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Found 18 results

  1. An article that talks about fossil remains dated 47mya in the former coalfield of Geiseltal in Saxony-Anhalt about how ancient horses shrank and how ancient tapirs showed the opposite in that they got bigger. https://www.technologynetworks.com/tn/news/exceptional-fossils-give-window-into-mammalian-evolution-332518 Ring et al. (2020) Divergent mammalian body size in a stable Eocene greenhouse climate. Scientific Reports. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60379-7 (the article is open access)
  2. I have a Vero Tapir foot bone fossil. The fossil is in very good shape with very few cracks, being not terribly old since Vero Tapir's went extinct some 11,000 years ago, (11,000 years seems pretty old to me though!) I am pretty new to fossil hunting, so I was curious whether or not it is necessary to put some kind of preserving agent on it? Are there any advantages or disadvantages either way? I appreciate any help!
  3. Friends of ours had their daughter come to visit for the holidays. She likes to rockhound and collect crystals and pan for gold back in the Seattle area where she lives and was eager to try the experience of fossil hunting in the Peace River. The weather (and river level) was looking good till a few days back when that huge mass of unstable air over the southeastern US unleashed torrents of rain. In fact, we were kidding Kelly that it was her presence here that brought the Seattle weather. She had a red-eye flight into Fort Lauderdale airport a few days back and on the morning of her arrival, the FLL airport received 4.5 inches of rain in an hour--shutting down the airport due to runways that were under water! Her flight was diverted to Miami but the airline she was on does not normally fly to MIA and there were no gates nor attendants to great the flight. They sat on the tarmac for 3.5 hours till they could find someone to unload the plane. Of course, they couldn't manage to unload the luggage at Miami and so the plane flew up to Fort Lauderdale later in the day so that the passengers could finally be reunited with their luggage. Hope there were no cruise passengers on that flight or their holiday vacation was well ruined. The bulk of the rain went north and south of the Peace River drainage basin but it did catch enough to push the river level into movement in the wrong direction. Canoe Outpost (where we rented our canoes) has been measuring the river level in Arcadia by calling the "normal" river level the point at which their floating dock is level with the bottom stair of their fixed dock. They declare fossil hunting season "open" when the level is 12" BELOW this "normal" level. The rain had pushed the level to around 9" ABOVE normal or just under 2 feet higher than I'd have liked it to be. We only had Saturday available as a date to try this and so we did. At worst we figured we'd have a relaxing trip down the river by canoe--in the rain! (Did I forget to mention the weather forecast was for warm temps, near 83F, but with an 80% chance of rain?) We chose a 10:00 a.m. departure over my normal choice of 8:00 a.m. which maximizes the workable time on the river with the canoes due back in before 5:00 p.m. This let us sleep in just a few hours more with a departure of 6:00 a.m. instead of 4:00 a.m. We loaded ourselves and the fossil hunting gear, snacks, and change of clothes into our friend's minivan and were off very nearly on schedule. It was an overcast (but dry) trip across state to Arcadia where we arrived in good time to sign in and catch our bus to the put in. We were pleasantly surprised to find Canoe Outpost to be celebrating their 50th year in operation (and Becky, the owner, there for 35 of those years). The peace sign in much of their signs is both a reference to the Peace River and the summer of love that was 1969. To celebrate, the canoe rentals were half-price and our two canoes for the day came for the price of one. I was quite happy to find that, though the levels were higher than I'd hoped for, the large well known gravel bed just downstream from the put-in at Brownville Park was not too deep to work. The current toward the center of the river was ripping and made it tricky to stand up and keep sand/gravel on your shovel as you raised it from the bottom to the sifter. One side of the river was protected somewhat by some trees in the water just upstream and was easily workable. The waist-deep water was comfortably cool (78F) and high enough not to have to bend over much but not too high to work effectively. There were a few other canoes launched with our group but they rolled past us when we stopped to start fossil hunting. We spotted a few additional canoes pass us from the 11:00 a.m. put-in but otherwise (mostly) had the river to ourselves. A large group (tour?) of 9 jet skis came flying up the river while we were taking a lunch break. They slowed just a bit but the wakes definitely caused a stir as the combined waves smacked our canoes pulled up along shore. We were to encounter them again on their return trip downstream a few hours later. This time we were paddling and had to move to the side of the river and point the bow of the canoes into the huge waves to keep from capsizing. Jet skis and canoes simply do not mix well. At least nobody flipped over. It remained a cloudy day with the sun only making a few brief appearances to cast some color on our sifting screens filled with black gravel. We got sprinkled and full-on poured upon several times throughout the day but Tammy even remarked that the warm air temps and a windbreaker jacket actually made the rainy canoe paddling rather pleasant. The warm temps had a number of gators (big and small) out trying to sun themselves on the banks. In total we spotted an even dozen of them in the first half of the trip back to Arcadia. There are fewer good haul-up spots and the fading light toward late afternoon usually means we see few if any gators on the last half of the paddle back downstream. It was interesting seeing the new tree falls along the banks and the other changes to the topography of the river after the summer's floods. It appears that someone's boat had come loose and found itself in a rather non-seaworthy state among the willow trees along one bank. A good example of the power of the river in flood stage! We tried to get into a deeper spot on the river that for some unknown reason is chocked full of dugong rib bones. It has larger chunky gravel and so I like to look there for the promise of larger fossils (like meg teeth). I like to take newbies to the river to this site as they can then collect multiple "paleo paperweights" as I call them and maybe come away with a meg tooth (or at least a decent fragment). We pulled to canoes to the bank at this spot and I got out to check it for depth. The bottom usually slopes down from a sticky/slipper/stinky muddy bank into a deeper channel a few meters from shore before becoming more shallow rising up onto a bit of a sand bank. I walked (slid) out into deeper water and got to neck level without it ever getting shallower and so (as I feared) this site was simply impossible at this river level. We paddled on to a final spot I like to stop at which has only fine pea gravel but often provides a copious number of smaller dime size shark teeth. I enjoy taking groups with kids there as we have a competition to see how many shark teeth per screen we can find. I believe the record still stands at 26. This site is also quite shallow (even dry sand bars when the river is good and low) and so I knew we'd have no problems there--it was my ace in the hole in case the other locations were all not accessible. In addition to many nice tiny teeth it also delivered some surprises.
  4. Since the weather is (finally) behaving and the Peace River water level has now stabilized at a depth where South Florida fossil hunters can get in and get their hunt on, Tammy and I found a free day in our busy schedule and planned a day trip to Arcadia to try our luck on the Peace River again. If we do not drive over and spend the night in a local hotel, hunting on the Peace River involves an early morning wake-up call at the painfully early hour of 3:00 AM. We're all packed up and leaving the house at just around 4:00 AM with a long quiet drive through mostly empty highways--up the Florida Turnpike to the aptly named Beeline Hwy which makes a beeline straight northwest for the town of Okeechobee at the northern tip of Lake Okeechobee (the large lake that looks like it was hole punched out of the map of Florida). A stop for something approximating breakfast at the 24-hour Micky D's in Okeechobee (bring a jacket if you go because the AC is set for 60F ) and then it's a straight show west on State Road 70 into Arcadia. When we arrive we make a quick stop for a bag of ice for our cooler and a few snacks for the day. Then we roll into Canoe Outpost to fill out our paperwork and wait for the bus to take us to the put-in location. As we had a free day to make this trip on a Tuesday, Canoe Outpost is far from busy--in fact we are the only ones there save two employees who had to come in early to tend to our canoe rental needs. Today's hunting area of choice is on the lower half of the normal full-day rental. Usually, we put in at Brownville Park some 8.5 miles upstream of the Canoe Outpost dock and we stop at various locations along the way. We wanted to focus on some spots downstream from their half-day put-in location at the primitive campground area that is owned by Canoe Outpost (called Oak Hill). We've wanted to get dropped off here on some weekends when we only wanted to hunt along the lower 4 miles of the river above Arcadia but usually they have others going to Brownville on the 8:00 AM run and we just end up getting put-in there. We spend the first hour paddling the 4.5 miles down to the half-day put-in. This time we were lucky--nobody else was signed-up to go out at 8:00 AM so they were accommodating enough to put us in at the halfway point and save us an hour of paddling. We enjoy the peaceful paddling down the river looking for birds and spotting gators along the banks but the thought of saving an hour of paddle time was too good to pass up--more time for sifting. We made it down to the spot where we had found some nice armadillo bits two weeks before--a tooth and an astragalus from Holmesina septentrionalis a two meter beastie clocking in at around 250 kg. According to Dr. Hulbert specimens from this species are pretty rare in South Florida and the astragalus that we found last trip is earmarked for the FLMNH next time we are in Gainesville as the museum does not have any specimens of this bone from this species in its collection. We were hoping to possibly find some additional Holmesina bits though that was a long shot at best. We poked around the site chasing down areas with nice chunky gravel hoping to find some nice items and though we struck out extending our Holmesina finds we did come across a few nice items. On only the first handful of screens, a familiar triangular shape appeared in the sifting screen. Though the root was a bit dinged, this meg tooth that topped out at just about 3 inches is just shy of the 3.25 inch size that most teeth seem to max out at in the Peace River. A little while later a beautifully shaped smaller meg (just under 2 inches) turned up in the sifting screen. Here are some in situ (well, in sifter anyway) images of those teeth at the moment they revealed themselves. A little while later (after many smaller shark teeth and broken megs--fraglodons) we turned up one of the larger Carcharhinus teeth I've seen come from the Peace River. It was a nice surprise to see such a large example of a requiem shark tooth. No more interesting shark teeth turned up though we did find quite a number of the normal nickel and dime (size) teeth which will end up in an ever growing jar of teeth on display in the family room. Two other novelties helped to make the day a successful hunt in the record books. I turned up a tiny unerupted tooth that I believe to be tapir peccary though I've never seen one with six cusps (two small ones off one side). EDIT: Fixed ID, see below. As with many of these teeth the hollow nature of the tooth and fragile roots mean that usually only the enamel crown are recovered--at least this pretty little thing is solidly in one piece. The other tooth is a bit of a mystery. I'm sure @Harry Pristis will likely recognize this as it looks reasonably distinctive. The tooth looks like it has a complete crown (no parts missing) but it only has a trace of the roots left. Looking at the photos I can see that there are cracks forming on this tooth and it looks like it is ready to disarticulate into a puzzle of pieces. I think I'll be attempting to consolidate this item a bit with some B72. There is less than a month to go before the official start of rainy/hurricane season in June. Hoping to find some time in my schedule to make it back out to the river a few more times. It's been an extremely shortened season this year but the few finds we have been able to make have been enjoyable. Cheers. -Ken
  5. Incisor

    Hello, I found this tooth today in a creek here in Austin, TX. Thanks in advance
  6. Rockshelter tooth

    Good afternoon, I found this tooth today digging in a rockshelter near lake Travis. The tooth was found amongst other deer and bison bones about a foot deep. I've read Texas rockshelters in this area house animal remains from roughly 25,000 years ago.
  7. Tapiromorph Fossil, Green River Shale, Wyoming http://www.wsgs.wyo.gov/wyoming-geology/tapiromorph-fossil Researcher Prepares Largest Fossilized Mammal Found In Green River Formation For Science By Cooper Mckim, Wyoming Public Media, May 2, 2018 http://www.wyomingpublicmedia.org/post/researcher-prepares-largest-fossilized-mammal-found-green-river-formation-science Tapir-ing expectations: Researchers study largest ever Green River mammal fossil. By Jeff Victor, May 2, 2018 https://www.laramieboomerang.com/news/local_news/tapir-ing-expectations-researchers-study-largest-ever-green-river-mammal/article_b08dfff8-4dc3-11e8-8a20-c3768c772488.html Yours, Paul H.
  8. Florida Pleistocene Fossil Hunt!

    Hey everyone! My girlfriend Ashley and I got out to hunt some Pleistocene sites a couple days ago. There are also Eocene sharks teeth mixed in. The rivers are all pretty high, so we went to some bank hunting sites I have found over the years. They definitely did not disappoint! We found a Tapir jaw section, horse tooth, some pretty big alligator teeth, and a variety of other fossils!
  9. I've been wanting to get back to the Peace River since I first ventured out this fossil hunting season back in early February. Back then the water was over a foot higher and much colder--the air temps were in the mid-60s and the water was a chilly 62F. I decided this was a good day to test my new chest-high waders. I ventured into a spot I like to visit when I'm on this section of the Peace as it has some pretty coarse gravel. While it doesn't produce a lot of finds they tend to me more interesting. I waded out to the small patch of gravel at the leading edge of a sandbar but before I could reach the spot I found myself on tippy-toes trying to find a shallow path while the water rose to within an inch or so of the top of my waders. Somehow gathering more than my usual amount of common sense I decided to turn around rather than risk scuttling my new waders with a catastrophic flood. While searching around for another path to this gravel exposure I tried various approached though none were successful in attaining the desired location in the river that was tantalizingly close. While I walk the river I usually have my fiberglass probe (The Probulator 3000TM) in one hand pushing the tip into the sand with each step to test for any gravel crunch. Much to my surprise I was detecting a decent layer of gravel well downstream from the tiny outcrop on the leading upstream edge of the sandbar where I usually hunt. I have probed around this area before and only detected sand save for this one tiny area. Though I had found gravel in water that was a bit shallower I couldn't stay long as I had to be real careful to not bend over much while digging for gravel as it would have meant cold water down the waders. I couldn't lift as much with my legs and my lower back was soon very vocal in its complaint of the shifted workload. My upper body was also getting quite chilled as my long-sleeved shirt (good for solar protection) was getting soaked as usual but the brisk breeze was doing an efficient job at evaporative cooling quickly dropping my core body temp. I could only work for about 15-20 minute blocks before having to sit in the canoe and try to warm up my gradually numbing fingers. Instead, I conceded and made a mental not to return to investigate this increased exposure of gravel next time. I had hoped to get out last weekend but there was a bit of a cold front moving through Florida and the chance for rain shifted from late Saturday and on into Sunday to instead start mid-morning. I've been on the Peace when passing showers have opened up and spilled some precipitation down from above--not so bad on a warm day but not optimal for preserving core body temperature on a cooler day. Saint Patrick's Day weekend looked to have weather much more conducive to standing around half submerged in a river. The water temperature had risen to a relatively balmy 70F and the air temp was forecast to be an unseasonably warm 85F--unexpected as this was still technically winter with the Spring Equinox still two days hence. I had guests visiting and staying over on Friday night so it was not possible to get to the river on Saturday as I usually do but Sunday was clear. The morning started off a bit cool. I was up at 3:30am and out the door by 4:00am. The trip cross-state over the top of Lake Okeechobee and on into Arcadia was quiet (as it usually is that time of morning). I usually monitor the outside air temp on the car thermometer and watch it dip as I leave coastal Florida and cross over through its less populated center. I usually expect the temps to dip several degrees but this time I went from 67F as I left my neighborhood to the usual dip to near 60F. This time it continued even more and bottomed out at the nadir of 49F for a brief moment before rebounding into the 60s as we approached Arcadia. Most of the trip on two lane highway 70 was made more interesting by a thick coat of fog that approached white-out conditions a few times. It can be rather difficult to locate the road when the oncoming headlights of an approaching vehicle light swirling fog in an effect worthy of a Pink Floyd concert from the 1970's. We arrived without issue and went through the normal procedure of checking in at Canoe Outpost and riding the old blue school bus with canoe-laden trailer in tow to Brownville Park where we departed from the boat ramp into a white ethereal mist. For some reason the Earl Scruggs song "Foggy Mountain Breakdown" came to mind. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQIJuu3N5EY Since we decided not to spend time at our normal spots further upstream, we soon left the rest of the canoes in our group as we headed off downstream into the dreamlike fog. The heavy mist also muffled sounds a bit so it was peacefully quiet and most befitting of its name. For some time we heard nothing more than the sounds of our paddles and a few species of birds calling. It was well worth the effort of the early departure just to experience this quiet time on the river. We saw some ducks who took to flight at our approach and enjoyed seeing some Great Blue Herons, Great Egrets, and Little Blue Herons hunting for a fishy breakfast along the banks of the river. There were lots of Cardinals, Gray Catbirds, and Belted Kingfishers in the trees that we would frequently spot flitting about or calling out to each other. Tammy mentioned that in all of the trips down the Peace that we had never seen an owl and she wished that for once she could see one here. Apparently, the officials at the Wish Granting Department had a light schedule this morning as, within 5 minutes of uttering this desire, she looked up into a tree at the edge of the river to spot a Barred Owl watching from its perch as we floated by. I pulled out the camera and we circled back for the photo. As we were leaving we saw the bird take flight. It is amazing how a bird this size can move on such stealthy wings as to be so utterly silent in flight. Our morning was made and I hadn't even broken out the shovel & sifting screen nor dipped foot into the water yet. I figured if this was a day for wishing that I'd put in my order for a reasonably complete mastodon tooth. These teeth are seemingly as fragile as mammoth teeth and mostly I've only found small but very distinctive (because of their thick pearlescent enamel in cross-section) chunks. I was fortunate enough to find a complete Colombian Mammoth tooth a few years back with John @Sacha but mastodon in anything but tiny fragments has so far eluded me. I made my wish and we continued to our destination. In time we made it down to my favorite sandbar and spent this entire trip focusing on seeing what this gravel had to offer. I couldn't determine if this was a new extended layer of fresh gravel that Hurricane Irma had chosen to spread out more evenly across the top of this sandbar or if the storm (and ensuing raging torrent) had stripped off a thick cap of sand uncovering an older previously-inaccessible gravel layer underneath. The water was lower that last time (and quite a bit warmer). No waders this time and after a few minutes for by legs to acclimate (read this as "becoming numb") I slowly worked my way into deeper water probing around with the Probulator and mapping out the extend of this newly expanded gravel. Tammy (being the wiser of the two) decided the morning was still too chilly for direct skin contact chose to sit in the canoe at the side of the river and drink from her thermos of hot tea. The river flow at this point in the river was nearly imperceptible (my tethered sifting screen occasionally floating slowly upstream rather than downstream). Being creative, Tammy decided that she could paddle out and position the canoe nearby and see what I was doing without the discomfort of standing in a river on a chilly morning before the sun was able to warm things up sufficiently. The sun finally burned off the morning fog and before long the sun's rays were counteracting the chilly water making the environmental conditions near optimal for standing around in a river. I got to work scouting out the extents of the gravel and picking some novel spots that I'd not dug before to see if I could detect some virgin gravel with worthy finds (nothing is worse than digging in spoil pile gravel with all of the work and none of the payoff). Before long some nice finds started appearing in the sifting screen. Because of the chunkiness of the gravel at this spot I choose to use my sifting screen with the 1/2" mesh rather than the finer 1/4" mesh screen. As a result, I found almost no smaller shark teeth (just a few larger ones that were not small enough to slip between the mesh back into the Peace). The gravel in this extended area was just as chunky as the former minor occurrence at the leading edge of the sandbar. It can bit a bit difficult to get a shovel into and a lot of wiggling around of the handle is necessary to slowly work the tip of the spade down between the stony chunks. Every now and then a shovel size chunk of matrix comes up on the shovel and threatens to sink the sifting screen with its bulk. I've learned to toss these behind me with reasonable care so as not to spray myself with the resultant depth-charge splash of chucking these bowling ball size chunks with too much vigor. There are some days on the Peace when even somewhat common items like horse teeth can be elusive. Today was not one of those days. The first horse tooth was a nice specimen of an upper Equus molar. It was soon followed by a nice lower Equus (the lowers are more thin and elongate to fit into the more narrow mandible). You can see the comparison of the two below.
  10. Hi! Its been awhile since I posted so I've accumulated several new specimens. They are all from a beach in the Savannah River. Many are broken... A - Giant Beaver Tusk B - Elephant Ivory piece (note the schreger pattern) (Is there a way to know the species?) C - Capybara D - ??? E - Canis ??? F - Tapir ??? G - ??? H - ??? I'll post more in a second part... Any comments are greatly appreciated!!!
  11. Hello gang! So we are being mildly inconvenienced at the moment while hurricane Irma comes/goes by so I'll try to post a few photos from my phone while we still have backup power and lights. Sorry for the lack of scale on some shots..editing capabilities are limited. First up..a worn Sarasota cnty Fl plio'pleistocene whale bulla that really has that human ear look to it that called me. Edit....guess I have got a file size limit prob so this may be embarassing...uggh
  12. Possibly tapir tooth?

    We found this tooth diving off Venice - the captain thought it might be from a carnivore like a direwolf. I thought perhaps it is a tapir tooth - the top looks right but the root is throwing me off. Thoughts?
  13. Possibly 2 partial Jawbones With Teeth

    I have 2 more finds that look similar to a partial jaw with teeth I found previously but both are larger pieces. These two look like tapir teeth of a previous piece and I would like to confirm they are from a tapir. They were found in the same area near Houston Texas. Thanks you all for your help.
  14. Must've been something I ate

    Nice paleobiological study(Gray Fossil Site) mcconntaphogutgastrointesmammalGRAYtenness Abdominal Fauna Articulated Tapir .pdf
  15. A beautiful Friday on the Peace River yielded a baby mammoth tooth! The photo is the top chewing surface, still sandy from the river. I also found my best river meg to date, 2" on the diagonal, and 2 tapir caps which, as a newbie fossiler, exactly doubles my collection of tapir caps. Thanks to the guidance of Shellseeker and another esteemed fossil friend who granted guidance and access to a more remote location.
  16. Colorful Tapir Jaw

    Sometimes when a fossil is found one side is exposed while there is still more buried beneath the sand, gravel, or clay. This can create very contrasting colors like those seen on this tapir mandible. The left jaw was exposed to the dark tannic water, while the right jaw was still buried in the blue clay. This specimen was found in North Florida.
  17. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 14, 2018. Order Perissodactyla Family Tapiridae - The Tapirs Tapiridae - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Bayshashov, B.U. and E.M.E. Billia (2011). Records of Tapiroidea Gray 1825 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from Kazakhstan - An Overview. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, Vol.7. Chow, M. and C.-k. Li (1965). Homogalax and Heptodon of Shantung. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.9, Number 1. Cranbrook, Earl of and P.J. Piper (2013). Paleontology to policy: the Quaternary history of Southeast Asian tapirs (Tapiridae) in relation to large mammal species turnover, with a proposal for conservation of Malayan tapir by reintroduction to Borneo. Integrative Zoology, 8. Deng, T., et al. (2008). A New Species of the Late Miocene Tapirs (Perissodactyla, Tapirdae) from the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China.Vertebrata Palasiatica, 46(3). Hooijer, D.A. (1947). On Fossil and Prehistoric Remains of Tapirus from Java, Sumatra and China. Zoologische Mededeelingen, , XXVII. Huang, X.-S. and J.-W. Wang (2001). New Materials of Tapiroid and Rhinocerotoid Remains (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the Middle Eocene of Yuanqu Basin, Central China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 39(3). Ji, X.-P., et al. (2015). Tapirus yunnanensis from Shuitangba, a terminal Miocene hominoid site in Zhaotong, Yunnan Province of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 53(3). Kapur, V.V. and S. Bajpai (2015). Oldest South Asian tapiromorph (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Cambay Shale Formation , western India, with comments on its phylogenetic position and biogeographic implications. The Palaeobotanist, 64. Li, P. and Y.-Q. Wang (2010). Newly Discovered Schlosseria magister (Lophialetidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia) Skulls from Central Nei Mongol, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(2). Metais, G., A.N. Soe and S. Ducroqu (2006). A new basal tapiromorph (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the middle Eocene of Myanmar. Geobios, 39. Radinsky, L.B. (1965). Early Tertiary Tapiroidea of Asia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 129, Article 2. (50.1MB download) Smith, T., et al. (2015). First early Eocene tapiroid from India and its implication for the paleobiogeographic origin of perissodactyls. Palaeovertebrata, Vol.39(2). Tong, H. (2005). Dental characters of the Quaternary tapirs in China, their significance in classification and phylogenetic assessment. Geobios, 38. Tong, H., J. Liu and L. Han (2002). On fossil remains of Early Pleistocene tapir (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from Fanchang, Anhui. Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol.47, Number 7. Tapirdae - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Boev, Z. (2017). Fossil record of tapirs (Tapirus Brunnich, 1772) (Tapiridae Gray, 1821 - Peryssodactyla Owen,1848) in Bulgaria. ZooNotes, 108. Dominici, S., et al. (1995). Tapir Remains in Paralic Deposits of Pliocene Age in Lower Valdarno (Tuscany, Italy): Facies Analysis and Taphonomy. Geobios, M.S., 18. Eisenmann, V. and C. Guerin (1992). Tapirus priscus Kaup from the Upper Miocene of Western Europe: palaeontology, biostratigraphy and palaeoecology. Paleontologia I Evolucio, Number 24-25. Pandolfi, L. and T. Kotsakis (2017). A mandible of Tapirus arvernensis from Central Italy. Ital.J.Geosci., Vol.136, Number 1. Ryziewicz, Z. (1961). A Tapir Tooth from Nowa Wies Krolewska Near Opole (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.VI, Number 4. Scherler, L., D. Becker and J.-P. Berger (2011). Tapiridae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) of the Swiss Molasse Basin During the Oligocene-Miocene Transition. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(2). Scherler, L., et al. (2009). Tapiridae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) of the Swiss Molasse Basin from the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene: witness of a biotic crisis? 11th Joint Meeting of RCNPS/RCNSS in Fribourg (Switzerland). Tapiridae - North America Abernethy, A.R. (2011). Extreme Variation in the Sagittal Crest of Tapirus polkensis (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) at the Gray Fossil Site, Northeastern TN. Masters Thesis - East Tennessee State University. Albright, L.B. (1998). A New Genus of Tapir (Mammalia: Tapiridae) from the Arikareean (Earliest Miocene) of the Texas Coastal Plain. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18(1). Colbert, M.W. (2006). Hesperaletes (Mammalia: Perissodactyla), A New Tapiroid from the Middle Eocene of Southern California. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(3). Colbert, M.W. (2005). The Facial Skeleton of the Early Oligocene Colodon (Perissodactyla:Tapiroidea). Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol 8, Issue 1. Czaplewski, N.J., et al. (2002). A Pleistocene Tapir and Associated Mammals from the Southwestern Ozark Highlands. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 64(2). Gibson, M.L. (2011). Population Structure Based on Age-Class Distribution of Tapirus polkensis from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee. Masters Thesis - East Tennessee State University. Hawkins, P.L. (2011). Variation in the Modified First Metatarsal of a Large Sample of Tapirus polkensis, and the Functional Implications for Ceratomorphs. Masters Thesis - East Tennessee State University. Hulbert, R.C. (2010). A New Early Pleistocene Tapir (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) from Florida, With a Review of Blancan Tapirs from the State. Florida Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Vol.49, Number 3. Hulbert, R.C. (2005). Late Miocene Tapirus (Mammalia:Perissodactyla) from Florida, with Description of a New Species, Tapirus webbi. Bull.Fla.Mus.Nat.Hist., 45(4). Hulbert, R.C. (2003). Tapirus veroensis Sellards, 1918. In: Fossil Species of Florida. Florida Paleontological Society, Number 2. Hulbert, R.C. (1995). The Giant Tapir, Tapirus haysii, from Leisey Shell Pit 1A and Other Florida Irvingtonian Localities. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.37, Part II, Number 16. Hulbert, R.C., et al. (2009). Cranial Morphology and Systematics of an Extraordinary Sample of the Late Neogene Dwarf Tapir, Tapirus polkensis (OLSEN). J. Paleont., 83(2). Jefferson, G.T. (1989). Late Cenozoic Tapirs (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) of Western North America. Contributions to Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 406. Ketchum, W.A. (2011). Using Geographical Information Systems to Investigate Spatial Patterns in Fossils of Tapirus polkensis from the Gray Fossil Site, Washington County, Tennessee. Masters Thesis - East Tennessee State University. McConnell, S.M. and M.S. Zavada (2013). The occurrence of an abdominal fauna in an articulated tapir (Tapirus polkensis) from the Late Miocene Gray Fossil Site, northeasternTennessee. Integrative Zoology, 8(1). (Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out.) Radinsky, L.B. (1963). Origin and Early Evolution of North American Tapiroidea. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 17. Schoch, R.M. (1984). Two unusual specimens of Helaletes in the Yale Peabody Museum collections, and some comments on the ancestry of the Tapiridae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia). Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 193. Schoch, R.M. (1983). Tanyops undans Marsh, 1894: A Junior Subjective Synonym of Protapirus obliquidens Wortman and Earle, 1893 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla 190. Sinclair, W.J. (1901). The Discovery of a New Fossil Tapir in Oregon. Stock, C. (1944). New Occurrences of Fossil Tapir in Southern California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, Vol.X, Number 9. Wortman, J.L. and C. Earle (1893). Ancestors of the Tapir from the Lower Miocene of Dakota. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. V, Article XI. Tapridae - South America/Central America/Caribbean Ferrero, B.S. and J.I. Noriega (2007). A New Upper Pleistocene Tapir from Argentina: Remarks on the Phylogenetics and Diversification of Neotropical Tapiridae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(2). Ferrero, B.S., et al. (2014). A taxonomic and biogeographic review of the fossil tapirs of Bolivia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(3). Gasparini, G.M., et al. (2015). A Quaternary very young juvenile Tapirus Brisson, 1762 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from a cave deposit in northern Brazil: taxonomy and taphonomy. Historical Biology, 22(6). Holanda, E.C. and B.S. Ferrero (2013). Reappraisal of the Genus Tapirus (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae): Systematics and Phylogenetic Affinities of the South American Tapirs. J.Mammal.Evol., 20. Holanda, E.C. and A.D. Rincon (2011). Tapirs from the Pleistocene of Venezuela. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 5X(X). Holanda, E.C. and M.A. Cozzuol (2006). New Records of Tapirus from the Late Pleistocene of Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. Revista Brasileira De Paleontologia, 9(2). Holanda, E.C., A.M. Ribeiro and J. Ferigolo (2012). New material of Tapirus (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, Vol.29, Number 2. Perini, F.A., et al. (2011). New fossil records of Tapirus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from Brazil, with a critical analysis of intra-generic diversity assessments based on lower molar size variability. Geobios, 44. General Tapiridae DeSantis, L.R.G. and B. MacFadden (2007). Identifying forested environments in Deep Time using fossil tapirs: evidence from evolutionary morphology and stable isotopes. Cour.Foursch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 258. Holbrook, L.T. (1999). The Phylogeny and Classification of Tapiromorph Perissodactyls (Mammalia). Cladistics, 15. Radinsky, L.B. (1967). Hyrachyus, Chasmotherium, and the Early Evolution of Helaletid Tapiroids. American Museum Novitates, Number 2313. Radinsky, L.B. (1965). Evolution of the tapiroid skeleton from Heptodon to Tapirus. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol.134, Number 3. (Note: this is a download of the entire 602 page issue. The article on tapiroids begins on page 69.) Simpson, G.G. (1945). Notes on Pleistocene and Recent Tapirs. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 86, Article 2.