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Found 41 results

  1. H, The family and I spent a lovely week at Walton on the Naze in Essex, UK. As it was the Easter break the site was very busy with collectors young and old, but we still managed to find some interesting pieces. The site itself is London Clay (c53my) with a junction bed above from which whale bone and Megalodon teeth can be found. Above this is the distinctive Red Crag (c.2my). Lastly are glacial deposits and later from which Neolithic and Roman finds have been found over the years. The site is rapidly eroding at a rate of about a metre a year however there are daily land slips and falls so whether that rate is accelerating its hard to say. Most of the finds are in the shingle and with my eyes I had to adopt the 'hands and knees crawl' technique to see anything other than a blur of shapes. All of the finds below (with the exception of the potential neolithic finds) are from the London Clay sediments. The Site: We found a lot of striatolamia shark teeth. Its possible there are other species within this, however we haven't had time to have a detailed look at each tooth yet: Two nice Otodus shark teeth were found by my wife: A pair of what we believe are well worn ray dentition plates. They were hard to photograph so apologies for the lack of clarity: On a previous trip a few weeks ago we also found this. Both turtle and bird bone have been found on this site. Could this be either?: I've included a fossilised twig and a seed that I picked up. The beach is littered with these and tend to be ignored by the fossil hunters as they are so common. I like them: Lastly I've included two interesting finds. The ball is from Walton and the 'spear point' was from Dovercourt just up the coast. In an archaeological context these might be exciting finds - the ball is similar to others that have been described as hammer stones, gaming pieces or sling shots. The 'spear point' shows signs of rework along both edges. Out of context, within the beach shingle, they are just interesting stones but I thought I'd share them anyway: Any comments would be appreciated. Happy Hunting! Carl
  2. From the album Fossil Collection

  3. First off, I want to thank Doren for sending me a small flat rate box full of STH matrix for me to try sifting through. I still have quite a bit of fine matrix to sort through but already I've managed to find hundreds of specimens. I've found quite a few Carcharhinus, Cetorhinus, Galeorhinus, Squalus, and tons of ray teeth. When I'm finished with all the matrix, I think I'll write a follow-up post with all the nice specimens I found. I'm having a little trouble identifying various species of rays - maybe someone has a literature suggestion to help me get familiar with different tooth characteristics? From what I can tell from other posts, the features that differentiate some ray species are quite subtle and to my untrained eye, very difficult to distinguish. I wouldn't mind some ID help with these teeth in particular. Scale to the right is in mm. If you could also comment on how common/uncommon these species are and what position they are in the jaw that would be immensely helpful as well. Also, maybe someone wouldn't mind making a list of the species found at STH and rank how common they are? Also, does anyone have suggestions for removing the last bit of silt/sand from the crevices in the teeth? I've tried water and gently stirring but that does not have much of an effect. Thanks for your help!
  4. A beautiful tooth of this species from this site. Most are extremely worn and with missing or broken roots.
  5. This tooth, "pseudohypolophus" has yet to be assigned to a family. It is believed to be an extinct Rajiforme, specifically a guitarfish. Tooth crowns are very common in Black Creek sands, but are very rarely found with the roots.
  6. This somewhat common ray tooth is always a joy to find. Most have some type of root wear or damage, so this one is a great specimen.
  7. A fellow TFF member gave me some micro material from the Eocene, Meridian Mississippi . I don't know much about micro fossils so was hoping to get some info on the following? Which were all photographed next to a US nickel. photos 1 and 2
  8. This Devil Ray tooth, Plinthicus stenodon is a common found in some Pungo River sediments. It is also found in the Pliocene Yorktown, but is much less common there. Most found are damaged in some way. Being undamaged makes this specimen special.
  9. Diatoms are monocellular organisms which contain chlorophyll, and manufacture their own food in the same manner as plants, through the process of photosynthesis. They are one of the major producers of the Earth's oxygen. Their long geological history makes them very useful in the correlation of sedimentary rocks, and they are of equal value in reconstructing paleoenvironments. They are remarkably common everywhere there is any water at all! I have studied fossil marine diatoms for many years, as they are my primary interest in the microfossil world. Many of them are quite beautiful, and they are a favorite subject with many persons who enjoy photomicrography. My primary interest is in diatom taxonomy and evolution, not photography, so I'm afraid my images don't really do them justice. Centric diatoms exhibit radial symmetry, from circular to triangular, and all points between. Oval shapes are not uncommon. The oldest specimens of essentially modern diatom types are from the Cretaceous, and one of the very best localities is the Moreno Shale, which crops out in the Panoche Hills of California. Many diatomists have worked on this flora, and it is fairly well understood. Here we see two of the common taxa from this source. (The bar across the top of the Azpeitiopsis is a sponge spicule, not part of the diatom!) Diatom frustules are composed of secreted silica -- hence they are brittle, but can be virtually indestructible by chemical or diagenetic change in the right sort of environment. (One exception is a highly alkaline environment, which corrodes and ultimately dissolves biogenetic silica.) Other siliceous microfossils include some types of sponge spicules, silicoflagellates (another blog entry coming up perhaps), radiolarians, and ebrideans. At least one family of the foraminifera uses siliceous cement to form their tests. Diatom floras changed radically across the KT boundary, but they are still abundant in the Paleocene. Arguably the world's most famous locality for fossil diatoms is the region around Oamaru, New Zealand, and all collectors have many specimens from there. The age is Late Eocene - Early Oligocene. Somewhat earlier are the many great localities in Russia. Here is a Paleocene specimen from Simbirsk, Ulyanovskaya, Russia. Note that it deviates from pure centric form in that it is slightly ovoid. My own specialty is the diatoms of the Miocene. The United States is blessed with superb Miocene localities on both coasts, many well-known to members of this forum, because most of them can also produce superb shark teeth. The earliest known Miocene flora in the US comes from sites in Maryland: near Dunkirk, Nottingham, and other lesser known localities along the Patuxent River. All of these sites began to be explored in the mid-19th Century, because the diatoms are so perfectly preserved, to say nothing of abundant! These sites are in the lowest part of the Calvert Formation; indeed, there is an unconformity above them that lasted for a considerable period of time, and the diatom flora exhibits considerable changes across it. This part of the Miocene section belongs to the Burdigalian Stage, and age-equivalent diatoms are found also in bore holes and artesian wells at Atlantic City, New Jersey. An index fossil for the East Coast Burdigalian is the following taxon: This species of Actinoptychus evolved relatively quickly, and became extinct at the end of the Burdigalian. It is remarkably beautiful under the microscope, especially in color images, as fine structures in the silica serve as diffraction gratings. I regret that I have no color image in my photo library: I need to make a few! The Calvert Cliffs are rich in fossil diatoms, also, from the later, Middle Miocene. The above is but one example of the many marvelous specimens that can be found in the Calvert. If you're walking the beach for shark teeth, and have access to a microscope such as that used in microbiology or pathology labs, or even the type used in high school biology labs, grab a sample of the sediment. Soak it in water until it disaggregates into mud, let it settle until the water is just a bit cloudy, and put a drop on a microscope slide with a coverslip. A magnification of 100X should reveal diatom frustules (or fragments thereof) among the remaining, unsettled particles of silt. Diatomists all have their own protocols to get such specimens almost perfectly clean, and permanent slides made with a mountant of high refractive index can be utterly gorgeous. I am currently working most intensely on samples from the somewhat later Choptank Formation, that outcrops at Richmond, Virginia. This is another locality that produces excellent specimens: This is one of the most enduring taxa in the geological record, appearing from the early Paleogene right up until the present day, and it can be very abundant. A common triangular form. There are many genera of triangular centric diatoms. And other radial shapes are possible, too: So far as I am aware, this unique specimen is the earliest known example of this taxon, which is still found today in tropical waters. The breakage in the top "arm" is unfortunate, but what can I say: the specimen is, thus far, unique. One might expect modern contamination of the sample, were it not for the fact that the Richmond localities occur far from the contemporary ocean coast -- they are not "watered" by modern waves! That's it -- the 3.95 MB limit..............................
  10. From the album Calvert Cliffs Maryland 12/10/2016

    Ray plates, snaggletooth, turritella, and shell assortment.
  11. I joined in with a few others for a trip into an quarry in eastern N.C. This quarry is Oligocene Belgrade and River Bend Formations. It was a beautiful day for a hunt though part of the quarry was flooded from rains due to Hurricane Mathew and the rest of it was on the muddy side. The finds were not as prolific as I thought they would be after all of the rain, but still not a bad day. These are some of the better finds. All together ......... Croc teeth, the small one is 7/8 inch long and may be the best condition one I have ever found here. The larger is 1 1/16 a couple of Hemispristis 1/2 inch and 3/4 inch
  12. My kids and I sorted through some gravel that had been given to us by a friend, from a creek that is south of the North Sulphur on private land. Here is a video of some of the finds: And here are some photos, verts first:
  13. Tooth of a ray.
  14. Tooth of a ray.
  15. I recently won an Auction that was started by Tony (YNOT) and it included a Medium box of Sharktooth Hill micro matrix. The below pics, along with specimen counts, are examples of some of the items that I found in this matrix. (+80) Cetorhinus (Basking Shark) (+300) Myliobatis mouth plates
  16. A close relative of the angel shark Coll. T. Bastelberger Lit.: CARVALHO, KRIWET & THIES 2008: A systematic and anatomical revision of Late Jurassic angelsharks (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae)
  17. From the album Breezy Point, Calvert Cliffs Maryland 9/16/16

    Assortment of ray plates. The plate top right is one of the biggest plates I've ever found intact.
  18. Hello! I found this chunk of something in Frankstown, MS while looking for shark teeth. There is so much petrified driftwood there and many pieces look similar to this. I picked this out at first thinking it was wood.. but I didn't see the little bumps along one side (I'm being very generic because I don't want to call it something it isn't and I'm not sure yet what it is ) until I got home. I also noticed when I got home that it is hollow and looks a bit like bone. After seeing this, I thought it was probably a fin spine or a ray barb. Others say it is a barb, but if it is, I'd love to know more. I would think it would have denticles along both sides, but the other side is rounded. Rays found at this location are Brachyrhizodus wichitaensis and Brachyrhizodus mcnultii. Specimen is 2" long
  19. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since September 11, 2016. Class Chondrichthyes - The Cartilaginous Fishes Subclass Elasmobranchii Infraclass Euselachii (Sharks and Rays) Division Neoselachii Subdivision Batoidea - Rays, Skates and Sawfishes Order Rajiformes - Rays, Skates and Guitarfish Ashliman, N.C., et al. (2012). Body plan convergence in the evolution of skates and rays (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 63. Bertozzi, T., M.S.Y. Lee and S.C. Donnellan (2016). Stingray diversification across the end-Cretaceous extinctions. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 74. Bor, T.J. (1990). A New Species of Mobulid Ray (Elasmobranchii, Mobulidae) from the Oligocene of Belgium. Contr. Tert. Quatern. Geol., 27(2-3). Bor, T.J. (1983). A New Species of Rhinobatos (Elasmobranchii, Batomorphii) from the Upper Maastrichtian of the Netherlands and Belgium. Geologie en Mijnbouw. Brito, P.M., M.E.C. Leal and V. Gallo (2013). A New Lower Cretaceous Guitarfish (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea) from the Santana Formation, Northeastern Brazil. Boletim do Museo Nacional, Number 76. Cappetta, H. (1984). Discovery of the Genus Gymnura (Batomorphii, Myliobatiformes) in the Thanetian of the Ouled Abdoun, Morocco. Observations on the Dentition of some Modern Species. Geobios, 17. (Plates not included) Cicimurri, D.J. and J.A. Ebersole (2015). Two new species of Pseudaetobatus Capetta, 1986 (Batoidei, Myliobatidae) from the southeastern United States. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.15A. Claeson, K.M., C.J. Underwood and D.J. Ward (2013). Ɨ Tingitanius tenuimandibulus, a New Platyrhinid Batoid from the Turonian (Cretaceous) of Morocco and the Cretaceous Radiation of the Platyrhinidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33(5). Claeson, K.M., D.J. Ward and C.J. Underwood (2010). 3-D digital imaging of a concretion-preserved batoid (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) of Morocco. C.R. Palevol, 9. Claeson, K.M., et al. (2010). First Mesozoic record of the stingray Myliobatis wurnoensis from the late Cretaceous of Mali and a phylogenetic study of Myliobatidae (Batoidea) incorporating dental characters. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(4). De Carvalho, M.R. (2004). Freshwater Stingrays of the Green River Formation of Wyoming (Early Eocene), with the Description of a New Genus and Species and an Analysis of its Phylogenetic Relationships (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 284. De Carvalho, M.R. (2004). A Late Cretaceous thornback ray from southern Italy, with a phylogenetic reappraisal of the Platyrhinidae (Chondrichthys: Batoidea).In: Mesozoic Fishes 3 - Systematics, Paleoenvironments and Biodiversity. Arratia, G. and A. Tintori, eds. de Santana, F.R., D.J. Cicimurri and J.A. Barbosa (2011). New Material of Apocopodon sericeus Cope, 1886 (Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae) from the Paraiba Basin (Northeastern Brazil) and South Carolina (USA) With a Reanalysis of the Species. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 8(6). Dean, M.N., J.J. Bizarro and A.P. Summers (2007). The evolution of cranial design, diet and feeding mechanisms in batoid fishes. Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol.47, Number 1. Deynat, P.P. and P. Brito (1994). Revision of the Dermal Tubercles of Rays (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea) from the Parana Basin, Tertiary of South America. Annales de Paleontologie (Vert.-Invert.), 80(4). Guinot, G., et al. (2012). Batoids (Elasmobranchii: Batomorphii) from the British and French Late Cretaceous. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.10, Issue 3. Herman, J., et al. (1994). Part B: Batomorphii No.1A: Order Rajiformes - Suborder Rajoidei- Family: Rajidae. In: Contributions to the comparative morphology of teeth and other ichthyodorulites in living supra-specific taxa of Chondrichthyan fishes. Stehmann, M. (ed.), Bulletin De L'Institut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Biologie 64. (Note: While this article deals with living types of rays, it contains excellent references to ray tooth morphology and has a large number of pictures of ray teeth for comparative purposes! Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out!) Maisey, J.G. (1976). The Jurassic Selachian Fish Protospinax Woodward. Palaeontology, Vol.19, Part 4. McNulty, C.L. (1964). Hypolophid Teeth from the Woodbine Formation, Tarrant County, Texas. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 57(2). Sharma, K.M. and R. Patnaik (2013). Additional Fossil Batoids (Skates and Rays) from the Miocene Deposits of Baripada Beds, Mayurbhang District, Orissa, India. Earth Science India, Vol.6 (IV). Smith, M.M., et al. (2015). Early development of rostrum saw-teeth in a fossil ray tests classical theories of the evolution of vertebrate dentitions. Proc.R.Soc. B, 282. Tiwari, R.P. and V.Z. Ralte (2012). Fossil batoid and teleost fish remains from Bhuban Formation (Lower to Middle Miocene), Surma Group, Aizawl, Mizoram. Current Science, Vol.103, Number 6. Underwood, C.J., et al. (2015). Development and Evolution of Dentition Pattern and Tooth Order in the Skates and Rays (Batoidea: Chondrichthyes). PLoS ONE, 10(4). van Netten, H.H. and J.W.F. Reumer (2009). Bite marks on early Holocene Tursiops truncatus fossils from the North Sea indicate scavenging by rays (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae). Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 88-3. Vullo, R. and D. Néraudeau (2008). When the "primitive" shark Tribodus (Hybodontiformes) meets the "modern" ray Pseudohypolophus (Rajiformes): the unique co-occurrence of these two durophagous Cretaceous selachians in Charentes (SW France). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Wing, E. (1966). Fossil Skates and Rays of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 2. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing me to this one!) Orders Pristiformes and (?)Sclerorhynchiformes - Sawfishes Arambourg, C. (1940). The Group of the Ganopristines. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, Ser.5, 10. (Plates not included.) Carrillo-Briceno, J.D., et al. (2015). Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela). PLoS ONE, 10(10). Delgadillo-Escobar, A.A., et al. (2015). The first record of Onchosaurus (†Sclerorhynchidae) from the Late Cretaceous of northern Mexico. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, Vol.67, Number 1. Deynat, P.P. (2005). New data on the systematics and interrelationships of sawfishes (Elasmobranchii, Batoidea, Pristiformes). Journal of Fish Biology, 66. Ferres, F. and H.L. Fierstine (2009). First record of the extinct sawfish Propristis schweinfurthi Dames, 1883 (Batoidea: Pristiformes: Pristidae) from the middle Eocene of Spain. Palaontologische Zeitschrift. Kirkland, J.I. and M.C. Aguillon-Martinez (2002). Schizorhiza: a unique sawfish paradigm from the Difunta Group, Coahuila, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.19, Number 1. Knight, J.L., D.J. Cicimurri, and R.W. Purdy (2007). New Western Hemisphere Occurrences of Schizorhiza Weiler, 1930 and Eotorpedo White, 1934 (Chondrichthyes, Batomorphii). Paludicola, 6(3). Kriwet, J. and K. Kussius (2001). Paleobiology and Paleobiogeography of Sclerorhynchid Sawfishes (Chondrichthyes, Batomorphi). Revista Española de Paleontología, no. extraordinario. Pereira, A.A. and M.A. Medeiros (2008). A New Sclerorhynchiform (Elasmobranchii) from the Middle Cretaceous of Brazil. Rev.bras.paleontol., 11(3). Schaeffer, B. (1963). Cretaceous Fishes from Bolivia, with Comments on Pristid Evolution. American Museum Novitates, Number 2159. Suárez, M.E. and H. Cappetta (2004). Sclerorhynchid teeth (Neoselachii, Sclerorhynchidae) from the Late Cretaceous of the Quiriquina Formation, central Chile. Andean Geology, Vol.31, Number 1. Underwood, C., M.M. Smith and Z. Johanson (2015). Sclerorhynchus atavus and the convergent evolution of rostrum-bearing chondrichthyans. In: Arthur Smith Woodward: His Life and Influence of Modern Vertebrate Palaeontology. Johanson, Z., et al. (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 430. Welten, M., et al. (2015). Evolutionary origins and development of saw-teeth on the sawfish and sawshark rostrum (Elasmobranchii; Chondrichthyes). R.Soc.Open Sci., 12. Wueringer, B.E., L. Squire and S.P. Collin (2009). The biology of extinct and extant sawfish (Batoidea: Sclerorhynchidae and Pristidae). Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries, 19.
  20. .These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since September 6, 2016. Class Chondrichthyes - The Cartilaginous Fishes. Elasmobranchs by Time Period Ordovician Andreev, P.S., et al. (2015). Upper Ordovician Chondrichthyan-Like Scales from North America. Palaeontology, Vol.58, Part 4. Silurian Min, Z. (1998). Early Silurian Sinacanths (Chondrichthyes) from China. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 1. Wang, N., et al. (1998). Early Silurian Chondrichthyan Microfossils from Bachu County, Xinjiang, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 36(4). Devonian Devonian Elasmobranchs - Africa/Middle East Hairapetian, V. and M. Ginter (2010). Pelagic chondrichthyan microremains from the Upper Devonian of the Kale Sardar section, eastern Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 3. Hairapetian, V. and M. Ginter (2009). Famennian chondrichthyan remains from the Chahriseh section, central Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.59, Number 2. Hairapetian, V., M. Ginter and M. Yazdi (2008). Early Frasnian sharks from central Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Devonian Elasmobranchs - Antarctica Hampe, O. and J.A. Long (1999). The histology of Middle Devonian chondrichthyan teeth from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement Number 57. Long, J.A. and G.C. Young (1995). Sharks from the Middle-Late Devonian Aztec Siltstone, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 17. Young, G.C. (1982). Devonian Sharks from South-Eastern Australia and Antarctica. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 2. Devonian Elasmobranchs - Asia/Malaysia Ginter, M., V. Hairapetian and A. Grigoryan (2011). Chondrichthyan microfossils from the Famennian and Tournaisian of Armenia. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 2. Devonian Elasmobranchs - Australia/New Zealand Long, J.A., et al. (2015). First Shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo Formation, Western Australia Sheds New Light on the Development of Tessellated Calcified Cartilage. PLoS ONE, 10(5). Roelofs, B., et al. (2016). Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous chondrichthyans from the Fairfield Group, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.4A. Young, G.C. (1982). Devonian Sharks from South-Eastern Australia and Antarctica. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 2. Devonian Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland) Ginter, M. (2002). Chondrichthyan fauna of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary beds in Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 47(2). Ginter, M., J.-C. Liao and J.I. Valenzuela-Rios (2008). New data on chondrichthyan microremains from the Givetian of the Renanue section in the Aragonian Pyrenees (Spain). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Ivanov, A. (1999). Late Devonian - Early Permian chondrichthyans of the Russian Arctic. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.49, Number 3. Marss, T., A. Kleesment, and M. Niit (2008). Karksilepis parva gen. et sp. nov. (Chondrichthyes) from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(4). Devonian Elasmobranchs - North America Hanke, G.E. and M.V.H. Wilson (2010). The putative stem-group chondrichthyans Kathemacanthus and Seretolepis from the Lower Devonian MOTH locality, Mackenzie Mountains, Canada. In: Morphology, Phylogeny and Paleobiogeography of Fossil Fishes. Elliott, D.K., et al. (eds.), Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, Germany. Potvin-Leduc, D., et al. (2015). Givetian (Middle Devonian) sharks from Cairo, New York (USA): Evidence of early cosmopolitanism. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1). General Devonian Elasmobranchs Botella, H., P.C.J. Donoghue and C. Martínez-Pérez (2009). Enameloid microstructure in the oldest known chondrichthyan teeth. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 90 (Suppl. 1). Ginter, M. (2008). Devonian filter-feeding sharks. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Ginter, M. (2000). Late Famennian pelagic shark assemblages. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.50, Number 3. Ginter, M. and A. Ivanov (1992). Devonian phoebodont shark teeth. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 37(1). Maisey, J.G. (2005). Braincase of the Upper Devonian Shark Cladodoides wildungensis (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii), With Observations on the Braincase in Early Chondrichthyans. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 288. Carboniferous Carboniferous Elasmobranchis - Africa/Middle East Habibi, T. and M. Ginter (2011). Early Carboniferous chondrichthyans from the Mobarak Formation, Central Alborz Mountains, Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 1. Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Ginter, M. and Y. Sun (2007). Chondrichthyan remains from the Lower Carboniferous of Muhua, southern China.Acta Paleontologica Polonica, 52(4). Wang, N.-Z., F. Jin and W. Wang (2004). Early Carboniferous Fishes (Acanthodian, Actinopterygians and Chondrichthyes) from the East Sector of North Qilian Mountain, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 42(2). Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - Australia/New Zealand Turner, S. (1990). Early Carboniferous Shark Remains from the Rockhampton District, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 28(1). Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland) Duffin, C.J. and A. Ivanov (2008). New chondrichthyan teeth from the Early Carboniferous of Britain and Russia. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Duffin, C.J. and D.J. Ward (1983). Neoselachian Sharks' Teeth from the Lower Carboniferous of Britian and the Lower Permian of the U.S.A.. Palaeontology, Vol.26, Part 1. Duncan, M. (2003). Early Carboniferous chondrichthyan Thrinacodus from Ireland, and a reconstruction of jaw apparatus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 48(1). Ginter, M., et al. (2015). Late Visean pelagic chondrichthyans from northern Europe. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(4). Carboniferous Elasmobranchs - North America Brusatte, S.L. (2007). Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) chondrichthyans from the LaSalle Limestone Member (Bond Formation) of Illinois, USA. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., 244. Cicimurri, D.J. and M.D. Fahrenbach (2002). Chondrichthyes from the Upper Part of the Minnelusa Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian: Desmoinesean), Meade County, South Dakota. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science, Vol.81. Elliott, D.K., et al. (2004). Chondrichthyans from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Naco Formation of Central Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(2). General Carboniferous Elasmobranchs Chorn, J. and E.A. Reavis (1978). Part 2. Affinities of the Chondrichthyan Organ-Genera Listracanthus and Petrodus. In: Fossil Fish Studies, The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 89. Permian Daymond, S.M. (1999). Gondwanodus irwinensis gen. et sp.nov., a new elasmobranch from the Early Permian (Late Sakmarian) Fossil Cliff Member of the Holmwood Shale, Perth Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australizn Museum, 19. Fischer, J., et al. (2014). Stable and radiogenic isotope analyses on shark teeth from the Early to the Middle Permian (Sakmarian - Roadian) of the southwestern USA. Historical Biology, Vol.26, Number 6. Ivanov, A.O. (2005). Early Permian Chondrichthyans of the Middle and South Urals. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 8(2). Ivanov, A.O. and O.A. Lebedev (2014). Permian Chondrichthyans of the Kanin Peninsula, Russia. Paleontological Journal, Vol.48, Number 9. Koot, M.B. (2013). Effects on the Late Permian Mass Extinction on Chondrichthyan Palaeobiodiversity and Distribution Patterns. Ph.D. Thesis - Plymouth University. Leu, M.R. (1989). A Late Permian Freshwater Shark from Eastern Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 2. Turner, S. (1990). Early Carboniferous Shark Remains from the Rockhampton District, Queensland. Mem.Qd.Mus., 28(1). Wang, N.-Z., et al. (2007). Chondrichthyan Microremains Under Permian-Triassic Boundary Both in Zhejiang and Jiangxi Provinces, China - Fifth Report on the Fish Sequence Study Near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in South China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 45(1). Yamagishi, H. and T. Fujimoto (2011). Chondrichthyan Remains from the Akasaka Limestone Formation (Middle Permian) of Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan. Bull. Kanagawa prefect.Mus. (Nat.Sci.), Number 40. Triassic Blazejowski, B. (2004). Shark teeth from the Lower Triassic of Spitsbergen and their histology. Polish Polar Research, Vol.25, Number 2. Brinkmann, W., et al. (2009). Palaeobiogeography and Stratigraphy of Advanced Gnathostomian Fishes (Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes) in the Early Triassic and from Selected Anisian Localities (Report 1863-2009). Zbl.Geol.Palaont. Teil II, Issue 5/6. Chen, L. and G. Cuny (2003). Discovery of the Middle-Late Triassic elasmobranch ichthyoliths from the Guanling area, Guizhou, SW China. Geological Bulletin of China, Vol.22, Number 4. Cuny, G., O. Rieppel and P.M. Sander (2001). The shark fauna from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of North-Western Nevada. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 133. Cuny, G., et al. (1998). A new neoselachian shark from the Upper Triassic of Grozon (Jura, France). Geol.Mag., 135(5). Korneisel, D., et al. (2015). Latest Triassic marine sharks and bony fishes from a bone bed preserved in a burrow system, from Devon, UK. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 126. Mutter, R.J. and A.G. Neuman (2006). An enigmatic chondrichthyan with Paleozoic affinities from the Lower Triassic of western Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(2). Jurassic Duffin, C.J. (1983). Teeth of a New Neoselachian Shark from the British Lower Jurassic. Palaeontology, Vol.26, Part 4. Kriwet, J. (2003). Neoselachian remains (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Middle Jurassic of SW Germany and NW Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 48(4). Kriwet, J. (1998). Late Jurassic Elasmobranch and Actinopterygian fishes from Portugal and Spain. Cuadneros de Geologia Iberica, Number 24. Kriwet, J. and S. Klug (2004). Late Jurassic selachians (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from southern Germany: Re-evaluation on taxonomy and diversity. Zitteliana. Leuzinger, L., et al. (2015). Stable isotope study of a new chondrichthyan fauna (Kimmeridgian, Porrentruy, Swiss Jura): an unusual freshwater-influenced isotopic composition for the hybodont shark Asteracanthus. Biogeosciences, 12. Rees, J. (2000). A new Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) neoselachian shark fauna from southern Sweden. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 45(4). Rees, J. (1998). Early Jurassic selachians from the Hasle Formation on Bornholm, Denmark. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 43(3). Thies, D. and A. Leidner (2011). Sharks and guitarfishes (Elasmobranchii) from the Late Jurassic of Europe. Palaeodiversity, 4 (124MB download) (Thanks to piranha for finding this one!) Underwood, C.J. (2006). Diversification of the Neoselachii (Chondrichthyes) during the Jurassic and Cretaceous.Paleobiology, 32(2). Underwood, C.J. (2004). Environmental controls on the distribution of neoselachian sharks and rays within the British Bathonian (Middle Jurassic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol.203, Issues 1-2. Underwood, C.J. (2002). Sharks, Rays and a Chimaeroid from the Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) of Ringstead, Southern England. Palaeontology, Vol.45, Part 2. Underwood, C.J. and D.J. Ward (2004). Environmental distribution of Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) neoselachians in southern England. In: Mesozoic Fishes 3 - Systematics, Palaeoenvironments and Biodiversity, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen. Underwood, C.J. and D.J. Ward (2004). Neoselachian Sharks and Rays from the British Bathonian (Middle Jurassic). Palaeontology, Vol.47, Part 3. Cretaceous Cretaceous Elasmobranchs - Africa/Middle East Cuny, G., et al. (2004). Fossil sharks from the Early Cretaceous of Tunisia. Revue de Paleobiologie, Geneve, Vol. 9. Gajić, A., J. Hanjalić and B. Davidov (2014). Frequency, Taxonomy and Morphology of Different Shark Taxa of Lower Paleocene and Upper Cretaceous from Morocco, North Africa. Pluralidade, Vol.2, Number 3. Cretaceous Elasmobranchs - Antarctica Kriwet, J. (2003). First record of an Early Cretaceous shark (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii) from Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 15(4). Cretaceous Elasmobranchs - Asia/Malaysia Cappetta, H., et al. (2006). A New Elasmobranch Assemblage from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand. Palaeontology, Vol.49, Part 3. Prasad, G.V.R. and H. Cappetta (1993). Late Cretaceous Selachians from India and the Age of the Deccan Traps. Palaeontology, Vol.36, Part 1. Radwański, A. and R. Marcinowski (1996). Elasmobranch teeth from the mid-Cretaceous sequence of the Mangyshlak Mountains, Western Kazakhstan. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.46, Numbers 1-2. Cretaceous Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland) Corral, J.-C., A. Barrateaga and H. Cappetta (2015). Upper Maastrichtian shallow marine environments and neoselachian assemblages in North Iberian palaeomargin (Castilian Ramp, Spain). Cretaceous Research, xxx. (Article in Press) Guinot, G., H. Cappetta and S. Adnet (2014). A rare elasmobranch assemblage from the Valanginian (Lower Cretaceous) of southern France. Cretaceous Research, 28. Guinot, G., et al. (2013). Sharks (Elasmobranchii: Euselachii) from the Late Cretaceous of France and the UK. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 11(6). Kriwet, J., E.V. Nunn and S. Klug (2009). Neoselachians (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Lower and lower Upper Cretaceous of north-eastern Spain. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155. Kriwet, J., R. Soler-Gijon and N. Lopez-Martinez (2007). Neoselachians from the Upper Campanian and Lower Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Southern Pyrenees, Northern Spain. Palaeontology. Niedzwiedzki, R. and M. Kalina (2003). Late Cretaceous sharks in the Opole Silesia region (SW Poland). Geologia Sudetica, 35. Soler-Gijon, R. and N. Lopez-Martinez (1998). Sharks and rays (Chondricthyes) from the Upper Cretaceous red beds of the south-central Pyrenees (Lleida, Spain): indices of an India-Eurasia connection. Trbusek, J. (1999). Upper Cretaceous Sharks and Rays from the Prokop Opencast Mine at Brezina Near Moravska Trebova. Geologica, 35. Underwood, C.J. (2004). Berremian and Aptian (Cretaceous) sharks and rays from Speeton, Yorkshire, north-east England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 55. Underwood, C.J. and S. Mitchell. Albian and Cenomanian (Cretaceous) Selachian Faunas from North East England. Underwood, C.J. and J. Rees. Selachian Faunas from the Earliest Cretaceous Purbeck Group of Dorset, Southern England. Underwood, C.J., et al. (1999). Shark and Ray Teeth from the Hauterivian (Lower Cretaceous) of North-East England. Palaeontology, Vol.42, Part 2. Vullo, R. and D. Neraudeau (2008). When the "primitive" shark Tribodus (Hybodontiformes) meets the "modern" ray Pseudohypolophus (Rajiformes): the unique co-occurrence of these two durophagous Cretaceous selachians in Charentes (SW France). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.58, Number 2. Vullo, R., et al. (2007). New sharks and rays from the Cenomanian and Turonian of Charentes, France. Acta Paleontologica Polonica, 52(1). Cretaceous Elasmobranchs - North America Bourdon, J., et al. (2011). Selachians from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Hosta Tongue of the Point Lookout Sandstone, Central New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 52. Cicimurri, D.J. Cretaceous Elasmobranchs of the Greenhorn Formation (Middle Cenomanian-Middle Turonian), Western South Dakota. Bob Campbell Geology Museum. Cicimurri, D.J., C.N. Ciampaglio and K.E. Runyon (2014). Late Cretaceous Elasmobranchs from the Eutaw Formation at Luxapalila Creek, Lowndes County, Mississippi. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 11, 2. Elliott, D.R. and L.B. Whitenack (2012). A Cretaceous shark tooth in glacial debris of middle Missouri. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.115, Numbers 3-4. Everhart, M.J. (2004). Late Cretaceous interaction between predators and prey. Evidence of feeding by two species of shark on a mosasaur. PalArch, vertebrate paleontology, 1(1). Frederickson, J.A., S.N. Schaefer and J.A. Doucette-Frederickson (2015). A Gigantic Shark from the Lower Cretaceous Duck Creek Formation of Texas. PLoS ONE, 10(6). Janus, T. (2009). Biodiversity and Extinction Patterns of Chondrichthyes from the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary, Central Texas. Senior Scholars Thesis - Texas A&M University. Johnson, S.C. and S.G. Lucas (2003). Selachian Fauna from the Upper Cretaceous Dalton Sandstone, Middle Rio Puerco Valley, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 54th Field Conference, Geology of the Zuni Plateau, 2003. Lucas, S.G. and J.A. Spielmann (2009). Low Diversity Selachian Assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Greenhorn Limestone, Socorro County, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 60th Field Conference, Geology of the Chupadera Mesa Region, 2009. Lucas, S.G. and S.C. Johnson (2003). Cretaceous Invertebrate and Selachian Fossil Assemblage from the Juana Lopez Member of the Mancos Shale Near Herrera, West-Central New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 54th Field Conference, Geology of the Zuni Plateau, 2003. Schubert, J.A. (2013). Elasmobranch and Osteichthyan Fauna of the Rattlesnake Mountain Sandstone, Aguja Formation (Upper Cretaceous; Campanian), West Texas. Masters Thesis - Texas Tech University. Stewart, J.D. (1978). Part 3. Enterospirae (Fossil Intestines) from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Formation of Western Kansas In: Fossil Fish Studies, University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 89. Stewart, J.D. and J.E. Martin (1993). Late Cretaceous Selachians and Associated Marine Vertebrates from the Dakota Rose Granite Quarry, Grant County, South Dakota. Proc.S.D.Acad.Sci., Vol.72. Williamson, T.E., S.G. Lucas and R. Pence (1989). Selachians from the Hosta Tongue of the Point Lookout Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous, Santonian), Central New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 40th Field Conference, Southeastern Colorado Plateau, 1989. Williston, S.W. (1900) Selachians and Pycnodonts. In: Part II - Cretaceous Fishes. University Geological Survey of Kansas, Vol.VI. (Text Only) Williston, S.W. (1900) Selachians and Pycnodonts. In: Part II - Cretaceous Fishes. University Geological Survey of Kansas, Vol.VI. (Plates) Wohlberg, D.L. (1985). Selachians from the Late Cretaceous (Turonian) Atarque Sandstone Member, Tres Hermanos Formation, Seviletta Grant, Socorro County, New Mexico. New Mexico Geology, Vol.7, Number 1. Cretaceous Elasmobranchs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Otero, R.A., et al. (2013). Neoselachians and Chimaeriformes (Chondrichtyes) from the latest Cretaceous-Paleogene of Sierra Baguales, southernmost Chile. Chronostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic and paleoenvironmental implications. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 48. Pereira, A.A. and M.A. Medeiros (2008). A New Sclerorhynchiform (Elasmobranchii) from the Middle Cretaceous of Brazil. Rev. bras. paleontol., 11(3). General Cretaceous Elasmobranchs Kriwet, J. and M.J. Benton (2004). Neoselachian (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) diversity across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology, 214. Paleocene Adolfssen, J.S. and D.J. Ward (2015). Neoselachians from the Danian (early Paleocene) of Denmark. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(2). Gajić, A., J. Hanjalić and B. Davidov (2014). Frequency, Taxonomy and Morphology of Different Shark Taxa of Lower Paleocene and Upper Cretaceous from Morocco, North Africa. Pluralidade, Vol.2, Number 3. Eocene Eocene Elasmobranchs - Africa/Middle East Underwood, C.J., et al. (2010). Shark and ray faunas in the Middle and Late Eocene of the Fayum Area, Egypt. Proceedings of the Geologist's Association, Article in Press. Wallett, L.A. (2006). Eocene Selachian Fauna from Nearshore Marine Deposits, Ampazony, Northwestern Madagascar. B.A. Paper, Mount Holyoke College. Zalmout, I.S.A., et al. (2012). Priabonian Sharks and Rays (Late Eocene, Neoselachii) from Minqar Tabaghbagh in the Western Qattara Depression, Egypt. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Vol.32, Number 6. Eocene Elasmobranchs - Antarctica Kriwet, J., et al. (2016). Ultimate Eocene (Priabonian) Chondrichtyans (Holocephali, Elasmobranchii) of Antarctica. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1160911. Long, D.J. (1992). Paleoecology of Eocene Antarctic Sharks. In: The Antarctic Paleoenvironment: A Perspective on Global Change. Antarctic Research Series, Vol.56. Welton, B.J. and W.J. Zinsmeister (1980). Eocene Neoselachians from the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 329. Eocene Elasmobranchs - Asia/Malaysia Lucas, S.G., R.J. Emry and R.W. Purdy (1996). Marine Fossil Shark (Chondrichthyes) from Nonmarine Eocene Sediments, Northeast Kazakhstan. Proceedings of The Biological Society of Washington, 109. Malyshkina, T. and D.J. Ward (2016). The Turanian Basin in the Eocene: New Data on the Sharks and Rays from the Kyzylkum Desert (Uzbekistan). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, Vol.320, Number 1. Pelc, A., S. Halas and R. Niedźwiedzki (2011). Oxygen isotope analysis of shark teeth phosphates from Bartonian (Eocene) deposits in Mangyshlak peninsula, Kazakhstan. Mineralogia, Vol.42, Number 1. Eocene Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland) Adnet, S., H. Cappetta, and J. Reynders (2008). Contributions of Eocene sharks and rays from southern France to the history of deep-sea selachians. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.57, Number 2. Carlsen, A.W. and G. Cuny (2014). A study of the sharks and rays from the Lillebaelt Clay (Early-Middle Eocene) of Denmark, and their palaeoecology. Bulletin of the Geological Society Denmark, Vol.62. Diedrich, C.G. and H. Felker (2012). Middle Eocene Shark Coprolites from Shallow Marine and Deltaic Coasts of the Pre-North Sea Basin in Central Europe. In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 57. Iserbyt, A. and P.J. De Schutter (2012). Quantitative analysis of Elasmobranch assemblages from two successive Ypresnian (early Eocene) facies at Marke, western Belgium. Geologica Belgica, 15/3. Malyshkina, T. (2006). Late Eocene scyliorhinid sharks from the Trans-Urals, Russia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(3). Eocene Elasmobranchs - North America Case, G.R., T.D. Cook and M.V.H. Wilson (2015). A new elasmobranch assemblage from the early Eocene (Ypresian) Fishburne Formation of Berkeley County, South Carolina, USA. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Draft Copy. Parmley, D. and D.J. Cicimurri (2003). Late Eocene Sharks of the Hardie Mine Local Fauna of Wilkinson County, Georgia. In: Georgia Journal of Science, Vol.61, Number 3. Eocene Elasmobranchs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I., S.P. Applegate and L. Espinosa-Arrubarrena (1999). First Paleogene Selachifauna of the Middle American-Caribbean-Antillean Region, La Mesa De Copoya, West-Central Chiapas, Mexico - Systematics and Paleontological Significance. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.16, Number 2. Oligocene Bienkowska-Wasiluk, M. and A. Radwanski (2009). A new occurrence of sharks in the Menilite Formation (Lower Oligocene) from the Outer (Flysch) Carpathians of Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.59, Number 2. Cicimurri, J.D. and J.L. Knight (2009). Late Oligocene sharks and rays from the Chandler Bridge Formation, Dorchester County, South Carolina, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54(4). Miocene Miocene Elasmobranchs - Africa/Middle East Andrianavalona, T.H., et al. (2015). Miocene Shark and Batoid Fauna from Nosy Makamby (Mahajanga Basin, Northwestern Madagascar). PLoS ONE, 10(6). Govender, R. (2015). Shark-Cetacean trophic interaction, Duinefontein, Koeberg (5 Ma), South Africa. S.Afr.J.Sci., 111(11-12). Miocene Elasmobranchs - Asia/Malaysia Ralte, V.Z., et al. (2011). Selachian Fishes from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group, Aizawl, Mizoram. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 77(4). Tewari, B.S. (1959). On a Few Fossil Shark Teeth from the Miocene Beds of Kutch, Western India. Proc.Nat.Inst.Sci.India, Vol.25 B. Miocene Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland) Cappetta, H. (1970). Selachians of the Miocene of the Montpellier Region. Palaeovertebrata, 1970. (Plates not included) Holec, P, M. Hornacek and M. Sykora (1995). Lower Miocene Shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) and Whale Faunas (Mammalia, Cetacea) near Mucin, Southern Slovakia. Geologicke prace. Spravy 100. Kocsis, L. (2007). Central Paratethyan shark fauna (Ipolytarnoc, Hungary). Geologica Carpathica, 58(1). Radwanski, A. (1965). A Contribution to the Knowledge of Miocene Elasmobranchii from Pinczow (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.X, Number 2. Underwood, C.J. and J. Schlogel (2013). Deep-water chondrichthyans from the Early Miocene of the Vienna Basin, (Central Paratethys, Slovakia). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Miocene Elasmobranchs - North America Jordan, D.S. (1926). New Sharks from the Temblor Group in Kern County, California Collected by Charles Morrice. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series, Vol.XV, Number 8. Miocene Elasmobranchs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., et al. (2016). An Early Neogene Elasmobranch fauna from the southern Caribbean (Venezuela). Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.27A Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., et al. (2015). Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela). PLoS ONE, 10(10). Costa, S.A.R.F., et al. (2009). Shark teeth from the Pirabas Formation (Lower Miocene), northeastern Amazonia, Brazil. Bol.Mus.Para.Emilio Goeldi, Cienc.Nat. Belém, Vol.4, Number 3. dos Reis, M.A.F. (2005). Chondrichthyan Fauna from the Pirabas Formation, Miocene of North Brazil, with Comments Con Paleobiogeography. Anuario de Instituto de Geosciencias-UFRJ, 28(2). Pimiento, C., et al. (2013). Early Miocene chondrichthyans from the Culebra Formation, Panama: A window into marine vertebrate faunas before closure the Central American Seaway. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42. Pimiento, C., et al. (2013). Sharks and Rays (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Miocene Gatun Formation of Panama. Journal of Paleontology, 87(5). Portell, R.W., et al. (2008). Miocene sharks in the Kendeace and Grand Bay formations of Carriacou, The Grenadines, Lesser Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.44, Number 3. Underwood, C.J. and S.F. Mitchell (2004). Sharks, Bony Fishes and Endodental Borings from the Miocene Montpelier Formation (White Limestone Group) of Jamaica. Cainozoic Research, Vol.3. Pliocene Boessenecker, R.W. (2011). A New Marine Vertebrate Assemblage from the Late Neogene Purisima Formation in Central California, Part I: Fossil Sharks, Bony Fish, Birds, and Implications for the Age of the Purisima Formation West of the San Gregorio Fault. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 8(4). (Thanks to Boesse for pointing me to this one!) Marsili, S. (2008). Systematic, Paleoecologic and Paleobiogeographic Analysis of the Plio-Pleistocene Mediterranean Elasmobranch Fauna. Atti Soc.tosc.Sci.nat., Mem., Serie A, 113. Marsili, S. (2007). Pliocene Elasmobranchs in the Collection of the "Museo Civico Guiseppe Scarabelli" of Imola. Quaderno di Studi e Notizie di Storia Naturale della Romagna, 24. Pleistocene Marsili, S. (2007). A new bathyal shark fauna from the Pleistocene sediments of Fiumefreddo (Sicily, Italy). Geodiversitas, 29(2). General Elasmobranchs General Elasmobranchs - Africa/Middle East Gajic, A., J. Hanjalic and B. Davidov (2014). Frequency, Taxonomy and Morphology of Different Shark Taxa of Lower Paleogene and Upper Cretaceous from Morocco, North Africa. General Elasmobranchs - Australa/New Zealand Pledge, N.S. (1992). Fossil shark teeth dredged from the Great Australian Bight. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, 13. Pledge, N.S. (1967). Fossil Elasmobranch Teeth of South Australia and Their Stratigraphic Distribution. Transactions of the Royal Society of of South Australia, 91. Pledge, N.S., et al. (2015). Fossil shark teeth from upland Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia: evidence for previously unknown Tertiary marine sediments. MESA Journal 76, Issue 1. General Elasmobranchs - Europe (including Greenland) Cuny, G. and M.J. Benton (1999). Early Radiation of the Neoselachian Sharks in Western Europe. Geobios, 32(2). Kocsis, L. (2007). Central Paratethyan shark fauna (Ipolytarnoc, Hungary). Geologica Carpathia, 58(1). Underwood, C.J. (2003). Environmental controls on the distribution of neoselachian sharks and rays within the British Bathonian (Middle Jurassic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol.203, Issues 1-2. General Elasmobranchs - North America Lauginiger, E.M. and E.F. Hartstein (1983). A Guide to Fossil Sharks, Skates and Rays from the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Area, Delaware. Delaware Geological Society, Open File Report Number 21. Leriche, M. (1908). Observations on the Neogene Sharks of California. Annales da la Societe Geologique du Nord, 37. (Plates not included) Mollen, F.H. and J.W.M. Jagt (2012). The taxonomic value of rostral nodes of extinct sharks, with comments on previous records of the genus Lamna (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) from the Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina (USA). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.62, Number 1. Tessman, N. (1966). Cenozoic Sharks of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 1. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing me to this one!) Welton, B.J. (1972). Fossil Sharks in Oregon. The Ore Bin, Vol.34, Number 10. Zidek, J. (1976). Oklahoma Paleoichthyology Part V: Chondrichthyes. Oklahoma Geology Notes, Vol.36, Number 5. General Elasmobranchs - South America/Central America/Caribbean Carillo-Briceño, J.D., O.A. Aguilera and F. Rodriguez (2014). Fossil Chondrichthyes from the central eastern Pacific Ocean and their paleoceanographic significance. Journal of South American Earth Science, 51. Carillo-Briceño, J.D., et al. (2016). An Early Neogene Elasmobranch fauna from the southern Caribbean (Western Venezuela). Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.27A. Donovan, S.K. and G.C. Gunter (2001). Fossil Sharks from Jamaica. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, number 28. Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I., S.P. Applegate, and L. Espinosa-Arrubarrena (1999). First Paleogene Selachifauna of the Middle American-Caribbean-Antillean Region, La Mesa De Copoya, West-Central Chiapas, Mexico - Systematics and Paleontological Significance. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.16, Number 2. Iturralde-Venent, M., et al. (1996). Catalog of Cuban Fossil Elasmobranchii (Paleocene-Pliocene) and Paleooceanographic Implications of their Lower--Middle Miocene Occurrence. Boletin de la Sociedad Jamaicana de Geologia, Vol. 31. Staig, F., et al. (2015). Late Neogene Elasmobranch Fauna from the Coquimbo Formation, Chile. Rev.bras.paleontol., 18(2). General Elasmobranchs Andreev, P. and N. Motchurova-Dekova (2010). Checklist of the Fossil Shark and Bony Fish Teeth (Elasmobranchii and Actinopterygii) Housed at the National Museum of Natural History, Sofia. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, 3. Botella, H., P.C.J. Donoghue and C. Martinez-Perez (2009). Enameloid microstructure in the oldest known chondrichthyan teeth. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 90 (Suppl.1). Botella, H., J.I. Valenzuela-Rios and C. Martinez-Perez (2009). Tooth replacement rates in early chondrichthyans: a qualitative approach. Lethaia, Vol.42. Cappetta, H. (1987). Extinctions and faunal renewals among post-Jurassic selachians. Mem.Soc.geol. France,N.S., Number 150. Cuny, G. (1998). Primitive Neoselachian Sharks: A Survey. Oryctos, Vol.1. Gillis, J.A. and P.C.J. Donoghue (2007). The Homology and Phylogeny of Chondrichthyan Tooth Enameloid. Journal of Morphology, 268. Gillis, J.A., et al. (2011). Holocephalan embryos provide evidence for gill arch appendage reduction and opercular evolution in cartilaginous fishes. PNAS, Vol.108, Number 4. Gudger, E.W. (1937). Abnormal Dentition in Sharks, Selachii. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.LXXIII, Article II. Guinot, G., S. Adnet and H. Cappetta (2012). An Analytical Approach for Estimating Fossil Record and Diversification Events in Sharks, Skates and Rays. PLoS ONE, 7(9). Herman, J. and H. Van Waes (eds.)(1993). Elasmobranches Et Stratigraphie. Service Geologique de Belgique, Professional Paper 1993/6, Number 264. (Most articles in English) (272 pages) New Record of the phoebodontid chondrichthyan Thrinacodus ferox (Turner, 1982) from the Carboniferous of England. Late Triassic sharks teeth (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (north-east France). The age of the Upper Triassic vertebrate fauna from Attert (Province of Luxembourg, Belgium). Teeth of Hybodus (Selachii) from the Early Jurassic of Lyme Regis, Dorset (southern England): preliminary note. Chondrichtyens du Sinémurien de Belgique. New Evidence of Annea and Jurobatos, two rare neoselachians (Pisces, Chondrichthyes) from the Jurassic of Europe. Découverte de Parasymbolus gen. et sp.nov. (Scyliorhinidae - Elasmobranchii) dans le Kimméridgian de Normandie, France. The palaeospinacid shark "Synechodus" jurensis Schweitzer, 1964 from the Late Jurassic of Germany. Fossil Shark Teeth from the Early Cretaceous of Anoual, Morocco. Les Elasmobranches de l'Albien inférieur et moyen (Crétacé inférieur) de la Marne et de la Haute-Marne (France). The vascularization system in teeth of Selachii. Kriwet, J., W. Kiessling, and S. Klug (2009). Diversification trajectories and evolutionary life-history traits in early sharks and batoids. Proc.R.Soc. B, 276. Leriche, M. (1936). Upon the importance of the Fossil Sharks in the establishment of the Isochronisms of Formations at Great Distances and Upon the Stratigraphic and Geographic Distribution of Some Tertiary Species. Memoire du Musee Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 2(3). Lowry, D., et al. (2009). Determining shark size from forensic analysis of bite damage. Mar.Biol., 156. Maisey, J.G. (2013). The diversity of tessellated calcification in modern and extinct chondrichthyans. Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève, 32(2). Maisey, J.G. (1985) . Cranial Morphology of the Fossil Elasmobranch Synechodus dubrisiensis. American Museum Novitates, Number 2804. Martin, A.P. (1995). Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Evolution in Sharks: Rates, Patterns, and Phylogenetic Inferences. Mol.Biol.Evol., 12(6). Motta, P.J. and C.D. Wilga (2001). Advances in the study of feeding behaviors, mechanisms and mechanics of sharks. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 60. Musick, J.A. and J.K. Ellis. Chapter 3 - Reproductive Evolution of Chondrichthyans. In: Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Chondrichthyes. Naylor, G.J.P., et al. Chapter 1 - Phylogenetic Relationships among the Major Lineages of Modern Elasmobranchs. In: Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Chondrichthyes. Pilgrim, B.L. and T.A. Franz-Odendaal (2009). A comparative study of the ocular skeleton of fossil and modern chondrichthyans. Journal of Anatomy, 214. Purdy, R.W. (2006). A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth. Rothschild, B.M., et al. (2005). Sharks eating mosasaurs, dead or alive? Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 84(3). Shirai, S. (1996). Chapter 2. Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Neoselachians (Chondrichthyes: Euselachii). In: Interrelationships of Fishes, Academic Press, Inc. Treude, T., et al. (2011). Elasmobranch egg capsules associated with modern and ancient cold seeps: a nursery for marine deep-water predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol.437. White, E.G. (1936). Some Transitional Elasmobranchs Connecting the Catuloidea with the Carcharinoidea. American Museum Novitates, Number 879. White, E.G. (1936). A Classification and Phylogeny of Elasmobranch Fishes. American Museum Novitates, Number 837. Whitenack, L.B., D.C. Simkins and P.J. Motta (2011). Biology Meets Engineering: The Structural Mechanics of Fossil and Extant Shark Teeth. Journal of Morphology, 272. Winchell, C.J., A.P. Martin and J. Mallatt (2004). Phylogeny of elasmobranchs based on LSU and SSU ribosomal RNA genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31.
  21. Recently I started looking a little more closely at the small gravels in the creek. This little Ptychodus tooth, the smallest I've found to date, is the fifth I've found in Austin. I've reviewed the pinned topic on Ptychodus, but can't nail down the ID from there. What do you think?
  22. I found this tooth 1 year ago in the Copenhagen Community of Louisiana (Northeast Louisiana). My family settled in that area around 150 years ago... There is now a Copenhagen Hills Preserve area with many archeological digs there from the local universities. Kind of funny because the settlers there were using rib bones, etc as door stops... My brothers and I wonder the hills when I'm there to visit with many small bones, large pieces of quartz, and an occasional rib bone, ray teeth, seashells, and now this tooth being found. Most of the time we find these things just laying around on the ground or in a creek bed. It is noted that this is probably an Eocene time is known that bones of Basilosaurus have been located in the hills..along with bones of rays. This site will give you a little inkling of what Copenhagen is like. The p Any help in identifying would be appreciated. Measures 3 1/2 " in length, 3" in width, 1 1/2" in depth. Thanks again!
  23. From the album Fish Fossils

    Rhombodus microdon (Arambourg, 1952) Location: Khouribga, Morocco Age: Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous

    © &copy Olof Moleman

  24. From the album Fish Fossils

    Rhombodus binkhorsti Dames, 1881 Location: Khouribga, Morocco Age: Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous

    © &copy Olof Moleman

  25. Pretty excited to have found this today!