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Found 121 results

  2. As the title says, more of a reccy for later in the year when I hope to meet Nick @Barerootbonsai again for a hunt. I went away to shoot several images for a cd cover/book for a quirky band using one of the Victorian methods of photography I practice. On the journey back back I decided to spend an hour at Wren's Nest in Dudley, West Midlands, UK's_Nest Wren's Nest is a productive Silurian site, particularly for corals such as favosites and rugosa. Here's a fine looking chap at the site
  3. hi guys i'm planning to go again in wenlock edge next thursday for some hours of hunting, not like the last time that i went for just 2h. Anyone can suggest the most productive path to follow? any advice wil be appreciated. thanks
  4. The fossil(s) in question here were collected during the summer of 2016 from the Liston Creek Limestone (Silurian) in northern Indiana. I am using them for my senior thesis project in which I'll be comparing Ordovician trilobites with Silurian Trilobites. Anyways, I have been taking a scientific illustration class during the month of May and for my final project I decided to do a stippled illustration of one of the Cheirurus cephalons I collected in 2016 (in total i have about 7 cephalons of varying sizes, all with identical morphological characteristics). I've been trying to narrow this particular specimen down to the species level since I plan include the binomial nomenclature on my final illustration. After a days worth of researching I'm still unable to confidently identify the specimen at the species level. The literature I have on the rock formation this specimen comes from lists Cheirurus niagarensis among the common fauna. From what I've seen online, I don't think my specimen is C. niagarensis. Two other possibilities I've noted are; C. infensus, and C. insignis... So far those are the only 3 Cheirurus species that resemble my specimen the closest, but I'm still not confident in any one of them in particular. As fossil ID information is notoriously hard to find on the internet I've decided to post some pics of my specimen on here to see if anyone can help me to ID it. The first 5 pics are of the specimen I'm using for my illustration. The 6th picture is of the previously mentioned specimen (right) and a larger specimen (left).
  5. I'm quite sure this is gomphoceras ellipticum would anyone know what the the thin black spine's are that appear to be adhered to the fossil.
  6. There's many a fossil to be found at Mortimer Forest in Ludlow from the Silurian. But I can't seem to find a i.d. for this one. Please check the wonderful link below for any hidden clue's I may have missed.
  7. Hi guys Im thinking of fossil hunting at some of Hamilton, Ontario waterfall areas like Albion Falls and Webster's Falls and does anyone have any pdf papers relating to the geology of the area? I heard there are various Silurian formations that can be found at Hamilton.
  8. Could this be the most fantastic find I have ever had? I need identification help before I throw myself a party.... it makes no sense due to my location but I have hundreds of fossils, hundred more waiting to be cleaned but could this be Arkarua Adami? Thanks all, I've never tried online identification before, Falconlily.
  9. Almost appears to be still elegantly wafting back and forth. It's a tabulate coral, you can see the horizontal tabulae in the first photo crossing each zooecial tube, probably a Favosites species. Found on an organised field trip with the Stamford and District Geological Society to Much Wenlock hope to return at the end of the year
  10. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since April 22, 2017. Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Silurian Trilobites Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Ivanova, O., et al. (2009). Late Silurian trilobites from the Nuratau and Turkestan ranges, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Geobios, 42. Kobayashi, T. (1988). 22. Comparison of the Silurian Trilobites in Japan, South China, Thailand and Malaysia. Proc.Japan Acad., 64, Ser.B., Number 4. Kobayashi, T. (1988). The Silurian Trilobites in Japan. Proc. Japan Acad, Series B., Vol.64, Number 1. Kobayashi, T. (1985). The Silurian Proetidae (Trilobita) in Eastern Asia. Proc. Japan Acad., Series B. Vol.61, Number 9. Kobayashi, T. and T. Hamada (1974). Silurian Trilobites of Japan in Comparison With Asian, Pacific and Other Faunas. Palaeontological Society of Japan, Special Papers Number 18. (205 pages) Australia/New Zealand Fletcher, H.O. (1950). Trilobites from the Silurian of New South Wales. Records of the Australian Museum, 22(3). Holloway, D.J. and P.D. Lane (1998). Effaced Styginid Trilobites from the Silurian of New South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 5. Sandford, A.C. (2005). Homalonotid trilobites from the Silurian and Lower Devonian of south-eastern Australia and New Zealand (Arthropoda: Trilobita: Homalonotidae). Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 62(1). Sandford, A.C. and D.J. Holloway (2006). Early Silurian phacopide trilobites from central Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 63(2). Sandford, A.C. and D.J. Holloway (1998). The Effaced Styginid Trilobite Thomastus from the Silurian of Victoria, Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 5. Sherwin, L. (1968). Denckmannites (Trilobita) from the Silurian of New South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 5. Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Bruton, D.L. (1967). Silurian Odontopleurid Trilobites from Sweden, Estonia, and Latvia. Palaeontology, Vol.10, Part 2. Chlupac, I. (1971). Some Trilobites from the Silurian/Devonian Boundary Beds of Czechoslovakia. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 1. Clarkson, E.N.K., N. Eldredge and J.-L. Henry (1977). Some Phacopina (Trilobita) from the Silurian of Scotland. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1. Curtis, M.L.K. (1958). The Upper Llandovery Trilobites of the Tortworth Inlier, Glouchestershire. Palaeontology, Vol.1, Number 2. Hughes, H.E. (2010). Palaeobiology of Silurian Trilobites from North Greenland. Ph.D. Thesis - The University of Birmingham. (374 pages, 23.5MB download) Lane, P.D. (1972). New Trilobites from the Silurian of North-East Greenland, With a Note on Trilobite Faunas in Pure Limestones. Palaeontology, Vol.15, Part 2. Mikulic, D.G. and J. Kluessendorf (2007). Legacy of the Locust-Dudley and Its Famous Trilobite Calymene blumenbachii. In: Fabulous Fossils - 300 Years of Worldwide Research on Trilobites. Mikulic, D.G. and J. Kluessendorf (eds.), New York State Museum, Bulletin 507. Ramskold, L. (1986). Silurian Encrinurid Trilobites from Gotland and Dalarna, Sweden. Palaeontology, Vol.29, Part 3. Ramskold, L. (1983). Silurian Cheirurid Trilobites from Gotland. Palaeontology, Vol.26, Part 1. Siveter, D.J. (1989). Silurian Trilobites from the Annascaul Inlier, Dingle Peninsula, Ireland. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 1. Siveter, D.J. (1985). The Type Species of Calymene (Trilobita) from the Silurian of Dudley, England. Palaeontology, Vol.28, Part 4. Siveter, D.J. (1980). Evolution of the Silurian Trilobite Tapinocalymene from the Wenlock of the Welsh Borderlands. Palaeontology, Vol.23, Part 4. Storey, A.J., A.T. Thomas and R.M. Owens (2016). The deep-water trilobite association of the Silurian Coldwell Siltstone Formation of northern England and its wider significance. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 61(1). Storey, A.J. (2012). Late Silurian Trilobite Palaeobiology and Biodiversity. Ph.D. Thesis - University of Birmingham. (481 pages) Temple, J.T. (1975). Early Llandovery Trilobites from Wales With Notes on British Llandovery Calymenids. Palaeontology, Vol.18, Part 1. Tomczykowa, E. (1975). The Trilobite Subfamily Homalonotinae from the Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XX, Number 1. Tomczykowa, E. (1970). Silurian Spathacalymene Tillman, 1960 (Trilobita) from Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XV, Number 1. Vaněk, J., V. Vokáč and F. Hӧrbinger (1992). New trilobites from the Silurian and Devonian in the Prague Basin (Central Bohemia). Věstník Českého geologického ústavu, 67, 2. Whittington, H.B. (1971). Silurian Calymenid Trilobites from United States, Norway and Sweden. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 3. North America Adrain, J.M. (2003). Validity and composition of the Silurian trilobite genera Borealarges and Dicranogmus, with new species from the Canadian Arctic. Can.J. Earth Sci., 40. Adrain, J.M. (1998). Systematics of the Acanthoparyphinae (Trilobita), With Species from the Silurian of Arctic Canada. J.Paleont., 72(4). Adrain, J.M. (1997). Proteid trilobites from the Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) of the Cape Phillips Formation, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Palaeontographia Italica, 84. Adrain, J.M. (1996). A New Otarionine Trilobite from the Henryhouse Formation (Silurian, Ludlow) of Oklahoma. J.Paleont., 70(4). Adrain, J.M. (1994). The Lichid Trilobite Borealarges N.Gen., With Species from the Silurian of Arctic Canada. J.Paleont., 68(5). Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1996). The Otarionine Trilobite Cyphaspis, With New Species from the Silurian of Northwestern Canada. J.Paleont., 70(1). Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1995). Aulacopleurine Trilobites from the Llandovery of Northwestern Canada. J.Paleont., 69(2). Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1994). The Aulacopleurid Trilobite Otarion, With New Species from the Silurian of Northwestern Canada. J.Paleont., 68(2). Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1993). A new rorringtoniid trilobite from the Ludlow of Arctic Canada. Can.J. Earth Sci., 30. Adrain, J.M. and G.D. Edgecombe (1997). Silurian (Wenlock) Calymenid Trilobites from the Cape Phillips Formation, Central Canadian Arctic. J.Paleont., 71(4). Adrain, J.M. and G.D. Edgecombe (1995). Balizoma and the New Genera Aegrotocatellus and Perirehaedulus: Encrinurid Trilobites from the Douro Formation (Silurian, Ludlow) of the Central Canadian Arctic. J.Paleont., 69(4). Adrain, J.M. and E.W. MacDonald (1996). Phacopid Trilobites from the Silurian of Arctic Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 70(6). Adrain, J.M. and D.K. Tetreault (2005). The brachymetopid trilobite Radnoria in the Silurian (Wenlock) of New York State and Arctic Canada. Bull.Can.J.Earth Sci.,42. Adrain, J.M. and S.R. Westrop (2002). Validity and composition of the Silurian trilobite genera Borealarges and Dicranogmus, With New Species from the Canadian Arctic. Can.J.Earth Sci., 40. Adrain, J.M., B.D.E. Chatterton, and R.B. Blodgett (1995). Silurian Trilobites from Southwestern Alaska. J.Paleont., 69(4). Campbell, K.S.W. (1967). Trilobites of the Henryhouse Formation (Silurian) in Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Bulletin 115. Caron, J-B, D.M. Rudkin, and S. Milliken (2004). A New Late Silurian (Pridolian) Naraoiid (Euarthropoda: Nektaspida) from the Bertie Formation of Southern Ontario, Canada - Delayed Fallout from the Cambrian Explosion. J.Paleont., 78(6). Edgecombe, G.D. (1994). New Lower Silurian (Llandovery) Encrinurine Trilobites from the Mackenzie Mountains, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.68, Number 4. Edgecombe, G.D. (1993). Silurian Acastacean Trilobites of the Americas. J.Paleont., 67(4). Edgecombe, G.D. and L. Ramskold (1992). The Silurian Encrinurine Trilobite Pacificurus: New Species from North America. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.66, Number 2. Edgecombe, G.D. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1990). Mackenziurus, a New Genus of the Silurian "Encrinurus" variolaris Plexus (Trilobita).American Museum Novitates, Number 2968. Holloway, D.J. (1981). Silurian Dalmanitacean Trilobites from North America and the Origins of the Dalmanitinae and Synphoriinae. Palaeontology, Vol.24, Part 4. Mikulic, D.G. (1979). The Paleoecology of Silurian Trilobites With a Section on the Silurian Stratigraphy of Southeastern Wisconsin. Ph.D. Thesis - Oregon State University. (895 pages) Shergold, J.H. (1967). A Re-appraisal of the North American Species of the Siluro-Devonian Trilobite Genus Scotiella. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 112. Tomkins, S.L. (1993). Niagaran (Silurian) Trilobites from Ohio. B.S. Thesis - Ohio State University. Westrop, S.R. and D.M. Rudkin (1999). Trilobite Taphonomy of a Silurian Reef: Attawapiskat Formation, Northern Ontario. Palaios, Vol.14. Whittington, H.B. (1971). Silurian Calymenid Trilobites from United States, Norway and Sweden. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 3. South America/Central America/Caribbean Tortello, M.F., et al. (2012). Trilobites and graptolites from the Vargas Peña Formation (early Silurian), Paraná Basin, eastern Paraguay. Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève, Vol.spéc. 11. General Silurian Trilobites Order Odontopleurida Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1990). Odontopleura (Trilobita, Silurian), and a Method of Constrained Congruency Analysis. J.Paleont., 64(4). Adrain, J.M., B.D.E. Chatterton, and G.J. Kloc (2008). Systematics of the Koneprusiine Trilobites, with New Taxa from the Silurian and Devonian of Laurentia. Journal of Paleontology, 82(4). Order Phacopida Budil, P., A.T. Thomas and F. Horbinger (2008). Exoskeletal architecture, hypostomal morphology and mode of life of Silurian and Lower Devonian dalmanitid trilobites. Bulletin of Geosciences, 83(1). Clarkson, E.N.K. (1966). Schizochroal Eyes and Vision of Some Silurian Acastid Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 1. Holloway, D.J. and K.S.W. Campbell (1974). The Silurian Trilobite Onycopyge Woodward. Palaeontology, Vol.17, Part 2. Richardson, E.S. (1949). A New Silurian Trilobite Dalmanites oklahomae. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.10, Number 7. Rickards, R.B. (1965). Two New Genera of Silurian Phacopid Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.7, Part 4. Shergold, J.H. (1967). A Revision of Acastella spinosa (Salter 1864) and Related Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.10, Part 2. Thomas, A.T. (1998). Variation in the Eyes of the Silurian Trilobites Eophacops and Acaste and Its Significance. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 5. Tripp, R.P. (1962). The Silurian Trilobite Encrinurus punctatus (Wahlenberg) and Allied Species. Palaeontology, Vol.5, Part 3. Tripp, R.P., J.T. Temple and K.C. Gass (1977). The Silurian Trilobite Encrinurus variolaris and Allied Species with Notes on Frammia. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 4. Order Proteida Fusco, G., P.S. Hong and N.C. Hughes (2016). Axial growth gradients across the postprotaspid ontogeny of the Silurian trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii. Paleobiology, FirstView Article. Kobayashi, T. (1985). On Two Silurian Trilobite Genera, Prantlia and Latiproetus. Proc. Japan Acad., Series B, Vol.61, Number 9. Owens, R.M. and A.T. Thomas (1975). Radnoria, A New Silurian Proetacean Trilobite, and the Origins of the Brachymetopidae. Palaeontology, Vol.18, Part 4. General Adrain, J.M., et al. (2000). Silurian trilobite alpha diversity and the end-Ordovician mass extinction. Paleobiology, 26(4).
  11. Hello all. The other day I was sitting in my car for a day trip out of town, and with me I brought one of the fossil books I love to read. I spent the whole hour or so drive looking through the pictures of the book that gave identifications for various species of fossils, however looking at the pictures I started to think to myself how none of the fossils I've ever found in the field really looked like the pristine specimens pictured in the book. That got me thinking into starting this little thing, a (not yet complete) photo list or guide of different brachiopod species as I've found them in nature, without any prep other than a light washing in some cases. I don't know of how much help this will be to people who've been in the hobby for several years, but it's my hope that this will help new comers identify their finds and learn that more often then not that beautiful shell you see in a book is not what you'll find. In this I've compiled a variety of brachiopod species that I've encountered over the span of nine years hunting in Maryland, however these brachiopod species can also be found in neighboring Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, New York, New Jersey, and elsewhere. For the most part these all come from Maryland or Pennsylvania and were personally collected by me, however for some of the Ordovician specimens I've had to resort to photos of brachiopods I've found in the Maquoketa Group of southeast Wisconsin a few summers ago (I've only photographed species I've seen recorded from the Ordovician of the region). This is not meant to be a comprehensive list of every species, but rather an introduction to some of the more common ones that collectors are most likely to encounter.
  12. World War I trenches in the Austrian Alps reveal 450 million year old fossils that shed light on Earth's first animals. Mark Prigg, Daily Mail, UK, April 3, 2017 The paper is: Ferretti, A., Ausich, W. I., Corradini, C., Corriga, M. G., & Schönlaub, H. P. (2016). Stars in the Silurian sky. A case study from the Carnic Alps, Austria. Geologica Acta, 14(4), 335-347. Yours, Paul H.
  13. I'm trying to determine if the coral fossil shown has an official species name. Most references that I have come across do not show a species name. However, I have seen one reference from the Balkins with the name Halysites senior; Although, I'm not sure if the coral fossil image I am submitting for your identification is the same as shown on the Balkin site. Does anyone know if the coral fossil image I am submitting has an official ICZN name. The fossil pictured was found in Lake Michigan, USA. Thanks, Tromis Classification Kingdom: Animal Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Silurian Order: Tabulata Family: Halisitidae Genus: Halysite Species: ?
  14. My son and I found this while looking for fossils on our stone fence. We are located in Baileys Harbor Wisconsin. Can anyone tell us what we've found? Thank you.
  15. I’ve been looking through last summer’s Silurian finds and noticed this Trilobite impression on this as yet unidentified coral. Would anyone know if this particular Stromatoporoid could have been soft bodied when alive due to the impression made from the Trilobite? Also any help as to what species of trilobite it could be or any suggestions as to the name of the Stromatoporoid. The Stromatoporoid is from the Wenlock series in Shropshire, UK.
  16. Hi everyone, I've collected all sorts of fossils from the Silurian Wenlock Series limestone's of Much Wenlock. And searched for graptolites with no success until now, my son was counting pygidium imprints on this silurian limestone piece and spotted something unusual. Well lo and behold we have what appears to be our first graptolite. I've so far pinned it down to be Monograptus priodon or Cyrtograptus murchisoni. Anyone else have a similar success story.
  17. Ancient southern China fish may have evolved prior to the 'Age of Fish.' 'Shield scale' fish may provide insight into the early evolution of jawed vertebrates PLOS, March 8, 2017 Choo, B., M. Zhu, Q. Qu, X. Yu, L. Jia, and W. Zhao, 2017, A new osteichthyan from the late Silurian of Yunnan, China. PLOS ONE, 12 (3): e0170929 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170929 Yours, Paul H.
  18. I've noticed that a huge majority of the North American Silurian system is composed of dolomite. During the Ordovician, it seems to me that dolomite formation was sparse, but during the Silurian there is a massive surge of it, and in the succeeding Devonian it seems to have returned to pre-Silurian levels again. What was the reason for this? Is this just a North American phenomenon, or was it worldwide?
  19. Wife found this coral at a roadcut NE of Cincinnati in a Silurian outcropping. Any Ideas?
  20. From the album Vertebrates

    Tremataspis mammillata PATTEN, 1931 Silurian Wenlock - Ludlow Saaremaa Estonia Length 3cm
  21. Life reconstruction of Lasanius problematicus, from Wikipedia Commons, own work of Nobu Tamura. Lit.: Brugghen, van der G. 2010. — New observations on the Silurian anaspid Lasanius problematicus Traquair. FossilQuarry Articles No.1., May 2010. Lasanius problematicus.pdf Volume 16: Fossil Fishes of Great Britain Chapter 2: Silurian fossil fishes sites of Scotland Site: BIRKENHEAD BURN (GCR ID: 394) Fossils from Lesmahagow
  22. From the album Vertebrates

    Lasanius problematicus TRAQUAIR, 1898 Middle Silurian Birkenhead Burn Lesmahogow inlier Lanarkshire Scotland UK New observations on the Silurian anaspid Lasanius problematicus Traquair.pdf BIRKENHEAD BURN GCRsiteaccount394.pdf Fossils from Lesmahagow
  23. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since January 25, 2017. General Papers in Paleontology Archaean Eon Allwood, A.C., et al. (2009). Controls on development and diversity of Early Archaean stromatolites. PNAS, Vol.106, Number 24. Altermann, W. and J. Kazmierczak (2003). Archaean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth. Research in Microbiology, 154. Awramik, S.M. (1992). The oldest records of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research, 33. Brasier, M., et al. (2006). A fresh look at the fossil evidence for early Archaean cellular life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 361. Brasier, M., et al. (2004). Earth's Oldest (~3.5 Ga) Fossils and the 'Early Eden Hypothesis': Questioning the Evidence. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 34. Brocks, J.J., et al. (1999). Archaean Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes. Science, Vol.285. Knauth, L.P. (2005). Temperature and salinity history of the Precambrian ocean: implications for the course of microbial evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 219. Moorbath, S. (2005). Oldest rocks, earliest life, heaviest impacts, and the Hadean-Archaean transition. Applied Geochemistry, 30. Sankaran, A.V. (2002). The controversy over early-Archaean microfossils. Current Science, Vol.83, Number 1. Schopf, J.W. (2006). Fossil evidence of Archaean life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 361. Schopf, J.W. (1993). Microfossils of the Early Archaean Apex Chert: New Evidence of the Antiquity of Life. Science, Vol.260. Schopf, J.W., et al. (2007). Evidence of Archaean life: Stromatolites and microfossils. Precambrian Research, 158. Sharma, M. and Y. Shukla (2009). The evolution and distribution of life in the Precambrian eon - Global perspective and the Indian record. J.Biosci., 34. Stueken, E.E., D.C. Catling and R. Buick (2012). Contributions to late Archaean sulphur cycling by life on land. Nature Geoscience, published on-line. Waldbauer, J.R., D.K. Newman and R.E. Summons (2011). Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular record of Archaean life. PNAS, Vol.108, Number 33. Proterozoic Eon Ediacaran Period Barroso, F.R.G., et al. (2014). First Ediacaran Fauna Occurrence in Northeastern Brazil (Jairabas Basin, ?Ediacaran-Cambrian): Preliminary Results and Regional Correlation. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 86(3). Bottjer, D.J. (2002). 2. Enigmatic Ediacara Fossils: Ancestors or Aliens? In: Exceptional Fossil Preservation. Bottjer, D.J., et al. (eds.), Columbia University Press, New York. Clapham, M.E., G.M. Narbonne and J.G. Gehling (2003). Paleoecology of the oldest known animal communities: Ediacaran assemblages at Mistaken Point, Newfoundland. Paleobiology, 29(4). Droser, M.L. and J.G. Gehling (2015). The advent of animals: The view from the Ediacaran. PNAS, Vol.112, Number 16. Droser, M.L., J.G. Gehling, and S.R. Jensen (2006). Assemblage palaeoecology of the Ediacara biota: The unabridged edition?. Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 232. Dzik, J. The Verdun Syndrome: Simultaneous Origin of Protective Armor and Infaunal Shelters at the Precambrian-Cambrian Transition. Dzik, J. (2003). Anatomical Information Content in the Ediacaran Fossils and Their Possible Zoological Affinities. Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Gehling, J. (2015). First Fossil Animals - Ediacara Fauna of South Australia. Flinders Ranges Treasures. Glaessner, M.F. and M. Wade (1966). The Late Precambrian Fossils from Ediacara, South Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 4. Grazhdankin, D. (2004). Patterns of distribution in the Ediacaran biotas: facies versus biogeography and evolution. Paleobiology, 30(2). Jensen, S. and T. Palacios (2016). The Ediacaran-Cambrian trace fossil record in the Central Iberian Zone, Iberian Peninsula. Comunicacoes Geologicas, 103, Especial 1. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2006). The Ediacaran Period: a new addition to the geologic time scale. Lethaia, Vol.39. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2004). A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale. Science, Vol.305. Liu, A.G. (2011). Reviewing the Ediacaran fossils of the Long Mynd, Shropshire. Proceedings of the Shropshire Geological Society, 16. Meert, J.G., et al. (2010). Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan. Gondwana Research, xx-xxxx. Narbonne, G.M. (2005). The Ediacara Biota: Neoproterozoic Orgin of Animals and Their Ecosystems. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 33. Narbonne, G.M. (2004). Modular Construction of Early Ediacaran Complex Life Forms. Science, Vol.305. Narbonne, G.M. and J.G. Gehling (2003). Life after snowball: The oldest fossil Ediacaran fossils. Geology, Vol.31, Number 1. O'Brien, S.J. and A.F. King (2004). Ediacaran Fossils from the Bonavista Peninsula (Avalon Zone), Newfoundland: Preliminary Descriptions and Implications for Regional Correlation. Current Research (2004) Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Report 04-1. Peterson, K.J., B. Waggoner and J.W. Hagadorn (2003). A Fungal Analog for Newfoundland Ediacaran Fossils. Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Peterson, K.J., et al. (2008). The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the geological fossil records. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 363. Retallack, G.J. (2013). Ediacaran life on land. Nature, Vol.493. Retallack, G.J. (1994). Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens? Paleobiology, 20(4). Schiffbauer, J.D., J.W. Huntley and G.R. O'Neil (2016). The Latest Ediacaran Wormworld Fauna: Setting the Ecological Stage for the Cambrian Explosion. GSA Today, Vol.26, Number 11. Seilacher, A., D. Grazhdankin and A. Legouta (2003). Ediacaran biota: The dawn of animal life in the shadow of giant protists. Palaeontological Research, Vol.7, Number 1. Wood, R. and A. Curtis (2015). Extensive metazoan reefs from the Ediacaran Nama Group, Namibia: the rise of benthic suspension feeding. Geobiology, 13. Phanerozoic Eon Paleozoic Era General Paleozoic Brett, C.E. and S.E. Walker (2002). Predators and Predation in Paleozoic Marine Environments. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Eldredge, N. (1971). The Allopatric Model and Phylogeny in Paleozoic Invertebrates. Evolution, Vol.25, Number 1. Schonlaub, H.-P. and H. Heinisch (1994). The Classic Fossiliferous Palaeozoic Units of the Eastern and Southern Alps. IUGS Subcomm. Silurian Stratigraphy, Field Meeting 1994, Bibl.Geol. B.-A., 30. Smith, M.P., P.C.J. Donoghue and I.J. Sansom (2002). The spatial and temporal diversification of Early Palaeozoic vertebrates. In: Palaeobiogeography and Biodiversity Change: the Ordovician and Mesozoic-Cenozoic Radiations. Crame, J.A. and A.W. Owen (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 194. Ye, H., et al. (1996). Late Paleozoic Deformation of Interior North America: The Greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains. AAPG Bulletin, Vol.80, Number 9. Cambrian Period Blair, J.E. and S.B. Hedges (2004). Molecular Clocks Do Not Support the Cambrian Explosion. Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol.22, Number 3. Davidek, K., et al. (1998). New uppermost Cambrian U-Pb date from Avalonian Wales and age of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Geol.Mag., 135(3). Dzik, J. (2005). Behavioral and anatomical unity of the earliest burrowing animals and the cause of the "Cambrian Explosion". Paleobiology, 31(3). Hagadorn, J.W. Chengjiang: Early Record of the Cambrian Explosion. Hagadorn, J.W. (2002). 4. Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom. Jacobs, D.K., et al. (2005). Terminal addition, the Cambrian radiation and the Phanerozoic evolution of bilaterian form. Evolution & Development, 7:6. Kirschvink, J.L. and T.D. Raub (2003). A methane fuse for the Cambrian explosion: carbon cycles and true polar wander. C.R. Geoscience, 335. Landing, E., et al. (2000). Cambrian-Ordovician boundary age and duration of the lowest Ordovician Tremadoc Series based on U-Pb zircon dates from Avalonian Wales. Geol.Mag., 137(5). Lieberman, B.S. (2008). The Cambrian radiation of bilaterians: Evolutionary origins and palaeontological emergence; earth history change and biotic factors. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258. Marshall, C.R. (2006). Explaining the Cambrian "Explosion" of Animals. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 34. Mitchell, R.N., et al. (2015). Was the Cambrian Explosion Both an Effect and an Artifact of True Polar Wander? American Journal of Science, Vol.315. Morris, S.C. (2006). Darwin's dilemma: the realities of the Cambrian 'explosion'. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 361. Morris, S.C. (2000). The Cambrian "explosion": Slow-fuse or megatonnage? PNAS, Vol.97, Number 9. Morris, S.C. (1993). Ediacaran-Like Fossils in Cambrian Burgess Shale-Type Faunas of North America. Palaeontology, Vol.36, Part 3. Peng, S., L.E. Babcock and R.A. Cooper (2012). Chapter 19. The Cambrian Period. In: The Geologic Time Scale 2012. F.M. Gradstein, et al. (eds.), Elsevier B.V. Phoenix, C. (2009). Cellular differentiation as a candidate "new technology" for the Cambrian Explosion. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 20(2). Plotnick, R.E., S.Q. Dornbos and J. Chen (2010). Information landscapes and sensory ecology of the Cambrian Radiation. Paleobiology, 36(2). Shu, D.-G. (2008). Cambrian explosion: Birth of tree of animals. Gondwana Research, 14. Shu, D.-G., et al. (2009). The earliest history of the deuterostomes: the importance of the Chengjiang Fossil-Lagerstatte. Proc.R.Soc. B, published online. Valentine, J.W. (2002). Prelude to the Cambrian Explosion. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 30. Valentine, J.W., et al. (1999). Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion. Development, 126. von Bloh, W., C. Bounama and S. Franck (1963). Cambrian explosion triggered by geosphere-biosphere feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.30, Number 18. Yang, B. (2014). Cambrian small shelly fossils of South China and their application in biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography. Ph.D. Dissertation - Freie Universitat Berlin. Zhang, X.-L. and D.-G. Shu (2013). Causes and consequences of the Cambrian explosion. Science China - Earth Sciences, 57(5). Ordovician Period Brocke, R., et al. (1995). First Appearance of Selected Early Ordovician Acritarch Taxa from Peri-Gondwana. In: Ordovician Odyssey: Short Papers for the Seventh International Symposium on the Ordovician System. Cooper, J.D., M.L. Droser and S.C. Finney (eds.), The Pacific Section Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), Fullerton, California, USA. cocks, L.R.M. (1985). The Ordovician-Silurian Boundary. Episodes, Vol.8, Number 2. Connolly, S.R. and A.I. Miller (2002). Global Ordovician faunal transitions in the marine benthos: ultimate causes. Paleobiology, 28(1). Cooper, R.A., G.S. Nowlan and S.H. Williams (2001). Global Stratotype Section and Point for base of the Ordovician System. Episodes, Vol.24, Number 1. Elliot Smith, M., B.S. Singer and T. Simo (2011). A time like our own? Radioisotopic calibration of the Ordovician greenhouse to icehouse transition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 311. Farrell, U.C., et al. (2009). Beyond Beecher's Trilobite Bed: Widespread pyritization of soft tissues in the Late Ordovician Taconic foreland basin. Geology, 37. (Thanks to piranha for finding this one!) Finnegan, S., S. Peters and W.W. Fischer (2011). Late Ordovician-Early Silurian Selective Extinction Patterns in Laurentia and Their Relationship to Climate Change. In: Ordovician of the World. Gutierrez-Marco, J.C., I. Rabano and D. Garcia-Bellido (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 14. Fortey, R.A. and L.R.M. cocks (2003). Palaeontological evidence bearing on global Ordovician-Silurian continental reconstructions. Earth-Science Reviews, 61. Havlicek, V. (1989). Climatic changes and development of benthic communities through the Mediterranean Ordovician. Sbor.geol. ved, Geologie 44. Melott, A.L., et al. (2004). Did a gamma-ray burst initiate the late Ordovician mass extinction? International Journal of Astrobiology, 3(1). Miller, A.I. and S.R. Connolly (2001). Substrate affinities of higher taxa and the Ordovician Radiation. Paleobiology, 27(4). Miller, A.I. and S. Mao (1995). Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life. Geology, Vol.23, Number 4. Niocaill, C.M., B.A. van der Pluijm and R. Van der Voo (1997). Ordovician paleogeography and the evolution of the Iapetus ocean. Geology, Vol.25, Number 2. Rasmussen, C.M.O. and D.A.T. Harper (2011). Interrogation of distributional data for the End Ordovician crisis interval: where did disaster strike? Geological Journal, published on-line in Wiley Online Library. Silurian Period Calner, M. (2008). Silurian global events - at the tipping point of climate change. In: Mass extinctions. A.M.T. Elewa (ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg. Calner, M. (2005). A Late Silurian extinction event and anachronistic period. Geology, Vol.33, Number 4. Cronin, T.C. (1971). A Study of the Silurian System and a Silurian Reef in West Texas and Southern New Mexico. Masters Thesis - Texas Tech University. Woodcock, N.H. (2000). Chapter 1. Introduction to the Silurian. In: British Silurian Stratigraphy. Palmer, D., et al. (eds.),Geological Conservation Review Series, No.19, Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Devonian Period Anderson, J. (2008). Reconstructing the Aftermath of the Late Devonian Alamo Meteor Impact in the Pahranagat Range, Southeastern Nevada. Masters Thesis - Idaho State University. Brame, R.I. (2001). Revision of the Upper Devonian in the Central-South Appalachian Basin: Biostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy. Ph.D. Dissertation - Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Brett, C.E. and G.C. Baird (1996). Middle Devonian sedimentary cycles and sequences in the northern Appalachian Basin. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 306. (Thanks to xonenine for finding this one). Elliott, D.K., et al. (2000). Middle and Late Devonian vertebrates of the western Old Red Sandstone Continent. Cour.Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 223. George, D. and A. Blieck (2011). Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment. PLoS ONE, 6(7). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Marynowski, L., M. Rakocinski and M. Zaton (2007). Middle Famennian (Late Devonian) interval with pyritized fauna from the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland): Organic geochemistry and pyrite framboid diameter study. Geochemical Journal, Vol.41. Sandberg, C.A., J.R. Morrow and W. Ziegler (2002). Late Devonian sea-level changes, catastrophic events and mass extinctions. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. Stigall, A.L. (2010). Invasive Species and Biodiversity Crises: Testing the Link in the Late Devonian. PLoS ONE, 5(12). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Ziegler, W. and G. Klapper (1985). Stages of the Devonian System. Episodes, Vol., Number 2. Carboniferous Period Heckel, P.H. and G. Clayton (2006). The Carboniferous System. Use of the New Official Names for the Subsystems, Series and Stages. Geologica acta, Vol.4, Number 003. Permian Period Basu, A.R., et al. (2003). Chondritic Meteorite Fragments Associated with the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Antarctica. Science, Vol.302. Benton, M.J. and R.J. Twitchett (2003). How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol.18, Number 7. Bottjer, D.J., et al. (2008). Understanding mechanisms for the end-Permian mass extinction and the protracted Early Triassic aftermath and recovery. GSA Today, Vol.18, Number 9. Gastaldo, R.A., et al. (2009). The terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary event bed is a nonevent. Geology, Vol.37, Number 3. Kiehl, J.T. and C.A. Shields (2005). Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction. Geology, Vol.33, Number 9. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2007). Paleophysiology and end-Permian mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 256. Lucas, S.G. (2004). A global hiatus in the Middle Permian tetrapod fossil record. Stratigraphy, Vol.1, Number 1. Marusek, J.A. (2004). The Great Permian Extinction Debate. Lunar and Planetary Science, XXXV. Retallack, G.J., et al. (2006). Middle-Late Permian mass extinctions on land. GSA Bulletin, Vol.118, Numbers 11-12. Shen, S.Z., et al. (2006). End-Permian mass extinction pattern in the northern peri-Gondwanan region. Palaeoworld, 15. Stephenson, M.H., L. Angiolini and M.J. Leng. The Early Permian fossil record of Gondwana and its relationship to deglaciation: a review. Virgili, C. (2008). The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe. Journal of Iberian Geology, 34(1). Mesozoic Era Triassic Period Cisneros, J.C., et al. (2010). Spondarthritis in the Triassic. PLoS ONE, 5(10). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Fraser, N.C. (1992). Late Triassic Faunal Successions of Central Pangaea. Virginia Journal of Science, Vol.43, Number 1B. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2007). Global Triassic Tetrapod Biostratigraphy and Biochronology: 2007 Status. In: The Global Triassic. Lucas, S.G. and J.A. Spielmann (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41. Michalik, J., et al. (2010). Climate change at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in the northwestern Tethyan realm, inferred from sections in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 4. Ochev, V.G. and M.A. Shishkin (1989). On the Principles of Global Correlation of the Continental Triassic on the Tetrapods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.34, Number 2. Olsen, P.E., et al. (2002). Ascent of Dinosaurs Linked to an Iridium Anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. Science, Vol.296. Olsen, P.E., et al. (2002). Continental Triassic-Jurassic boundary in central Pangaea: Recent progress and discussion of an Ir anomaly. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. Spray, J.G., S.P. Kelley and D.B. Rowley (1998). Evidence for a late Triassic multiple impact event on Earth. Nature, Vol.392. Tanner, L.H., S.G. Lucas and M.G. Chapman (2004). Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions. Earth-Science Reviews, 65. Tucker, M.E. and M.J. Benton (1982). Triassic Environments, Climates and Reptile Evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 40. Jurassic Period Munnecke, A., H. Westphal and M. Kolbl-Ebert (2008). Diagenesis of plattenkalk: examples from the Solnhofen area (Upper Jurassic, southern Germany). Sedimentology, 55. Palfy, J., et al. (2007). Triassic-Jurassic boundary events inferred from integrated stratigraphy of the Csovar section, Hungary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 244. Svensen, H., et al. (2007). Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 256. Turner, C.E. and F. Peterson (2004). Reconstruction of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation extinct ecosystem - a synthesis. Sedimentary Geology, 167. van de Schootbrugge, B., et al. (2005). Early Jurassic climate change and the radiation of organic-walled phytoplankton in the Tethys Ocean. Paleobiology, 31(1). Cretaceous Period Alegret, L., et al. (2002). The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE Mexico. Terra Nova, Vol.14, Number 5. Alvarez, W., et al. (1992). Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540. Geology, Vol.20. Arenillas, I., et al. (2006). Chicxulub impact event is Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in age: New micropaleontological evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, XX. Baraboshkin, E.Y., A.S. Alekseev and L.F. Kopaevich (2003). Cretaceous palaeogeography of the North-Eastern Peri-Tethys. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 196. Bennington, J.B. and S. Hesselbarth. Sediment analysis of a Stratigraphic Sequence across the K/T Boundary, Manasquan River Basin, NJ. 17th Annual Long Island Geologists Conference, Stony Brook, New York. Bice, K.L., B.T. Huber and R.D. Norris (2003). Extreme polar warmth during the Cretaceous greenhouse? Paradox of the late Turonian 18O record at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 511. Paleoceanography, Vol.18, Number 2. Bice, K.L., et al. (2006). A multiple proxy and model study of Cretaceous upper ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Paleoceanography, Vol.21. Bottke, W.F., D. Vokrouhlicky and D. Nesvorny (2007). An asteroid breakup 160 Myr ago as the probable source of the K/T impactor. Nature, Vol.449. Bralower, T.J., I.P. Silva and M.J. Malone (2002). New evidence for abrupt climate change in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. GSA Today. Bralower, T.J., C.K. Paull and R.M. Leckie (1998). The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary cocktail: Chicxulub impact triggers margin collapse and extensive sediment gravity flows. Geology, Vol.26, Number 4. Bryan, S.E., et al. (1997). Early Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary successions along the eastern Australian continental margin: Implications for the break-up of eastern Gondwana. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 153. Campbell, C.E., F.E. Oboh-Ikuenobe and T.L. Eifert (2008). Megatsunami deposit in the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary interval of southeastern Missouri. The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 437. Christensen, W.K., et al. (2000). The base of the Maastrichtian. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.47. Claeys, P., W. Kiessling and W. Alvarez (2002 Distribution of Chicxulub ejecta at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. Goto, K., et al. (2004). Evidence for ocean water invasion into the Chicxulub crater at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 39, Number 7. Kauffman, E.G. (1984). Paleobiogeography and Evolutionary Response Dynamic in the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America. In: Jurassic-Cretaceous Biochronology and Paleogeography of North America. Westermann, G.E.G. (ed.), Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 27. Keller, G. (2001). The end-Cretaceous mass extinction in the marine realm: year 2000 assessment. Planetary and Space Science, 49. Keller, G., et al. (2007). Chicxulub impact predates K-T boundary: New evidence from Brazos, Texas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 255. Keller, G., et al. (2004). More evidence that the Chicxulub impact predates the K/T mass extinction. Meteorics & Planetary Science, 39, Number 7. Keller, G., et al. (2003). Multiple impacts across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Earth-Science Reviews, 62. Lindgren, J., et al. (2011). Microspectroscopic Evidence of Cretaceous Bone Proteins. PLoS ONE, 6(4). (Read on-line or download a copy.) MacLeod, N. (in press). Cretaceous. In: Encyclopedia of Geology. Selley, R.C., L.R.M. cocks and I.R. Plimer (eds.), Academic Press, London. MacLeod, N., et al. (1997). The Cretaceous-Tertiary biotic transition. Journal of the Geological Society, Vol.154. Matsui, T., et al. (2002). Generation and propagation of a tsunami from the Cretaceous-Tertiary impact event. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. McCarthy, D. (2005). Biogeographical and geological evidence for a smaller, completely-enclosed Pacific Basin in the Late Cretaceous. Journal of Biogeography, 32. Meyers, P.A. and B.R.T. Simoneit (1989). Global comparisons of organic matter in sediments across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Organic Geochemistry, Vol.16, Numbers 4-6. Myers, C.E. and B.S. Lieberman (2010). Sharks that pass in the night: using Geographical Information Systems to investigate competition in the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. Proc.R.Soc.B. Nicholls, E.L. and A.P. Russell (1990). Paleobiogeography of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America: the vertebrate evidence. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 79. Noonan, B.P. and P.T. Chippindale (2006). Vicariant Origin of Malgasy Reptiles Supports Late Cretaceous Antarctic Land Bridge. The American Naturalist, Vol.168, Number 6. Nordt, L., S. Atchley and S. Dworkin (2003). Terrestrial Evidence for Two Greenhouse Events in the Late Cretaceous. GSA Today. Ocampo, A., V.Vadja and E. Buffetaut. Unravelling the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KT) Turnover, Evidence from Flora, Fauna and Geology. Pascual, R. and E.O. Jaureguizar (1992). Evolutionary pattern of land mammal faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene in South America: a comparison with the North American pattern. Ann.Zool. Fennici, 28. Racki, G., et al. (2011). 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  24. Life reconstruction own work by Nobu Tamura Lit.: Robert H. Denison (1947): The exoskeleton of Tremataspis. Am. J. Sci. June 1, 1947 245:337-365; William Patten (1902): On the Structure and Classification of the Tremataspidæ. The American Naturalist Vol. 36, No. 425 (May, 1902), pp. 379-393
  25. Pictures: Loganellia, swimming in a shallow sea 400 million years ago. From Wikipedia, own work of Darouet. Traquair's original reconstruction in dorsal view Lit.: Volume 16: Fossil Fishes of Great Britain. Chapter 2: Silurian fossil fishes sites of Scotland. Site: BIRK KNOWES (GCR ID: 359) Žigaite· Ž. & Goujet D. 2012. — New observations on the squamation patterns of articulated specimens of Loganellia scotica (Traquair, 1898) (Vertebrata: Thelodonti) from the Lower Silurian of Scotland. Geodiversitas 34 (2): 253-270.