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I am really excited about a project we have been working on. We decided to switch our shark displays from the ones based on Geological era to a taxonomic display style. We had been considering this since we made a similar switch with our dinosaurs. It has made those programs flow more easily and i think allowed the kids to get a better understanding of the animals. We originally set our displays up as they were because we simply did not have enough material to do taxonomic displays. There were a few orders of sharks for which we had only one or two fossils and one extinct order for which we had zero fossils. Doing the displays along a timeline allowed us to cover up the holes in the collection. We have made a lot of improvements to our shark collection in the last year and were strongly considering changing things. A conversation with @siteseer really sealed the deal. Jess nudged me over the ledge lol So work has begun on this project and I am loving it but it is a lot of work. Each order of shark, extant and extinct, will eventually have it's own display. Within the the display, each family or in some cases genus, will be set up by temporal range. I think these displays will not only allow more efficient presentations but will also show temporal range and distribution as best we can. Step 1 was identifying which orders, families, and genera we need to add to the collection in order to round out what we already had. Some orders needed little attention but there were some that needed a bit of a boost. Heterodontiformes was an example of one that needed to a boost. We had Jurassic teeth (Paracestracion and Heterodontus) but little else. Having the Jurassic teeth is awesome because it shows how far back they go in the fossils record but that would be an underwhelming display visually and not give the kids a great sense of the sharks. We had to find fossils to place them at various points in their temporal range and widen their distribution to the best of our ability. Pristiophoriformes was another that we needed to upgrade as we only had one small rostal tooth. We had a good variety of material for most extinct orders but wanted a Carboniferous Xencanthid tooth to better tell the whole story of the Eel sharks as all of ours were Permian. We picked through micro fossils to add Devonian Ctenacanthiformes teeth to expand the temporal range and add diversity in the form of Phoebodus. Step 2 is on going and is probably the hardest part, acquiring the fossils we need. It is quite easy to find some of the things we needed. Others have been extremely difficult and a few are pretty much impossible. We are unlikely to knock Hemiscyllium or Oxynotus off the list. It proved very difficult, but not impossible, to locate a Cenozoic Chiloscyllium tooth. We had Cretaceous teeth but nothing beyond that and Bamboo Sharks are one that we do talk about quite a bit. After a lengthy search, we finally tracked one down and it was quite inexpensive. Cost is always a factor for us so early on we understood we were not going to be adding some collector type teeth like a 2" Chilean White Shark or the transitional White Shark teeth. We focused instead in smaller teeth and anything that added a new shark, contributed to showing distribution or temporal range. For us a STH Scyliorhinus is a significant fossils because it adds to both distribution and temporal range of a shark we talk about. I am very proud of some of the inexpensive teeth we have found including a Chilean Angelshark, a Miocene Mitsukurina, the Paleocene Chiloscyllium, and a Heterodontus fin spine from STH. We have also been greatly aided in our quest by a couple of donations, including one from @Troodon that included very important Eocene Orectolobiformes teeth and a super Megachasma from Chile. I want to credit @siteseer too though I am not sure what he is sending but I know it help tremendously lol Step 3 was figuring out how many display cases we would need and what sizes we would need. We knew that in addition to the displays by order, some sharks would get their own displays. For example, we have a lot of Lamniformes that we cover during our presentations but Goblin Sharks get special attention because kids really love them so they would get a separate display. The displays will not be of uniform size as some orders will be better represented. There will be more Carcharhiniformes than other orders for example. Size of the shark and size of the fossils also contribute to the need for a variation in display size. Step 4 is dismantling the old displays and putting together the new ones. This is on going and will not be finished until mid March probably. We need new labels which is taking a bit of time as there is a lot of shark fossils going into these displays. Step 5 will be displays of shark relatives. I think we will have one small one that will feature the three Stethacanthids we have, one small display for the two Eugenodontids and then another larger one to house the Batoids. We do cover shark relatives and they are quite popular with the students so these are important to the programs too. Kids love these wierdo creatues lol One of the really cool parts of this project is it allows me to think as an educator but also very much as a collector. I am an educator first and these fossils are for educational purposes but I consider myself a collector of shark fossils too. Doing this does allow me to add things that have educational value but also cross things off the personal list of sharks I want in the collection, like Megachasma and Mitsukurina. I can also view the collection and see areas where we can improve the quality of teeth at some point down the road. White Sharks and Cow sharks in particular will get an upgrade at some point. We can hunt for some of the rare Squaliformes teeth. Maybe we will track down a Ctenacanthus fin spine. Our goal is not just to tell the story of sharks but to show the story of sharks through the fossils. The people who invite us to present our fossils not only get to handle Megalodon teeth but they get close up examinations of a 300 million year old egg case, a Hybodus fin spine, shark vertebra and can compare the difference between Sawshark rostal teeth and Sawfish rostal teeth in their hands. I am quite proud of the hands-on education we give people and I think this project improves the overall impact. This project has also given us far more scientific knowledge and a far better understanding of shark classification. The learning has been invaluable really. Carter and I are both very passionate about sharks as we are with all of our programs but sharks have a special place. When he was a little guy, we would watch shark documentaries and this is an extension of that father son time for us. We knew this would require spending more money and take some time to do but we know it will be worth it. This will be a shark education program that will educate elementary students, museum patrons, college students and senior citizens. That is pretty darn cool I think. We also want to thank all of the forum members who contributed shark fossils and knowledge over the last year. This, like our other programs, would not be possible without the support, encouragement and generosity of TFF members. I apologize for the length of this post lol I have been really busy and have not been able to take the time to post about this and am pretty excited hence the rambling nature. I will post some pictures as we go through this and complete these. Pic 1 one of the boxes of shark fossils currently laying around our house lol It is a small box but there is quite a lot stored in there, just waiting for their permanent home.
Fruitbat posted a topic in DocumentsThese are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at firstname.lastname@example.org and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 25, 2018. Class Chondrichthyes - The Cartilaginous Fishes Subclass Elasmobranchii Infraclass Euselachii (Sharks and Rays) Division Neoselachii Superorder Batoidea - Rays, Skates and Sawfishes Order Myliobatiformes - Rays Myliobatiformes - Africa/Middle East Cappetta, H. (1984). Discovery of the Genus Gymnura (Batomorphii, Myliobatiformes) in the Thanetian of the Ouled Abdoun, Morocco. Observations on the Dentition of some Modern Species. Geobios, 17. (Plates not included) Claeson, K.M., C.J. Underwood and D.J. Ward (2013). Ɨ Tingitanius tenuimandibulus, a New Platyrhinid Batoid from the Turonian (Cretaceous) of Morocco and the Cretaceous Radiation of the Platyrhinidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(5). Claeson, K.M., et al. (2010). First Mesozoic record of the stingray Myliobatis wurnoensis from the late Cretaceous of Mali and a phylogenetic study of Myliobatidae (Batoidea) incorporating dental characters. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(4). Myliobatiformes - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Adnet, S., et al. (2008). First myliobatiform teeth (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii) from the Pondaung Formation (late middle Eocene) of Central Myanmar. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., Vol.247/3. Hatai, K. M. Murata and K. Masuda (1965). 485. Sting Ray and Eagle Ray from the Tatsunokuchi Formation (Pliocene) in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Trans.Proc.Palaeont.Soc. Japan, N.S., Number 57. Marrama, G., et al. (2018). Anatomy, relationships and palaeobiogeographic implications of the first Neogene holomorphic stingray (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the early Miocene of Sulawesi, Indonesia, SE Asia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, xx. Mishra, V.P. (1980). A New Species of Myliobatis and Some Shark Teeth from the Middle Eocene of Kutch, Western India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vols. 23 & 24. Myliobatiformes - Australia/New Zealand Myliobatiformes - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Antunes, M.T. and A.C. Balbino (2006). Latest Miocene Myliobatids (Batoidea, Selachii) from the Alvalade Basin, Portugal. Cainozoic Research, 4(1-2). Bor, T.J. (1990). A New Species of Mobulid Ray (Elasmobranchii, Mobulidae) from the Oligocene of Belgium. Contr. Tert. Quatern. Geol., 27(2-3). Hovestadt, D. and M. Hovestadt-Euler (2010). Urobatis molleni Nov.Sp. (Chondrichthyes, Myliobatiformes, Urolophidae) in the Eocene of Belgium. Geominpal Belgica, 1(3). Myliobatiformes - North America Cicimurri, D.J. (2010). On the dentition of Meridiana convexa Case (Myliobatoidea), an extinct Early Eocene ray from the United States. Cainozoic Research, 7(1-2). Cicimurri, D.J. and J.A. Ebersole (2015). Two new species of Pseudaetobatus Capetta, 1986 (Batoidei, Myliobatidae) from the southeastern United States. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.15A. Cook, T.D., et al. (2014). A New Genus and Species of Freshwater Stingray (Myliobatiformes, Dasyatoidea) from the Latest Middle Eocene of Utah, U.S.A. Journal of Paleontology, 88(3). De Carvalho, M.R., J.G. Maisey and L. Grande (2004). Freshwater Stingrays of the Green River Formation of Wyoming (Early Eocene), With the Description of a New Genus and Species and an Analysis of Its Phylogenetic Relationships (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 284. de Santana, F.R., D.J. Cicimurri and J.A. Barbosa (2011). New Material of Apocopodon sericeus Cope, 1886 (Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae) from the Paraiba Basin (Northeastern Brazil) and South Carolina (USA) With a Reanalysis of the Species. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 8(6). McNulty, C.L. (1964). Hypolophid Teeth from the Woodbine Formation, Tarrant County, Texas. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 57(2). Myliobatiformes - South America/Central America/Caribbean Adnet, S., R.S. Gismondi and P.-O. Antoine (2013). Comparisons of dental morphology in river stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) with new fossils from the middle Eocene of Peruvian Amazonia rekindle debate on their evolution. Naturwissenschaften. Cione, A.L., M. Tejedor and F.J. Goin (2012). A new species of the rare batomorph genus Hypolophodon (? latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleocene, Argentina). N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 267/1. de Santana, F.R., D.J. Cicimurri and J.A. Barbosa (2011). New Material of Apocopodon sericeus Cope, 1886 (Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae) from the Paraiba Basin (Northeastern Brazil) and South Carolina (USA) With a Reanalysis of the Species. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 8(6). General Myliobatiformes Adnet, S., et al. (2018). Teeth, fossil record and evolutionary history of the cowtail stingray Pastinachus Ruppell, 1829. Historical Biology, 2018. Adnet, S., et al. (2012). Evolutionary history of the devilrays (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) from fossil and morphological inference. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 166. Bertozzi, T., M.S.Y. Lee and S.C. Donnellan (2016). Stingray diversification across the end-Cretaceous extinctions. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 74. Order Rajiformes - Skates De Carvalho, M.R. (2004). A Late Cretaceous thornback ray from southern Italy, with a phylogenetic reappraisal of the Platyrhinidae (Chondrichthys: Batoidea).In: Mesozoic Fishes 3 - Systematics, Paleoenvironments and Biodiversity. Arratia, G. and A. Tintori, eds. Herman, J., et al. (1994). Part B: Batomorphii No.1A: Order Rajiformes - Suborder Rajoidei- Family: Rajidae. In: Contributions to the comparative morphology of teeth and other ichthyodorulites in living supra-specific taxa of Chondrichthyan fishes. Stehmann, M. (ed.), Bulletin De L'Institut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Biologie 64. (Note: While this article deals with living types of rays, it contains excellent references to ray tooth morphology and has a large number of pictures of ray teeth for comparative purposes! Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out!) Long, D.J. (1994). Quaternary colonization of Paleogene persistence?: historical biogeography of skates (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) in the Antarctic ichthyofauna. Paleobiology, 20(2). Siverson, M. and H. Cappetta (2001). A Skate in the Lowermost Maastrichtian of Southern Sweden. Palaeontology, Vol.44, Part 3. Vullo, R. and D. Néraudeau (2008). When the "primitive" shark Tribodus (Hybodontiformes) meets the "modern" ray Pseudohypolophus (Rajiformes): the unique co-occurrence of these two durophagous Cretaceous selachians in Charentes (SW France). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Order Rhinobatiformes - Guitarfishes Bor, T.J. (1983). A New Species of Rhinobatos (Elasmobranchii, Batomorphii) from the Upper Maastrichtian of the Netherlands and Belgium. Geologie en Mijnbouw. Brito, P.M., M.E.C. Leal and V. Gallo (2013). A New Lower Cretaceous Guitarfish (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea) from the Santana Formation, Northeastern Brazil. Boletim do Museo Nacional, Number 76. Claeson, K.M., D.J. Ward and C.J. Underwood (2010). 3-D digital imaging of a concretion-preserved batoid (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) of Morocco. C.R. Palevol, 9. Everhart, M.J. (2007). New stratigraphic records (Albian-Campanian) of Rhinobatos sp. (Chondrichthyes; Rajiformes) from the Cretaceous of Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.110, Numbers 3/4. Langston, W. (1970). A Fossil Ray, Possibly Myledaphus (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea) from the Late Cretaceous Oldman Formation of Western Canada. National Museums of Canada, Publications in Palaeontology, Number 6. Maisey, J.G. (1976). The Jurassic Selachian Fish Protospinax Woodward. Palaeontology, Vol.19, Part 4. Order Torpediniformes - Electric Rays Marrama, G., et al. (2018). Revision of Eocene electric rays (Torpediniformes, Batomorphii) from the Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte, Italy, reveals the first fossil embryo in situ in marine batoids and provides new insights into the origin of trophic novelties in coral reef fishes. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.16, Number 14. (Thanks to doushantuo for finding this one!) Ward, D.J. (1983). Additions to the fish fauna of the English Palaeogene. 4. A new batoid genus from the Bracklesham Group of Selsea, Sussex. Tertiary Research, 5(2). General Batoidea Ashliman, N.C., et al. (2012). Body plan convergence in the evolution of skates and rays (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 63. Dean, M.N., J.J. Bizarro and A.P. Summers (2007). The evolution of cranial design, diet and feeding mechanisms in batoid fishes. Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol.47, Number 1. Deynat, P.P. and P. Brito (1994). Revision of the Dermal Tubercles of Rays (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea) from the Parana Basin, Tertiary of South America. Annales de Paleontologie (Vert.-Invert.), 80(4). Guinot, G., et al. (2012). Batoids (Elasmobranchii: Batomorphii) from the British and French Late Cretaceous. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.10, Issue 3. Hovestadt, D.C . and M. Hovestadt-Euler (1995). Additions to the fauna of the Boom Clay Formation of Belgium (Rupelian, Oligocene). Taxonomic adjustments on the Scyliorhinidae and Rajoidei, discovery of a dasyatid species (Pisces, Chondrichthyes) and of a cucrulionid species (Insecta, Coleoptera). Belgian Geological Survey, Professional Paper 278. Kachacha, G., et al. (2017). Revision of the fossil batomorphs from the Cretaceous of Lebanon, and their impact on our understanding of the early step of the evolution of the clade. Research & Knowledge, Vol.3, Number 2. Lowemark, L. (2015). Evidence for targeted elasmobranch predation on thalassinidean shrimp in the Miocene Taliao Formation, NE Taiwan. Lethaia, Vol.48. Sharma, K.M. and R. Patnaik (2013). Additional Fossil Batoids (Skates and Rays) from the Miocene Deposits of Baripada Beds, Mayurbhang District, Orissa, India. Earth Science India, Vol.6 (IV). Tiwari, R.P. and V.Z. Ralte (2012). Fossil batoid and teleost fish remains from Bhuban Formation (Lower to Middle Miocene), Surma Group, Aizawl, Mizoram. Current Science, Vol.103, Number 6. Underwood, C.J., M.A. Kolmann and D.J. Ward (2017). Paleogene Origin of Planktivory in the Batoidea. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1293068. Underwood, C.J., et al. (2015). Development and Evolution of Dentition Pattern and Tooth Order in the Skates and Rays (Batoidea: Chondrichthyes). PLoS ONE, 10(4). van Netten, H.H. and J.W.F. Reumer (2009). Bite marks on early Holocene Tursiops truncatus fossils from the North Sea indicate scavenging by rays (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae). Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 88-3. Wing, E. (1966). Fossil Skates and Rays of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 2. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing me to this one!) Clade Pristiorajea - Rhinopristiformes (Sawfishes) and Sclerorhynchiformes Order Rhinopristiformes - Sawfishes Carrillo-Briceno, J.D., et al. (2015). Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela). PLoS ONE, 10(10). Collareta, A., S. Casati and A. Di Cencio (2017). A Pristid Sawfish from the Lower Pliocene of Lucciolabella (Radicofani Basin, Tuscany, Central Italy). Atti Soc.Tosc.Sci.Nat.Mus. Serie A, 124. Deynat, P.P. (2005). New data on the systematics and interrelationships of sawfishes (Elasmobranchii, Batoidea, Pristiformes). Journal of Fish Biology, 66. Farres, F. and H.L. Fierstine (2009). First record of the extinct sawfish Propristis schweinfurthi Dames, 1883 (Batoidea: Pristiformes: Pristidae) from the middle Eocene of Spain. Palaontologische Zeitschrift. Schaeffer, B. (1963). Cretaceous Fishes from Bolivia, with Comments on Pristid Evolution. American Museum Novitates, Number 2159. Order Sclerorhynchiformes Arambourg, C. (1940). The Group of the Ganopristines. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, Ser.5, 10. (Plates not included.) Delgadillo-Escobar, A.A., et al. (2015). The first record of Onchosaurus (†Sclerorhynchidae) from the Late Cretaceous of northern Mexico. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, Vol.67, Number 1. Keyes, I.W. (1977). Records of the Northern Hemisphere Cretaceous Sawfish Genus Onchopristis (Order Batoidea) from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, Vol.20, Number 2. Kirkland, J.I. and M.C. Aguillon-Martinez (2002). Schizorhiza: a unique sawfish paradigm from the Difunta Group, Coahuila, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.19, Number 1. Knight, J.L., D.J. Cicimurri, and R.W. Purdy (2007). New Western Hemisphere Occurrences of Schizorhiza Weiler, 1930 and Eotorpedo White, 1934 (Chondrichthyes, Batomorphii). Paludicola, 6(3). Kriwet, J. and S. Klug (2012). Presence of the extinct sawfish Onchosaurus (Neoselachii, Sclerorhynchiformes) in the Late Cretaceous of Peru with a review of the genus. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 39. Kriwet, J. and K. Kussius (2001). Paleobiology and Paleobiogeography of Sclerorhynchid Sawfishes (Chondrichthyes, Batomorphi). Revista Española de Paleontología, no. extraordinario. Pereira, A.A. and M.A. Medeiros (2008). A New Sclerorhynchiform (Elasmobranchii) from the Middle Cretaceous of Brazil. Rev.bras.paleontol., 11(3). Smith, M.M., et al. (2015). Early development of rostrum saw-teeth in a fossil ray tests classical theories of the evolution of vertebrate dentitions. Proc.R.Soc. B, 282. Suárez, M.E. and H. Cappetta (2004). Sclerorhynchid teeth (Neoselachii, Sclerorhynchidae) from the Late Cretaceous of the Quiriquina Formation, central Chile. Andean Geology, Vol.31, Number 1. Underwood, C., M.M. Smith and Z. Johanson (2015). Sclerorhynchus atavus and the convergent evolution of rostrum-bearing chondrichthyans. In: Arthur Smith Woodward: His Life and Influence of Modern Vertebrate Palaeontology. Johanson, Z., et al. (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 430. General Pristiorajea Welten, M., et al. (2015). Evolutionary origins and development of saw-teeth on the sawfish and sawshark rostrum (Elasmobranchii; Chondrichthyes). R.Soc.Open Sci., 12. Wueringer, B.E., L. Squire and S.P. Collin (2009). The biology of extinct and extant sawfish (Batoidea: Sclerorhynchidae and Pristidae). Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries, 19. Superorder Selachimorpha Order Pristiophoriformes - Sawsharks (not Sawfish) Applegate, S. and T. Uyeno (1968). The First Discovery of a Fossil Tooth belonging to the Shark Genus Heptranchias, with a New Pristiophorus Spine, Both from the Oligocene of Japan. Bull.Nat.Sci.Mus. Tokyo, 11(2). Keyes, I.W. (1982). The Cenozoic sawshark Pristiophorus lanceolatus (Davis) (Order Selachii) of New Zealand and Australia, with a review of the phylogeny and distribution of world fossil and extant pristiophoridae. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, Vol.25. Keyes, I.W. (1979). Ikamauius, a new genus of fossil sawshark (Order Selachii: Family Pristiophoridae) from the Cenozoic of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, Vol.22, Number 1. Welten, M., et al. (2015). Evolutionary origins and development of saw-teeth on the sawfish and sawshark rostrum (Elasmobranchii; Chondrichthyes). R.Soc.Open Sci., 12.