens to work with, is there a better way?
  23. Fruitbat's PDF Library - Taphonomy

    These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 27, 2017 Taphonomy - Fossilization and Fossil Formation Taphonomy - Africa/Middle East El Albani, A., et al. (2014). The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy and Biodiversity. PLoS ONE, 9(6). Taphonomy - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Anderson, E.P., J.D. Schiffbauer and S. Xiao (2011). Taphonomic study of Ediacaran organic-walled fossils confirms the importance of clay minerals and pyrite in Burgess Shale-type preservation. Geology, Vol.39, Number 7. Cai, Y., et al. (2012). Preservational modes in the Ediacaran Gaojiashan Lagerstätte: Pyritization, aluminosilicification, and carbonaceous compression. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 326-328. (Author's personal copy) Forchielli, A., et al. (2014). Taphonomic traits of clay-hosted early Cambrian Burgess Shale-type fossil Lagerstätten in South China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 398. Mukherjee, D. and S. Ray (2012). Taphonomy of an Upper Triassic vertebrate bonebed: A new rhynchosaur (Reptilia; Archosauromorpha) accumulation from India. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 333-334. Taphonomy - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Beardmore, S.R. and H. Furrer (2016). Evidence of a preservational gradient in the skeletal taphonomy of Ichthyopterygia (Reptilia) from Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443. Domingo, M.S., et al. (2017). Taphonomy of mammalian fossil bones from the debris-flow deposits of Somosaugas-North (Middle Miocene, Madrid Basin, Spain). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 465. Kowal-Linka, M. (2015). Analysis of marrow cavity fillings as a tool to recognise diverse taphonomic histories of fossil reptile bones: Implications for the genesis of the Lower Muschelkalk marine bone-bearing bed (Middle Triassic, Zyglin, S Poland). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 436. Weitschat, W., et al. (2002). Taphocoenosis of an extraordinary arthropod community in Baltic amber. Mitt.Geol.-Palaont.Inst.Univ. Hamburg, Vol.86. Yesares-Garcia, J. and J. Aguirre (2004). Quantitative taphonomic analysis and taphofacies in lower Pliocene temperate carbonate-slicicilastic mixed platform deposits (Almeria-Nijar basin, SE Spain). Palaeogeoraphy, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207. Taphonomy - North America Allen, J.P. and R.A. Gastaldo (2006). Sedimentology and taphonomy of the Early to Middle Devonian plant-bearing beds of the Trout Valley Formation, Maine. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 399. Caron, J.-B. and D.A. Jackson (2006). Taphonomy of the Greater Phyllopod Bed Community, Burgess Shale. Palaios, Vol.21. Demko, T.M. (1995). Taphonomy of Fossil Plants in the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Arizona. Getty, P.R. and A.M. Bush (2011). Sand pseudomorphs of dinosaur bones: Implications for (non-) preservation of tetrapod skeletal material in the Hartford Basin, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 302. (Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out!) Haynes, G. (2016). Taphonomy of the Inglewood mammoth (Mammuthus columbi)(Maryland, USA): Green-bone fracturing of fossil bones. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press) Hunda, B.R., N.C. Hughes and K.W. Flessa (2006). Trilobite Taphonomy and Temporal Resolution in the Mt. Orab Shale Bed (Upper Ordovician, Ohio, U.S.A.). Palaios, Vol.21. Irmis, R.B. and D.K. Elliott (2006). Taphonomy of a Middle Pennsylvanian Marine Vertebrate Assemblage and an Actualistic Model for Marine Abrasion of Teeth. Palaios, Vol.21. Kimmig, J.K.F. and B.R. Pratt (2016). Taphonomy of the middle Cambrian (Drumian) Ravens Throat River Lagerstätte, Rockslide Formation, Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Lethaia, Vol.49. LaGarry, H.E. (2004). Taphonomic Evidence of Bone Processing from the Oligocene of Northwestern Nebraska. School of Natural Resources, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Professional Paper Number 2. Leonard, E. (2013). The Taphonomy and Depositional Environment of Jurassic Lacustrine Fish Deposits, Westfield Beds, East Berlin Formation, Hartford Basin. Bachelor's (Honors) Thesis - Wesleyan University. Lucas, S.G. et al. (2010). Taphonomy of the Lamy amphibian quarry: A Late Triassic bonebed in New Mexico, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298. Peterson, J.E., et al. (2017). New data towards the development of a comprehensive taphonomic framework for the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Central Utah. PeerJ, 5: e3368. (Thanks to Oxytropidoceras for pointing this one out!) Petrovich, R. (2001). Mechanisms of Fossilization of the Soft-Bodied and Lightly Armored Faunas of the Burgess Shale and of Some Other Classical Localities. American Journal of Science, Vol.301. Rick, T.C., J.M. Erlandson and R.L. Vellanoweth (2006). Taphonomy and Site Formation on California's Channel Islands. Geoarchaeology, Vol.21, Number 6. Sander, P.M. (1987). Taphonomy of the Lower Permian Geraldine Bonebed in Archer County, Texas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 61. Young, H.R., R. Li and M.Kuroda (2012). Silicification in Mississippian Lodgepole Formation, Northeastern Flank of Williston Basin, Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.23, Number 1. Taphonomy - South America/Central America/Caribbean Bertoni-Machado, C. and M. Holz (2006). Biogenic Fossil Concentration in Fluvial Settings: An Example of a Cynodont Taphocoenosis from the Middle Triassic of Southern Brazil. Revista.bras.paleont., 9(3). Corona, A., et al. (2012). Taphonomy, sedimentology and chronology of a fossiliferous outcrop from the continental Pleistocene of Uruguay. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.29, Number 2. Menendez, L., et al. (2011). Taphonomy, Chronostratigraphy and Paleoceanographic Implications at Turbidite of Early Paleogene (Vertientes Formation, Cuba). Revista Geologica de America Central, 45. General Taphonomy Allison, P.H. and D.J. Bottjer (2011). Chapter 1. Taphonomy: Bias and Process Through Time. In: Taphonomy: Process and Bias Through Time. Allison, P.A. and D.J. Bottjer (eds.), Topics in Geobiology, 32. Andrews, P. (1995). Experiments in Taphonomy. Journal of Archaeological Science, 22. Behrensmeyer, A.K. (1978). Taphonomic and geologic information from bone weathering. Paleobiology, 4(2). Best, M.M.R. and S.M. Kidwell (2000). Bivalve taphonomy in tropical mixed siliciclastic-carbonate settings. II. Effect of bivalve life habits and shell types. Paleobiolgy, 26(1). Brand, L.R., M. Hussey and J. Taylor (2003). Decay and Disarticulation of Small Vertebrates in Controlled Experiments. Journal of Taphonomy, Vol.1, Issue 2. Butler, A.D., et al. (2015). Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization. Proc.R.Soc.B, 282. Carpenter, K. How to Make a Fossil: Part 1 - Fossilizing Bone. The Journal of Paleontological Science, JPS.C.07.0001. Elder, R.L. and G.R. Smith (1988). Fish Taphonomy and Environmental Inference in Paleolimnology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 62. Eren, M.I., et al. (2011). Flaked Stone Taphonomy: a Controlled Experimental Study of the Effects of Sediment Consolidation on Flake Edge Morphology. Journal of Taphonomy, Vol.9, Issue 3. Fernandez-Lopez, S.R. (2006). Taphonomic Alteration and Evolutionary Taphonomy. Journal of Taphonomy, Vol.4, Issue 3. Francillon-Viellot, H., et al. (1990). Chapter 20. Microstructure and Mineralization of Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues. In: Skeletal Biomineralization: Patterns, Processes and Evolutionary Trends. Vol.1 Carter, J.G. (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. (Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out!) Gaines, R.R. and M.L. Droser (2005). New Approaches to Understanding the Mechanics of Burgess Shale-type Deposits: From the Micron Scale to the Global Picture. The Sedimentary Record, Vol.3, Number 2. Gaines, R.R., et al. (2012). Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation. PNAS, Vol.109, Number 14. Greenwood, D.R. (1991). Chapter 7. The Taphonomy of Plant Macrofossils. Jensen, S., M.L. Droser and J.G. Gehling (2005) Trace fossil preservation and the early evolution of animals. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 220. Locatelli, E.R. (2014). The Exceptional Preservation of Plant Fossils: A Review of Taphonomic Pathways and Biases in the Fossil Record. In: Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization. Laflamme, M., J.D. Schiffbauer and S.A.F. Darroch (eds.), The Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.20. Lyman, R.L. (2010). What Taphonomy Is, What it Isn't, and Why Taphonomists Should Care about the Difference. Journal of Taphonomy, Vol.8, Issue 1. McCoy, V.E. and D.S. Brandt (2009). Scorpion taphonomy: criteria for distinguishing fossil scorpion molts and carcasses. The Journal of Arachnology, 37. Nudds, J. and P. Selden (2008). Fossils explained 56. Fossil-Lagerstätten. Geology Today, Vol.24, Number 4. Orr, P.J., et al. (2016). "Stick 'n' peel": Explaining unusual patterns of disarticulation and loss of completeness in fossil vertebrates. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 457. Palmqvist, P. and A. Arribas (2001). Taphonomic decoding of the paleobiological information locked in a lower Pleistocene assemblage of large mammals. Palaeobiology, 27(3). Pewkliang, B., A. Pring and J. Brugger (2008). The Formation of Precious Opal: Clues from the Opalization of Bone. The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol.46. Pewkliang, B., A. Pring and J. Brugger (2004). Opalisation of Fossil Bone and Wood: Clues to the Formation of Precious Opal. In: Regolith 2004. Roach, I.C. (ed.), CRC LEME. Schiffbauer, J.D. and M. Laflamme (2012). Lagerstätten Through Time: A Collection of Exceptional Preservational Pathways from the Terminal Neoproterozoic Through Today. Palaios, Vol.27. Schiffbauer, J.D., et al. (2014). A unifying model for Neoproterozoic-Palaeozoic exceptional fossil preservation through pyritization and carbonaceous compression. Nature Communications, 5:5754. Seilacher, A., W.-E. Reif and F. Westphal (1985). Sedimentological, ecological and temporal patterns of fossil Lagerstätten. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 311. (Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out!) Spicer, R.A. (1991). Chapter 3. Plant Taphonomic Processes. In: Taphonomy: Releasing the Data Locked in the Fossil Record. Allison, P.A. and D.E.G. Briggs (eds.), Plenum Press, New York. Wilson, M.V.H. (1988). Paleoscene #9. Taphonomic Processes: Information Loss and Information Gain. Geoscience Canada, Vol.15, Number 2.
  24. vert getting fragile

    I know this has been brought up many times but I will do it again. We have some whale verts that are getting fragile. These are not museum quality but we would like to keep them for awhile and carry them place to place for "show and tell" So with out doing a lot of searching of past post, what do we do for a sealant? Craig
  25. Preserving Fossils

    Hi, I recently found a Pleistocene fossil on the Isle of Wight and I was wondering what the best way to preserve the specimen is? It had a small crack when I found it but it appears to be getting bigger and don't want to see it damaged any further. Thank you.