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Found 26 results

  1. Sea urchin non det.

    From the album Invertebrates

    Sea urchin non det. Middle Triassic Crailsheim Germany Diameter 7cm
  2. Hello everyone, For this first report I take you to visit a small site in the Hauterivien. A few kilometers from the village of Hauterive which gave it its name. (Sorry for the quality of the photos I was with my nephew aged 14. And the rain made us go home prematurely) In this region the Hauterivien is composed in its upper part of a yellow limestone called "Pierre jaune de Neuchâtel". (It has served a lot in the construction.) Below is layers of marl called "Marnes d'Hauterive". These are the layers we are going to explore. Some views of the career: In this photo, we can see the succession of layers: Snow and water did their job of clearing during the winter: Much of the site is still subject to winter landslides. We will avoid setting foot there. The wall is still unstable. A sample of the finds of the day: Lamellaerynchia, Musclina and Plicarostrum make up most of the brachiopod fauna of the quarry. I still managed to get my hands on a much less common Belothyris. And on this copy that I have not yet identified. I have not found anything comparable on this site yet. Some sea urchins that can be found on the site: The inevitable and very common Toxaster retusus: Holaster Intermedius: Pseudodiadema rotulare: That's all for this ride.
  3. Magnosia nodulosa

    From the album Fossils from Switzerland

    A beautiful but small (0.4 cm long) Magnosia nodulosa from the quarry Schümel near Holderbank (Switzerland). In the "Birmenstorf-Member" small sea urchins arent that rare but also not comon.
  4. Sea Urchin Fossil - PHYMOSOMA a.jpg

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Sea Urchin Fossil - PHYMOSOMA Morocco Middle Jurassic (about 170 Million Years Ago) Phymosoma is an extinct genus of echinoids that lived from the Cretaceous to the Eocene. Sea Urchins are a group of marine invertebrates that today can be found in almost every major marine habitat from the poles to the equator and from the intertidal zone to depths of more than 5,000 metres. There are around 800 extant species and the group has a long and detailed fossil record stretching back about 450 million years ago to the Late Ordovician Period. Commonly called "Sea Biscuits" of Sea Urchins Echinoid is Latin for "pickle". When alive these animals were covered with movable spines which gave protection and provided locomotion. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Echinoidea Order: Phymosomatoida Family: Phymosomatidae Genus: Phymosoma
  5. Sea Urchin Fossil - PHYMOSOMA a.jpg

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Sea Urchin Fossil - PHYMOSOMA Morocco Middle Jurassic (about 170 Million Years Ago) Phymosoma is an extinct genus of echinoids that lived from the Cretaceous to the Eocene. Sea Urchins are a group of marine invertebrates that today can be found in almost every major marine habitat from the poles to the equator and from the intertidal zone to depths of more than 5,000 metres. There are around 800 extant species and the group has a long and detailed fossil record stretching back about 450 million years ago to the Late Ordovician Period. Commonly called "Sea Biscuits" of Sea Urchins Echinoid is Latin for "pickle". When alive these animals were covered with movable spines which gave protection and provided locomotion. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Echinoidea Order: Phymosomatoida Family: Phymosomatidae Genus: Phymosoma
  6. Sea Urchin Fossil - Madagascar a.jpg

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Sea Urchin Fossil - Mepygurus depressus Madagascar Callovian stage of the Jurassic Era circa 144 to 208 million years ago This type of Sea Urchin, "Mepygurus depressus", like a (sand dollar), is an extremely flat form of echinoid. They are a slow moving creature, feeding primarily upon algae, as they burrow through the soft sand in our oceans. Sea Urchins have a rigid skeletal system, known as a test, which is comprised of several interlocking plates. On the top of their bodies are five visually paired rows of perforations of their endoskeleton, which are formed in a perfect star shaped pattern. These perforations act as a gas exchange system for the Sea Urchin. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Echinoidea Order: Cassiduloida Family: Clypeidae Genus: Mepygurus Species: depressus
  7. Sea Urchin Fossil - Madagascar a.jpg

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Sea Urchin Fossil - Mepygurus depressus Madagascar Callovian stage of the Jurassic Era circa 144 to 208 million years ago This type of Sea Urchin, "Mepygurus depressus", like a (sand dollar), is an extremely flat form of echinoid. They are a slow moving creature, feeding primarily upon algae, as they burrow through the soft sand in our oceans. Sea Urchins have a rigid skeletal system, known as a test, which is comprised of several interlocking plates. On the top of their bodies are five visually paired rows of perforations of their endoskeleton, which are formed in a perfect star shaped pattern. These perforations act as a gas exchange system for the Sea Urchin. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Echinoidea Order: Cassiduloida Family: Clypeidae Genus: Mepygurus Species: depressus
  8. Sea Urchin Fossil?

    Hello there all! I have not been able to do much fossiling over the last few months as I have been busy with this and that, however in the last week I was able to take a couple of trips up to Mathesons Bay. The bay is situated in Leigh, north of Auckland and belongs to the Cape Rodney formation. The fossil bearing rocks in the bay are early Miocene, between 22 and 20 million years old (Otaian in New Zealand's geological scale). The specimen I'm wondering about was found in coarse sandstone, along with some quite nice little brachiopods ( in fact there is a piece of brachiopod attached to it). It is only a fragment but the piece has rows of knobs ranging from 2mm to 0.5mm in diameter running along its curved surface. There does not seem to be a clear pattern in regards the size of the knobs in each row, which leaves me wondering if it is a echinoid or not. However, it is possible the the variability in the knob's size is down to weathering, as the specimen is quite worn.. As far as I have read, the only echinoid known from the locality is Phyllacanthus titan, with that known from its fossilised spines alone (a few fragments of which I found, one quite near the specimen in question). I am wondering if this piece is from Phyllacanthus titan, or some other type of sea urchin. Thanks a lot! Here are a couple more pictures, the specimen is rather worn and a little difficult to make out I am afraid..
  9. Apex?Que?

    When three guys with that kind of reputation in echinodermology get together to write a paper,you just KNOW it's going to be good. Highly recommended,particularly if you love your Loven,Mortensen,Raff,etc. Extremely well illustrated,IMHO Saucepourtpical 04 me.pdf
  10. Preparing a sea urchin

    Hi all, First off, I am a real noob when it comes to prepping fossils... This is why I have a question for you, which I don't think would be too hard for you pros out there. Some of you may have seen this sea urchin before; anyways I wanted to prep it, as I believe it will look quite nice after a good prep. There is just one problem though: the matrix is very hard (compared to what I'm used to). So how should I clear all this matrix? The tools I have are very limited, but I can buy new things (as long as they are very cheap materials). I have: one long thin metal needle, one strong pointed needle, one strong small chisel, and one thing to blow the matrix away (sorry if I don't have the correct terms)... If needed I can post a picture of the tools. Here is a picture of the fossil:
  11. My newest find

    Last Friday i visited some quarries near Gundelfingen (Danube). In the Upper Marine Molasse (do i say this right?) i found some beautiful oysters but i also was in a quarry where you can find fossils from the white jurassic. There i found some bivalves, brachiopods and this ... A sea urchin with a length of 1cm I know that many of you have lots of sea urchins but for me its a nice find ! Firstly they are rare here in my area and that is only my second sea urchin, which i found in my life Shadefully the urchin is damaged but can somebody determine this one? Another picture: Please dont make fun of this shabby specimen Thanks for your interest !
  12. Sea Urchin-Cuba

    Is this a common sea urchin. Found in cuba. My friend says they are a different than what is found in florida.
  13. New finds from Heidenheim

    On the 26.12.2016 i was in the quarry Moldenberg near Heidenheim an der Brenz. There you can find fossils from the white jurassic. Besides of this highlight: http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/70839-what-is-this/ I also found many brachiopods, bivalves, crinoid stems, bryozoans ... First some pictures of the quarry: Its was a very cold and dark day so shadefully they are not that nice... Now the "real" quarry: And the view on a part of the city Heidenheim:
  14. regular echinoid

    Self Collected 10 Apr 2015 at the Martin Marietta Quarry Castle Hayne
  15. Hi all, I don't know if you know it already, but this series of divulgative publications seems me absolutely interesting and useful: http://www.echinoids-gallery.com/presentaciones/asociacion paleontologica.htm
  16. Two echinoids for ID please

    Hi guys Can anyone help id these two echinoids. No location, flea market acquisition for 2. Black/white scale is 1cm Thanks John
  17. Hermicidaris Intermedia spine

    From the album Various

    Hermicidaris Intermedia, echinoderm spine, Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Novion, Ardennes, France.
  18. Sea urchin and clam in matrix

    From the album Cretaceous finds in Western Australia

    Several Inoceramus Giant Clam shell fragments and several Sea Urchin spines in matrix. Cretaceous Gingin Chalk.
  19. Hi Fossil Forum, I need help in identifying a fossil my friend found in middle Georgia. The area where he found it has been reported to have fossils from the Ordovician Period. It was found in a soft limestone sedimentary rock and appears to be a tusk shell or a sea urchin spine. Any idea what this is? Thanks, Darren ​
  20. Sea Urchin?

    My eight year old daughter found this on Holden Beach, NC yesterday. I'm guessing it's a fossilized sea urchin? We're homeschoolers and I'd love to get her started researching more about it!
  21. After more digging up in my old boxes i came across my collection of sea urchins from Ivö, Sweden. I am posting my three best ones (all Micraster, unidentified species), here they are: I am fairly confident that they are all the same species, but i can´t really be sure. Here´s a bottom view: The one farthest to the left is quite beaten up, but it´s also my largest Micraster specimen. /Sebastian
  22. Fossils From Gotland (Sweden)

    These are my fossils from Gotland (southern Sweden) and they are all from silurian age. I have only photographed the most interesting specimens specifically, as i have far too many specimens to fotograph. Also, most are unidentified as i do not have much knowledge of fossil corals (which i have a lot of), or clams / sea urchins, but anyways, here it is: Corals These corals are of various different species, my most common type being Catenipora. Sea Urchins Sea Urchins like these are also quite common on Gotland Other Specimens These two fossils are by far the best ones i have from my Gotland "Expedition", first off, a nearly perfect silurian clam with no restoration or repair (however quite some prepping): And one of my two larger self-collected orthocnes: Dawsonoceras. it was a orthocone, with an unknown size, as no complete specimen has never been found: Here is the "Gotland box" where i store my fossils from Gotland, and i have as i said way too many to photograph:
  23. My husband found this laying in a wash down area of the formation pictured. It was laying on top of the limestone, just as you see it! It is very strange, because we have worked this road cut many times, and have never seen a smooth stone. He found it on the 3 ledge up.
  24. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since December 14, 2017. Phylum Echinodermata Class Echinoidea - Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars and Their Allies Ordovician Echinoids Bockelie, J.F. and P.I. Briskby (1980). The presence of a bothriociderid (Echinoid) in the Ordovician of Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Vol.60. Kolata, D.R., H.L. Strimple and C.O. Levorson (1977). A New Species of Bothriocidaris (Echinoidea) from the Cincinnatian Maquoketa Group of Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad.Sci., 84(4). Paul, C.R.C. (1967). New Ordovician Bothriocidaridae from Girvan and a Reinterpretation of Bothriocidaris Eichwald. Palaeontology, Vol.10, Part 4. Smith, A.B. and J.J. Savill (2001). Bromidechinus, a new Ordovician echinozoan (Echinodermata), and its bearing on the early history of echinoids. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 92. Silurian Echinoids Blake, D.B. (1968). Pedicellariae of Two Silurian Echinoids from Western England. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 4. Kier, P.M. (1973). A New Silurian Echinoid Genus from Scotland. Palaeontology, Vol.16, Part 4. Lister, T.R. and C. Downie (1967). New Evidence for the Age of the Primitive Echinoid Myriastiches gigas. Palaeontology, Vol.10, Part 2. Devonian Echinoids Brown, I.A. (1967). A Devonian Echinoid from Taemas, South of Yass, N.S.W. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 92. Jesionek-Szymanska, W. (1982). Morphology and Microstructure of Oligolamellar Teeth in Paleozoic Echinoids. Part 2. Givetian (Middle Devonian) Stage of Evolution of Oligolamellar Teeth. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.27, Numbers 1-4. Jesionek-Szymanska, W. (1979). Morphology and Microstructure of Oligolamellar Teeth in Paleozoic Echinoids. Part 1. Teeth of Some Early Lepidocentrid Echinoids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.24, Number 2. Smith, A.B., M. Reich and S. Zamora (201X). Morphology and ecological setting of the basal echinoid genus Rhenechinus from the early Devonian of Spain and Germany. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 5X(X). (In Review) Carboniferous Echinoids Kesling, R.V. and H.L. Strimple (1966). Suggested Growth Pattern in the Mississippian (Chester) Echinoid Lepidesthes formosa Miller. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.40, Number 5. Lewis, D.N. and S.K. Donovan (2005). Archaeocidaris M'Coy (Echinoidea) from the Carboniferous of Egypt. Scripta Geol., 129. Schneider, C.L. (2003). Hitchhiking on Pennsylvanian Echinoids: Epibionts on Archaeocidaris. Palaios, Vol.18. Schneider, C.L. Epibionts on Late Carboniferous through Early Permian echinoid spines from Texas, USA. Schneider, C.L., J. Sprinkle and D. Ryder (2005). Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) Echinoids from the Winchell Formation, North-Central Texas, USA. J.Paleont., 79(4). Permian Echinoids Schneider, C.L. Epibionts on Late Carboniferous through Early Permian echinoid spines from Texas, USA. Smith, A.B. and N.T.J. Hollingworth (1990). Tooth structure and phylogeny of the Upper Permian echinoid Miocidaris keyserlingi. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, Vol.48, Part 1. Thompson, J.R., E. Petsios and D.J. Bottjer (2017). A diverse assemblage of Permian echinoids (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) and implications for character evolution in early crown group echinoids. Journal of Paleontology, 91(4). Triassic Echinoids Fell, H.B. (1950). A Triassic Echinoid from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Vol.78, Part 1. Kier, P.M. (1984). Echinoids from the Triassic (St. Cassian) of Italy, Their Lantern Supports, and a Revised Phylogeny of Triassic Echinoids. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 56. Kier, P.M. (1977). Triassic Echinoids. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 30. Kroh, A. (2011). Echinoids from the Triassic of St. Cassian - A Review. Geo.Alp, Vol.8, S. Rolle, J.J. (2014). Early Triassic Echinoids of the Western United States: Their Implications for Paleoecology and the Habitable Zone Hypothesis Following the Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction. Masters Thesis - The University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee. (145 pages) Smith, A.B. (2007). Intrinsic versus extrinsic biases in the fossil record: contrasting the fossil record of echinoids in the Triassic and Early Jurassic using sampling data, phylogenetic analysis, and molecular clocks. Paleobiology, 33(2). Stiller, F. (2001). Echinoid Spines from the Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Qingyan, South-Western China. Palaeontology, Vol.44, Part 3. Thompson, J.R., et al. (2018). A new stem group echinoid from the Triassic of China leads to a revised macroevolutionary history of echinoids during the end-Permian mass extinction. R.Soc. open sci., 5:171548. Jurassic Echinoids Baumeister, J.G. and R.R. Leinfelder (1998). Constructional Morphology and Palaeoecological Significance of Three Late Jurassic Regular Echinoids.Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 2. Borszcz, T. and M. Zaton (2013). The oldest record of predation on echinoids: evidence from the Middle Jurassic of Poland. Lethaia, Vol.46. Jesionek-Szymanska, W. (1978). On a New Galeropygid Genus (Echinoidea) from the Jurassic (Upper Lias) of Morocco. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 23(2). Jesionek-Szymanska, W. (1970). On a New Pygasterid (Echinoidea) from the Jurassic (Middle Lias) of Nevada, U.S.A.. Acta Paleontologica Polonica, Vol.XV, Number 4. Radwanska, U. Callovian and Oxfordian echinoids of Zalas. Radwanska, U. and E. Poirot (2010). Copepod-infested Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) echinoids from northern France. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 4. Saucede, T., et al. (2007). Phylogeny and origin of Jurassic irregular echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).Geol.Mag. 144(2). Smith, A.B. (2007). Intrinsic versus extrinsic biases in the fossil record: contrasting the fossil record of echinoids in the Triassic and Early Jurassic using sampling data, phylogenetic analysis, and molecular clocks. Paleobiology, 33(2). Smith, A.B. (1995). Echinoids from the Jurassic Oxford Clay of England. Palaeontology, Vol.38, Part 4. Smith, A.B. (1982). Tooth Structure of the Pygasteroid Sea Urchin Plesiechinus. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 4. Smith, A.B. and L. Anzalone (2000). Loriolella, A Key Taxon for Studying the Early Evolution of Irregular Echinoids. Palaeontology, Vol.43, Part 2. Wilson, M.A., T. Borszcz and M. Zaton (2014). 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Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan, Vol.XVII, Article 12. Zullo, V.A., et al. (1964). The Echinoid Genus Salenia in the Eastern Pacific. Palaeontology, Vol.7, Part 2. General Echinoidea - Australia/New Zealand Foster, R.J. and G.M. Philip (1978). Tertiary Holasteroid Echinoids from Australia and New Zealand. Palaeontology, Vol.21, Part 4. Philip, G.M. and R.J. Foster (1971). Marsupiate Tertiary Echinoids from South-Eastern Australia and Their Zoogeographic Significance. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 4. General Echinoidea - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Pereira, B.C., et al. (2015). Mesozoic echinoid diversity in Portugal: Investigating fossil record quality and environmental constraints on a regional scale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 424. General Echinoidea - North America Durham, J.W. (1961). The Echinoid Mellita in the Pacific Coast Cenozoic. Contributions in Science, Los Angeles County Museum, Number 48. Kier, P.M. (1958). New American Paleozoic Echinoids. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.135, Number 9. Slocum, A.W. and O.C. Farrington (1909). New Echinoids from the Ripley Group of Mississippi. Field Museum of Natural History Geological Series, Vol.IV, Number 1. General Echinoidea - South America/Central America/Caribbean Donovan, S.K. (1994). Some Fossil Echinoids (Echinodermata) from the Cenozoic of Jamaica, Cuba and Guadaloupe. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.30, Numbers 3-4. Donovan, S.K. and D.N. Lewis (1993). The H.L. Hawkins Collection of Caribbean Fossil Echinoids: Annotated Catalog of Rediscovered Specimens from the University of Reading, England. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.29, Numbers 3-4. Donovan, S.K., D.N. Lewis and P. Davis (2005). Fossil Echinoids from Belize. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.41, Number 2. Donovan, S.K., et al. (1994). The Clypeasteroid Echinoid Encope homala Arnold and Clark, 1934, in the Cenozoic of Jamaica. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.30, Numbers 3-4. Durham, J.W. (1994). Fossil Encope (Echinoidea) from the Pacific Coast of Southern Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.11, Number 1. Durham, J.W. (1961). The Echinoid Mellita in the Pacific Coast Cenozoic. Contributions in Science, Los Angeles County Museum, Number 48. Gordon, C.M. and S.K. Donovan (1994). Some Fossil Echinoids (Echinodermata) from the Neogene of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.30, Numbers 1-2. Kier, P.M. (1984). Fossil Spatangoind Echinoids of Cuba. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 55. Martinez, S. and R. Mooi (2005). Extinct and extant sand dollars (Clypeasteroidea: Echinoidea) from Uruguay. Rev.Biol.Trop., Vol.53, Suppl.3. Mihaljevic, M., et al. (2010). Palaeodiversity of Caribbean Echinoids Including New Material from the Venezuelan Neogene. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.13, Issue 3. Mooi, R., et al. (2000). Phylogenetic Systematics of Tertiary Monophorasterid Sand Dollars (Clypeasteroidea: Echinoidea) from South America. J. Paleont., 74(2). General Echinoidea Bromley, R.G. (1975). Comparative Analysis of Fossil and Recent Echinoid Bioerosion. Palaeontology, Vol.18, Part 4. Coppard, S.E., A. Kroh and A.B. Smith (2010). The evolution of pedicellariae in echinoids: an arms race against pests and parasites. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), xx. Eble, G.J. (2000). Contrasting evolutionary flexibility in sister groups: disparity and diversity in Mesozoic atelostomate echinoids. Paleobiology, 26(1). Greenstein, B.J. (1993). Is the Fossil Record of Regular Echinoids Really So Poor? A Comparison of Living and Subfossil Assemblages. Palaios, Vol.8. Greenstein, B.J. (1992). Taphonomic bias and the evolutionary history of the family Cidaridae (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Paleobiology, 18(1). Greenstein, B.J. (1991). An Integrated Study of Echinoid Taphonomy: Predictions for the Fossil Record of Four Echinoid Families. SEPM Research Reports. Hopkins, M.J. and A.B. Smith (2015). Dynamic evolutionary change in post-Paleozoic echinoids and the importance of scale when interpreting changes in rates of evolution. PNAS, Vol.112, Number 12. Jackson, R.T. (1912). Phylogeny of the Echini, with a Revision of the Palaeozoic Species (Text). Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol.7. (504 pages, 36.6 MB download) Jackson, R.T. (1912). Phylogeny of the Echini, with a Revision of the Palaeozoic Species (Plates). Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol.7. (318 pages, 15.2 MB download) Jeffery, C.H. (1999). A Reappraisal of the Phylogenetic Relationships of Somaliasterid Echinoids. Palaeontology, Vol.42, Part 6. Jesionek-Szymanska, W. (1979). Morphology and Microstructure of Oligolamellar Teeth in Paleozoic Echinoids: Part 1. Teeth of Some Early Lepidocentrid Echinoids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 24,2. Jesionek-Szymanska, W. (1959). Remarks on the Structure of the Apical System of Irregular Echinoids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.IV, Number 3. Kanazawa, K. (1992). Adaptation of Test Shape for Burrowing and Locomotion in Spatangoid Echinoids. Palaeontology, Vol.35, Part 4. Kier, P.M. (1982). Rapid Evolution in Echinoids. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 1. Kier, P.M. and M.H. Lawson (1978). Index of Living and Fossil Echinoids 1924-1970. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 34. Kroh, A. (2010). Index of Living and Fossil Echinoids 1971-2008. Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, Serie A, 112. Kroh, A. and A.B. Smith (2010). The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.8, Issue 1. Moffat, H.A. and D.J. Bottjer (1999). Echinoid concentration beds: two examples from the stratigraphic spectrum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology,149. Mooi, R. (1989). Living and Fossil Genera of the Clypeasteroidea (Echinoidea: Echinodermata): An Illustrated Key and Checklist. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 488. Nebelsick, J.H. (1999). Taphonomic comparison between Recent and fossil sand dollars. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 149. Nebelsick, J.H. (1995). Actuopalaeontological investigations on echinoids: The potential for taphonomic interpretation. In: Echinoderm Research 1995. Emson, Smith & Campbell (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam. Reich, M. and A.B. Smith (2009). Origins and Biomechanical Evolution of Teeth in Echinoids and Their Relatives. Palaeontology, Vol.52, Part 5. Smith, A.B. (2005). Growth and Form in Echinoids: The Evolutionary Interplay of Plate Accretion and Plate Addition. In: Evolving Form and Function: Fossils and Development. Briggs, D.E.G. (ed.), Proceedings of a symposium honoring Adolf Seilacher for his contributions to paleontology, in celebration of his 80th birthday, Special Publication of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University. Smith, A.B. (1981). Implications of Lantern Morphology for the Phylogeny of Post-Palaeozoic Echinoids. Palaeontology, Vol.24, Part 4. Smith, A.B. (1980). The Structure, Function, and Evolution of Tube Feet and Ambulacral Pores in Irregular Echinoids. Palaeontology, Vol.23, Part 1. Smith, A.B. (1978). A Functional Classification of the Coronal Pores of Regular Echinoids. Palaeontology, Vol.21, Part 4. Smith, A.B. and B. Stockley (2005). Fasciole pathways in spatangoid echinoids: a new source of phylogenetically informative characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 144. Suter, S.J. (1994). Cladistic analysis of cassiduloid echinoids: trying to see the phylogeny for the trees. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 53. Villier, L. and G.J. Eble (2004). Assessing the robustness of disparity estimates: the impact of morphometric scheme, temporal scale, and taxonomic level in spatangoid echinoids. Paleobiology, 30(4).
  25. Tracking The Glen Rose

    January 2, 2010 The Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation (Kgr) of Central Texas is roughly 110 million years old. Its classic exposures look like man-made steps or solid blocks that are occasionally interrupted with softer rock or marl. The formation is typically divided into upper and lower units by a layer of Corbula fossil clams. Just below this layer was the destination I wanted to find for my first fossil hunt of the year. It takes its name from the isolated occurrence of an ornate fossil sea urchin - the Salenia texana zone! A bright dawn had not yet thawed the frost when I headed to meet my friend, Bob. He was excited to show me a new quarry where he had found echinoids the previous month. When we arrived at the site, he oriented me to the most productive layers in the formation, and we started hunting the youngest strata. I immediately began to find fossils. Erosion of the shelf, we were searching, left fragments of 'heart' urchins, gastropods, and bivalves everywhere. I was trying to be selective, looking for the better preserved specimens, but it was hard to pass up an unusual oyster or clam. Oyster (Ceratostreon weatherfordensis ?) with the partial mold of the shell where it was attached Juvenile Arctica sp. clam Soon, Bob was calling out, "Spiny urchin!" with periodic repetition. He wryly commented, "I just seem to be a magnet for those things." Meanwhile, I gouged my elbow on rock as I crawled along the ground. Glancing to check the damage, I spied one of the small, prickly echinoids. It was just one of those small moments...that capture your love of the outdoors. The late morning light was perfect, and when I reached for the camera, a little heart urchin caught my attention. Even better. So, I digitally captured the two 'echies' before putting them in my box. We finished the morning and the rest of the layer with several more echinoids and a partial crab claw. Loriolia texana echinoid with Orbitolina texana foram Heteraster obliquatus echinoid among Orbitolina texana forams Loriolia texana echinoid Some finds after a little cleaning From this area, we moved down into the "zone". A hard limestone bench capped a six foot thick layer of softer rock. It weathered into chunky clay before a transition back to solid stone. Even within this bracketed strata, I noted some subtle differences in the coloration and hardness. But meanwhile, Bob had started finding echinoids while I was "getting the lay of the land". The marble-sized Leptosalenia texana were eroding with regularity from the top half of the zone. A small, disk-like foram, known as Orbitolina texana, littered the ground. Scattered among them were a variety of different gastropods and a non-fossil caterpillar. Leptosalenia texana with forams and gastropods Caterpillar Leptosalenia texana echinoids Bob previously mentioned that he had found a couple of plates (a part of an urchin's shell) from a very uncommon echinoid on his last visit. So, as we leaned against the wall of the formation, I asked him what else he remembered. He described them as being more whitish in their preservation than some of the other finds we were making; and when he said it, I thought of the variation in the rock I had seen earlier. We had already found fragments of the spines which the 'Salenia' urchins used to protect their shells; but I was not tracking them - we were tracking a cidarid echinoid! In the Glen Rose Formation, two species have been described: Phyllacanthus texanus and P. tysoni. So, I grinned when I saw part of a larger, bumpy spine sticking out of the rock. About that time, Bob suggested that we move over a short distance to a fresh spot. Hunting anything, with success, requires identifying and following certain clues. In the new spot, I put my suspicions to the test. A few feet below the caprock, I found a lighter layer that was somewhat hidden by runoff from layers above. I flaked away the debris to get a better look and immediately started to find several spine fragments! I announced my excitement, "Cidarid spines!" Echinoid spines 5 cm echinoid spine in matrix A slightly elevated heart rate accompanied the anticipation of following signs in the rock. Then, I had an adrenalin spike when Bob called out, "You need to look at this." He walked toward me, and in his hand were 3 connected plates of our cidarid urchin quarry. I showed him some of the spines and explained the "hidden" layer we could focus on. I thought we were close to our treasure, and he asked if I had "covered" the area just to my right. I told him, "No, go ahead" as I knelt down for a look at some of the spines eroding from the ground. "JOHN!" I turned to see him stand up beside me with a golf ball-sized, knobby echinoid in his palm! "You did it!" I yelled. "You really...did it! Way to go!" We stood a moment, looking at the rare urchin with a range of emotions. Then, he handed me his prize while he went back to get his camera. I put it back in the spot he picked it from and took a few photos. When he came back, more photos ensued...it was an amazing Texas find! Although I know quite a few cidarid urchins have been found through the years, I am personally aware of just five...including Bob's - certainly not a common discovery. Checking a few references later indicated he had found a Phyllacanthus texanus! Bob's discovery Phyllacanthus texanus echinoid Well, as you can imagine, the adrenaline of discovery had us quickly back in search mode. More spines were found. I ravenously scanned the layer we isolated. Then, my "heart jumped in my throat" when I spotted the partial test (shell) of another Phyllacanthus! So close...but not this time. My Phyllacanthus texanus partial test Late into the fading light, we searched to no avail. The cool wind and darkness ended our efforts, and we congratulated each other with our goodbyes. Hopefully, with some weathering and heavy rain, we will get another chance to track the rare fossil urchins of the Glen Rose.
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